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Bridge Design Manual
M 23-50

Washington State Department of Transportation

Bridge Design Manual
M 23-50 Chapters 1-7

Washington State Department of Transportation
Program Development Division Bridge and Structures

Persons with disabilities may request this information be prepared and supplied in alternate forms by calling the WSDOT ADA Accommodation Hotline collect (206) 389-2839. Persons with hearing impairments may access WA State Telecommunications Relay Service at TT 1-800-833-6388, Tele-Braille 1-800-833-6385, or Voice 1-800-833-6384, and ask to be connected to (360) 705-7097.

Engineering Publications
Washington State Department of Transportation PO Box 47408 Olympia, WA 98504-7408 E-mail: willisr@wsdot.wa.gov Phone: (360) 705-7430 Fax: (360) 705-6861 http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/fasc/EngineeringPublications/

Foreword

This manual has been prepared to provide Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) bridge design engineers with a guide to the design criteria, analysis methods, and detailing procedures for the preparation of highway bridge and structure construction plans, specifications, and estimates. It is not intended to be a textbook on structural engineering. It is a guide to acceptable WSDOT practice. This manual does not cover all conceivable problems that may arise, but is intended to be sufficiently comprehensive to, along with sound engineering judgment, provide a safe guide for bridge engineering. A thorough knowledge of the contents of this manual is essential for a high degree of efficiency in the engineering of WSDOT highway structures. This loose leaf form of this manual facilitates modifications and additions. New provisions and revisions will be issued from time to time to keep this guide current. Suggestions for improvement and updating the manual are always welcome. All manual modifications must be approved by the Bridge Design Engineer.

__________________________________________ M. MYINT LWIN Bridge and Structures Engineer Washington State Department of Transportation

V:BDM1

September 1993

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information Contents
Page 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 Manual Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Chapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Numbering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Manual Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Bridge Design Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Record of Manual Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge and Structures Office Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organizational Elements of the Office . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Bridge and Structures Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Bridge Design Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Bridge Preservation Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Bridge Management Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Computer Applications Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Consultant Coordinator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Architect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. Staff Support Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. Office Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Procedures and Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design/Check Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. WSDOT PS&E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Consultant PS&E — Projects on WSDOT Right of Way . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Consultant PS&E — On County and City Right of Way Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design/Check Calculation File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. File of Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. To Be Included . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Not to Be Included . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Upon Completion of the Design Work, Fill Out a Design Completion Checklist . . . . . . . . . . Office Copy Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Addenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shop Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Bridge Shop Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Sign Structure, Signal, and Illumination Shop Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contract Plan Changes (Change Orders and As-Builts) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Request for Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Processing Contract Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coordination With Other Divisions and Agencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary Planning Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 5 1.2-1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 1.3-1 1 1 5 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 11 11 11 12 1.4-1 1

1.1.4

1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2

1.3 1.3.1

1.3.2

1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5

1.3.6

1.4 1.4.1

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information
1.4.2

Contents
1 1 1 1.5-1 1 1 1 1 2 3 1.6-1 1 1 1 1 1 1.99-1

1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3

1.6 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 1.6.4 1.6.5 1.99

Final Design Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Coordination With Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Technical Design Matters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Design Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary Design Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Design Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Breakdown of Project Man-Hours Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Estimate Design Time Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Monthly Project Progress Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guidelines for Bridge Site Visits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Rehabilitation Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Widenings and Seismic Retrofits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rail and Minor Expansion Joint Retrofits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Demolition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Appendix A — Design Aids 1.3-A1 Standard Design Criteria Form 1.3-A2 Exceptions to the Standard Design Criteria Form 1.3-A3 Design Completed Checklist 1.3-A4 Job File Table of Contents 1.3-A5 Office Time Report 1.3-A6 Not Included in Bridge Quantities List 1.3-A7 Special Provisions Checklist 1.5-A1 Breakdown of Project Manhours Required Form 1.5-A2 Monthly Project Progress Report Form

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August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 1.1 1.1.1 Manual Description Purpose
This manual is intended to be a guide for Bridge Designers and others involved with bridge design for the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). It contains design details and methods that have been standardized and it interprets the intent of specifications. It is not intended to govern design in unusual situations nor to unduly inhibit the designer in the exercise of engineering judgment. There is no substitute for good judgment. The following axioms are given as a reminder that simple things make a big difference. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Gravity always works — if something is not supported, it will fall. A chain reaction will cause small failures to become big failures, unless alternate load paths are available in the structure (i.e., progressive collapse). Small errors, such as a drafting error or a misplaced decimal, can cause large failures. Vigilance is needed to avoid small errors. This applies to construction inspection as well as in the design phase. A construction job should be run by one person with authority, not a committee. It has been said that a camel is a horse designed and built by a committee. High quality craftsmanship must be provided by everyone. An unbuildable design is not buildable. An obvious fact often overlooked by the architect or structural designer. Think about how forms will be built, then removed if necessary. There is no foolproof design. The best way to ensure a failure is to disregard or ignore lessons from past failures.

Manual Description

10. Many problems can be avoided by using a little loving care.

1.1.2

Specifications
The AASHTO publications Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges and LRFD Bridge Design Specifications are the basic documents guiding the design of highway bridges and structures. This WSDOT Bridge Design Manual is intended to supplement AASHTO and other specifications by providing additional direction, design aids, examples, and information on office practices. Where conflicts exist between this manual and the AASHTO Standard Specifications, this manual will control. When a conflict exists that is not resolved within the manual, further guidance shall be obtained from the Bridge Design Engineer or his representative. The AASHTO publications are not duplicated in this manual. Appropriate specifications and other references are listed in Section 1.99.

1.1.3

Format
A. General The Bridge Design Manual consists of two volumes with each chapter organized as follows: Criteria or other information Appendix A (printed on yellow paper) Design Aids Appendix B (printed on salmon paper) Design Examples

August 1998

1.1-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel
B. Chapters 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. General Information Preliminary Design Analysis Loads Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Structural Steel Miscellaneous Design Substructure Design

Manual Description

10. Detailing Practice 11. Quantities 12. Construction Costs 13. Construction Specifications 14. Inspection and Rating C. Numbering System 1. The numbering system for the criteria consists of a set of numbers followed by letters as required to designate individual subjects. This format is similar to that used by AASHTO. Example: 5.0 5.4 5.4.2 Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Box Girder Bridges Girder C. Shear Resistance 1. The Shear Diagram a. Shear Reinforcement (1) Placement 2. Numbering of Sheets Each section starts a new page numbering sequence. The page numbers are located in the lower outside corners and begin with the chapter number, followed by the section number, then a sequential page number. Example: 5.4-1, 5.4-2, etc. (Chapter) (Section) (Subsection)

1.1-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel
3.

Manual Description
Appendices are included to provide the designer with design aids (Appendix A) and examples (Appendix B). Design aids are generally standard in nature, whereas examples are modified to meet specific job requirements. An appendix is numbered using the chapter followed by section number and then a hyphen and the letter of the appendix followed by consecutive numbers. Example: 5.4-A1 (Box Girder Bridges) designates a design aid required or useful to accomplish the work described in Chapter 5, Section 4.

4.

Numbering of Tables and Figures Tables and figures shall be numbered using the chapter, section, subsection in which they are located, and then a hyphen followed by consecutive numbers.

Example: Figure 5.4.2-1 is the first figure found in Chapter 5, section 4, subsection 2.

1.1.4

Revisions
A. Manual Updates The Bridge Design Manual will change as new material is added and as criteria and specifications change. Revisions and new material will be issued with a Publications Transmittal Form. The form will have a revision number and remarks or special instructions regarding the sheets. The revision number shall be entered on the Record of Revision sheet in this manual. This allows the user to verify that the manual is up to date. B. Bridge Design Instruction Special instructions regarding interpretation of criteria or other policy statements may be issued using a Bridge Design Instruction (BDI). The BDI will be transmitted in the same manner as outlined above for manual revisions. The BDI should be inserted in the appropriate place in the manual and remains in effect until the expiration date shown or until superseded by a revision to the manual. A sample BDI is shown on Figure 1.1.4-1.

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August 1998

1.1-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Manual Description

February 1997

BRIDGE DESIGN INSTRUCTION 5.1.1 CHAPTER 5 SUBJECT: ACTION: Use of Concrete Class 5000 and Class 4000D Place this instruction in your manual and note the instruction number in your Record of Manual Revisions, 1.1.4. There is confusion regarding the availability of Concrete Class 5000. This class of concrete is available within a 30-mile radius of Seattle, Spokane and Vancouver, Washington. “Available” means that there are concrete suppliers in these urban areas capable of supplying Concrete Class 5000 in accordance with WSDOT specifications. Outside this 30-mile radius (or near the fringe), the concrete suppliers generally do not have the quality control procedures and expertise to supply this higher strength concrete. The Construction Office or Materials Lab should be contacted for availability for project sites outside these areas. In general, Class 4000D Concrete would be specified for bridge roadway decks outside this 30 mile radius. Class 4000D Concrete specifications require a 14-day wet cure and flyash as an additive. Typically, Class 4000 Concrete would be specified for other bridge concrete members above ground. This mix was developed by the Materials Lab to be at least as durable as Class 5000 Concrete. By utilizing the above guidelines, WSDOT will receive the most durable bridge deck at the least cost.

TEXT

Approved: _________________________ C. C. Ruth Bridge Design Engineer CCR/db RTS

Figure 1.1.4-1

1.1-4

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel
C. Record of Manual Revisions In order that a ready means be available to check whether a manual is up to date, each manual holder is requested to keep his copy up to date and to record Bridge Design Instructions or Revisions as material is added or changed. The form below is intended for use in keeping this record. At any time, a manual holder will be able to check his list with the list in the “master” manual.

Manual Description

Revision Number

Entry Date

By (Initial)

Revision Number

Entry Date

By (Initial)

Revision Number

Entry Date

By (Initial)

August 1998

1.1-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1.2 1.2.1 Bridge and Structures Office Organization General
The document defining the responsibilities for bridge design within the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) is the Organization Handbook. In that document, the responsibilities of the Bridge and Structures Office are stated as follows: Provides structural engineering services for the department. Provides technical advice and assistance to other governmental agencies on such matters. The WSDOT Design Manual states the following: Bridge design is the responsibility of the Bridge and Structures Office in Olympia. Any design authorized to be performed at the regional level is subject to review and approval by the Bridge and Structures Office.

Bridge and Structures Office Organization

1.2.2

Organizational Elements of the Office
A. Bridge and Structures Engineer Responsible for structural engineering services for the department. Manages staff and programs for structure design, contract plan preparation, and inspections and assessments of existing bridges. B. Bridge Design Engineer The Bridge Design Engineer is directly responsible to the Bridge and Structures Engineer for structural design and review, and advises other divisions and agencies on such matters. 1. Structural Design Units The Structural Design Units are responsible for the final design of bridges and other structures. Final design includes preparation of plans. The units provide special design studies, develop design criteria, check shop plans, and review designs submitted by consultants. Each design unit normally consists of individuals including a section supervisor and a bridge specialist. Organization and job assignments within the unit are flexible and are related to the projects underway at any particular time as well as to the qualifications of individuals. The emphasis in the design sections is on providing sound designs, checking, reviewing, and detailing in an efficient manner. A bridge specialist is assigned to each design unit. Each specialist has a particular area of responsibility. The three areas are concrete, steel, and expansion joints and bearings. The specialist acts as a resource person for the bridge office in his specialty and is responsible for keeping up-to-date on current AASHTO criteria, new design concepts, technical publications, construction and maintenance issues. The design units are also responsible for the design and preparation of contract plans for modifications to bridges in service. These include bridge rail replacement, deck repair, seismic retrofits, emergency repairs when bridges are damaged by vehicle or ship collision or natural phenomenon, and expansion joint and drainage retrofit. They review proposed plans of utility attachments to existing bridges.

August 1998

1.2-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information
2. Bridge Projects Unit The Bridge Projects Engineer directs preliminary design work, specification and cost estimates preparation, falsework review, and coordinates scheduling of bridge design projects with the Bridge Design Engineer and the Design Unit Supervisors. The Preliminary Design engineers are responsible for bridge project planning from design studies to preliminary project reports. They are responsible for preliminary plan preparation of bridge and walls including assembly and analysis of site data, preliminary structural analysis, cost analysis, determination of structure type, and drawing preparation. They also review highway project environmental documents and design reports and handle Coast Guard liaison duties. The Specifications and Estimate (S&E) engineers develop and maintain construction specifications and cost estimates for bridge projects originating in the Bridge and Structures Office. They also review the specifications and cost estimates for bridge contracts prepared by consultants and other government agencies which are administered by WSDOT. They assemble and review the completed bridge PS&E before submittal to the Plans Branch. They also coordinate the PS&E preparation with the regions, Plans Branch, and maintain bridge construction cost records. The Construction Support engineers are responsible for checking the contractor’s falsework, shoring, and form plans. Shop plans review and approval are coordinated with the design sections. Actual check of the shop plan is done in the design section. Field requests for plan changes come through this office for a recommendation as to approval. As built plans are prepared by this unit at the completion of a contract. The Scheduling Engineer monitors the design work schedule for the Bridge and Structures Office and maintains records of bridge contract costs. In addition, the unit is responsible for the Bridge Design Manual, design standards, professional activities, and AASHTO support. C. Bridge Preservation Engineer Directs activities and develops programs to assure the structural and functional integrity of all state bridges in service. Directs emergency response services when bridges are damaged. 1. Bridge Preservation Unit The Bridge Preservation Unit is responsible for planning and implementation of an inspection program for the more than 3,000 fixed and movable state highway bridges. In addition, the unit provides inspection services on some local agency bridges and on the state’s 21 ferry terminals. All inspections are conducted in accordance with the National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). The unit maintains a statewide computer inventory Washington State Bridge Inventory System (WSBIS), of current information on more than 7,300 state, county, and city bridges in accordance with the NBIS. This includes load ratings for all bridges. It prepares a Bridge List of the state’s bridges which is published every two years. The unit is responsible for the bridge load rating and risk reduction (SCOUR) programs. It provides damage assessments and emergency response services when bridges are damaged or lost due to vehicle or ship collision or natural phenomenon such as floods, wind, or earthquakes.

Bridge and Structures Office Organization

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information
D. Bridge Management Engineer This Bridge Management Unit is responsible for program development, planning, and monitoring of all H-Program activities. These include HBRRP funded bridge replacements and rehabilitation, bridge deck protection, major bridge repair, and bridge painting. In addition, this unit manages the bridge deck protection program including the deck testing program and the bridge research program. It is responsible for the planning, development, coordination, and implementation of new programs (e.g., Seismic Retrofit and Preventative Maintenance), experimental feature projects, new product evaluation, and technology transfer. E. Computer Applications Engineer The Computer Support Unit is responsible for computer resource planning and implementation, computer user support, liaison with Management Information Systems (MIS), and computer aided engineer operation support. In addition, the unit is responsible for Standard Plan updates. F. Consultant Coordinator The Consultant Coordinator prepares bridge consultant agreements and coordinates consultant PS&E development activities with those of the department. G. Architect The Principal Architect is responsible for approving preliminary plans, preparing renderings, model making, and other duties to improve the aesthetics of our bridges and other structures. The Principal Architect works closely with staff and regions. During the design phase, designers should get the Architect’s approval for any changes to architectural details shown on the approved preliminary plan. H. Staff Support Unit The Staff Support Unit is responsible for many support functions, such as: typing, timekeeping, payroll, receptionist, vehicle management, mail, inventory management, and other duties requested by the Bridge and Structures Engineer. Other duties include: of field data, plans for bridges under contract or constructed, and design calculations. This unit also maintains office supplies and provides other services. I. Office Administrator The Office Administrator is responsible for coordinating personnel actions, updating the organizational chart, ordering technical materials, and other duties requested by the Bridge and Structures Engineer. Staff development and training are coordinated through the Office Administrator. Logistical support, office and building maintenance issues are also handled by the Office Administrator.

Bridge and Structures Office Organization

July 2000

1.2-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1.2.3 Design Unit Responsibilities and Expertise
The following is an updated summary of design responsibilities/expertise within the Bridge Design Section. Contact the unit manager for the name of the appropriate staff expert for the needed specialty. Unit Manager K. N. Kirker Responsibility/Expertise Expansion Joint Modifications Retaining Walls (including MSE, Tie-Back, and Soil Nail) Seismic Retrofit Noise Walls Bridge Traffic Barriers Standard Plans for Prestressed Concrete Coast Guard Permits Cost Estimates Standard Plans (other than Prestressed Concrete) Bridge Design Manual Sign Supports, Light Standards, Traffic Signal Supports Repairs to Damaged Prestressed Girder Bridges Floating Bridges Special Structures

Bridge and Structures Office Organization

Y. A. Mhatre

R. T. Shaefer

J. A. VanLund P. T. Clarke

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July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1.3 1.3.0 Design Procedures and Processes

Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA) Process for WSDOT Bridge Designs General
A. The QA/QC process for bridge designs is a critical element of quality structure plan preparation. The overall goals of the structural design process are: • The structural design maximizes the safety of the traveling public and is in accordance with State Law. • The structural design is in accordance with the WSDOT Bridge Design Manual, AASHTO Bridge Design Specifications, good structural engineering practice, and geometric criteria provided by the Region. • Designed structures are durable, low-maintenance, and inspectable. • The structural design facilitates constructibility and minimizes overall construction costs, while exhibiting a pleasing architectural style. • The structural design contract documents are produced in accordance with customer’s needs (schedule, construction staging, and available program funding). • Structural design costs are minimized. • A well-organized and readable structure calculation record is produced. • Plan quality is maximized. • Design process allows for change, innovation, and continuous improvement. The overall goals are listed in order of importance. If there is a conflict between goals, the more important goal takes precedence. The design unit manager determines project assignments and the QC/QA process to be used in preparation of the structural design. The intent of the QC/QA process is to facilitate production efficiency and cost-effectiveness while assuring the structural integrity of the design and maximizing the quality of the structure contract documents.

1.3.1

Design/Check Procedures
A. PS&E Prepared by WSDOT Bridge and Structures Office 1. Design Team The design team, consisting of the Designer(s), Checker(s), Structural Detailer(s), and Specification and Estimate engineer are responsible for preparing a set of contractible, clear, and concise structural contract documents by the scheduled date and within the workforce hours allotted for the project. On large projects, the design unit manager may assign a designer additional duties as a Design Team Leader to assist the manager in planning, coordinating, and monitoring the activities of the design team. In this case, the team leader would also coordinate with the Region and the Geotechnical Branch. The QC/QA process will likely vary depending on the type and complexity of the structure being designed, and the experience level of the design team members. More supervision, review, and checking are required when the design team members are less experienced. In general, it is good QC/QA practice to have some experienced members on each design team. All design team members should have the opportunity to provide input for maximizing the quality of the design being produced.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information
2. Designer Responsibility The designer is responsible for the structural analysis, completeness, correctness, and quality of the plans. The designer shall provide quality control in the process of plan preparation. That is, errors and omissions need to be caught and corrected before subsequent checking and review of plans. A good set of example plans to follow, representative of bridge type, is indispensable in this regard. During the design phase of a project, the designer will need to communicate with other stakeholders. This includes acquiring, finalizing or revising roadway geometrics, soil reports, hydraulics recommendations, and utility requirements. Constructibility issues may also require that the designer communicate with the Region or Construction Office. The bridge plans must be coordinated with the PS&E packages produced concurrently by the Region. The designer or team leader is responsible for project planning which involves the following: a. b. c. Prepare a Design Time Estimate Bar Chart (see Section 1.5.2). Identify tasks and plan order of work. Prepare design criteria, which should be included in the design calculations. Use Standard Design Criteria Form, 1.3-A1-1 for routine projects. A project specific design criteria should be made when appropriate. Compare tasks with BDM office practice and AASHTO bridge design specifications. (1) Sufficient guidelines? (2) Deviation from BDM/AASHTO? (3) Any question on design approach? (4) Deviation from office practices regarding design and details? (5) Other differences. d. e. f. Meet with the Region design staff and other project stakeholders early in the design process to resolve as many issues as possible before proceeding with final design and detailing. Identify coordination needs with other designers, units, and offices. Early in the project, determine the number and titles of sheets. For projects with multiple bridges, each set of bridge sheets should have a unique set of bridge sheet numbers. The bridge sheet numbering system should be coordinated with the Region design staff. At least monthly or as directed by the design unit manager: (1) Update Project Schedule and List of Sheets. (2) Estimate percent complete. (3) Estimate time to complete. (4) Work with design unit manager to adjust resources, if necessary. h. Develop preliminary quantities for 90 percent complete cost estimate.

Design Procedures and Processes

g.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information
i. Near end of project: (1) Keep track of sheets as they are completed. (2) Develop quantities and special provisions checklists that are to be turned in with the plans. (3) Prepare Bar List. (4) Enter information into the Bridge Design Record. (5) Coordinate all final changes, including review comments from the checker, managers, specialists, the Region, and the Construction Office. (6) Meet with Region design staff and other project stakeholders at the constructibility meeting to address final project coordination issues. The designer shall advise and get the design unit manager’s approval whenever details deviate from the BDM office practice and AASHTO Bridge Design Specifications. The designer shall provide documentation of the structural design deviations in the calculations. The designer should inform the design unit manager of any areas of the design which should receive special attention during checking and review. The design calculations are prepared by the designer and become a very important record document. Design calculations will be a reference document during the construction of the structure and throughout the life of the structure. It is critical that the design calculations be user friendly. The design calculations shall be well organized, clear, properly referenced, and include numbered pages along with a table of contents. The design calculations shall be archived. Computer files should be archived for use during construction, in the event that changed conditions arise. Archive-ready design and check calculations shall be bound and submitted to the design unit manager within 30 days of submitting the 100 percent PS&E. Calculations shall be stored in the design unit until completion of construction. After construction, they shall be sent to archives. The designer is also responsible for resolving construction problems referred to the Bridge Office during the life of the contract. These issues will generally be referred through the Bridge Technical Advisor, the design unit manager, the Construction Support Unit, or the OSC Construction Unit. 3. Design Checker Responsibility The checker is responsible to the design unit manager for “quality assurance” of the structural design, which includes checking the design and plans to assure accuracy and constructibility. The design unit manager works with the checker to establish the level of checking. The checking procedure for assuring the quality of the design will vary from project to project. Following are some general checking guidelines: a. Design Calculations (1) For designs checked by an experienced checker, a review and initialing of the designer’s calculations by the checker is acceptable. If it is more efficient, the checker may choose to perform his/her own calculations to check. All the designer and checker calculations shall be placed in one design calculation set.

