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I.

Fill in the blanks:


1. ___________________________ is the arc of a great circle through the poles of the celestial sphere.
2. By position relative to Earth; Mars thru Pluto are ____________________________ planets.
3. On the celestial sphere latitude becomes ______________________________.
4. By position relative to the Sun; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto are _____________________ planets.
5. At _____________________________the Earth is farthest from the Sun.
6. ________________ controls the way things move and responsible for the motion of the Sun, the Moon and the stars in our
sky as well.
7. The ______________________________ between Mars and Jupiter forms the boundary between the inner solar system
and the outer solar system.
8. The basic reference in horizon coordinate system is based on the __________________________________.
9. The _______________________________ is the point on the celestial sphere that is directly above the observer.
10. The angular distance above the horizon that a celestial body is measured is called that bodys ____________________.
11. ______________________________ are analogous to north and south poles in horizon coordinate system.
12. The circle bounding the observers view at sea is the ____________________________.
13. ______________________________________ is analogous to the equator in horizon coordinate system.
14. The Sextant Altitude corrected for inaccuracies in the instrument and height of eye is called the ____________________.
15. The projection of the North pole over the horizon will give us the _______________________________.
16. ___________________________________ is an hour circle of a celestial body, as referenced from the hour circle of
Aries (measured westerly).
17. ________________________ is an hour circle of a celestial body, as measured relative to Greenwich Celestial Meridian.
18. __________________________ is an hour circle of a celestial body, as measured relative to the local celestial meridian.
19. _____________________________________ is the point on Earths surface which passes through the centre of the
Earth, through its surface, and into the centre of the celestial body.
20. ______________________________is the angle measured at the celestial pole between the meridian passing through the
first point of Aries and the meridian passing through the celestial body, measured westwards.
21. The Celestial and Horizon Coordinate systems, when combined, will create the _________________________.
22. North Latitude: If LHA > 180, Zn = ____________________________________.
23. South Latitude: If LHA > 180, Zn= __________________________.

24. _______________________is a device designed to measure, with a great deal of precision, the angle between two
objects.
25. _________________from celestial observations can be compared with good positions obtained by electronics or piloting.
26. In marine sextant the _____________________is marked by the altitude graduation.
27. ______________ is the error due to the height of eye.
28. _________________________ occurs when the index arm does not pivot at the exact center of the arcs curvature.
29. __________________________ occurs when there is an improper cut or incorrect calibration in the arc, micrometer drum
and vernier of the sextant.
30. ___________________________ is an error of a marine sextant when the (Horizon) mirror and the (Index) glass are not
parallel to each other.

II. Multiple choices: (Kindly encircle the correct answer).


1. The shape of Earth's orbit around the Sun becomes slightly more and then less oval every100,000 years.
a. Eccentricity
b.Precession:
c. Tilt
d. Ecliptic
2. The angle of the Earth's axis relative to the plane of its orbit changes about three degrees every 41,000 years.
a.Eccentricity
b.Precession:
c. Tilt
d. Ecliptic
3. Earth wobbles on it axis as it spins, completing a full wobble every 23,000 years.
a.Eccentricity
b.Precession:
c. Tilt
d. Ecliptic
4. The earth moves faster in space during the month of:
a. January
b. April
c. October
d. July
5. The point of the Ecliptic that are 90o distance from the Equinoxes:
a. Ecliptic
b. Solstitial colure
c. Equinoctial
d. Solstice
6. The point of ecliptic at which the sun reaches its farthest position north of the celestial equator is called:
a. Vernal equinox
c. Summer solstice
b. Autumnal equinox
d. Winter solstice
7. The motion of the earth about its axis causing the celestial bodies to appear to rise and set is called:
a. rotation
b. revolution
c. space motion
d. retrograde motion
8. The motion of the earth in its orbit that causes different celestial bodies to be visible during different months is called:
a. revolution
b. rotation
c. space motion
d. retrograde motion
9. The first point of Aries is the position occupied by the sun on the celestial sphere on or about:
a. June 21
b. September 21
c. December 21
d. March 21
10. When the sun is at aphelion, which of the following is correct regarding the suns declination?
a. the sun is near maximum declination north
b. the sun is near maximum declination south
c. the suns declination is 0 deg. going from north to south
d. the suns declination is 0 deg. going from south to north.
11. Earth's orbit defines a two-dimensional plane which we call the ecliptic. It takes roughly how many days for the Earth to
go around the Sun once.
a. 366
b. 365.12
c. 365.25
d. 366.25
12. The time it takes for the Earth to go around the Sun one full time is what we call:
a. one complete revolution
c. one complete rotation
b. a year
d. a day
13. The Southern Hemisphere is having its winter, and the Northern Hemisphere its summer.
a. summer solstice
c. vernal equinox
b. autumnal equinox
d. winter solstice
14. The Southern Hemisphere is having its summer, and the Northern Hemisphere its winter.
a. summer solstice
c. vernal equinox
b. autumnal equinox
d. winter solstice
15. The point where the sun appears to cross the equinoctial when moving from north to south.
a. Autumnal equinox
c. Summer solstice
b. Vernal equinox
d. Winter solstice

III. Enumeration:
1. What are the three vertices of a navigational triangle?
2. What are the three sides of a navigational triangle?
3. What are the two angles of our concerned in our navigational triangle?
4. What will be found given the latitude of two places on the earth and the difference of longitude between them?

IV. Essay:
1. Discussed briefly the procedures in finding the index error.
2. Discussed briefly the procedures in conducting a sun sights.
3. Discussed briefly the procedures in conducting the most common method (method #3) in star sights.

V. Problem Solving:
1. Given: Latitude 17o S, t 64o E, declination 28o S
Required: Altitude and true azimuth
2. On June 12, 2000, the sun is observed with a marine sextant having an Index error of 05.3 on the arc, from a height of eye
of 30 meters. The sextant altitude is 41o 34.8.
Required: Ho using Browns Nautical Almanac.
3. On June 30 the 1230 DR longitude of a ship is 51o 32.4 W. Ten hours later the DR long is 53o 07.2 W.
Required: ZT and date of arrival at the second longitude.
4. The navigator observes the sun on the meridian on June 11, 2000 bearing south. The corrected sextant altitude (Ho) is
55o00.
Required: a) Zone time (apparent sun) of the meridian passage at longitude 080oW.
b) Latitude (solve by meridian altitude projection).
5. On June 12, 2000 at ZT 05h 00m 00s in longitude 008o 52.2W, the true observed altitude of star Polaris, Ho 50o 30 was
observed. (Approximate latitude 50o).
Required: Latitude
6. Given:
Assumed Latitude = 30oN
LHA or t = 15oE
Declination
= 15o30 N
Required: a) Hc
b) Zn