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The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de Amrica del Norte, TLCAN;

French: Accord de libre-change nord-amricain, ALNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States,
creating a trilateral rules-based trade bloc in North America. The agreement came into force on January 1, 1994. It superseded
the CanadaUnited States Free Trade Agreement between the U.S. and Canada.
NAFTA has two supplements: the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) and the North American
Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC).
In terms of combined purchasing power parity GDP of its members, as of 2013the trade bloc is the largest in the world as well as by
nominal GDP comparison.
Contents

Negotiation and U.S. ratification


Back row, left to right: Mexican PresidentCarlos Salinas de Gortari, U.S. PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush, and Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, at
the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement in October 1992. In front are Mexican Secretary of Commerce and Industrial
Development Jaime Serra Puche, United States Trade Representative Carla Hills, and Canadian Minister of International Trade Michael Wilson.

Following diplomatic negotiations dating back to 1986 among the three nations, the leaders met in San Antonio, Texas, on
December 17, 1992, to sign NAFTA. U.S. President George H. W. Bush, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroneyand Mexican
President Carlos Salinas, each responsible for spearheading and promoting the agreement, ceremonially signed it. The signed
agreement then needed to be authorized by each nation's legislative or parliamentary branch.
Before the negotiations were finalized, Bill Clinton came into office in the U.S. and Kim Campbell in Canada, and before the
agreement became law, Jean Chrtien had taken office in Canada.
The proposed Canada-U.S. trade agreement had been very controversial and divisive in Canada, and the 1988 Canadian
election was fought almost exclusively on that issue. In that election, more Canadians voted for anti-free trade parties
(the Liberals and the New Democrats) but the split caused more seats in parliament to be won by the pro-free trade Progressive
Conservatives (PCs). Mulroney and the PCs had a parliamentary majorityand were easily able to pass the 1987 Canada-US
FTA and NAFTA bills. However, he was replaced as Conservative leader and prime minister by Kim Campbell. Campbell led the PC
party into the 1993 election where they were decimated by the Liberal Party under Jean Chrtien, who had campaigned on a
promise to renegotiate or abrogate NAFTA; however, Chrtien subsequently negotiated two supplemental agreements with the new
US president. In the US, Bush, who had worked to "fast track" the signing prior to the end of his term, ran out of time and had to
pass the required ratification and signing into law to incoming president Bill Clinton. Prior to sending it to the United States
Senate Clinton added two side agreements, The North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC) and the North
American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC), to protect workers and the environment, plus allay the concerns of
many House members. It also required US partners to adhere to environmental practices and regulations similar to its own.
With much consideration and emotional discussion, the House of Representatives approved NAFTA on November 17, 1993, 234200. The agreement's supporters included 132 Republicans and 102 Democrats. NAFTA passed the Senate 61-38. Senate
supporters were 34 Republicans and 27 Democrats. Clinton signed it into law on December 8, 1993; it went into effect on January 1,
1994.[3][4] Clinton, while signing the NAFTA bill, stated that "NAFTA means jobs. American jobs, and good-paying American jobs. If I
didn't believe that, I wouldn't support this agreement

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