Design Procedures and Processes

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(2) For designs checked by an inexperienced checker, a more thorough check should be performed by the checker to enhance his/her understanding of structural design. In this case, the design unit manager should provide the checker with a design example. (3) Revision of design calculations, if required, is the responsibility of the designer. b. Structural Plans (1) The checker’s plan review comments are recorded on the structural plans, including details and bar lists, and returned to the designer for consideration. If the checker’s comments are not incorporated, the designer should provide justification for not doing so. If there is a difference of opinion that cannot be resolved between the designer and checker, the unit manager shall resolve the issue. (2) If assigned by the design unit manager, the checker shall perform a complete check of the geometry using CADD, hand calculations, or a geometric program. (3) Revision of plans, if required, is the responsibility of the designer. 4. Structural Detailer Responsibility The structural detailer is responsible for the structural plan sheets. The plans shall be neat, correct, and easy to follow and drawn to scale. The structural detailer may also assist the designer and design checker in such areas as determining control dimensions and elevations, geometry, and calculating quantities. Some detailing basics and principles: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Refer to BDM, Chapter 10, for detailing practices. Provide necessary and adequate information. Try to avoid repetition of information. Avoid placing too much information into any one sheet. Plan sheets should detailed in a consistent manner and follow accepted detailing practices. Provide clear and separate detail of structural geometrics. Use clear detailing such as “stand alone” cross sections or a framing plan to define the structure. Avoid reinforcing steel congestion. Check reinforcement detail for consistency. Beware of common mistakes about placement of stirrups and ties (such as: stirrups too short, effect of skew neglected, epoxy coating not considered, etc.). Check splice location and detail, and welding locations. Use cross references properly. Use correct and consistent terminology. For example, the designation of Sections, Views, and Details. Check for proper grammar and spelling. On multiple bridge contracts, the structural detailing of all bridges within the contract shall be coordinated to maximize consistency of detailing from bridge to bridge. Extra effort will be required to assure uniformity of details, particularly if multiple design units and/or consultants are involved in preparing bridge plans. This is a critical element of good quality bridge plans.

h. i. j. k.

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l. 5.

Design Procedures and Processes

Refer to the Bridge Book of Knowledge for current special features and details used on other projects.

Specialist Responsibility There are currently four specialist positions in the Bridge and Structures Office. There is a specialist assigned to each of the three design sections and one to the Bridge Preservation Section. The primary responsibility of the specialist is to act as a knowledge resource for this office. The Specialists maintain an active knowledge of their specialty area along with a current file of products and design procedures. Proactive industry contacts are maintained by the Specialists. Specialists also provide training in their area of specialty. As contract plans are prepared by other designers, the Specialists are expected to review and initial drawings covered by their specialty area. Plans produced directly by Specialists in their specialty area should be prepared with their own stamp and signature. Specialists also assist the Bridge Engineer in reviewing and voting on amendments to AASHTO specifications. They also are responsible for keeping their respective chapters of the Bridge Design Manual up to date. The secondary responsibility of the Specialist is to serve as design section supervisor when the supervisor is absent. There are three specialty areas in the Design Section: Concrete, Expansion Joints and Bearings, and Steel.

6.

Design Unit Technical Responsibilities Each Design Unit is responsible for maintaining a resource of technical knowledge and leadership. As described in the previous Section (5.), each unit has a Design Specialist (Concrete, Steel, Expansion Joints and Bearings). In addition, each Design Unit maintains a resource of technical knowledge in several technical areas. Following, is a list of all technical subjects for which a resource is maintained: • Coast Guard Permits • Cost Estimates • Bridge Special Provisions • Sign Supports, Light Standards, Traffic Signal Supports • Repairs to Damaged Prestressed Girders • Expansion Joint Modifications • Retaining Walls (Including MSE, Tie-Back, and Soil Nail) • Seismic Retrofit • Noise Walls • Traffic Barrier Retrofits/Standards • Bridge Standard Plans (BDM) The resource/leadership responsibility for these technical areas does not necessarily include responsibility for performing all of the work relating to the technical area. For many of the technical areas, the Design Unit acts as a resource for the technical area, only, and as a contact for industry and stakeholders.

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7. Specification and Estimating Engineer Responsibilities The S&E Engineer is responsible for compiling the PS&E package for bridge and/or related highway structural components. This PS&E package includes Special Provisions (BSPs and GSPs as appropriate), construction cost estimate, construction working day schedule, test hole boring logs and other appendices as appropriate, and the design plan package. The S&E Engineer begins work after the design unit submits copies of the 90 percent design plans. This normally occurs on or before the date specified in the Bridge Design Schedule. A set of quantities, a copy of the “Not Included in Bridge Quantities,” and a S&E Checklist are included in the PS&E package. As a first order of business, the S&E Engineer distributes the 90 percent design plans for review by the Region and other offices. While other offices are reviewing the plan package, the S&E Engineer attends to the following duties. • Review the job file, foundation report, and design plans to make sure that materials specified in the plans are consistent with the current Standard Specifications. • Check the plans for engineering accuracy, completeness, and constructibility. • Create a run list of BSPs, GSPs, and appropriate Standard Specification amendments. • Compile a cost estimate file using the quantities submitted by the designers and current Unit Cost figures for the various materials used in the bridge. • The S&E Engineer develops a construction working day schedule which is also based on the quantities submitted by the designers. At the same time, the S&E Engineer coordinates the Bridge and Structures Office review of the Review PS&E and responds with comments to the Region. The S&E Engineer also receives all Region review comments and distributes them to the appropriate designer for action. The S&E Engineer also participates in the Region Review Roundtable Meeting. After the Review Roundtable Meeting, all comments are addressed by the designers. The S&E Engineer has the following responsibilities during coordination of the Final Bridge PS&E turn in. • Make Special Provision reviews to the Bridge Special Provision word file. • Inform the appropriate Region PS&E contact when the word file is complete and ready for transfer. • Complete Cost Estimate and Quantity revisions to the cost estimate files. • Electronically distribute all cost estimate file revisions to the appropriate Region PS&E contact. Once the final Bridge Sheet mylars are printed, stamped, and signed, the S&E Engineer arranges for 11 by 17 paper prints for submittal to the appropriate Region PS&E contact. The original stamped and signed mylars are turned in to the Construction Plans Unit for storage. During the Advertising period many questions are funneled into the Bridge Office by the Project Engineers and the communications are generally distributed to the S&E Engineer. The S&E Engineer will ascertain the query, answer the question from the Contractors, or seek advice or help from the design engineer. The S&E Engineer will then respond back to the PE. Revisions to the Plans or Specs are sometimes needed as a result of these questions from Contractors.

Design Procedures and Processes

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Addendum’s are created to augment the original advertised document to make sure all Contractors are advised prior to Bid Openings. These Addendum’s are coordinated with the Region and OSC Plans. The S&E Engineer attends the award meetings to justify bids and advise whether or not to award the contract. Other responsibilities included are: • Special Provisions and Estimates for Change Order Work • Cost estimates in the scoping stage of a project • Working Day information during Stage Construction planning • Initiates/Coordinates Amendment and GSP Updates • Maintains BSP Library 8. Design Unit Manager Responsibility a. b. The design unit manager is responsible to the Bridge Design Engineer for the timely completion and quality of the bridge plans. The design unit manager works closely with the design team (designer, checker, and structural detailer) during the design and plan preparation phases to help avoid major changes late in the design process. Activities during the course of design include: (1) Evaluate the complexity of the project and the designer’s skill and classification level to deliver the project in a timely manner. Determine both the degree of supervision necessary for the designer and the amount of checking that will be required by the checker. (2) Assist the design team in defining the scope of the project, identifying the tasks to be accomplished, developing a project work plan and schedule, and assigning resources to achieve delivery of the project. (3) Review and approve design criteria before start of design. (4) Help lead designer conduct face-to-face project meetings, such as: project “kick-off” and “wrap-up” meetings with Region, geotechnical staff, bridge construction, and consultants to resolve outstanding issues. (5) Assist the design team with planning, anticipating possible problems, collectively identifying solutions, and facilitating timely delivery of needed information, such as geometrics, hydraulics, foundation information, etc. (6) Interact with design team regularly to discuss progress, problems, schedule, analysis techniques, constructibility and design issues. Always encourage forward thinking, innovative ideas and suggestions for quality improvement. (7) Arrange for and provide the necessary resources and tools for the design team to do the job right the first time. Offer assistance to help resolve questions or problems. (8) Help document and disseminate information on special features and lessons learned for the benefit of others and future projects.

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(9) Mentor and train designers and detailers on state-of-the-art practices and through the assignment of a variety of structure types. c. The design unit manager works closely with the design team during the plan review phase. Review efforts should concentrate on reviewing the completed plan details and design calculations for completeness and for agreement with office criteria and practices. Review the following periodically and at the end of the project: (1) Design Criteria • Seismic “a” value • Foundation report recommendations, selection of alternates • Deviations from AASHTO, BDM, Documentation (2) Design Time d. Review designer’s estimated time to complete the project. Plan resource allocation to complete the project to meet the scheduled Ad Date. Monitor monthly time spent on the project. Prepare and submit to the Bridge Projects Engineer monthly time reports for each project. Estimate time remaining to complete project, percent completed, and whether project is on or behind schedule. Arrange and plan resources to ensure a timely delivery of the project within the estimated time to complete the project. Advise Region of project scope and cost-creep. Use quarterly status reports to update Region and Bridge Projects Engineer. Use appropriate computer scheduling software or other means to monitor time usage and to allocate resources and to plan projects. Fill out Office Time Report (see Appendix 1.3-A5). Review of constructibility. Any problems unique to the project? Check the final plans for the following: (1) Scan the job file for unusual items relating to geometrics, hydraulics, geotechnical, environmental, etc. (2) Overall check/review of sheet #1, the bridge layout for: • Consistency — especially for multiple bridge project • Missing information (3) Check footing layout for conformance to Bridge Plan and for adequacy of information given. Generally, the field personnel should be given enough information to “layout” the footings on the ground without referring to any other sheets. Details should be clear, precise, and dimensions tied to base reference such as survey line or defined center line of bridge. (4) Check the sequence of the plan sheets. They should adhere to the following order: layout, footing layout, substructures, superstructures, miscellaneous details, barriers, and bar list. Also check for appropriateness of the titles.

e. f. g. h. i.

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(5) Check overall dimensions and elevations, spot check for compatibility. For example, check compatibility between superstructures and substructure. Also spot check bar marks. (6) Use one’s training, common sense, and experience to “size-up” structural dimensions and reinforcement, etc., for structural adequacy. When in doubt, prepare for a line of questioning to the designer/checker. j. 9. Stamp and seal the plans.

Bridge Design Engineer’s Responsibilities The Bridge Design Engineer is the coach, mentor, and facilitator for the WSDOT QC/QA Bridge Design Process. The leadership and support provided by this position is a major influence in assuring bridge design quality for structural designs performed by both WSDOT and consultants. The following summarizes the responsibilities of the Bridge Design Engineer relative to QC/QA: a. When the structural contract plans are sealed by the Bridge Design Engineer, a structural/ constructibility review of the plans is performed. This is a quality assurance (QA) function as well as meeting the “responsible charge” requirements of the laws relating to Professional Engineers. Review and approve the Preliminary Bridge Plans. The primary focus for this responsibility is to assure that the most cost-effective and appropriate structure type is selected for a particular bridge site. Participate in coordination, scheduling, and project-related discussions with stakeholders, customers, and outside agencies relating to major structural design issues. Facilitate resolution of major project design issues. Review unique project special provisions and major Standard Specification modifications relating to structures. Facilitate partnerships between WSDOT, consultant, and construction industry stakeholders to facilitate design quality. Encourage designer creativity and innovation. Exercise leadership and direction for maintaining a progressive and up to date Bridge Design Manual. Create an open and supportive office environment in which Design Section staff are empowered to do high quality structural design work.

b.

c. d. e. f. g. h. i.

10. General Bridge Plan Signature Policy The sealing and signature of bridge plans is an important element of the Bridge QC/QA process. It signifies review and responsible charge of the design and details represented in the plans. The Bridge and Structures Office intends to have at least one Licensed Structural Engineer seal and sign each contract plan sheet (except the bar list). For major projects, the Design Unit Manager and the Bridge Design Engineer will typically review, seal, and sign the bridge plans. For routine bridge designs and transportation structure designs, the Design Unit Manager (SE License) and designer with a Civil Engineer License will typically review, seal, and sign the contract plans (except the bar list).

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B. PS&E Prepared by Consultant This section is yet to be developed, but it will include the following elements: • Consultant Coordinator Responsibilities Scope of Work Negotiate Contract (Task Assignments) Coordinate/Negotiate Changes to Scope of Work • WSDOT Design Reviewer/Coordinator Responsibilities Review consultant’s design criteria and standard details early in the project Identify resources needed to complete work Early agreement on structural concepts/design method to be used Identify who is responsible for what Monitor progress Facilitate communication Review for design consistency with WSDOT practices and other bridge designs in project Resolve differences Assure that consultant’s QC/QA plan was followed during design • Design Unit Manager Responsibilities Encourage/Facilitate communication Early involvement to assure that design concepts are appropriate Empower Design Reviewer/Coordinator Facilitate resolution of problems beyond ability of Reviewer/Coordinator • S&E Unit Responsibilities Prepare Specials and Estimate based on Consultant’s special provision checklist and quantities Review plans for consistency Forward Special Provisions and Estimate to consultant for review and comment • Bridge Design Engineer Responsibilities Cursory review of design plans Signature approval of S&E bridge contract package C. Consultant PS&E — On County and City Right of Way Projects Consultants are frequently used by counties and cities to design bridges. The Highways and Local Programs Office determines which projects are to be reviewed by the Bridge and Structures Office. Where a review is required, the PS&E is sent by Highways and Local Programs to the Bridge Projects Engineer for assignment. The Bridge and Structures Office Consultant Coordinator does not become involved. A Review Engineer will be assigned to the project and will review the project as outlined for Consultant PS&E — Projects on WSDOT Right of Way (see Section 1.3.1.B). The plans with the reviewers’ comments should be returned to the Bridge Projects Unit where the comments will be transferred to a second set of plans which will be returned to Highways and Local Programs. The original set will be filed in the Bridge Projects Unit.

Design Procedures and Processes

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Review is made of the Preliminary Plan first and the PS&E second. Comments are treated as advisory, although major structural problems must be corrected. An engineer from the county, city, or consultant may contact the reviewer to discuss the comments.

1.3.2

Design/Check Calculation File
A. File of Calculations The Bridge and Structures Office maintains a file of all pertinent design/check calculations for documentation and future reference. B. Procedures After an assigned project is completed and the bridge is built, the designer should turn in to the manager a bound file containing the design/check calculations. C. File Inclusions The following items should be included in the file: 1. Index Sheets Number all calculation sheets and prepare an index by subject with the corresponding sheet numbers. List the name of the project, SR Number, designer/checker initials, date (month, day, and year), and supervisor’s initials. 2. Design Calculations These should include design criteria, loadings, structural analysis, one set of moment and shear diagrams and pertinent computer input and output data (reduced to 8 1 2 inch by 11 inch sheet size). 3. Special Design Features Brief narrative of major design decisions or revisions and the reasons for them. 4. Construction Problems or Revisions (As They Develop) Not all construction problems can be anticipated during the design of the structure; therefore, construction problems arise that require revisions. Calculations for revisions made during construction should be included in the design/check calculation file when construction is completed. D. File Exclusions The following items should not be included in the file: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Geometric calculations. Irrelevant computer information. Prints of Office Standard Sheets. Irrelevant sketches. Voided sheets.

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6. 7. 8.

Design Procedures and Processes

Preliminary design calculations and drawings unless used in the final design. Test hole logs. Quantity calculations.

E. Upon completion of the design work, fill out a Design Completed Checklist (Form 230-035). (See Appendix 1.3-A3.)

1.3.3

Office Copy Review
Office Copy is the compiled contract documents (plans/specials) of all involved disciplines (Region, service center, and Bridge Office). It is normally distributed for final review for compatibility, completeness, and accuracy before final printing and going to Ad with the contract. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Note the due date to determine priority. Review the comments from any previous reviews of the Region PS&E and check to see if the items have been corrected. Review all indexes for items related to traffic signals, illumination, signs, retaining walls, traffic barrier, and other structural items. Review the index and verify that no bridge plans have been omitted. Review pertinent sections of the special provisions for consistency with the plans, design criteria, and specifications. Verify that Standard Plans and preapproved plans are called out where applicable. Review pertinent plan sheets. Verify consistency between Region plans and bridge plans; particularly geometry, drainage, guardrail, and other pertinent items. Determine if any nonstandard designs are shown or specified. If so, a structural review of them may be necessary. Note any missing specifications, Standard Plans, etc. Return plans and comments to the unit manager.

1.3.4

Addenda
Plan or specification revisions during the advertising period require an addendum. The Bridge Projects Engineer will evaluate the need for the addendum after consultation with the OSC Bridge Construction Engineer, Region, and the Plans Branch. The Bridge Design Engineer or the design unit manager must initial all addenda. For addenda to contract plans, obtain the original drawing from the Bridge Project Unit. Use shading to mark all changes (except deletions) and place a revision note at the bottom of the sheet (Region and Plans Branch jointly determine addendum date) and a description of the change. Return the original and an 11 × 17 reduced copy to the Bridge Project Unit who will submit the reduced copy to the Plans Branch for processing. See Chapter 10, Section 10.1.1I, for additional information. For changes to specifications, submit a copy of the page with the change to the Bridge S&E Unit for processing.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1.3.5 Shop Plans
The following is intended to be a guide for checking shop plans. A. Bridge Shop Plans 1. Mark one copy of each sheet with the following, near the title block, in red pencil or with a rubber stamp: Office Copy Contract (number) (Checker’s initials) (Date) 2. On the Bridge Office copy, mark with red pencil any errors or corrections. Yellow shall be used for highlighting the checked items, and ordinary lead (gray) pencil for other comments, arithmetic, etc. (Only the red pencil marks will be copied onto the other copies to be returned to the contractor.) Items to be checked are typically as follows: Check against Contract Plans, Special Provisions, and Standard Specifications. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Material specifications (ASTM specifications, hardness, alloy and temper, etc.). Size of member and fasteners. Length dimensions if shown on the Contract Plans. Finish (surface finish, galvanizing, anodizing, painting, etc.). Weld size and type and welding procedure if required. Strand or rebar placement, jacking procedure, stress calculations, elongations, etc. Fabrication — reaming, drilling, and assembly procedures. Adequacy of details. Erection procedure.

Design Procedures and Processes

3.

The following items pertain only to post-tensioning shop plans: j. k. l. Center of gravity of post-tensioning (P/T) strands matches contract plans. Seating loss. Friction losses.

m. Time-dependent losses. n. o. Steel stress diagram. Elongation of strands in all tendons. These will be compared with the field measurements. (See WSDOT Construction Manual.) For curved bridges where the lengths of the exterior webs vary by more than 2 percent, separate elongations should be provided for each web. Anchor plate size. If nonstandard, check bearing stress on concrete and flexural stress in plate material. Test data must be on file to substantiate the adequacy of internal type anchorages.

p.

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q. r. s. t. u. v. Vent conduit at all high and low points in the spans. Adequate room in the concrete members for the system. Interference with other reinforcement. Special attention to this item if post-tensioning (P/T) supplier proposes a different number of tendons than shown on the plans. Offsets from soffit to bottom of conduits. Watch for sharp curvature of tendons near end anchorages (see minimum radius requirements in Chapter 6 of BDM Criteria). Strand positions in conduit in sag and summit tendon curves. Stressing sequence.

Design Procedures and Processes

w. Geometric details such as size of blockouts. Note: Manufacturer’s details may vary slightly from contract plan requirements but must be structurally adequate and reasonable. 4. Items Not Requiring Check: a. b. 5. Quantities in bill of materials. Length dimensions not shown on Contract Plans except for spot checking.

Project Engineer’s Copy If one copy has been marked by the Project Engineer (in green), do not use this as the office copy. Transfer his corrections, if pertinent, to the office copy using red pencil.

6.

Marking Copies When finished, mark the office copy with one of three categories (in red pencil, lower right corner). a. APP’D (Approved, No Corrections required.) b. AAN (Approved as noted — minor corrections only. Do not place written questions on an approved as noted sheet.) c. RFC (Return for correction — major corrections are required followed by resubmittal.) If in doubt between AAN and RFC, check with the unit manager. An acceptable detail may be shown in red. Mark the plans Approved-As-Noted provided that the detail is clearly noted Suggested Correction — Otherwise Revise and Resubmit. Do not mark the other copies. This will be done in the Construction Support Unit. The reviewer may be asked to proof the other copies after they have been marked. Notify Project Engineer of any approved changes to the contract plans. Also notify the OSC Bridge Construction Engineer, who may have to approve a change order and provide justification for the change order.

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If problems are encountered which may cause a delay in the checking of the shop plans or completion of the contract, notify the unit manager and the Construction Support Unit. Return all shop drawings and Contract Plans to the Construction Support unit when checking is completed. Include a list of any deviations from the Contract Plans which are allowed and a list of any disagreements with the Project Engineer’s comments (regardless of how minor they may be). If deviations from the Contract Plans are to be allowed, a Change Order may be required. Alert the Construction Support Unit so that their transmittal letter may inform the Region and the OSC Bridge Construction Engineer. B. Sign Structure, Signal, and Illumination Shop Plans In addition to those instructions described under “Bridge Shop Plans,” the following instructions apply: 1. 2. Review the shop plans to ensure that the pole sizes conform to the Contract Plans. Determine if fabricator has supplied plans for each pole or type of pole called for in the contract. The Project Engineer’s copy may show shaft lengths where not shown on Contract Plans or whether a change from Contract Plans is required. Manufacturer’s details may vary slightly from contract plan requirements, but must be structurally adequate to be acceptable.

1.3.6

Contract Plan Changes (Change Orders and As-Builts)
A. Request for Changes The following is intended as a guide for processing changes to the design plans after a project has been awarded. For projects which have been assigned a Bridge Technical Advisor, structural design change orders can be approved at the Regional level provided the instructions outlined in the Construction Manual are followed. For all other projects, all changes are to be channeled through the Construction Support Unit which will coordinate with the OSC Bridge Construction Engineer. Responses to inquiries should be handled as follows: 1. Request by Contractor or Supplier A designer, BTA, or design unit manager contacted directly by a contractor/supplier may discuss a proposed change with the contractor/supplier, but shall clearly tell the contractor/supplier to formally submit the proposed change though the Project Engineer and that the discussion in no way implies approval of the proposed change. Designers are to inform their manager if they are contacted. 2. Request From the Project Engineer Requests for changes directly from the Project Engineer to the design unit manager should be discouraged but may be acceptable when the Bridge Construction Engineer is not available. The Bridge Construction Engineer and Construction Support Unit should be informed of any changes. 3. Request From the Region Construction Engineer Requests from the Region Construction Engineer are to be handled like requests from the Region Project Engineer.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information
4. Request From the OSC Bridge Construction Engineer Requests for changes from the OSC Bridge Construction Engineer or his/her assistants are usually made through the Construction Support Unit and not directly to the Design Unit. However, sometimes, it is necessary to work directly with the Design Unit. The Construction Support Unit should be informed of any decisions made involving changes to the Contract Plans. 5. Request From the Design Unit Request for changes from the Design Unit due to plan error, omissions, etc., shall be discussed with the Bridge Design Engineer prior to revising and issuing new plan sheets. B. Processing Contract Revisions Changes to the Contract Plans or Specifications subsequent to the award of the contract may require a contract revision. To clearly identify the scope of work, it is often desirable to provide revised or additional drawings. When a revision or an additional drawing is necessary, request the original mylars from the Construction Support Unit’s Plans Technician and prepare revised or new original mylars. Send the new mylars to the Construction Support Unit’s Plans Technician. The OSC Construction Office requires two reduced paper copies; Construction Support Unit requires one reduced paper copy; Design Unit requires one or more reduced paper copies; one full-sized paper print, stamped “As Constructed Plans,” shall be sent to the Project Engineer who shall use it to mark construction changes and upon project completion, forward them to the Construction Support Bridge Plans Technician. The Designer is responsible for making the prints and distributing them. This process applies to all contracts including OSC Ad and Award, Region Ad and Award, or Local Agency Ad and Award. Whenever new plan sheets are required as part of a contract revision, the information in the title blocks of these sheets must be identical to the title blocks of the contract they are for (e.g., Job Number, Contract No., Fed. Aid Proj. No., Approved by, and the Project Name). These title blocks shall also be initialed by the Bridge Design Engineer, manager, designer, and reviewer of the change before they are distributed. If the changes are modifications made to an existing sheet, the sheet number will remain the same. A new sheet shall be assigned the same number as the one in the originals that it most closely applies to and shall also be given a letter (e.g., the new sheet applies to the original sheet 25 of 53 so it will be number 25A of 53). A full size mylar of the contract revision sheet shall be stored in the Bridge Projects Unit. Every revision will be assigned a number which shall be enclosed inside a triangle (e.g., 1 ). The assigned number shall be located both at the location of the change on the sheet and in the revision block of the plan sheet along with an explanation of the change. Any revised sheets shall be sent to the OSC Construction Office with a written explanation describing the changes to the contract, justification for the changes, and a list of material quantity additions or subtractions.

Design Procedures and Processes

1.3-16

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1.3.7 Design Procedures and Processes

Archiving Design Calculations, Design Files, and S&E Files
Upon Award, the following information will be collected by the Bridge Standard Plans Engineer. • Design File • S&E File • Design Calculations Place a job file cover sticker on the file folder (see Figure 1). Fill in all fields completely. Keep these files on site for future reference until the end of the retention period. Update the file with any contract plan changes that occur during construction. After the retention period, send the files to the Office of the Secretary of State for archiving at: Archives & Records Management 1129 Washington Street SE Olympia, WA 98504-0238 Telephone: 360-586-4900

SR # _____ County ____________________ CS # _____ Bridge Name _____________________________________ Bridge # _______________ Contract # ________________ Contents ________________________________________ Designed by _____________ Checked by _____________ Archive Box # _____________________ Vol. # _______

Figure 1

P65:DP/BDM1

July 2000

1.3-17

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1.4 Coordination With Other Divisions and Agencies

Coordination With Other Divisions and Agencies
During the various phases of design, it is necessary to coordinate the elements of the bridge design function with the requirements of other divisions and agencies. E-mail messages, telephone calls, and other direct communication with other offices are necessary and appropriate. Adequate communications are essential but organizational format and lines of responsibility must be recognized. However, a written request sent through channels is required before work can be done or design changes made on projects.

1.4.1

Preliminary Planning Phase
See Chapter 2.1 of this manual for coordination required at preliminary planning phase.

1.4.2

Final Design Phase
A. Coordination With Region During this phase, final coordination of the bridge design with region requirements must be accomplished. This is normally done with the Region Project Engineer, Region Design Engineer, or Region Plans Engineer. Details such as division of quantity items between the region PS&E and bridge PS&E become highly important to a finished contract plan set. The region PS&E and bridge PS&E are combined by the Region Plans Branch. However, necessary coordination should be accomplished before this time. During the design of a project for a region level contract, the region shall provide a copy of the proposed structural plans (such as retaining walls, barrier, large culverts, etc.) to the Bridge and Structures Office. Bridge and Structures Office will review these plans and indicate any required changes, then send them back to the region. The region shall incorporate the changes prior to contract advertisement. After contract advertisement, the region shall return the original plan sheets to Bridge and Structures Office. These sheets shall be held in temporary storage until the “As Constructed Plans” for them are completed by the region. The region shall then transmit the “As Constructed Plans” to Bridge and Structures Office where they will be transferred to the original plans for permanent storage. Upon request, the region will be provided copies of these plans by Bridge and Structures Office. B. Technical Design Matters Technical coordination must be done with the OSC Materials Laboratory Foundation Engineer and with the OSC Hydraulic Engineer for matters pertaining to their responsibilities. A portion of the criteria for a project design may be derived from this coordination, otherwise it shall be developed by the designer subject to approval of the Bridge Design Engineer. When two or more structures are to be let under the same contract, the designer should make a special effort to be uniform on structural details, bid items, specifications, and other items.

P:DP/BDM1 9807-0802

August 1998

1.4-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1.5 1.5.1 Bridge Design Scheduling General
The Bridge Projects Engineer is responsible for scheduling and monitoring the progress of projects. The “Bridge Design Schedule” is used to track the progress of a project and is updated monthly. A typical project would involve the following steps: A. Regions advise Bridge and Structures Office of an upcoming project. B. The Bridge Projects Unit estimates design time required for preliminary plans, design, and S&E (see Section 1.5.2). C. The project is entered into the Bridge Design Schedule with start and due dates for site data preliminary plan, project design, PS&E, and the ad date. D. Bridge site data received. E. Preliminary design started. F. Final Design Started — Designer estimates time required for final plans (see Section 1.5.3). G. Monthly Schedule Update — Each Design Unit Supervisor turns in to the Bridge Scheduling Engineer an updated copy of the Bridge Design Schedule showing man-months used last month, man-months used to date, percentage complete, and adjustments required in the schedule. The report is due by the fourth working day of the month. H. Project turned in to S&E unit.

Bridge Design Scheduling

1.5.2

Preliminary Design Schedule
The preliminary design estimate done by the Bridge Projects Unit is based on historical records from past projects factoring in unique features of each individual project, the efficiencies of designing similar bridges on the same project, CADD system efficiencies, designer experience, and other factors as appropriate.

1.5.3

Final Design Schedule
A. Breakdown of Project Man-Hours Required Using a spreadsheet, list each item of work required to complete the project and the man-hours required to accomplish them. Certain items of work may have been partially completed during the preliminary design, and this partial completion should be reflected in the columns “% Completed” and “Date Completed.” Formerly, WSDOT Form 232-002 (see Appendix 1.5-A1), was used to monitor project progress. This form can still be used. The designer or team leader should research several sources when making the final design time estimate. The following are possible sources that may be used: The “Bridge Design Summary” contains records of design time and costs for past projects. The summary is kept in the Bridge Projects Unit. The times given include preliminary plan, design, check, drafting, and supervision as reported on the summary from the Accounting Office. The Bridge Projects Unit has “Bridge Construction Cost Summary” books. These are grouped according to bridge types and have records of design time, number of drawings, and bridge cost. The hours shown are the total for the bridge as reported from the designer’s time sheets.

August 1998

1.5-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information
B. Estimate Design Time Required The designer or design team leader shall determine an estimate of design time required to complete the project. The use of a spreadsheet, Microsoft Project, or other means is encouraged to ensure timely completion and adherence to the schedule. In the past, WSDOT Form 232-003 was used. Typically, the following completion percentages (percent of the total project time) from Form 232-002 are applied on Form 232-003 for the following activities: Activity No. 1 2 3 4 5 7 Percentage 40 20 25 5 5 5

Bridge Design Scheduling

Completion percentages for Activities 4, 5, and 7 are approximately 5 percent of the project total. Activity 6 is separate from design time required by needs to be included to determine the completion date. Activities 8 and 9 are estimates dependant on individual circumstances. Note: Activities 1 through 5 and Activity 7 make up 100 percent of the design time required to complete the job. The individual activities include the specific items as follows under each major activity. Activity No. 1 Design — Includes: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Activity No. 2 Project coordination. Geometric computations. Design calculations (including time for Load Rating). Complete check of all plan sheets by the designer. Supervisor time related to design (estimate 10 percent of design time).

Design Check — As defined in Section 1.3.1A3 — Includes: 1. 2. 3. 4. Checking design at maximum stress locations. Checking major items on the drawings, including geometrics. Additional checking required. Supervisor time related to checking (estimate 10 percent of design check time).

1.5-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information
Activity No. 3 Drawings — Includes: Preparation of all drawings. Activity No. 4 Revisions — Includes: 1. 2. Activity No. 5 Revisions resulting from the checker’s check. Revisions resulting from the supervisory review.

Bridge Design Scheduling

Quantities — Includes: 1. 2. Compute quantities including bar list. Check quantities.

Activity No. 6

S&E — Includes: 1. 2. Preparing special provisions checklist. Assemble backup data covering any unusual feature.

Activity No. 7

Review — Includes: 1. Supervisor’s review.

Activity No. 8

Other Jobs — Includes: 1. Interruptions.

Activity No. 9

Leave — Includes: 1. Annual, sick, and other leave.

See Figures 1.5.2-1 and 2 for sample Bar Chart problem and corresponding progress report form. C. Monthly Project Progress Report The designer or design team leader is responsible for determining monthly project progress and reporting the results to the Unit Supervisor. In the past, WSDOT Form 232-004 (see Appendix 1.5-A2) was used to monitor the progress of the project design. The Design Unit Supervisor is required to update a copy of the bridge design schedule each month using information from the designer or design team leader. Any discrepancies between actual progress and the project schedule must be determined. Adjustments, either by revising the workforce assigned to the project, hours assigned to activities or, the project schedule, should be made accordingly. “Man-hours Used to Date” indicates the total number of hours used for each activity during the current period added to the total shown on the last report done. “% of Total Time Used” is the number of hours used for the activity divided by the current number of hours assigned to the activity from the “Current Estimate of Time to Complete” on Form 232-003. “% of Activity Complete” and “% of Total Project Complete” are estimates. Some activities will probably be ahead of schedule, some behind, and others on schedule. It is here that major discrepancies should be noticed and adjustments made as described above.

August 1998

1.5-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information Bridge Design Scheduling

The designer may use a computer spreadsheet, to track the progress of the project and as an aid in evaluating the percent complete. Other tools include using an Excel spreadsheet listing bridge sheet plans by title, bridge sheet number, percent design complete, percent design check, percent plan details completed, and percent plan details checked. A spreadsheet with this data allows the designer or design team leader to rapidly determine percent of project completion and where resources need to be allocated to complete the project on schedule.

P:DP/BDM1 9807-0802

1.5-4

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information
Design Estimate Bar Chart Sample Criteria The designer estimates that 792 man-hours will be required to complete the design phase of the project. The hours are distributed among Activities 1 through 7 and entered in the first column of the Bar Chart Form. Enter the percentage amount in column three. Estimate the time for Activity 8 (approximately 5 percent of subtotal) and for Activity 9 (approximately 8 percent of subtotal). Time from Activities 8 and 9 will not enter into job manpower estimates, but will affect the estimated completion date. Using a convenient scale, draw the bar chart. To compute the “Anticipated Completion Date,” scale from the “zero-line” to the farthest block on the right and to this add Activities 8 and 9 (in effect extending the completion time). Multiply this number by the scale you are using and divide by 8, and this will give you the number of working days to completion date. The number of working days in conjunction with the Working Day Calendar (see Bridge Projects Unit) will give the completion date. For this example, this will be: (5.5 + 1.2) × 100 × 1/8 = 84 working days August 2, 1982 — Start Date Number of working days = = 6,475 +84 6,559 (from working day calendar) Dec. 2, 1982 (anticipated completion date)

Bridge Design Scheduling

Washington State Department of Transportation
SR No. Job No. Project

Design Time Bar Chart
Drawn By Design Start Date Scheduled Completion Date Anticipated Completion Date

Designed By

Design Checked By

Current Estimate of Time to Complete

Original Estimate to Complete

Layout By
Completion Percentage
(Man Hours)

Activity No.

(Man Hours)

Layout Check Layout Man Hours

Bar Chart

Activity

Scale: 1" = __________ Man Hours

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Design Design Check Drawings Revisions Quantities S&E Reviews

8 9

Other Jobs Leave Totals

DOT 232-003 (formerly C1M4) Rev 3/91

August 1998

87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321 87654321

Subtotals

100%

Remarks

Figure 1.5.2-1

1.5-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information Bridge Design Scheduling

Sample Progress Report Form Figure 1.5.2-2

1.5-6

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1.6 Guidelines for Bridge Site Visits
The following guidelines are established to help all staff in determining the need for visiting bridge sites prior to final design. These guidelines should apply to consultants as well as to our own staff. In all cases, the associated region should be made aware of the site visit so that they would have the opportunity to participate. Region participation would be especially useful if a preliminary bridge plan is involved.

Bridge Design Scheduling

1.6.1

Bridge Rehabilitation Projects (excluding rail and minor expansion joint rehabilitation projects)
For this type of bridge project, it is critical that the design team know as much as possible about the bridge that is to be rehabilitated. There is good information regarding the condition of existing bridges at the Bridge Preservation Office (Mottman). As-built drawings and contract documents are also helpful, but may not necessarily be accurate. At least one bridge site visit is necessary for this type of project. In some cases, an in-depth inspection with experienced condition survey inspectors would be appropriate. The decision to perform an in-depth inspection should include the Unit Supervisor, Region, and the Bridge Design Engineer.

1.6.2

Bridge Widenings and Seismic Retrofits
For this type of bridge project, it is important that the design team is familiar with the features and condition of the existing bridge. There is good information regarding the condition of existing bridges at the Bridge Preservation Office (Mottman). As-built drawings and contract documents are also helpful, but may not necessarily be accurate. A site visit is recommended for this type of project, particularly if the bridge to be widened has unique features or is other than a standard prestressed girder bridge with elastomeric bearings.

1.6.3

Rail and Minor Expansion Joint Retrofits
Generally, pictures and site information from the region along with as-builts and condition survey information are adequate for most of these types of projects. However, if there is any doubt about the adequacy of the available information or concern about accelerated deterioration of the structure elements to be retrofitted, a site visit is recommended.

1.6.4

New Bridges
Generally, pictures and site information from the region are adequate for most new bridge designs. However, if the new bridge is a replacement for an existing bridge, a site visit is recommended, particularly if the project requires staged removal of the existing bridge and/or staged construction of the new bridge.

1.6.5

Bridge Demolition
If a bridge demolition is required as part of a project, a site visit would help the design team determine if there are unique sit restrictions that could affect the demolition. If unique site restrictions are observed, they should be properly documented, included in the job file and noted on the special provisions checklist. Before making a site visit, the Condition Survey Unit and the region should be contacted to determine if there are any unique site conditions or safety hazards. Proper safety equipment and procedures should always be incorporated into any site visit. When making a site visit, it is important to obtain as much information as possible. Pictures, video records with spoken commentary, field measurements, and field notes are appropriate forms of field information. A written or pictorial record should be made of any

August 1998

1.6-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information Bridge Design Scheduling

observed problems with an existing bridge or obvious site problem. The site visit data would then be incorporated into the job file. This information will be a valuable asset in preparing constructable and cost-effective structural designs. When negotiating with consultants for structural design work, it is important to make appropriate site visits part of the consultants’s scope of work.

P:DP/BDM1 9807-0802

1.6-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria General Information 1.99 Bibliography
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, Latest Edition and Interims, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Latest Edition and Interims. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). Organization Handbook, Washington State Department of Transportation. WSDOT Design Manual. WSDOT Construction Manual.

Bibliography

P:DP/BDM1 9807-0802

August 1998

1.99-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Standard Design Criteria Form

STANDARD DESIGN CRITERIA
PROJECT

SR

MADE BY

CHECKED BY

DATE

SUPV.

ITEM

STANDARD DESIGN CRITERIA FOR THIS STRUCTURE

1

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY BRIDGES AASHTO_________TH EDITION, 19___________ INTERIM SPECIFICATION, 19____________(IF USED) STATE OF WASHINGTON, STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR ROAD, BRIDGE, AND MUNICIPAL CONSTRUCTION, 19__________ STATE OF WASHINGTON, STANDARD PLANS FOR ROAD, BRIDGE, AND MUNICIPAL CONSTRUCTION WITH REVISIONS TO 19____________ BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL, VOLUME_____________, WITH REVISIONS TO 19___________ OTHER_______________________________________________________________________________________________________ DESIGN BY: LOAD FACTOR____________________________________________________________________________________ WORKING STRESS________________________________________________________________________________

2 3

4

5 6 7

8

STEEL REINFORCING BARS: A.A.S.H.T.O. A.A.S.H.T.O. M31 M31 GRADE 60_______________ GRADE 40______________

9

CONCRETE: F'C = 4000 PSI (CLASS AX) F'C = 3000 PSI (CLASS B) F'C = _________ PSI (LIGHTWEIGHT) DENSITY = ________________ LBS. PER FT.
3

OTHER__________________________________________________________________________________________________
10

PRESTRESSED GIRDERS: SERIES, __________________________________

SPECIAL,_________________________________ / / FT.3 FT.3

STANDARD CONCRETE DENSITY = ___________________________ LBS. LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE DENSITY = _______________________________LBS.

MINIMUM CONCRETE STRENGTH AT STRAND RELEASE = _______________________________PSI MINIMUM CONCRETE STRENGTH AT 28 DAYS = ________________________________________PSI
11
PIER NO.

FOUNDATION DATA FROM SOILS
PILE/SPREAD ALLOWABLE SOIL p

MAXIMUM DESIGN SOIL p OR PILE LOAD
DESIGNER GROUP CHECKER GROUP

1 2 3 4 5 6

August 1998

1.3-A1-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Standard Design Criteria Form

ITEM

STANDARD DESIGN CRITERIA FOR THIS STRUCTURE

12

STEEL STRUCTURES: INDICATE BY SPECIFICATION THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF STEEL USE A.A.S.H.T.O. A.A.S.H.T.O. A.A.S.H.T.O. A.A.S.H.T.O. A.A.S.H.T.O. OTHER MMMMMROLLERS CASTINGS

13

SPECIAL CRITERIA: SEE FORM ENTITLED “EXCEPTIONS TO THE STANDARD DESIGN CRITERIA“

DOT Revised 1/89

230-030

1.3-A1-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Exceptions to the Standard Design Criteria Form

Project

SR No.

Made By

Check By

Supervisor

Date

EXCEPTIONS TO THE STANDARD DESIGN CRITERIA
No. Gen. Area Addition or Modification App’d By

DOT 230-032 (formerly C1M3) Rev 3/91

August 1998

1.3-A2

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Design Completed Checklist

August 1998

1.3-A3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Job File Table of Contents

Job File Table of Contents
Item Date Who Subject

August 1998

1.3-A4

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Office Time Report

Bridge and Structures Office Time Report
_______________ Region PRELIMINARY PLAN: L-Number ___________

Design Unit Staffing Level estimate __________

Start Date: ____________________ Completion Date: _______________ TIME CHARGED Design ____________ Check ____________ Drafting ___________ Review ___________ Total _____________ Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Standard _______________

DESIGN AND DETAIL

Design Unit Staffing Level estimate __________

Start Date: ____________________ Completion Date: _______________ TIME CHARGED Design ____________ Check ____________ Drafting ___________ Review ___________ Total _____________ Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Standard _______________

August 1998

1.3-A5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Not Included in Bridge Quantities List

Not Included In Bridge Quantities List
Environmental And Engineering Service Center Bridge and Structures Office

SR Designed By Type of Structure

Job Number Checked By

Project Title Date Supervisor

The following is a list of items for which the Bridge and Structures Office is relying on the Region to furnish plans, specifications and estimates.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.
DOT
Form 230-038 EF Revised 2/97

August 1998

1.3-A6

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Special Provisions Checklist

August 1998

1.3-A7-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Special Provisions Checklist

1.3-A7-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Special Provisions Checklist

August 1998

1.3-A7-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Special Provisions Checklist

1.3-A7-4

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Special Provisions Checklist

August 1998

1.3-A7-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A General Information Special Provisions Checklist

1.3-A7-6

August 1998

Appendix A

By

% Completed

Hours Required

By

% Completed

Hours Required

By

% Completed

Hours Required

By

% Completed

Hours Required

1 2

Date Completed

Date Completed

Date Completed

Date Completed

August 1998

Washington State Department of Transportation

Breakdown of Project Manhours Required
Made By Date

Job No.

SR

Project

General Information

Design Drawing or Item

Check

Draw

Check Drawing Comments

No.

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

16 17 18

19 20 21 22

Breakdown of Project Manhours Required Form

DOT 232-002 (formerly C1M5) Rev 3/91

1.5-A1

Monthly Project Progress Report Form

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL

General Information

Appendix A

August 1998

Totals

9

8

987654321 98765432 987654321 987654321 1 987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 654321098765432 6543210987654321 1 6543210987654321 9 987654321 8765432 987654321 987654321 1 987654321 6543210987654321 654321098765432 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 1 6543210987654321 987654321 98765432 987654321 987654321 1 987654321 6 1 6543210987654321 54321098765432 654321098765432 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 6543210987654321 1 6543210987654321

9 987654321 8765432 987654321 987654321 1 987654321 7 76543210987654321 654321098765432 76543210987654321 76543210987654321 76543210987654321 76543210987654321 76543210987654321 76543210987654321 76543210987654321 76543210987654321 76543210987654321 1 76543210987654321

1.5-A2
% of Total Project Complete % of Activity Complete % of Total Time Used
Job No.

DOT 232-004 (formerly C1M4) Rev 3/91

7
% of Total Project Complete % of Activity Complete % of Total Time Used Man Hours Used to Date % of Total Project Complete % of Activity Complete % of Total Time Used Man Hours Used to Date

6

5

4

3

2

1

Activity No.

Man Hours Used to Date

SR

As of

Reference No.

Washington State Department of Transportation

As of

Reference No.

Project

As of

Reference No.

Monthly Project Progress Report

As of

Reference No.

% of Total Project Complete

% of Activity Complete

% of Total Time Used

Man Hours Used to Date

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Contents
Page 2.0 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 Preliminary Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interdisciplinary Design Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Value Engineering Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary Project Recommendations (Existing Bridges) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary Project Recommendations (New Bridges) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Type, Size, and Location Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. TS&L General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. TS&L Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Reviews and Submittal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development of the Preliminary Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Site Reconnaissance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Coordination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Consideration of Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Designer Recommendation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Concept Approval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Inspection and Maintenance Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Job File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Bridge Site Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Request for Preliminary Foundation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Request for Preliminary Hydraulics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Design Report or Design Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Other Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Factors for Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Site Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Economic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Structural . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Environmental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Aesthetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. Hydraulic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Permits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Coast Guard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Approvals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Bridge Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Bridge Architect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Railroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1-1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 2.2-1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6

2.2 2.2.1

2.2.2

2.2.3

2.2.4

2.2.5

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2.0-i

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Contents
Page 2.3 2.3.1 Preliminary Plan Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Highway Crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Bridge Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Horizontal Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Vertical Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. End Slopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Determination of Bridge Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Pedestrian Crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. Bridge Redundancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Railroad Crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Bridge Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Horizontal Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Crash Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Vertical Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Determination of Bridge Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. Special Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Water Crossings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Bridge Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Horizontal Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Vertical Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. End Slopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Determination of Bridge Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Scour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Pier Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. Construction Access and Time Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Widenings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Bridge Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Traffic Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Construction Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Detour Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Bridge Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Live Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retaining Walls and Noise Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Deck Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Deck Protective Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inspection and Maintenance Acces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Safety Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Travelers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selection of Structure Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Reinforced Concrete Flat Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Reinforced Concrete Tee Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3-1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 2.4-1 1 1 1

2.3.2

2.3.3

2.3.4

2.3.5

2.3.6 2.3.7 2.3.8 2.3.9 2.3.10

2.4 2.4.1

2.0-ii

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Page C. Reinforced Concrete Box Girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Post Tensioned Concrete Box Girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Prestressed Concrete Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Composite Steel Plate Girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Composite Steel Box Girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. Steel Truss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. Segmental Concrete Box Girder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J. Railroad Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K. Timber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L. Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wall Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aesthetic Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Visual Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . End Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Wing Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Retaining Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Slope Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intermediate Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Barrier and Wall Surface Treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Plain Surface Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Fractured Fin Finish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Pigmented Sealer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structure Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Handling and Shipping of Precast Members and Steel Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salvage of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WSDOT Standard Highway Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Substructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 2.5-1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2.6-1 1 1 1 2.7-1 1 1 1 1 2 2.99-1

2.4.2 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2

2.5.3 2.5.4

2.5.5 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.7 2.7.1

2.99

Appendix A — Design Aids 2.2-A1 Bridge Site Data General 2.2-A2 Bridge Site Data Rehabilitation 2.2-A3 Bridge Site Data Stream Crossings 2.2-A4 Preliminary Plan Checklist 2.3-A1 Bridge Stage Construction Comparison 2.3-A2 Bridge Redundancy Criteria 2.4-A1 Bridge Selection Guide 2.7-A1 Standard Superstructure Elements 2.7-A2 Standard Pier Elements

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Appendix B — Design Examples 2.2-B1 Preliminary Plan Bridge Replacement 2.2-B2 Preliminary Plan Bridge Widening 2.2-B3 Preliminary Plan New Bridge

Contents

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2.0 2.1 2.1.1 Preliminary Design Preliminary Studies Interdisciplinary Design Studies
As part of the preparation for a major project, an Interdisciplinary Design Team (IDT) may be established by the region. The IDT is composed of members of different expertise and backgrounds, selected from regions, the Service Center, and outside agencies. The IDT members and the support groups serve to give an objective analysis and review of the various design alternatives for the region’s project. They contribute ideas and participate in the selection of design alternatives. This work will often culminate in the publication of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Bridge Design Engineers are often asked to be a part of this process, either as a support resource or as a member of the IDT itself.

Preliminary Studies

2.1.2

Value Engineering Studies
Value Engineering (VE) is a process of review and analysis of a project. The VE team seeks to define the most cost-effective means of satisfying the basic function(s) of the project. Usually a VE study takes place before or during the time that the region is working on the design. Occasionally a VE study examines a project with a completed PS&E. A VE team is typically made up of members of different expertise and backgrounds, selected from the region, Service Center, and outside agencies. The Team Facilitator will lead the team through the VE process. The team will review the project as defined by the project’s design personnel. They will seek to decide the basic function(s) that are served by the project, brainstorm to develop other alternatives to serve the same function(s), and evaluate these alternatives on how well they satisfy these basic functions. The VE team will present their findings in a presentation to the region. The region is then required to investigate these findings further and address them in the design. Bridge Design Engineers are often asked to be a part of this process, either as support contacts or as VE team members. The process usually involves three to five days.

2.1.3

Preliminary Project Recommendations (Existing Bridges)
Projects that call for the rehabilitation of an existing bridge require that the existing condition of the bridge be reviewed and a recommendation the existing bridge be prepared. When a region starts a design for such a project, they will request by an Inter-Departmental (IDC) memorandum that the Bridge and Structures Office make Preliminary Project recommendations. This will provide them with a scope of work and a cost estimate for the project. It involves review of the inspection and condition reports from the Bridge Preservation Section and a site visit with the region and other project stakeholders. Special inspections of certain portions of the structure may need to be scheduled to determine the load capacity of the existing bridge, what types of rehabilitation work need to be done, the extended life span achieved by certain types of rehabilitation work, and to develop various alternatives with cost estimates for comparison, ranging from “do nothing” to “replacement.” A typical recommendation consists of two parts. The first is a report to the file providing detailed information related to the bridge rehabilitation and a summary of the various alternatives considered and an itemized list of the rehabilitation work with the associated costs. The second part is an IDC to the region discussing the overall project in general terms mentioning any particular items of concern to the region and a summary of the preferred alternatives with recommendations. The region should be given the opportunity to review a draft report and IDC and provide input prior to finalization.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2.1.4 Preliminary Project Recommendations (New Bridges)
Projects that call for a new bridge require that a recommendation for the new structure be prepared. While a region is preparing a design for a project, they will seek assistance from the Bridge and Structures Office by writing an IDC. This request could range from confirmation of construction cost data to consideration of various structure designs or staging alternatives. An IDC to the region will provide recommendations and information. A face to face meeting with the region project staff is recommended.

Preliminary Studies

2.1.5

Type, Size, and Location Studies
It is the policy of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) that major or unusual bridges must go through the preparation of a Type, Size, and Location (TS&L) study. The TS&L study will outline the project, describe the proposed structure and other design alternatives considered, and show justification for the selection of the preferred alternative. Approval of the TS&L study by FHWA is the basis for advancing the project to the design stage. The FHWA requires a TS&L study for tunnels, movable bridges, unusual structures, and major structures with deck areas greater than 125,000 square feet. This is a guideline only. Smaller bridges that are unusual may also require a TS&L study while some, such as long viaducts, may not. As early as possible in the Project Development stage, the FHWA should be contacted for conformation. The preparation of the TS&L study is the responsibility of the Bridge and Structures Office. The TS&L cannot be submitted to FHWA until after the Environmental documents have been submitted. However, TS&L preparation need not wait for Environmental document approval, but may begin as soon as the bridge site data is available. See Chapter 1110 of the Design Manual for the type of information required for a bridge site data submittal. A. TS&L General In order to become familiar with the project, the designer should first review its history. The Environmental and Design Reports should be reviewed. The bridge site data should be scrutinized so that additional data, maps, or drawings can be requested. After reviewing the history of the project, a meeting with region and a site visit should be arranged. In order to have foundation information, the Materials Lab must be contacted early. FHWA expects specific recommendations on the foundation type. The Materials Lab will submit a detailed foundation report for inclusion as an appendix to the TS&L study. In order to find the preferred structural alternative, the designer should: l. Develop a list of all the feasible alternatives. At this stage of the process, the range of alternatives should be kept wide open. Brainstorming with supervisors and other engineers can help bring out fresh and innovative solutions. Eliminate the unusable alternatives by applying the constraints of the project. Question restrictive constraints and document their bases. At the end of this step, there should be no more than four alternatives. Perform preliminary level design calculations for unique structural problems to ensure that the remaining alternatives are feasible. Compare the advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the remaining alternatives to determine the preferred alternative(s). Visit the project site with the region and Geotech Branch.

2.

3. 4. 5.

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After piers have been located, a memorandum request for a Hydraulics Report should be made to the Olympia Service Center Hydraulics Unit. FHWA expects specific information on scour and backwater on both falsework and permanent piers. The Olympia Service Center Hydraulics Unit will submit a report for inclusion as an appendix to the TS&L study. The Bridge Architect at the Bridge and Structures Office should be consulted early on and throughout the study process “Notes to the file” should be made documenting the aesthetic requirements and recommendations of the Architect. Cost backup data is needed for any costs used in the TS&L study. FHWA expects TS&L costs based on estimated quantities. This data is to be included in an appendix to the TS&L study. It is a good idea to coordinate the quantities submitted are in a form compatible with the estimator’s cost breakdown method. B. TS&L Outline The TS&L study should describe the project, the proposed structure, and give reasons why the bridge type, size, and location were selected. 1. Cover, Title Sheet, and Contents These should identify the project and the contents of the TS&L. 2. Photographs There should be enough color photographs to provide the look and feel of the area. The prints should be numbered and labeled and the location indicated on a diagram. 3. Introduction The introduction describes the report and references other reports used to prepare the TS&L study. The following reports should be listed if used. • Design Reports and Supplements • Environmental Reports • Architectural or Visual Assessment Reports • Hydraulic Report • Geotechnical Reports 4. Project Description The project description is intended to summarize the preferred alternative of the project design so that the TS&L study clearly defines the project. Care should be taken to describe the project adequately but briefly. A vicinity map should be shown. 5. Design Criteria Design criteria states to what code, loading, etc., the bridge will be constructed. Besides the AASHTO specifications and assorted AASHTO guide specifications, other criteria are sometimes used. These criteria should be listed. Examples of this would be the temperature loading used for segmental bridges or areas defined as wetlands.

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6. Structural Studies The structural studies section documents how the proposed structure type, size, and location were determined. The following considerations should be addressed. • Aesthetics • Cost Estimates • Geometric constraints • Project staging • Foundations • Hydraulics • Feasibility of construction • Structural constraints • Maintenance This section should have a narrative style describing how these factors point to the preferred alternative. Show how each constraint eliminated or supported the alternatives. For instance, “Because the geometry required a 200-foot span, prestressed concrete girders could not be used” or “Restrictions on falsework placement forced the use of self supporting precast concrete or steel girders.” 7. Executive Summary The executive summary should be able to stand alone as a separate document. The project and structure description should be given. Present the recommended alternative with its cost and include a summary of considerations used to choose or eliminate alternatives. 8. Drawings Preliminary Plan drawings of the recommended alternative are included in the appendix. The drawings show the plan, elevation, and typical section. For projects where alternative designs are specified as recommended alternatives, Preliminary Plans for each of these structure types shall be included. Supplemental drawings showing special features, such as complex piers, are often provided to clearly define the project. C. Reviews and Submittal While writing the TS&L study, all major decisions should be discussed with the unit supervisor, who can decide if the Bridge Design Engineer needs to be consulted. A peer review meeting with the Bridge Design Engineer should be scheduled at 50 percent completion. The FHWA Bridge Engineer should be invited to provide input. The final report must be reviewed, approved, and the Preliminary Plan drawings signed by the Bridge Architect, the Bridge Projects Engineer, the Bridge Design Engineer, and the Bridge and Structures Engineer. The TS&L study is submitted with a cover letter to FHWA signed by the Bridge and Structures Engineer.

Preliminary Studies

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2.2 Preliminary Plan
The Preliminary Plan is the most important phase of bridge design as it sets the groundwork for the final design. The intent is to completely define the bridge geometry so final roadway design by the regions and the structural design by the Bridge and Structures Office can take place with minimal revisions. During the region’s preparation of the highway design, they also begin work on the bridge site data. Region submits the bridge site data to the Bridge and Structures Office which initiates the start of the Preliminary Plan. Information that must be included as part of the bridge site data submittal is outlined in Chapter 1110 of the Design Manual.

Preliminary Plan

2.2.1

Development of the Preliminary Plan
A Responsibilities In general, the responsibilities of the designer, checker, detailer, and supervisor are as specified in Chapter 1 of the Bridge Design Manual. The primary design engineer is responsible for developing a Preliminary Plan for the structure that is compatible with geometric, aesthetic, staging, geotechnical, hydraulic, financial, and structural requirements and conditions that exist at the site. Upon receipt of the bridge site data from the region, the designer shall review it for completeness and verify that what the project calls for is realistic and structurally feasible. Any omissions or corrections are to be called to the region’s attention immediately. The supervisor shall be kept informed of progress on the preliminary plan so that the schedule can be monitored. Should problems develop, the supervisor can make adjustments to the schedule or manpower assignments. The designer must keep the job file up to date by documenting all conversations, meetings, requests, questions, and approvals concerning the project. Notes to the designer, and details not shown in the Preliminary Plan shall be documented in the job file. The checker shall give an independent review of the plan, verifying that it is in compliance with the site data as provided by the region and as corrected in the job file. The plan shall be compared against the Preliminary Plan checklist to ensure that all necessary information is shown. The checker is to review the plan for consistency with office design practice, detailing practice, and for constructibility. The preliminary plan shall be drawn using current office CAD equipment and software by the Engineer or Detailer. B. Site Reconnaissance The site data submitted by the region will include a video and photographs of the site. Even for minor projects, this may not be enough information for the designer to work from in developing the Preliminary Plan. For most bridge projects, site visits are necessary. Site visits with region project staff and other project stakeholders such as Hydraulics, Design, and Geotech Branch should be arranged with the knowledge and approval of the Bridge Projects Engineer. C Coordination The designer is responsible for coordinating the design and review process throughout the project. This includes seeking input from various WSDOT units and outside agencies. D. Consideration of Alternatives In the process of developing the Preliminary Plan, the designer should brainstorm, develop, and evaluate various design alternatives. Depending on how the General Factors for Consideration (Section 2.2.3) apply to a particular site, the number of alternatives will usually be limited to only a

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few for most projects. For some smaller projects and most major projects, design alternatives merit development and close evaluation. The process of considering and rejecting design alternatives provides documentation for the preferred alternative. E. Designer Recommendation Once the designer has done a thorough job of evaluating the needs and limitations of the site, analyzed all information and developed and evaluated design alternatives for the project, he should be able to make a recommendation for the optimum solution. Based on this recommendation, the designer should discuss the recommendation with the Bridge Projects Engineer. F. Concept Approval For some projects, the presentation, in “E” above, to the Bridge Projects Engineer will satisfy the need for concept approval. Large complex projects, projects of unique design, or projects where two or more alternatives appear viable, should be presented to the Bridge Design Engineer for his concurrence before plan development is completed. For unique or complex projects a presentation is made to the Bridge and Structures Office Peer Review Committee. G. Inspection and Maintenance Access In the process developing the Preliminary Plan, the design engineer should consult with the Bridge Preservation Section for input.

2.2.2

Documentation
A. Job File When a memorandum IDC, transmitting site data from the region is received by the Bridge and Structures Office, a job file is created. This official job file serves as a depository for all communications and resource information for the job. Scheduling and time estimates are logged in this file, as well as cost estimates, preliminary quantities, and documentation of all approvals. When the Preliminary Plan is completed, the job file continues to serve a useful purpose as a communications and documentation depository for all pertinent project-related information during the design process. B. Bridge Site Data All Preliminary Plans are developed from site data as submitted by the region. This submittal will consist of a memorandum IDC, and appropriate attachments as specified by Chapter 1110 of the Design Manual. When this information is received, it should be reviewed for completeness so that missing or incomplete information can be noted and requested. C. Request for Preliminary Foundation Data A Request for Preliminary Foundation Data is sent to Geotech Branch to solicit any foundation data that is available at this preliminary stage. The Geotech Branch is provided with approximate dimensions for overall structure length and width, an approximate number of intermediate piers (if applicable), and approximate stations for beginning and end of structure on the alignment. Based on test holes from previous construction in the area, geological maps, and soil surveys. The Materials Lab responds by IDC giving an analysis of what foundation conditions arc likely to be encountered and what types of substructure are best suited for these conditions.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design
D. Request for Preliminary Hydraulics A Request for Preliminary Hydraulics data is sent to the Hydraulics Office to document hydraulic requirements that must be considered in the structure design. The Hydraulics Office is provided with the contour plan and other bridge site data. Seal vent elevations, normal water, 100-year flood and 500-year flood elevations, and flows (Q), pier configuration, scour depth and minimum footing cover, ice pressure, minimum waterway channel width, riprap requirements, and minimum clearance to the 100-year flood elevation are provided in an ºIDC response from the Hydraulics Office. E. Design Report or Design Summary Some bridge construction projects have a Design Report or Design Summary prepared by the region. This is a document which includes design considerations and conclusions reached in the development of the project. It defines the scope of work for the project. It serves to document the design standards and applicable deviations for the roadway alignment and geometry. It is also an excellent reference for project history, safety and traffic data, environmental concerns, and other information. F. Other Resources For some projects, preliminary studies or reports will have been prepared. These resources can provide additional background for the development of the Preliminary Plan. G. Notes if meetings with Regions and other project stakeholders shall be included in the documentation.

Preliminary Plan

2.2.3

General Factors for Consideration
Many factors must be considered in preliminary bridge design. Some of the more common of these are listed in general categories below. These factors will be discussed in appropriate detail in subsequent portions of this manual. A. Site Requirements Topography Alignment (tangent, curved, skewed) Vertical profile and superelevation Proposed or existing utilities B. Safety Feasibility of falsework (impaired clearance and sight distance) Density and speed of traffic Detours or possible elimination of detours by staging construction Sight distance Horizontal clearance to piers Hazards to pedestrians, bicyclists Inspection and Maintenance Access (UBIT clearances) (see Figure 2.3.10-1) C. Economic Funding classification (federal and state funds, state funds only, local developer funds) Funding level

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design
D. Structural Limitation on structure depth Requirements for future widening Foundation and groundwater conditions Anticipated settlement E. Environmental Site conditions (wetlands, environmentally sensitive areas) EIS requirements Mitigating measures F. Aesthetic General appearance Compatibility with surroundings and adjacent structures Visual exposure and importance G. Construction Ease of construction Falsework clearances and requirements Erection problems Hauling difficulties and access to site Construction season Time limit for construction H. Hydraulic Bridge deck drainage Stream flow conditions and drift Passage of flood debris Scour, effect of pier as an obstruction (shape, width, skew, number of columns) Bank and pier protection Consideration of a culvert as an alternate solution Permit requirements for navigation and stream work limitations I. Other Prior commitments made to other agency officials and individuals of the community Recommendations resulting from preliminary studies

Preliminary Plan

2.2.4

Permits
A. Coast Guard As outlined in Chapter 240 of the Design Manual, the Bridge and Structures Office is responsible for coordinating and applying for Coast Guard permits for bridges over waterways. This is handled by the Coast Guard Liaison Engineer in the Bridge Projects Unit of the Bridge and Structures Office. A determination of whether a bridge requires a permit is known before the bridge site data is received. Generally, tidal-influenced waterways and waterways used for commercial navigation will require Coast Guard permits. However, some waterways may qualify for an exemption from a permit if certain conditions apply including the exclusion of use by vessels larger than 21 feet long. The

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan

process of getting this exemption, from FHWA, not the Coast Guard, is the responsibility of the region. The Coast Guard Liaison Engineer should be asked to check with the region and the Coast Guard to confirm the situation on a case by case basis. For all waterway crossings, the Coast Guard Liaison Engineer is required to initial the Preliminary Plan as to whether a Coast Guard permit or exemption is required. This box regarding Coast Guard permit status is located in the center left margin of the plan. If a permit is required, the permit target date will also be noted. The reduced print, signed by the Coast Guard Liaison Engineer, shall be placed in the job file. The work on developing the permit application should be started such that it is ready to be sent to the Coast Guard eight months before the project ad date. The Coast Guard Liaison Engineer should be given a copy of the Preliminary Plan from which to develop the plan sheets that are part of the permit. B. Other All other permits will be the responsibility of the region. The Bridge and Structures Office may be asked to provide information to the region to assist them in making applications for these permits.

2.2.5

Approvals
A. Bridge Design When the Preliminary Plan has been checked by the checker and signal by the Bridge Projects Engineer, it is ready to go to the Bridge Design Engineer and the Bridge and Structures Engineer for approval. B. Bridge Architect For all preliminary plans, the Architect should be aware and involved when the designer is first developing the plan. The Architect should be presented with a reduced print of the plan by the designer. This is done prior to the job going to the checker. The Architect will review the print and signify his approval by signing it. This print is placed in the job file. If future plan revisions change elements of aesthetic importance, the Architect should be asked to review and approve, by signature, a print of the revised plan. For large, multiple bridge projects, the Bridge Architect should be contacted for development of a coordinated architectural concept for the project corridor. The architectural concept for a project corridor is generally developed in draft form and reviewed with the project stakeholders prior to finalizing. C. Region Prior to the completion of the preliminary plan the designer should meet with the region to discuss the concept and get their input. When the Preliminary Plan and the “Not Included in Bridge Quantities List” along with the preliminary plan transmittal IDC. The region will review the plan for compliance and agreement with their original site data. They will work to answer any notes to the region that have been listed on the plan. When this review is complete, the Regional Administrator, or his representative, will sign the plan. The region will send back a print of the plan with any comments noted in red (additions) and green (deletions) along with responses to the notes to the region.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design
D. Railroad When a railroad is involved with a structure on a Preliminary Plan, the Right of Way Accommodation Engineer of the Design Office must be involved during the plan preparation process. A copy of the Preliminary Plan is sent to the Right of Way Accommodation Engineer, who then sends a copy to the railroad involved for their comments and approval. The railroad will respond with approval by letter to the Right of Way Accommodation Engineer. A copy of this letter is then routed to the Bridge and Structures Office and is placed in the job file.

Preliminary Plan

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2.3 2.3.1 Preliminary Plan Criteria Highway Crossings
A. General A highway crossing is defined as a grade separation between two intersecting roadways. A highway crossing is further categorized as either an undercrossing or an overcrossing. 1. Undercrossing A bridge which provides for passage of a state highway under a less important state highway, a county road, or a city street is called an undercrossing. Relative importance between state highways is indicated by functional classification. For details, see Chapter 440 of the Design Manual. For example, a bridge included as a part of an interchange involving SR 182 (Interstate) and SR 14 (Principal) and providing for passage of traffic on SR 182 under SR 14 would be called SR 14 I/C Undercrossing. 2. Overcrossing A bridge which carries traffic on a state highway over a less important state highway, a county road, or a city street is called an overcrossing. For example, a bridge which carries traffic on SR 5 over Hamilton Road would be called Hamilton Road Overcrossing. B. Bridge Width The bridge roadway channelization is provided by the region with the Bridge Site Data. For state highways, the roadway geometrics are controlled by Chapters 430 and 440 of the Design Manual. For city and county arterials, the roadway geometrics are controlled by Chapter IV of the Local Agency Guidelines. C. Horizontal Clearances Safety dictates that fixed objects be placed as far from the edge of the roadway as is economically feasible. Criteria for minimum horizontal clearances to bridge piers and retaining walls are outlined in the Design Manual. Chapter 710 of the Design Manual outlines clear zone and recovery area requirements for horizontal clearances without guardrail or barrier being required. Actual horizontal clearances shall be shown in the plan view of the Preliminary Plan (to the nearest 0.1 foot). Minimum horizontal clearances to inclined columns or wall surfaces should be provided at the roadway surface and for a vertical distance of 6 feet above the edge of pavement. When bridge end slopes fall within the recovery area, the minimum horizontal clearance should be provided for a vertical distance of 6 feet above the fill surface. See Figure 2.3.1-1. Bridge piers and abutments ideally should be placed such that the minimum clearances can be satisfied. However, if for structural or economic reasons, the best span arrangement requires a pier to be within clear zone or recovery area, then guardrail or barrier can be used to mitigate the hazard. There are instances where it may not be possible to provide the minimum horizontal clearance even with guardrail or barrier. An example would be placement of a bridge pier in a narrow median. The required column size may be such that it would infringe on the shoulder of the roadway. In such cases, the New Jersey barrier shape would be incorporated into the shape of the column. Barrier or

Preliminary Plan Criteria

August 1998

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan Criteria

guardrail would need to taper into the pier at a flare rate satisfying the criteria in Chapter 710 of the Design Manual. See Figure 2.3.1-2. The reduced clearance to the pier would need to be approved by the region. D. Vertical Clearances The required minimum vertical clearances are established by the functional classification of the highway and the construction classification of the project. For state highways, this is as outlined in Chapters 430 and 440 of the Design Manual. For city and county arterials, this is as outlined in Chapter IV of the Local Agency Guidelines. Actual minimum vertical clearances are shown on the Preliminary Plan (to the nearest 0.1 foot). The approximate location of the minimum vertical clearance is noted in the upper left margin of the plan. For structures crossing divided highways, minimum vertical clearances for both directions are noted. E. End Slopes The type and rate of end slope used at bridge sites is dependent on several factors. Soil conditions and stability, right of way availability, fill height or depth of cut, roadway alignment and functional classification, and existing site conditions are all important. The region should have made a preliminary determination based on these factors during the preparation of the bridge site data. The side slopes noted on the Roadway Section for the roadway should indicate the type and rate of end slope. The Materials Lab will recommend the minimum rate of end slope. This should be compared to the rate recommended in the Roadway Section and to existing site conditions (if applicable). The types of end slopes and the conditions for which each are applicable are spelled out in Chapter 640 of the Design Manual. End slope protection may be required at certain highway crossings, as spelled out in Chapter 1120 of the Design Manual. Examples of slope protection are shown on Standard Plan D-9. F. Determination of Bridge Length Establishing the location of the end piers for a highway crossing is a function of the profile grade of the overcrossing roadway, the minimum vertical and horizontal clearances required for the structure, and the type and rate of end slope used. For the general case of bridges in cut or fill slopes, the control point is where the cut or fill slope plane meets the bottom of ditch or edge of shoulder as applicable. From this point, the fill or cut slope plane is established at the recommended rate up to where the slope plane intersects the grade of the roadway at the shoulder. Following the requirements of Standard Plan H-9, the back of pavement seat, end of wing wall or end of retaining wall can be established at 3 feet behind the slope intersection. For the general case of bridges on wall type or “closed” abutments, the controlling factors are the required horizontal clearance and the size of the abutment. This situation would most likely occur in an urban setting or where right of way is limited.

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August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan Criteria

Horizontal Clearance to Inclined Piers 1990 Figure 2.3.1-1

Bridge Pier in Narrow Median 1990 Figure 2.3.1-2

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design
G. Pedestrian Crossings Pedestrian crossings follow the same format as highway crossings. Geometric criteria for pedestrian facilities are established in Chapter 1020 of the Design Manual. Width and clearances would be as established there and as confirmed by region. Unique items to be addressed with pedestrian facilities include ADA requirements, the railing to be used, handrail requirements, overhead enclosure requirements, and profile grade requirements for ramps and stairs. H. Bridge Redundancy Design bridges to minimize the risk of catastrophic collapse by using redundant supporting elements (columns and girders). For substructure design use: One column minimum for roadways 28 feet wide and under. Two columns minimum for roadways over 28 feet to 40 feet. Three columns minimum for roadways over 40 feet to 60 feet. Collision protection or design for collision loads for piers with one or two columns. For superstructure design use: Three girders (webs) minimum for roadways 32 feet and under. Four girders (webs) minimum for roadways over 32 feet. See Appendix 2.3-A2 for details. Note: Any deviation from the above guidelines shall have a written approval by the Bridge Design Engineer.

Preliminary Plan Criteria

2.3.2

Railroad Crossings
A. General A railroad crossing is defined as a grade separation between an intersecting highway and a railroad. A bridge which provides highway traffic over the railroad is called an overcrossing. A bridge which provides highway traffic under the railroad is called an undercrossing. Requirements for railroad separations for both undercrossings and overcrossings may involve negotiations with the railroad company concerning clearances, geometrics, utilities, and maintenance roads. The railroad’s review and approval, will be based on the completed Preliminary Plan. B. Criteria The initial Preliminary Plan shall be prepared in accordance with the criteria of this section to apply uniformly to all railroads. Variance from this criteria will be negotiated with the railroad, when necessary, after a Preliminary Plan has been provided for their review. C. Bridge Width For railroad overcrossings, the provisions of Section 2.3.1 pertaining to bridge width of highway crossings shall apply. Details for railroad undercrossings will depend on the specific project and the railroad involved.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design
D. Horizontal Clearances For railroad undercrossings, the provisions of Section 2.3.1 pertaining to horizontal clearances for highway crossings shall apply. However, because of the heavy live loading of railroad spans, it is advantageous to reduce the span lengths as much as possible. For railroad undercrossings skewed to the roadway, piers may be placed up to the outside edge of 8-foot (minimum) shoulders if certain conditions are met (structural requirements, satisfactory aesthetics, satisfactory sight distance, etc.). The actual minimum horizontal clearances are shown in the Plan view of the Preliminary Plan (to the nearest 0.1 foot). For railroad overcrossings, minimum horizontal clearances are as noted below: Railroad Alone Fill Section Cut Section 14 feet 16 feet

Preliminary Plan Criteria

Horizontal clearance shall be measured from the center of the outside track to the face of pier. When the track is on a curve, the minimum horizontal clearance shall be increased at the rate of 11/2 inches for each degree of curvature. An additional 8 feet of clearance for off-track equipment shall only be provided when specifically requested by the railroad. E. Crash Walls Crash walls, when required, shall be designed to conform to the criteria from of the AREA Manual. F. Vertical Clearances For railroad undercrossings, the provisions of Section 2.3.1 pertaining to vertical clearances of highway crossings shall apply. For railroad overcrossings, the minimum vertical clearance shall satisfy the requirements of Chapter 1120 of the Design Manual. The actual minimum vertical clearances are shown on the Preliminary Plan (to the nearest 0.1 foot). The approximate location of the minimum vertical clearance is noted in the upper left margin of the plan. G. Determination of Bridge Length For railroad overcrossings, the provisions of Section 2.3.1 pertaining to the determination of bridge length shall apply. For railroad overcrossings, the minimum bridge length shall satisfy the minimum horizontal clearance requirements. The minimum bridge length shall generally satisfy the requirements of Figure 2.3.2-1. H. Special Considerations For railroad overcrossings, the top of footings for bridge piers or retaining walls adjacent to railroad tracks shall be 2 feet or more below the top of tie. The footing face shall not be closer than 10 feet to the center of the track. Any cofferdams, footings, excavation, etc., encroaching within 10 feet of the center of the track requires the approval of the railroad.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan Criteria

For railroads, the minimum horizontal construction opening is 8 feet 6 inches to either side of the centerline of track. The minimum vertical construction opening is 22 feet 6 inches above the top of rail at 6 feet offset from the centerline of track. Falsework openings shall be checked to verify that enough space is available for falsework beams to span the required horizontal distances and still provide the minimum vertical falsework clearance. Minimum vertical openings of less than 22 feet 6 inches may be negotiated with the railroad through the Utilities-Railroad Engineer.

2.3.3

Water Crossings
A. Bridge Width The provisions of Section 2.3.1 pertaining to bridge width for highway crossings apply here. B. Horizontal Clearances Water crossings over navigable waters requiring clearance for navigation channels shall satisfy the horizontal clearances required by the Coast Guard. Communication with the Coast Guard will be handled through the Coast Guard Liaison Engineer. For bridges over navigable waters, the centerline of the navigation channel and the horizontal clearances (to the nearest 0.1 foot) to the piers or the pier protection are shown on the Plan view of the Preliminary Plan. C. Vertical Clearances Vertical clearances for water crossings must satisfy floodway clearance and, where applicable, navigation clearance. Bridges over navigable waters must satisfy the vertical clearances required by the Coast Guard. Communication with the Coast Guard will be handled through the Coast Guard Liaison Engineer. The actual minimum vertical clearance (to the nearest 0.1 foot) for the channel span is shown on the Preliminary Plan. The approximate location of the minimum vertical clearance is noted in the upper left margin of the plan. The clearance shall be shown to the water surface as required by the Coast Guard criteria. Floodway vertical clearance will need to be discussed with the Hydraulics Office. In accordance with the flood history, nature of the site, character of drift, and other factors, they will determine a minimum vertical clearance for the 100-year flood. The roadway profile and the bridge superstructure depth must accommodate this. The actual minimum vertical clearance to the 100-year flood is shown (to the nearest 0.1 foot) on the Preliminary Plan, and the approximate location of the minimum vertical clearance is noted in the upper left margin of the plan. D. End Slopes The type and rate of end slopes for water crossings is similar to that for highway crossings. Soil conditions and stability, fill height, location of toe of fill, existing channel conditions, flood and scour potential, and environmental concerns are all important. As with highway crossings, the region, and Materials Lab will make preliminary recommendations as to the type and rate of end slope. The Hydraulics Office will also review the Regions’s recommendation for slope protection. E. Determination of Bridge Length Determining the overall length of a water crossing is not as simple and straight forward as for a highway crossing. Floodway requirements and environmental factors have a significant impact on where piers and fill can be placed.

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August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan Criteria

Determination of Bridge Length for a Railroad Undercrossing Figure 2.3.2-1

If a water crossing is required to satisfy floodway and environmental concerns, it will be known by the time the Preliminary Plan has been started. Environmental studies and the Design Report prepared by the region will document any restrictions on fill placement, pier arrangement, and overall floodway clearance. The Hydraulics Office will need to review the size, shape, and alignment of all bridge piers in the floodway and the subsequent effect they will have on the base flood elevation. The overall bridge length may need to be increased depending on the span arrangement selected and the change in the flood backwater, or justification will need to be documented. F. Scour The Hydraulics Office will indicate the anticipated depth of scour at the bridge piers. They will recommend pier shapes to best streamline flow and reduce the scour forces. They will also recommend measures to protect the piers from scour activity or accumulation of drift (minimum cover to top of footing, riprap, pier alignment to stream flow, closure walls between pier columns, etc.). G. Pier Protection For bridges over navigable channels, piers adjacent to the channel may require pier protection. The Coast Guard will determine whether pier protection is required. This determination is based on the horizontal clearance provided for the navigation channel and the type of navigation traffic using the channel. H. Construction Access and Time Restrictions Water crossings will typically have some sort of construction restrictions associated with them. These must be considered during preliminary plan preparation.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan Criteria

The time period that the contractor will be allowed to do work within the waterway may be restricted by regulations administered by various agencies. Depending on the time limitations, a bridge with fewer piers or faster pier construction may be more advantageous even if more expensive. Contractor access to the water may also be restricted. Shore areas supporting certain plant species are sometimes classified as wetlands. In order to work in or gain access through such areas, a work trestle may be necessary. Work trestles may also be necessary for bridge removal as well as new bridge construction.

2.3.4

Bridge Widenings
A. Bridge Width The provisions of Section 2.3.1 pertaining to bridge width for highway crossings shall apply. In most cases, the width to be provided by the widening will be what is called for by the design standards, unless a deviation is approved. B. Traffic Restrictions Bridge widenings inherently involve traffic restrictions on the lanes above and where applicable on the lanes below. The bridge site data submitted by the district should contain information regarding temporary lane widths and staging configurations. This information should be checked to be certain that the existing bridge width, and the bridge roadway width during the intermediate construction stages of the bridge are sufficient for the lane widths, shy distances, temporary barriers, and construction room for the contractor. These temporary lane widths and shy distances are noted on the Preliminary Plan. The temporary lane widths and shy distances on the roadway beneath the bridge being widened should also be checked that adequate clearance is available for any substructure construction. C. Construction Sequence Using the traffic restriction data in the bridge site data, a construction sequence shall be developed. Such a sequence shall take into account necessary steps for construction of the bridge widening (substructure and superstructure), any construction work off of and adjacent to the structure, and the requirements of traffic flow on and below the structure. Checks shall be made to be certain that girder spacings, closure pours, and removal work are all compatible with the traffic arrangements. Projects with several bridges being widened at the same time should have sequencing that is compatible with the region’s traffic plans during construction and that allow the contractor room to work. It is important to meet with the region project staff to assure that the construction staging and characterization of traffic during construction is constructible and minimizes the impact to the traveling public.

2.3.5

Detour Structures
A. Bridge Width The lane widths, shy distances, and overall roadway widths for detour structures are determined by the Region. Review and approval of detour roadway widths is done by the Traffic Office. B. Live Load Unless otherwise justified, all detour structures shall be designed for an AASHTO HS 15 live load. Construction requirements and staging can be sufficient reason to justify designing for a higher live load.

2.3-8

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2.3.6 Retaining Walls and Noise Walls
The requirements for Preliminary Plans for retaining walls and noise walls are similar to the requirements for bridges. The plan and elevation views define the overall limits and the geometry of the wall. The section view will show general structural elements that are part of the wall and the surface finish of the wall face. The most common types of walls are outlined in Section 9.4.2 of the Bridge Design Manual and Chapter 1130 of the Design Manual. The Bridge and Structures Office is responsible for Preliminary Plans for all nonstandard walls (retaining walls and noise walls) as spelled out in Chapter 1130 of the Design Manual.

Preliminary Plan Criteria

2.3.7

Bridge Deck Drainage
The Hydraulics Office provides a review of the Preliminary Plan with respect to the requirements for bridge deck drainage. As soon as the Preliminary Plan has been developed to the point that the length and width of the structure, profile grade, and superelevation diagram are shown on the plan, a reduced print shall be provided to the Hydraulics Office for their review. Any other pertinent information (such as locations of drainage off the structure) should be given to them also. For work with existing structures, the locations of any and all bridge drains shall be noted. The Hydraulics Office will determine the type of drains necessary (if any) and their location and spacing requirements. They will furnish any details or modifications required for special drains or special situations. If low points of sag vertical curves or superelevation crossovers occur within the limits of the bridge, the region should be asked to revise their geometrics to place these features outside the limits of the bridge. If such revisions cannot be made, the Hydraulics Office will provide details to handle drainage with bridge drains on the structure.

2.3.8

Bridge Deck Protective Systems
The Preliminary Plan shall note in the lower left margin the type of deck protective system to be utilized on the bridge. The most commonly used systems are described in Section 8.4.7 of the Bridge Design Manual. New construction will generally be System 1 (21/2-inch concrete cover plus epoxy-coated rebars). System 2 (MC overlay) and System 3 (ACP overlay) are to be used on new construction that require overlays and on widenings for major structures. The type of overlay to be used should be noted in the bridge site data submitted by the region. The bridge condition report will indicate the preference of the Bridge and Structures Office and the Deck Systems Specialist in the Bridge and Structures Office.

2.3.9

Construction Clearances
Most projects will involve construction in and around traffic. Both traffic and construction have to be accommodated. Construction clearances and working room must be reviewed at the Preliminary Plan stage to verify the constructibility of the project. For construction clearances for roadways, the region shall supply the necessary traffic staging information with the bridge site data. This includes temporary lane widths and shy distances, allowable or necessary alignment shifts, and any special minimum vertical clearances. With this information, the designer can establish the falsework opening or construction opening.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan Criteria

The horizontal dimension of the falsework or construction opening shall be the sum of the temporary traffic lane widths and shy distances, plus two 2-foot temporary concrete barriers, plus 2 feet shy behind these barriers. For multispan openings, a minimum of 2 feet shall be assumed for the interior support. This interior support shall also have 2 feet shy on both sides to the two 2-foot temporary concrete barriers that will flank it. The vertical clearance shall normally be 14 feet 6 inches minimum. The space available for the falsework must be enough for whatever depth is necessary to span the required horizontal opening. If the necessary depth is greater than the space available, either the minimum vertical clearance for the falsework shall be reduced or the horizontal clearance and span for the falsework shall be reduced. Preferably, the falsework span shall not exceed 38 feet. This limits the stresses in the new structure from the construction and concrete pouring sequences. While the falsework or construction openings are measured normal to the crossroad alignment, the falsework span is measured parallel to the bridge alignment. Once the construction clearances have been determined the designer should meet with the region to review the construction clearances to assure compatibility with the construction staging. This review should take place prior to finalization of the preliminary bridge plan. For railroads see Section 2.3.2H.

2.3.10 Inspection and Maintenance Access
A. General Bridge inspection is required by the FHWA a minimum of every two years. The inspectors are required to access the bridge components to within 3 feet (1 meter). Maintenance forces need to access damaged members and locations that may collect debris. This is accomplished by using many methods. Safety cables, ladders, bucket trucks, Under Bridge Inspection Truck (UBIT), (see Figure 2.3.10-1), and under bridge travelers are just a few of the most common methods. Preliminary designers need to be aware of these requirements to assist the inspectors efforts over the life of the bridge. Access should be considered throughout the Preliminary Plan TS&L stages.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan Criteria

Figure 2.3.10-1 B. Safety Cables Safety cables strung on steel plate girders or trusses allow for walking access. Care must be given to the application and location. Built-up plate girder bridges are detailed with a safety cable for inspectors walking the bottom flange. However, when the girders become more than 8 feet deep, the inspection of the top flange and top lateral connections becomes difficult. When the girders are less than 5 feet deep, it is not feasible for the inspectors to stand on the bottom flanges. On large trusses, large gusset plates (3 feet or more wide) are difficult to negotiate around. Cable are best run on the exterior of the bridge except at large gusset plates. At these locations, cables or lanyard anchors should be placed on the inside face of the truss. This way inspectors can utilize bottom lateral gusset plates to stand on while traversing around the main truss gusset. C. Travelers Under bridge travelers, placed on rails that remain permanently on the bridge, can be considered on large steel structures. This is an expensive option but it should be evaluated for large bridges with high ADT as access to the bridge would be limited by traffic windows that specify when a lane can be closed. Some bridges are restricted to weekend UBIT inspection for this reason.
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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2.4 2.4.1 Selection of Structure Type Bridge Types
The following superstructure depth to span ratios have been determined from past experience to be reasonable and economical and are in some cases less than the minimum depth recommended by AASHTO. In this situation, the Bridge Design Manual will govern. The length of span used to determine superstructure depth shall be the length between centerline of bearings. Do not use the length between points of dead load contraflexure as noted in AASHTO for design. A. Reinforced Concrete Slab l. Use Used for simple and continuous spans up to 60 feet. 2. Characteristics Design details and falsework relatively simple. Shortest construction time for any cast-in-place structure. Correction for anticipated falsework settlement must be included in the dead load camber curve because of the single concrete pour. 3. Depth/Span Ratios a. Constant depth Simple spans Continuous spans b. Variable depth Adjust ratios to account for change in relative stiffness of positive and negative moment sections. B. Reinforced Concrete Tee-Beam 1. Use Used for continuous spans 30 feet to 60 feet. Has been used for longer spans with inclined leg piers. 2. Characteristics Forming and falsework is more complicated than flat slab. Construction time is longer than for a flat slab. 3. Depth/Span Ratios a. Constant depth Simple spans Continuous spans b. Variable depth Adjust ratios to account for change in relative stiffness of positive and negative moment sections. 1/13 1/15 1/22 1/25

Selection of Structure Types

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design
C. Reinforced Concrete Box Girder 1. Use Used for continuous spans 50 feet to 130 feet. Maximum simple span 110 feet to limit excessive dead load deflections. 2. Characteristics Forming and falsework is somewhat complicated. Construction time is approximately the same as for a tee-beam. High torsional resistance makes it desirable for curved alignments. 3. Depth/Span Ratios* a. Constant depth Simple spans Continuous spans b. Variable depth Adjust ratios to account for change in relative stiffness of positive and negative moment sections. *If the configuration of the exterior web is sloped and curved, a larger depth/span ratio may be necessary. D. Post-Tensioned Concrete Box Girder 1. Use Normally used for continuous spans longer than 130 feet or simple spans longer than 110 feet. Should be considered for shorter spans if a shallower structure depth is needed. 2. Characteristics Construction time is somewhat longer due to post-tensioning operations. High torsional resistance makes it desirable for curved alignments. 3. Depth/Span Ratios* a. Constant depth Simple spans Continuous spans b. Variable depth Two span structures @ Center of span @ Intermediate pier Multispan structures @ Center of span @ Intermediate pier 1/25 1/12.5 1/36 1/18 1/20.5 1/25 1/18 1/20

Selection of Structure Types

*If the configuration of the exterior web is sloped and curved, a larger depth/span ratio may be necessary.

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August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design
E. Prestressed Concrete Sections 1. Use Local precast fabricators have several standard forms available for precast concrete sections based on WSDOT standard girder series plans. They are versatile enough to cover a wide variety of span lengths. WSDOT standard girders are: a. b. c. d. 2. W74G, W58G, W50G, and W42G prestressed, concrete I-girders requiring a cast-in-place concrete roadway deck. W53DG, and W35DG prestressed, concrete decked bulb tee girders requiring an ACP overlay roadway surface. 12-inch, 18-inch, and 26-inch precast prestressed slabs requiring an ACP overlay roadway surface. 26-inch precast prestressed tribeam requiring an ACP overlay roadway surface.

Selection of Structure Types

Characteristics Construction details and forming are fairly simple. Construction time is less than for a cast-in-place bridge. Little or no falsework is required.

F. Composite Steel Plate Girder 1. Use For simple spans up to 260 feet and for continuous spans from 120 to 400 feet. Relatively low dead load when compared to a concrete superstructure makes this bridge type an asset in areas where foundation materials are poor. 2. Characteristics Construction details and forming are fairly simple Construction time is comparatively short. Shipping and erecting of large sections must be reviewed. Cost of maintenance is higher than for concrete bridges. Current cost information should be considered because of changing steel market conditions. 3. Depth/Span Ratios a. Constant depth Simple spans Continuous spans b. Variable depth @ Center of span @ Intermediate pier G. Composite Steel Box Girder 1. Use For simple spans up to 260 feet and for continuous spans from 120 to 400 feet. Relatively low dead load when compared to a concrete superstructure makes this bridge type an asset in areas where foundation materials are poor. 1/40 1/20 1/22 1/25

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design
2. Characteristics Construction details and forming are more difficult than for a steel plate girder. Shipping and erecting of large sections must be reviewed. Current cost information should be considered because of changing steel market conditions. 3. Depth/Span Ratios a. Constant depth Simple spans Continuous spans b. Variable depth @ Center of span @ Intermediate pier 1/40 1/20 1/22 1/25

Selection of Structure Types

Sloping webs are not used on box girders of variable depth. H. Steel Truss 1. Use For simple spans up to 300 feet and for continuous spans up to 1,200 feet. Used where vertical clearance requirements dictate a shallow superstructure and long spans or where terrain dictates long spans and construction by cantilever method. 2. Characteristics Construction details are numerous and can be complex. Cantilever construction method can facilitate construction over inaccessible areas. Through trusses are discouraged because of the resulting restricted horizontal and vertical clearances for the roadway. 3. Depth/Span Ratios a. b. Simple spans 1/6 Continuous spans @ Center of span @ Intermediate pier I. Segmental Concrete Box Girder 1. Use For continuous spans from 200 to 700 feet. Used where site dictates long spans and construction by cantilever method. 2. Characteristics Use of travelers for the form apparatus facilitates the cantilever construction method enabling long-span construction without falsework. Precast concrete segments may be used. Tight geometric control is required during construction to ensure proper alignment. 3. Depth/Span Ratios Variable depth @ Center of span @ Intermediate pier 1/50 1/20 1/18 1/9

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design
J. Railroad Bridges 1. Use For railroad undercrossings, most railroad companies prefer simple span steel construction. This is to simplify repair and reconstruction in the event of derailment or some other damage to the structure. 2. Characteristics The heavier loads of the railroad live load require deeper and stiffer members than for highway bridges. Through girders can be used to reduce overall structure depth if the railroad concurs. Piers should be normal to the railroad to eliminate skew loading effects. 3. Depth/Span Ratios Constant depth Simple spans Continuous two span Continuous multi-span K. Timber 1. Use Generally used for spans under 40 feet. Usually used for detour bridges and other temporary structures. 2. Characteristics Excellent for short-term duration as for a detour. Simple design and details. 3. Depth/Span Ratios Constant depth Simple span – Timber beam Simple span – Glulam beam Continuous spans L. Other Bridge types such as cable-stayed, suspension, arch, tied arch, and floating bridges have special and limited applications. Their use is generally dictated by site conditions. Preliminary design studies will generally be done when these types of structures are considered. 1/10 1/12 1/14 1/12 1/14 1/15

Selection of Structure Types

2.4.2

Wall Types
The process of selecting a type of retaining wall should economically satisfy structural, functional, and aesthetic requirements and other considerations relevant to a specific site. A detailed listing of the common wall types and their characteristics can be found in Section 9.4.2 of the Bridge Design Manual.

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2.4-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2.5 2.5.1 Aesthetic Considerations General Visual Impact
A bridge can be a strong feature in any landscape. Steps must be taken to assure that even the most basic structure will complement rather than detract from its surroundings. The Design Report, EIS, and bridge site data submitted by the region should each contain a discussion on the aesthetic importance of the project site. This commentary, along with the video and/or pictures submitted, will help the designer determine the appropriate structure. Generally a visit to the bridge site with the Bridge Architect and the region will be made as well. The Bridge Architect should be contacted early in the preliminary bridge plan process for input. Aesthetics is a very subjective element that must be factored into the design process in the otherwise very quantitative field of structural engineering. Bridges that are well proportioned structurally using the least material possible are generally well proportioned. However, the details such as pier walls, columns, and crossbeams require special attention to ensure a structure that will enhance the general vicinity.

Aesthetic Considerations

2.5.2

End Piers
A. Wing Walls The size and exposure of the wing wall at the end pier should balance, visually, with the depth and type of superstructure used. For example, a prestressed girder structure fits best visually with a 15-foot wing wall (or curtain wall/retaining wall). However, there are instances where a 20-foot wing wall (or curtain wall/retaining wall) may be used with a prestressed girder (maximizing a span in a remote area, for example). These guidelines shall be used with engineering judgment and with the review of the Bridge Architect. It is less expensive for bridges of greater than 40 feet of overall width to be designed with wing walls (or curtain wall/retaining wall) than to use a longer superstructure. B. Retaining Walls For structures at sites where profile, right of way, and alignment dictate the use of high exposed wall-type abutments for the end piers, retaining walls that flank the approach roadway can be used to retain the roadway fill and reduce the overall structure length. Stepped walls are often used to break up the height, and allow for landscape planting. A curtain wall runs between the bridge abutment and the heel of the abutment footing. In this way, the joint in the retaining wall stem can coincide with the joint between the abutment footing and the retaining wall footing. This simplifies design and provides a convenient breaking point between design responsibilities if the retaining walls happen to be the responsibility of the region. The length shown for the curtain wall dimension is an estimated dimension based on experience and preliminary foundation assumptions. It can be revised under design to satisfy the intent of having the wall joint coincide with the end of the abutment footing. C. Slope Protection The region is responsible for making initial recommendations regarding slope protection. It should be compatible with the site and should match what has been used at other bridges in the vicinity. The type selected shall be shown on the Preliminary Plan. It shall be noted on the “Not Included in Bridge Quantities” list.

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2.5-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2.5.3 Intermediate Piers
The size, shape, and spacing of the intermediate pier elements must satisfy two criteria. They must be correctly sized and detailed to efficiently handle the structural loads required by the design and shaped to enhance the aesthetics of the structure. The primary view of the pier must be considered. For structures that cross over another roadway, the primary view will be a section normal to the roadway. This may not always be the same view as shown on the Preliminary Plan as with a skewed structure, for example. This primary view should be the focus of the aesthetic review. Tapers and flairs on columns should be kept simple and structurally functional. Fabrication and constructibility of the formwork of the pier must be kept in mind. Crossbeam ends should be carefully reviewed. Skewed bridges and bridges with steep profile grades or those in sharp vertical curves will require special attention to detail. Column spacing should not be so small as to create a cluttered look. Column spacing should be proportioned to maintain a reasonable crossbeam span balance.

Aesthetic Considerations

2.5.4

Barrier and Wall Surface Treatments
A. Plain Surface Finish This finish will normally be used on structures that do not have a high degree of visibility or where existing conditions warrant. A bridge in a remote area or a bridge among several existing bridges all having a plain finish would be examples. B. Fractured Fin Finish This finish is the most common and an easy way to add a decorative texture to a structure. Variations on this type of finish can be used for special cases. The specific areas to receive this finish should be reviewed with the Bridge Architect. C. Pigmented Sealer The use of a pigmented sealer can also be an aesthetic enhancement. The particular hue can be selected to blend with the surrounding terrain. Most commonly, this would be considered in urban areas. The selection should be reviewed with the Bridge Architect and the region.

2.5.5

Superstructure
The horizontal elements of the bridge are perhaps the strongest features. The sizing of the structure depth based on the span/depth ratios in Section 2.4.1, will generally produce a balanced relationship. Haunches or rounding of girders at the piers can enhance the structure’s appearance. The use of such features should be kept within reason considering fabrication of materials and construction of formwork. The amount of haunch should be carefully reviewed for overall balance from the primary viewing perspective. The slab overhang dimension should approach that used for the structure depth. This dimension should be balanced between what looks good for aesthetics and what is possible with a reasonable slab thickness and reinforcement. For box girders, the exterior webs can be sloped. The amount of slope should not exceed l1/2: l for structural reasons. Sloped webs should only be used in locations of high aesthetic impact.

DP:BDM2

2.5-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2.6 2.6.1 Miscellaneous Structure Costs
Historical bridge and structure cost data is outlined in Chapter 12. When using this data for cost estimates, the cost range assumed shall be based on the amount of information available. Unless foundation conditions are known, the worst case conditions would be assumed (e.g., pile foundations) for cost analysis. An estimate contingency of 10 percent (minimum) staff be added to all preliminary bridge plan estimates. For small projects or remote areas, high-range costs would be used. The cost data would be adjusted for inflation to the current date. Estimates include mobilization but not sales tax, engineering, future inflation, or contingencies, and the accuracy of the estimate is ±15 percent.

Miscellaneous

2.6.2

Handling and Shipping Precast Members and Steel Beams
Bridges utilizing precast concrete beams or steel beams need to have their access routes checked and sites reviewed to be certain that the beams can be transported to the site. It must also be determined that they can be erected once they reach the site. Both the size and the weight of the beams must be checked. Likely routes to the site must be adequate to handle the truck and trailer hauling the beams. Avoid narrow roads with sharp turns, steep grades, and/or load-rated bridges which may prevent the beams from reaching the site. The Condition Survey Section of the Bridge and Structures Office should be consulted for limitations on hauling lengths and weights. The site should be reviewed for adequate space for the contractor to set up the cranes and equipment necessary to pick up and place the girders. The reach and boom angle should be checked and should accommodate standard cranes.

2.6.3

Salvage of Materials
When a bridge is being replaced or widened, the material being removed should be reviewed for anything that WSDOT may want to salvage. Items such as aluminum rail, luminaire poles, sign structures, and steel beams should be identified for possible salvage. The region should be asked if such items are to be salvaged since they will be responsible for storage and inventory of these items.

DP:BDM2

August 1998

2.6-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2.7 2.7.1 WSDOT Standard Highway Bridge Design Elements
The following are standard design elements for highway undercrossings and overcrossings. They are meant to provide a generic base for consistent, clean looking bridges, and to reduce design and construction costs. Modification of some elements may be required, depending on site conditions. This should be determined on a case-by-case basis during the preliminary plan stage of the design process. A. General Fractured Fin Finish shall be used on the exterior face of the traffic barrier. All other surfaces shall be Plain Surface Finish. Exposed faces of wingwalls, columns, and abutments shall be vertical. The exterior face of the traffic barrier and the end of the intermediate pier crossbeam and diaphram shall have a 1:12 backslope. B. Substructure End piers use the following details: 15′-0″ wingwalls (Standard Cadd File WW15_21.FGB). Stub abutment wall with vertical face. Footing elevation, pile type (if required), and setback dimension are determined from recommendations in the WSDOT Materials Laboratory Foundation Report. Intermediate piers use the following details: “Semi-drop” Crossbeams: The crossbeam below the girders is designed for the girder and slab dead load, and construction loads. The crossbeam and the hinge diaphram together are designed for all live loads and composite dead loads. The crossbeam shall be 3′-0″ minimum depth. Round Columns: Columns shall be 3′-0″ or 4′-0″ in diameter. Dimensions are constant full height with no tapers. Bridges with roadway widths of 28′-0″ or less will generally be single column piers. Bridges with roadway widths of greater than 28′-0″ shall have two or more columns, following the criteria established in Section 2.3.1 H. C. Superstructure Concrete Slab: 7 1 2 ″ minimum thickness, with the top mat being epoxy coated steel reinforcing bars. Prestressed Girders: Girder spacing will vary depending on roadway width and span length. The slab overhang dimension is approximately half of the girder spacing. Girder spacings typically range between 6′-0″ and 8′-0″. W74G spans up to about 132″. (Standard Cadd File W74G.FGB). W58G spans up to about 110′. (Standard Cadd File W58G.FGB). Intermediate Diaphrams: Locate at the midspan for girders up to 80′ long. Locate at third points for girders over 80′ long. (Standard Cadd File DIA63A5.FGB). End Diaphrams: “End Wall on Girder” type. (Standard Cadd File DIA63A5.FGB). Traffic Barrier: New Jersey face barrier. (Standard Cadd File TB.FGB).

Miscellaneous

August 1998

2.7-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design Miscellaneous

Hinge Diaphram: Full width of crossbeam between girders and outside of the exterior girders. Exterior face is flush with the end of the crossbeam and matches the 1:12 slope of the crossbeam face. (Standard Cadd File TO BE DEVELOPED). BP Rail: 3′-6″ overall height for pedestrian traffic. 4′-6″ overall height for bicycle traffic. (Standard Cadd File BPRAIL.FGB). Sidewalk: 6″ height at curb line. Transverse slope of -.01′ per foot towards the curb line. (Standard Cadd File PED_BAR.FGB). Sidewalk barrier: Inside face is vertical. Outside face slopes 1:12 outward. (Standard Cadd File PED_BAR.FGB). D. Examples Appendices 2.7-A1 and A2 detail the standard design elements of a standard highway bridge. The following bridges are good examples of a standard highway bridge. However, they do have some modifications to the standard. SR 17 Undercrossing 395/110 Mullenix Road Overcrossing 16/203E&W
DTP:BDM2

Contract 3785 Contract 4143

2.7-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Preliminary Design 2.99 Bibliography
1. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) publication Federal Aid Highway Program Manual. FHWA Order 5520.1 (dated December 24, 1990) contains the criteria pertaining to Type, Size, and Location studies. Volume 6, Chapter 6, Section 2, Subsection 1, Attachment 1 (Transmittal 425) contains the criteria pertaining to railroad undercrossings and overcrossings. 2. 3. Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission Clearance Rules and Regulations Governing Common Carrier Railroads. American Railway Engineering Association (AREA) Manual for Railroad Engineering. Note: This is the criteria which we follow except as superseded by FHWA or WSDOT criteria. This manual is used as the basic design and geometric criteria by all railroads. Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) Design Manual (M 22-01). Local Agency Guidelines (M 36-63). American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges.

Bibliography

4. 5. 6.

DTP:BDM2

August 1998

2.99-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Preliminary Design Bridge Site Data General

Bridge Site Data General
Region Made By Date

Bridge Information
SR Bridge Name Section, Township & Range Control Section Datum Project No.

Highway Section

Structure width between curbs ?

What are expected foundation conditions?

Will the structure be widened in a contract subsequent to this contract ? Which side and amount ?

Yes

No

N/A

When can foundation drilling be accomplished?

Is slope protection or riprap required for the bridge end slopes?

Will the roadway under the structure be widened in the future?

Yes N/A N/A
Are sidewalks to be provided? If Yes, which side and width? Will sidewalks carry bicycle traffic?

No No

N/A N/A

Yes
Stage construction requirements ?

No No

Yes

Yes

Should the additional clearance for off-track railroad maintenance equipment be provided? Can a pier be placed in the median?

Yes N/A
Will signs or illumination be attached to the structure?

No No No

N/A N/A N/A

Yes

No

What are the required falsework or construction opening dimensions ? Are there detour or shoofly bridge requirements? (If Yes, attach drawings) Yes

Yes
Will utility conduits be incorporated in the bridge?

Yes No No N/A N/A
What do the bridge barriers transition to?

Can the R/W be adjusted to accommodate toe of approach fills?

Yes
What is the required vertical clearance?

Furnish type and location of existing features within the limits of this project, such as retaining walls, sign support structures, utilities, buildings, powerlines, etc.

What is the available depth for superstructure?

Are overlays planned for a contract subsequent to this contract ?

Yes
Can profile be revised to provide greater or less clearance? If Yes, which line and how much? Will bridge be contracted before, with or after approach fill?

No No

N/A N/A
Any other data relative to selection of type, including your recommendations?

Yes

Before
Vicinity Map Bridge Site Contour Map

With

After

N/A

Attachments

Specific Roadway sections at bridge site and approved roadway sections Vertical Profile Data Horizontal Curve Data Superelevation Transition Diagrams Tabulated field surveyed and measured stations, offsets, and elevations of existing roadways Photographs and video tape of structure site, adjacent existing structures and surrounding terrain

DOT Form 235-002 EF
Revised 6/97

August 1998

2.2-A1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Preliminary Design Bridge Site Data Rehabilitation

Bridge Site Data Rehabilitation
Region Made By Date

Bridge Information
SR Bridge Name Section, Township & Range Control Section Datum Project No.

Highway Section

Existing roadway width, curb to curb Proposed roadway width, curb to curb

Left of C L Left of C L

Right of C L Right of C L Thickness

Existing wearing surface (concrete, ACP, ACP w /membrane, LMC, epoxy, other) Existing drains to be plugged, modified, moved, other? Proposed overlay (ACP, ACP w /membrame, LMC, epoxy) Is bridge rail to be modified? Existing rail type Proposed rail replacement type Will terminal design “F” be required? Will utilities be placed in the new barrier? Yes Yes No No With Rail Replacement Yes No

Thickness

Will the structure be overlayed with or after rail replacement? Condition of existing joints Existing joints watertight? Yes No @ curb line Measure width of existing joint, normal to skew. Estimate structure temperature at time of joint measurement Type of existing joint Describe damage, if any, to existing joints Existing Vertical Clearance Proposed Vertical Clearance (at curb lines of traffic barrier)

After Rail Replacement

@ C roadway L Inch Inch

@ curb line Inch

Attachments
Video tape of project

Sketch indicating points at which joint width was measured. Photographs of existing joints. Existing deck chloride and detamination data. Roadway deck elevations at curb lines (10-foot spacing)
DOT Form 235-002A EF
Revised 3/97

2.2-A2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Preliminary Design Bridge Site Data Stream Crossings

Bridge Site Data Stream Crossings
Region Made By Date

Bridge Information
SR Bridge Name Section, Township & Range Tributary of Control Section Datum Project No.

Highway Section Name of Stream

Elevation of W.S.
(@ date of survey)

Stream Velocity
(fps @ date of survey)

Depth of Flow
(@ date of survey)

Max Highwater Elevation Normal Highwater Elevation Normal Stage Elevation Extreme Low Water Elevation Amount and Character of Drift Streambed Material Datum (i.e., USC and GS, USGS, etc.) Manning’s “N” Value (Est.)

@ Date @ Date @ Date @ Date

Attachments
Site Contour Map (See Sect. 7.02.00 Highway Hydraulic Manual) Highway Alignment and Profile (refer to map and profiles) Streambed: Profile and Cross Sections (500 ft. upstream and downstream) Photographs Character of Stream Banks (i.e., rock, silt, etc.) / Location of Solid Rock

Other Data Relative to Selection of Type and Design of Bridge, Including your Recommendations (i.e., requirements of riprap, permission of piers in channel, etc.)

DOT Form 235-001 EF
Revised 3/97

August 1998

2.2-A3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Preliminary Design Preliminary Plan Checklist

Project__________________ SR______ Prelim. Plan by _____ Check by _____ Date_____ PRELIMINARY PLAN CHECKLIST PLAN ___Survey Lines and Station Ticks ___Survey Line Intersection Angles ___Survey Line Intersection Stations ___Survey Line Bearings ___Roadway and Median Widths ___Lane and Shoulder Widths ___Sidewalk Width ___Connection/Widening for Guardrail/Barrier ___Profile Grade and Pivot Point ___Roadway Superelevation Rate (if constant) ___Lane Taper and Channelization Data ___Traffic Arrows ___Mileage to Junctions along Mainline ___Back to Back of Pavement Seats ___Span Lengths ___Lengths of Walls next to/ part of Bridge ___Pier Skew Angle ___Bridge Drains, or Inlets off Bridge ___Existing drainage structures ___Existing utilities Type/Size, and Location ___New utilities - Type, Size, and Location ___Luminaires, Junction Boxes, Conduits ___Bridge mounted Signs and Supports ___Contours ___Top of Cut: Toe of Fill ___Bottom of Ditches ___Test Holes (if available) ___Riprap Limits ___Stream Flow Arrow ___R/W Lines and/or Easement Lines ___Points of Minimum Vertical Clearance ___Horizontal Clearance ___Exist. Bridge No. (to be removed, widened) ___Section, Township, Range ___City or Town ___North Arrow ___SR Number ___Bearing of Piers, or note if radial MISCELLANEOUS ___Structure Type ___Live Loading ___Undercrossing Alignment Profiles/Elevs. ___Superelevation Diagrams ___Curve Data ___Riprap Detail ___Layout Approval Block ___Notes to Region ___Names and Signatures ___Not Included in Bridge Quantities List ___Inspection and Maintenance Access ELEVATION ___Full Length Reference Elevation Line ___Existing Ground Line x ft. Rt of Survey Line ___End Slope Rate ___Slope Protection ___Pier Stations and Grade Elevations ___Profile Grade Vertical Curves ___BP/Pedestrian Rail ___Barrier/Wall Face Treatment ___Construction/Falsework Openings ___Minimum Vertical Clearances ___Water Surface Elevations and Flow Data ___Riprap ___Seal Vent Elevation ___Datum ___Grade elevations shown are equal to … ___For Embankment details at bridge ends … ___Indicate F, H, or E at abutments and piers TYPICAL SECTION ___Bridge Roadway Width ___Lane and Shoulder Widths ___Profile Grade and Pivot Point ___Superelevation Rate ___Survey Line ___Overlay Type and Depth ___Barrier Face Treatment ___Limits of Pigmented Sealer ___BP/Pedestrian Rail dimensions ___Stage Construction Lane Orientations ___Locations of Temporary Concrete Barrier ___Closure Pour ___Structure Depth/Prestressed Girder Type ___Conduits/Utilities in bridge ___Substructure Dimensions LEFT MARGIN ___Job Number ___Bridge (before/with/after) Approach Fills ___Structure Depth/Prestressed Girder Type ___Deck Protective System ___Coast Guard Permit Status ___Railroad Agreement Status ___Points of Minimum Vertical Clearance ___Cast in Place Concrete Strength RIGHT MARGIN ___Control Section ___Project Number ___Region ___Highway Section ___SR Number ___Structure Name

2.2-A4

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Preliminary Design Bridge Stage Construction Comparison

January 1991

2.3-A1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Analysis Contents
Page 3.0 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.6 3.6.1 3.6.2 3.6.3 3.6.4 3.6.5 3.7 3.8 3.8.1 3.8.2 3.9 3.9.1 3.9.2 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Philosophy of Analysis Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Member and Frame Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Partial Fixity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Development of F.E.M.s and Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Influence Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sidesway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Computer Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Discussion of Computer Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of Programs Available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Analysis Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Castiglano . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Virtual Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Buckling Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finite Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dynamic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Analysis Problems by Bridge Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suspension bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable Stayed Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Footing Deflections and Rotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1-1 1 1 1 * * * 3.2-1 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Appendix A 3.0-A1 3.0-A2 3.0-A3 3.0-A4 3.0-A5 3.0-A6 3.0-A7 3.0-A8

Concentrated Load Coefficients — General Concentrated Load Coefficients — Case I Fixed End Moment Coefficient Chart Influence Lines — Two Equal Spans Coefficients and Factors for Double Tapered Members Stiffness Factors for Tapered Members Carry Over Factors for Tapered Members Fixed End Moments for Tapered Members

*Indicates sections not issued to date.
3-CON:V:BDM3

July 1994

3.0-i

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Analysis 3.0 3.1 3.1.1 Analysis General Considerations Philosophy of Analysis Procedures
For the design of concrete bridges, in distribution of moments, generally use the gross moment of inertia of the concrete superstructure. In lieu of including the transformed area of steel for columns or other compression members, 120 percent of the gross moment of inertial of columns and other compression members may generally be used.

General Considerations

3.1.2

Analysis Methods
The maximum live load deflection computed shall be in accordance with AASHTO except that the maximum live load deflection in a span shall not exceed 1/1000 and for a cantilever 1/375, regardless of whether the bridge is used by pedestrians.

3-1:V:BDM3

July 1994

3.1-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Analysis 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 Theory (Vacant) Member and Frame Factors (Vacant) Partial Fixity
In general, assume 50 percent fixity of footings except footings on rock shall be 100 percent fixed. For frame analysis, the point of fixity shall normally be taken to be at the approximate center line of footing. For column design, Volume 2 Sheets 9-220 through 9-225 shall be consulted. This shall hold for footings with or without seals. Where superstructures are supported directly on piles, for analyses of the structure the piles may be assumed fixed at a point 5 feet to 10 feet in the ground. For flat slab bridges supported on piling, the piles shall be assumed pinned at the tops. For design of structures with large diameter shafts see Section 9.8 For one column piers assume the footing fully fixed in the direction transverse to the roadway. For loads on one column piers assume the pier acts transversely as a simple cantilever, fixed at the footing, with no allowance for torsional, or lateral stiffness of the superstructure.

Frame Analysis

3-2:V:BDM3

July 1994

3.2-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Concentrated Load Coefficients — General

July 1994

3.0-A1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Concentrated Load Coefficients — Case I

3.0-A2

July 1994

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Fixed End Moment Coefficient Chart

July 1994

3.0-A3-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Fixed End Moment Coefficient Chart

3.0-A3-2

July 1994

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Influence Lines — Two Equal Spans

July 1994

3.0-A4

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Coefficients and Factors for Double Tapered Members

July 1994

3.0-A5-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Coefficients and Factors for Double Tapered Members

3.0-A5-2

July 1994

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Stiffness Factors for Tapered Members

July 1994

3.0-A6

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Carry Over Factors for Tapered Members

3.0-A7

July 1994

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Fixed End Moments for Tapered Members

July 1994

3.0-A8-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Analysis Fixed End Moments for Tapered Members

3.0-A8-2

July 1994

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Contents
Page 4.0 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 Loads and Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dead Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Distribution to Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Distribution to Substructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Wind Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Wind on Live Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.5 Earthquake Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.6 Other Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Thermal, Shrinkage, and Prestressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Buoyancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Centrifugal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Force from Stream Current, Floating Ice, and Drift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Combination of Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Load Factor Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Service Load Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Application of Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Dead Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Wind Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Earthquake Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Foundation Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Procedure Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Spread Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Pile Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Lateral Spring Input from P-Y Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Lateral Spring Input to Dynamic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Vertical Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Stiffness Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. GPILE Computer Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.99 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix A 4.4-A1-1 Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart 4.4-A2 Peak Ground Acceleration Map Appendix B 4.3-B1 Basic Truck Loading 4.3-B2 Common Response Modification Factors 4.3-B3 Seismic Analysis Example 4.4-B1 Spring Constants Evaluation Example 4.1-1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 4.2-1 1 1 3 4.3-1 1 1 4 4 4.4-1 1 1 1 1 4 7 8 8 4.99-1

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August 1998

4.0-i

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading 4.0 Loads and Loading
AASHTO loading specifications shall be the minimum design criteria used for all bridges.

Loads

4.1 4.1.1

Loads Dead Loads
Use values in AASHTO except as herein modified: Reinforced Concrete — 160 pounds per cubic foot. D.L. Forms in Top Slab of Concrete Box Girders — 5 pounds per square foot of cell area.

4.1.2

Live Loads
A. General Live load design criteria is specified in the lower right corner of the bridge preliminary plan sheet. The Bridge Projects Unit determines this criteria using the following guideline: • HS 25 — New bridges on the interstate or state system and bridge widenings involving addition of substructure. • HS 20 — Bridge widenings with no addition of substructure. • HS 15 — Detour bridges. Use values described in AASHTO. Design for HS25 loading by multiplying HS20-44 axle loads by 1.25. The loading consisting of two 24K axles at 4-foot centers sometimes governs for short span bridges. See Figure 4.3.2-1 for illustration of this “alternative” loading. See Figures 4.3.2-2 and 3 for “L” value to use in the formula in Section 4.3.2. Figure 4.3.2-2 illustrates determination of the “L” length of the member under consideration. For beams and girders, use span length center to center of supports. For cantilevers, use length from center of support to farthest load on cantilever. See Figure 4.3.2-2 for illustration. B. Distribution to Superstructure 1. Integral Deck Precast Sections The Live Load Distribution factor for Bulb Tee, Single Tee, and Double Tee bridges shall be as determined through use of the “DISTBM” computer program. (See Bridge Computer Programs Manual.) The AASHTO Specifications should be used for Rib Deck Bridges and the beam types listed therein. For Rib Deck Bridges use a K value of 2.2. Examples of beam types are shown on Figure 4.1.2-1. 2. Concrete Box Girders The value for the number of traffic lanes to be used in the concrete box girder superstructure design shall be determined by dividing the entire roadway slab width by 14. Use fractional lanes, rounding to the nearest tenth of a foot, if applicable. Roadway slab widths of less than 28 feet shall have two design lanes. No reduction factor will be applied to the superstructure for multiple loadings.

August 1998

4.1-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Loads

Beam Types Figure 4.1.2-1

4.1-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading
3. Other Types See AASHTO Specifications. C. Distribution to Substructure The value for the number of traffic lanes to be used in the substructure design shall be determined by dividing the entire roadway slab width by 12. No fractional lanes shall be used. Roadway slab widths of less than 24 feet shall have a maximum of two design lanes. A reduction factor will be applied in the substructure design for multiple loadings in accordance with AASHTO. The following percentages of the resulting live loading shall be used: Number of Lanes Loaded Two Lanes Three Lanes Four Lanes or More Percent 100 90 75

Loads

4.1.3

Wind Loads
AASHTO load combinations for wind are based on probability of simultaneous load occurrence. The basic wind loads result from 100 mph wind, which produces 75 psf on trusses and arches, 50 psf on girders and beams, and 40 psf on substructures. This wind is assumed to act on the structure when live load is not present. A 30 mph wind (0.3 × 100, or a 70 percent reduction from basic) is included in Groups III and IV, and is assumed to act when live load is present. The forces tending to overturn a structure are represented by an upward high wind pressure of 20 psf acting on the plan view area, for Groups II, V, and IX. A moderate wind pressure of 6 psf is used for Groups III and VI. The force is applied at the windward quarter point of the transverse superstructure.

4.1.4

Wind on Live Load
A moderate wind force is assumed to act on the live load itself, represented by a live load acting 6 feet above the roadway surface, both transversely and longitudinally. This force is computed by multiplying the bridge length tributary to a particular member by 0.1 for transverse and 0.04 for longitudinal direction.

4.1.5

Earthquake Loads
a. b. Design for earthquake shall be in accordance with Division 1-A, Seismic Design of the 1996 AASHTO Standard Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges. The Multimode Spectral Method of dynamic analysis described in the AASHTO Specifications shall be used for most continuous bridges. The SEISAB computer program can be used to analyze most common bridges. The GTSTRUDL dynamic analysis system is capable of handling a larger range of structures. The Single Mode Spectral Method may be used in certain cases, as described in the AASHTO Specifications. Use the USGS Peak Ground Acceleration map (Appendix 4.4-A2, 10 percent Probability of Exceedance in 50 Years) to obtain an acceleration coefficient for preliminary design. The project Foundation Report will contain the acceleration coefficient to use in the final design of a bridge. When using Appendix 4.4-A2, interpolate between contours to find the value to use for particular site, and round to the nearest 1 percent of gravity (g). In general, Appendix 4.4-A2 can also be used for

c. d.

August 1998

4.1-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Loads

bridge seismic retrofit designs. However, seismic evaluation and retrofitting of older bridges can sometimes result in excessive costs (the retrofit costs are not consistent with the benefit gained). In these situations, the Bridge Design Engineer should be consulted for direction. e. It is recommended that temporary (detour) structures shall be designed for a seismic acceleration coefficient equal to 0.5 x the acceleration coefficient for a permanent structure. All other requirements of the AASHTO Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges shall apply. Seismic Performance Category shall be based on the magnitude of the reduced acceleration coefficient. The Geotechnical Engineer should be consulted when determining the soil type to be used in the seismic analysis.

f.

4.1.6

Other Loads
A. Thermal, Shrinkage, and Prestressing Member loadings are induced by movements of the structure and can result from several sources. Movements due to temperature changes are calculated using coefficients of thermal expansion of 0.000006 ft/ft per degree for concrete and 0.0000065 ft/ft per degree for steel. Reinforced concrete shrinks at the rate of 0.0002 ft/ft. Refer to AASHTO and Bridge Design Manual Chapters 6, 8, and 9 for guidance on computation and application of these force types. B. Buoyancy The effects of submergence of a portion of the substructure is to be calculated, both for designing piling for uplift and for realizing economy in footing design. C. Centrifugal Centrifugal forces are included in all groups which contain vehicular live load. They act 6 feet above the roadway surface and are significant where curve radii are small or columns are long. They are radial forces induced by moving trucks. See AASHTO for force equation.

4.1-4

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading
D. Force from Stream Current, Floating Ice, and Drift In designing for stream flow force on piers, a reasonable area of drift or floating ice must be determined, considering the stream or river characteristics (check with the Hydraulics Unit). Water depth and pier spacing will partly determine drift areas.

Loads

W.S. = SF Ad Ap V Pd Pp = = = = = =

Water surface as defined by the Hydraulics Unit PdAd + PpAp Area of drift or floating ice = D x E Area of pier below ice = B x C. Where the pier is skewed to the stream, flow C equals the width of the column normal to the stream flow. Velocity of water (ft/sec) Pressure on drift (psf) = 1.38 V2 Pressure on pier (psf) = KV2

In the absence of other data, the maximum values of D and E shall be 10 feet and 50 feet, respectively. Water Related Forces Figure 4.1.6-1

DP:BDM4

August 1998

4.1-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading 4.2 4.2.1 Load Combinations Combination of Loads
Group numbers represent various combinations of loads and forces which may act on a structure. Group loading combinations for both Load Factor and Service Load Design are defined by the following equation: Group (N) = γ[βd D + βp PS + βL (L+I) + βc CF + βE E + βD B + βs SF + βw W + βwL WL + βL LF + βR (R + S + T) + βEQ EQ + βICE ICE] where: N γ βN D PS L I E B W WL LF CF R S T EQ SF ICE = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Group Number General Factor Specific Factor Dead Load (including overburden) Prestress Load* Live Load Live Load Impact Earth Pressure (Lateral, only) Buoyancy Wind Load on Structure Wind Load on Live Load — 100 pounds per linear foot of span Longitudinal Force from Live Load Centrifugal Force Rib Shortening Shrinkage Temperature Earthquake Stream Flow Pressure Ice Pressure

Load Combinations

*PS = Forces and moments transferred from members containing post-tensioning steel to other members upon application of the post-tensioning force. Terms in the general equation that do not contribute to a particular combination are represented by zeros in the table.

4.2.2

Load Factor Coefficients
LFD requires basic design loads or related internal moments and forces to be increased by specified load factors, γ and β. The γ factor is applied for stress control. Its common value is 1.3, which enables use of 77 percent of the ultimate capacity. The 30 percent increase in design load represented by the factor is intended to account for variations in weight, reinforcement placement, structural behavior, and calculation of stress. The β factor is a measure of the accuracy of load prediction and the probability of simultaneous application of loads in a combination. Table 4.2.2-1 contains the terms and factors required to meet AASHTO Load Factor Design.

August 1998

4.2-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Load Combinations

Column Design βD = 0.75 or bD = 1.0, whichever governs. Flexural and Tension Members βD = 1.0 βE = 1.0 Footing Bearing Pressure and Internal Footing Stresses βD = 0.75 or βD = 1.0 βE = 1.0 Footing Stability and Sliding βD = 0.75 or βD = 1.0, whichever governs. βE = 0.4 or βE = 1.3, whichever governs. Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. For footing design, check Basic Loading Combination in accordance with BDM Section 9.5.1A3.a. For rigid frame design, see BDM Section 9.3.4.E. Check stability for all group loadings in accordance with BDM Section 9.5.1A3.b. Group 1A load combination shall be applied only with live loadings less than HS 20 or H 20. See AASHTO.

*Applies if design loads are already factored, such as in cases where MDes = 1.0 ML + 0.3 MT or MDes = 0.3 ML + 1.0 MT are used. Table of Coefficients γ and β For Load Factor Design Table 4.2.2-1

4.2-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading 4.2.3 Service Load Coefficients
Table 4.2.3-1 contains the terms and factors required to meet AASHTO Service Load Design. The allowable percentage of the basic unit stress is given in the right hand column of the table.

Load Combinations

Footing Bearing Pressure and Internal Footing Stresses βE = 1.0 Footing Stability and Sliding βE = 0.5 or βE = 1.0, whichever governs. Notes: 1. 2. For culvert loading, see AASHTO. No increase in allowable unit stresses shall be permitted for members or connections carrying wind load only. Table of Coefficients γ and β For Service Load Design Table 4.2.3-1

4-2:P:BDM4

August 1998

4.2-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading 4.3 4.3.1 Application of Loads Dead Loads
Dead load is commonly applied to supports by assuming that it acts along each girder line.

Application of Loads

4.3.2

Live Loads
The three types of live loadings ordinarily applied to a bridge when checking for maximum stresses in its components are illustrated in AASHTO and Figure 4.3.2-1. The standard H-S truck represents common vehicles. The lane load consists of combinations of uniform and concentrated loads which represent three lighter trucks spaced close together. The alternative loading represents certain heavy military vehicles. The loading type governing the design depends on the structure configuration. For example, truck loading governs for maximum moment in simple spans shorter than 145 feet and lane loading controls for longer spans. In continuous spans, lane loading governs for maximum negative moment, except for spans shorter than 45 feet, in which truck loading will govern. The maximum positive moment in continuous spans is usually produced by using lane loading, for span lengths of over about 110 feet. Alternative loading governs in certain short span situations. Figures 4.3.2-2 and 4.3.2-3 illustrate application of loads to produce maximum stresses in various span arrangements. Appendix 4.3-B1 illustrates calculation of reactions and maximum moments in a simple span. Impact is figured using the following formula:
I= 50 L + 125

Where L is the loaded portions of the spans.

Alternative (Military) Loading Figure 4.3.2-1

August 1998

4.3-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Application of Loads

Application of Loads Figure 4.3.2-2

4.3-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Application of Loads

Application of Loading Figure 4.3.2-3

August 1998

4.3-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading 4.3.3 Wind Loads
Wind loads acting on the superstructure are based on the profile presented to the wind, the height of which usually consists of the girder depth and traffic barrier height.

Application of Loads

4.3.4

Earthquake Loads
Bibiography 1 through 4 contain several examples of applying earthquake loads to bridges. This section serves to amplify some analysis concepts. Load factors applied in the Group VII combination are based on two concepts: 1. 2. Full utilization of the elastic capacity of a particular element or member. Taking advantage of the ductility or redundancy of the structure to absorb the energy released in an earthquake and keep the structure intact. Two typical AASHTO load case equations are: MEQ MEQ = or = 1.0 1.0 ML ML + + 0.3 1.0 MT MT

Where the moments are: MEQ ML MT = = = Earthquake Longitudinal Transverse

These equations are intended to satisfy concept 1. The SEISAB computer program prints out solutions to the two equations as load cases 3 and 4. Concept 2 is handled through use of the “R” factor. It appears in the factored loading equation: Mu = 1.0 (MDL + MEQ/R)

The Guide Specification lists values for “R” for various structural components and types of supports. Some common examples are: • Single column bents, considered ductile but nonredundant, R = 3 for both directions. • Multi-column bents, considered ductile and redundant, R = 5 both ways. • Wall-type piers, less ductile than single column bents, often having R = 2 for transverse behavior and R = 3 longitudinally. • Footings, R = 1 for seismic performance Categories C and D and R = Rcol for SPC B. Higher values are used than for columns and crossbeams because below ground structural damage is difficult to spot and repair. Plastic hinging moments are often less than those produced using an R of 1, so that some economy may be realized. • Bearing type connections and stops, R = 0.8, due to lack of ductility and redundancy and because they serve to prevent large displacements. See Appendix 4.3-B2-1 and 2 for illustrations of common piers and appropriate factors to apply to the members.

4.3-4

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Application of Loads

In order to design structures to survive the forces and strains resulting from earthquake motion, the following factors need to be considered: • The proximity of the site to known active faults and the historical record of activity. • The seismic response of the soil at the site. • The dynamic response characteristics of the total structure. See Appendix 4.3-B3-1 through 3 for a general discussion of a seismic analysis.

4-3:P:BDM4

August 1998

4.3-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading 4.4 Foundation Modeling
Proper foundation modeling for earthquake loads is necessary because misinterpreted AASHTO Specifications can lead to a wide range of member sizes. Realistic models will likely produce savings in material, especially when determining loads to apply to a substructure. Analysis is an iterative process which converges to an acceptable design.

Foundation Modeling

4.4.1

Procedure Summary
Following is a workable procedure for analysis: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Assume the foundation as fixed (unless you know otherwise). Use SEISAB or GTSTRUDL to perform a dynamic analysis to determine initial loading. If the support is not founded in rock, multiply the forces from the fully fixed model by 0.85 for the initial trial design. Otherwise, use the fully fixed forces for the trial. Determine a preliminary footing size, pile size, and arrangement, as applicable to the type of support. Determine foundation springs as outlined in this section and Section 4.4.2. If pile support is being used, see Section 4.4.3.E. Rerun the dynamic model with springs included. Compare loads and deflections using the same range used to determine the springs. Redesign the footing, piles, adjust the springs, etc., until tolerable convergence is attained.

4.4.2

Spread Footings
a. You may apply load factor column moments from groups other than Group VII and column plastic hinging moments for a first trial footing configuration. Then determine soil spring constants using the footing plan area and depth of embedment. Assuming a shear wave velocity value, consult a Foundation or Geotechnical Engineer for an appropriate value. Appendix 4.4-B1 through 4 illustrate a procedure to determine soil spring constants for spread footings.

b.

4.4.3

Pile Foundations
A. Lateral Spring Input from P-Y Curves Spring constants that represent pile supports may be obtained using a procedure which begins by applying moments (as described in Section 4.4.1A) to an assumed footing and pile configuration. P-Y curves from the foundation report may be input to the LPILE1 computer program to derive the initial spring constants. The spacing between pile centers is often about 4 times the pile diameter (D), which means that each pile in the group may deflect more than if it were acting alone. Apply efficiency factors, if provided on the soils report, to quantify that difference. If information is not available, use the following table to estimate values.

August 1998

4.4-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Foundation Modeling

Efficiency Factor Table 4.4.3-1 For driven piles, the following factors apply: Contact the Olympia Service Center Materials Lab to verify any assumptions. The LPILE1 computer program will generate P-Y curves, or the user can input them. To obtain generated curves, input a modulus of subgrade reaction (K), and a soil shear strength (C) which are the values taken from the soils report multiplied by the efficiency factor. To figure P-Y curves for input, multiply the P-Y values from the soils report by the efficiency factor. For a typical soil, the relationship between its normalized resistance value and friction angle is defined by the curve in Figure 4.4.3-1. The friction angle could be adjusted for efficiency and input to LPILE1 by following these steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Begin at the coordinate of the natural friction angle (36°). Read across to the normalized resistance (61). Multiply the resistance by the efficiency reduction factor, i.e., 61 (0.5) = 31. Read across from the reduced value to obtain the adjusted friction angle (31°). Input the φ value to LPILE1.

4.4-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Foundation Modeling

Friction Angle (φ)
PS = Ka (tan8B-1) + Ko tan φ tan 4B bγx

PS b g X N B Ka Ko

= = = = = = = =

Soil Resistance on Pile Element Pile Width Soil Unit Weight Depth to Pile Element Step in Example 45° + φ/2 tan2(45° – φ/2) 1 – Sin φ Figure 4.4.3-1

August 1998

4.4-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading
B. Lateral Spring Input to Dynamic Analysis Lateral spring constants can be generated for input to SEISAB (or GTSTRUDL) by using LPILE1 and two types of loading. Case 1 — Applied Lateral Load — See Figure 4.4.3-2(A). Apply a lateral load (F) to the model of a pile, and restrain its top against rotation. The load produces a deflected shape with the top deflection being ∆. A moment (M) is also induced. F and M may be plotted against ∆ to produce two curves. The spring constants are defined as slopes of the curves, and their calculation and SEISAB nomenclature are given by the equations in Figure 4.4.3-2(A). Make enough LPILE1 runs to define a linear range along the lateral force versus a deflection curve. Vary axial loads, to bracket the values expected from the dynamic analysis (i.e., SEISAB results). Include negative axial loads to represent anticipated tension due to uplift effects. Case 2 — Applied Moment — See Figure 4.4.3-2(B). Apply a moment (M) to the pile model, restraining the pile top against translation. Calculate the pile top rotation (φ) from the LPILE1 output by dividing the deflection at the bottom of the top increment (∆1) by the increment length (H1). The spring constants are defined as slopes of the curves, and they are calculated using the equations in Figure 4.4.3-2(B). A rapid way to approximate the slope of any curve is to select a point at half of the ultimate lateral force or moment capacity of the pile. Note that the off-diagonal terms must be equal and opposite in sign. Figure 4.4.3-3 contains examples of spring calculation from LPILE1 output.

Foundation Modeling

4.4-4

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Foundation Modeling

Figure 4.4.3-2A

Figure 4.4.3-2B

August 1998

4.4-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading
Loading Number 1 Boundary condition code Lateral load at the pile head Slope at the pile head Axial load at the pile head X In ***** 0.00 Deflection In ********** 0.267D+01 =2.67″ KF1F1 = KF3F3 =
K 25K = 112 (2.67in / 12 in / ft ) ft

Foundation Modeling

= = = = Moment Lbs-In

2 0.250D+05 lbs = 25 K applied 0.000D+00 in/in 0.758D+05 lbs Shear Lbs Soil Reaction Lbs/In Total Stress Lbs/In**2 Flexural Rigidity Lbs-In**2

********** ********** ********** -0.383D+07 0.250D+05 =25K 0.000D+00

********** ********** 0.270D+05 0.392D+11

(A) Loading Number 1 Boundary condition code Deflection at the pile head Moment at the pile head Axial load at the pile head X In ***** 0.00 28.04 Deflection In ********** 0.000D+00 -0.237D+00 0.237″ = ∆1 28.04″ = H f = Tan–1 H = Tan–1
1

= = = = Moment Lbs-In

4 0.000D+00 in 0.391D+07 in-lbs = 391 K-in applied 0.103D+06 lbs Shear Lbs Soil Reaction Lbs/In Total Stress Lbs/In**2 Flexural Rigidity Lbs-In**2

********** ********** ********** 0.391D+07 0.340D+07 0.189D+05 -0.186D+05 0.000D+00 0.208D+02

********** ********** 0.281D+05 0.247D+05 0.392D+11 0.392D+11

∆1

0.237 = 0.48426° 28.04

or = 0.00845 rad (B) Sample LPILE1 Output Figure 4.4.3-3

4.4-6

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading
C. Vertical Springs Vertical spring constants, Kv (or KF2F2) can be calculated from the following equations: Point bearing pile: Kv = where, A E L = = = Cross sectional area Young’s modulus Length
AE L

Foundation Modeling

Pile having constant skin friction: Kv =
2AE L

Pile linearly varying skin friction: Kv =
3AE L

Pile partially embedded in the soil:
AE 1 − F  L Kv =  2 AE 1 − 2 F  L Kv =  3

1.

2.

August 1998

4.4-7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading Foundation Modeling

Torsional (M/φ) spring constants for individual piles are based on the strength of the pile only. The torsional resistance is given by the following equation: M/φ where, G J L = = = 0.4 E Torsional Moment of Inertia length of pile = T/φ = JG/L

D. Stiffness Matrix Eight individual pile stiffness terms should be put into Seisab, which forms a {6 × 6} matrix as shown below: F1 F1 F2 F3 M1 M2 M3 KF1F1 F2 0 KF2F2 F3 0 0 KF3F3 M1 0 0 -KF3M1 KM1M1 M2 0 0 0 0 KM2M2 M3 KF1M3 0 0 0 0 KM3M3

"Symmetrical"

KF1M3 is cross-coupling term P/φ. -KF3M1 is cross-coupling term M/d. Note that the two have opposite signs. E. GPILE Computer Program If a large number of piles is required per footing, to reduce Seisab input/output, individual springs can be used in the GPILE computer program. The output will contain a {6 × 6} stiffness matrix for the pile group which can be used to model the foundation in SEISAB. GPILE input includes pile configuration and spring constants. The program also computes individual pile loads and deflections from a set of input loads. GPILE can be used in conjunction with the plastic hinging moments, transmitted from the column, to converge on an acceptable pile configuration.

4-4:P:BDM4

4.4-8

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Loads and Loading 4.99 Bibliography
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. AASHTO, Standard Specifications for Design of Highway Bridges, 1996, Division 1-A Seismic Design. Imbsen, R. A., Seismic Design of Highway Bridges, FHWA Workshop Manual, January 1981, DOT-FH-11-9426. FHWA/RD-83/007 Seismic Retrofitting Guidelines for Highway Bridges, December 1983. FHWA-IP-87-6, Seismic Design and Retrofit Manual for Highway Bridges, May 1987. California Department of Transportation, Bridge Design Practice, 1983. Chen, R. L., Pile Foundation Modeling for Bridge Dynamic Response Analysis, unpublished paper available in WSDOT Bridge and Structures Design, April 1987. Engineering Computer Corporation, SEISAB-I, Workshop Manual, October 1984 and August 1985. Reese, Lymon C., Documentation of Computer Program LPILE1, report for Ensoft, Inc., The University of Texas at Austin, 1985. AASHTO, Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 1996.

Bibliography

10. Washington State Department of Transportation, Bridge Computer Programs Manual, GPILE and DISTBM. 11. Washington State Department of Transportation, 1996, USGS National Seismic Hazards, Mapping Project. 12. Hart Crowser, Subsurface Explorations and Design Phase Geotechnical Engineering Study, SR 90, Seattle Access, Volume 111, September 1986, J-712-50. 13. Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Design and Construction of Driven Pile Foundations, FHWA-DD-66-1, Revision 1. 14. Imbsen & Associates, FHWA, Seismic Design of Highway Bridges Training Course Participant Workbook, February 1989. 15. FHWA-86/103, Seismic Design of Highway Bridges, Vol. II: Example problems and Sensitivity Studies, June 1986.

4-99:P:BDM4

August 1998

4.99-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

August 1998

4.4-A1-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

4.4-A1-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

August 1998

4.4-A1-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

4.4-A1-4

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

August 1998

4.4-A1-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

4.4-A1-6

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

August 1998

4.4-A1-7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

4.4-A1-8

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

August 1998

4.4-A1-9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart

4.4-A1-10

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Loads and Loading Peak Ground Acceleration Map

August 1998

4.4-A2

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Basic Truck Loading

Basic Truck Loading HS25

August 1998

4.3-B1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Common Response Modification Factors

August 1998

4.3-B2-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Common Response Modification Factors

4.3-B2-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Seismic Analysis Example

A recent analysis of a bridge on I-90 in the Mercer Slough area near Bellevue provides the following example: The deep soft soil at the site is classified as “Type III” from the AASHTO Specifications. An acceleration coefficient of 0.25, see Figure 4.1.5-1, was selected as appropriate. The acceleration spectrum shown in Appendix 4.3-B3-2 was used to load the bridge. The results which SEISAB calculated for the first 6 modes of oscillation appear in Appendix 4.3-B3-3. The CS values in the table relate directly to the response periods of the various modes as solutions to the equation: CS = 1.22AS /3
T

where: A S T = = = The acceleration coefficient The soil profile coefficient (1.5 in this case) The period of vibration of the bridge, the time it takes for one cycle of oscillation

In an undamped, single degree of freedom system, the natural period is defined as: T= π where: M K = = The mass involved The spring constant
M K

See Bibliography 1 and 7 for further comments and procedures. CS, the elastic seismic response coefficient, is the percentage of a gravity force which is applied to the bridge for a particular mode. The participation factors indicate that modes 1 and 3 contribute most heavily to the design forces. In this case, the ground sends 0.25 g and the bridge receives about 0.50 g. The 0.50 g applied, divided by R = 5, translates to 0.1 g when figuring design moments for a multiple column bent. Design shears would be the lesser of the values produced by 0.50 g and the shears associated with plastic hinging moments. Since the column reinforcement may yield when the 0.1 g level is reached, the energy remaining will be redistributed to the remainder of the bridge. The main column reinforcement must be adequately confined by ties or spirals to allow redistribution to occur while maintaining structural integrity.

P:DP/BDM4

August 1998

4.3-B3-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Seismic Analysis Example

Example Seismic Analysis

4.3-B3-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Seismic Analysis Example

Example Seismic Analysis (Continued)

August 1998

4.3-B3-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Spring Constants Evaluation Example

Given Data • Cohesionless soil – Poisson’s ratio = 0.33 = µ • Soil density – 120 pcf = σ • VS = shear wave velocity = 1,500 ft/sec Solution: Shear Modulus G= °Vs2 = 32.2 ft/sec 2 1000 Lb/ K ( ) Vertical Stiffness L/W; ßZ ; L/W = 1.0 2.12
18 = 1.20 15

120 lb/ft 3 (1, 500 ft/sec)

2

1.5 2.14

2.0 2.18 ßZ = 2.13

3.0 2.26

5.0 2.44

10.0 2.82

KZ =

β Z G LW K 2.13 × 8385 18 × 15 = = 438,000 1− µ ft 1 − 0.33

Embedment Factor ro =
KW =- 9.27′ π

H 6 ro = 9.27 = 0.65

August 1998

4.4-B1-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Spring Constants Evaluation Example

Vertical Stiffness — Modified KZH = 1.36 KZ = 1.36 × 438,000 = 596,000 kips/ft = KFY Horizontal Stiffness
L = 1.20 < 5 W

ßx = 2.0 G LW 8385

(See page 6-37 of Bilbliography 2 for explanation.)

KX = ßX (1 – µ) = 2.0 (1 – 0.33)

18 × 15 = 185,000 K/ft

Assuming that the horizontal embedment effect is the same as the vertical. Horizontal Stiffness — Modified KXH = 1.85 × 105 1.36 = 2.5 × 105 K/ft = KFX = KFZ

4.4-B1-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading
Rocking Stiffness Long Direction R= R; ßψ;
d = 1.20 c

Spring Constants Evaluation Example

c = 7.5′ ßψ = 0.52 0.5 0.45
2

d = 9′

0.2 0.4

1.0 0.5

2.0 0.6

4.0 0.8

6.0 0.95

8.0 1.1

Kψ = ßψ

(8G cd )
1− µ

=

K − ft 0.52 × 8 × 8385 × 7.5 × 9 2 = 3.2 × 107 rad 1 − 0.33 K − ft = KMZ rad

KH = 1.36 (3.2 × 107) = 4.3 × 107 Short Direction R=
c = 0.83 d

ßψ = 0.48 = 2.4 × 107
K − ft rad

Kψ = ßψ

(8G)dc 2
1− µ

=

0.48 × 8 × 8385 × 9 × 7.52 1 − 0.33
K − ft rad

Kψ H = 1.36 (2.4 × 107) = 3.3 × 107 Torsional Stiffness rc = Kθ =
4

16cd(c 2 + d 2 ) 6π

=4

16 × 7.5 × 9(7.52 + 9 2 ) 6π

16 16 K − ft Gre3 = × 8385 × 9.423 = 3.7 × 107 3 3 rad K − ft = KMY rad

Kθ H = 1.36 (3.7 × 107) = 5.0 × 107

Appendix 4.4-B1-4 depicts the footing from the example in spring matrix form. The nomenclature is general, and is used for GTSTRUDL input (GTSTRUDL 4.2.2d contains a similar matrix using SEISAB nomenclature).

August 1998

4.4-B1-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Loads and Loading Spring Constants Evaluation Example

Spring Matrix

4.4-B1-4

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Contents
Page 5.0 5.1 5.1.1 Reinforced Concrete Superstructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concrete and Grout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Classes of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Strength of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Grout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Splices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Bends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Fabrication Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. Percentage Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strength Design Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Design Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Flexure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Strut-and-Tie Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Shear and Torsion, ACI Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Shear and Torsion, Strut-and-Tie Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Deflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. Serviceability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Working Stress Design Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Girder Spacing and Basic Geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Girder Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Basic Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Construction Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Load Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Top Slab Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Bottom Slab Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Web Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Intermediate Diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crossbeam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Basic Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Reinforcing Steel Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . End Diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Basic Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Reinforcing Steel Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dead Load Deflection and Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1-1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 4 4 9 9 10 10 5.2-1 1 1 1 2 2 7 7 7 7 8 5.3-1 1 1 1 3 3 4 4 7 7 11 13 13 13 14 14 16 16

5.1.2

5.2 5.2.1

5.2.2 5.3 5.3.1

5.3.2

5.3.3

5.3.4

5.3.5

July 2000

5.0-i

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Contents
Page 5.3.6 Thermal Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Effective Bridge Temperature and Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Differential Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hinges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utility Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Confined Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Drain Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Access Hole and Air Vent Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Local Failure Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Shear Friction Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Flexural Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Hanger Tension Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Punching Shear Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Bearing Strength Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Widenings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review of Existing Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Original Contract Plans and Special Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Original Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Final Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis and Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Seismic Design Criteria for Bridge Widenings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Substructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Stability of Widening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Removing Portions of the Existing Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attachment of Widening to Existing Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Connection Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expansion Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Possible Future Widening for Current Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Widening Falsework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Existing Bridge Widenings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 17 17 19 19 19 19 19 5.4-1 1 4 5 6 7 8 5.5-1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 5 6 7 7 7 7 11 19 20 20 21 5.99-1

5.3.7 5.3.8

5.4

5.5 5.5.1

5.5.2

5.5.3 5.5.4

5.5.5 5.5.6 5.5.7 5.5.8 5.99

5.0-ii

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Appendix A Design Aids 5.1-A1 Reinforcing Bar Properties 5.1-A2 Bar Area vs. Bar Spacing 5.1-A3 Bar Area vs. Number of Bars 5.1-A4 Tension Development Length of Straight Deformed Bars 5.1-A5 Tension Development Length of Standard 90° and 180° Hooks 5.1-A6 Tension Lap Splice Lengths of Grade 60 Uncoated Bars 5.1-A7 Minimum Development Length and Minimum Lap Splices of Deformed Bars in Compression 5.2-A1 ρ Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fc′ = 3,000 psi fy = 60,000 psi 5.2-A2 ρ Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fc′ = 4,000 psi fy = 60,000 psi 5.2-A3 ρ Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fc′ = 5,000 psi fy = 60,000 psi 5.3-A1 Positive Moment Reinforcement 5.3-A2 Negative Moment Reinforcement 5.3-A3 Adjusted Negative Moment Case I (Design for M @ Face of Effective Support) 5.3-A4 Adjusted Negative Moment Case II (Design for M @ 1/4 Point) 5.3-A5 Load Factor Slab Design fc′ = 4,000 psi 5.3-A6 Load Factor Slab Design fc′ = 5,000 psi 5.3-A7 Slab Design — Traffic Barrier Load Appendix B Design Examples 5.2-B1 Slab Design 5.2-B2 Slab Design for Prestressed Girders 5.2-B3 Strut-and-Tie Design 5.2-B4 Working Stress Design

Contents

P65:DP/BDM5

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5.0-iii

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5.0 5.1 Reinforced Concrete Superstructures General
Prior to precast pretensioned and post-tensioned concrete members introduced in the early 1960s, all short and medium span bridges were built as cast-in-place (CIP) reinforced concrete superstructures. Examples of reinforced concrete superstructures are: flat slabs, slab and T-beams, arches, slabs for all types of steel bridges, and box girders. Many of the bridges built before 1960 are functional, durable, and structurally sound. The service life of some of these early bridges can be extended by widening their decks to accommodate increased traffic demand or to improve safety. This chapter addresses special requirements for widenings. The design aids in this chapter can also be utilized in the design of nonprestressed reinforcement in prestressed structural elements and reinforced concrete substructures.

General

5.1.1

Concrete and Grout
A. Classes of Concrete 1. CLASS 3000 Used in large sections with light to nominal reinforcement, mass pours, sidewalks, curbs, gutters, and nonstructural concrete guardrail anchors, luminaire bases. 2. CLASS 4000 Used in traffic and pedestrian barriers, approach slabs, footings, box culverts, wing walls, curtain walls, retaining walls, columns, and crossbeams. 3. CLASS 4000D Used in bridge concrete decks. Standard specifications require two coats of curing compound and a continuous wet cure for 14 days. 4. CLASS 4000P Used for cast-in-place pile and shaft. 5. CLASS 4000W Used underwater in seals. 6. CLASS 5000 or Higher Used in CIP post-tensioned concrete box girder construction or in other special structural applications situations. Use of CLASS 5000 or higher requires approval of the Bridge Design Engineer, the Olympia Service Center, and Materials Lab. Place documentation in job file. B. Strength of Concrete 1. The 28-day compressive design strengths (fc′) in pounds per square inch (psi) are:

July 2000

5.1-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Class COMMERCIAL 3000 4000, 4000D 4000W 5000 6000 4000P f c′ 2300 3000 4000 2400* 5000** 6000 3400***

General

*40 percent reduction from CLASS 4000. **Concrete Class 5000 is available within a 30-mile radius of Seattle, Spokane, and Vancouver. Outside this 30-mile radius, concrete suppliers do not have the quality control rocedures and expertise to Supply Control Class 5000. ***15 percent reduction from CLASS 4000 for all drilled shafts. 2. Relative Compressive Concrete Strength a. During design or construction of a bridge, it is necessary to determine the strength of concrete at various stages of construction. For instance, Section 6-02.3(17)J of the Standard Specifications discusses the time at which falsework and forms can be removed to various percentages of the concrete design strength. Occasionally, construction problems will arise which require a knowledge of the relative strengths of concrete at various ages. Table 5.1-1 is intended to supply this information. Curing conditions of the concrete (especially in the first 24 hours) have a very important influence on the strength development of concrete at all ages. Temperature affects the rate at which the chemical reaction between cement and water takes place. Loss of moisture can seriously impair the concrete strength. Table 5.1-1 shows the approximate values of the minimum compressive strengths of different classes of concrete at various ages. If the concrete has been cured under continuous moist curing at an average temperature, it can be assumed that these values have been developed. If test strength is above or below that shown in Table 5.1-1, the age at which the design strength will be reached can be determined by direct proportion. For example, if the relative strength at 10 days is 64 percent instead of the minimum 70 percent shown in Table 5.1-1, the time it takes to reach the design strength can be determined as follows: Let x = relative strength to determine the age at which the concrete will reach the design strength

b.

c.

d.

x 100 = Therefore, x = 110 70 64 From Table 5.1-1, the design strength should be reached in 40 days. C. Grout Grout is usually a prepackaged cement based grout or nonshrink grout that is mixed, placed, and cured as recommended by the manufacturer. It is used under steel base plates for both bridge bearings and luminaire or sign bridge bases. Nonshrink grout is used in keyways between precast prestressed deck slabs, tri-beams, and bulb-tees. For design purposes, the strength of the grout, if properly cured, can be assumed to be equal to or greater than that of the adjacent concrete. Should the grout pad thickness exceed 4 inches, steel reinforcement shall be used.

5.1-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures General

The following chart shows approximate relative strength of concrete and compressive strength of different classes of concrete at various ages based on continuous moist curing at an average temperature. Relative and Compressive Strength of Concrete Table 5.1.1-1 Relative Age Strength (Days) (%) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 35 43 50 55 59 63 67 70 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 Class 5000 (psi) 1750 2150 2500 2750 2950 3150 3350 3500 3650 3750 3850 3950 4050 4150 4250 4350 4450 Class 4000 (psi) 1400 1720 2000 2200 2360 2520 2680 2800 2920 3000 3080 3160 3240 3320 3400 3480 3560 Class 3000 (psi) 1050 1290 1500 1650 1770 1890 2010 2100 2190 2250 2310 2370 2430 2490 2550 2610 2670 Relative Age Strength (Days) (%) 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 91 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 102 110 115 120 125 129 131 Class 5000 (psi) 4550 4650 4700 4750 4800 4850 4900 4950 5000 5100 5500 5750 6000 6250 6450 6550 Class 4000 (psi) 3640 3720 3760 3800 3840 3880 3920 3960 4000 4080 4400 4600 4800 5000 5160 5240 Class 3000 (psi) 2730 2790 2820 2850 2880 2910 2940 2970 3000 3060 3300 3450 3600 3750 3870 3930

5.1.2

Reinforcement
A. Grades Steel reinforcing bars are manufactured as plain or deformed bars (which have ribbed projections that grip the concrete in order to provide better bond between steel and concrete). In Washington State, main bars are always deformed. Plain bars are used for spirals and ties. Reinforcing bars conform to either the requirements of AASHTO M31, Grade 60 (ASTM A-615 Grade 60) with a 60,000 psi yield strength or in the case of bars in portions of concrete members where plastic hanging can occur during an earthquake or which are to be spliced by welding, ASTM A 706 Specifications for Low-Alloy Steel deformed Bars for Concrete Reinforcement. B. Sizes Reinforcing bars are referred to in the contract plans and specifications by number and vary in size from #3 to #18. For bars up to and including #8, the number of the bar coincides with the bar diameter in eighths of an inch. The #9, #10, and #11 bars have diameters that provide areas equal to 1″ x 1″ square bars, 11/8″ x 11/8″ square bars and 11/4″ x 11/4″ square bars respectively. Similarly, the #14 and #18 bars correspond to 11/2″ x 11/2″ and 2″ x 2″ square bars, respectively. Tables 5.1-A1 through 5.1-A3 in Appendix A, show the sizes, number, and various properties of the types of bars used in Washington State.

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5.1-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
C. Development 1. Development Length, ld, in Tension Development length or anchorage of reinforcement is required on both sides of a point of maximum stress at any section of a reinforced concrete member. Development of bars in tension involves calculating the basic development length, ldb, which is modified by factors to reflect bar spacing, cover, enclosing transverse reinforcement, top bar effect, type of aggregate, epoxy coating, and ratio of required area to provided area of reinforcement to be developed. The development length, ld (including all applicable modification factors) must not be less than 12 inches. Tables 5.1-A4 and 5.1-A5 in Appendix A, show the tension development length for both uncoated and epoxy coated Grade 60 bars for normal weight concrete with specified strengths of 3,000 to 6,000 psi. 2. Development Length, ld, in Compression The basic development lengths for deformed bars in compression are shown in Table 5.1-A7, Appendix A. These values may be modified for ratio of required area vs. provided area of reinforcement, or for bars enclosed in a 1/4 inch diameter spiral at 4 inch maximum pitch. However, the minimum development length is 1 foot 0 inches (office practice). 3. Standard End Hook Development Length, ldh, in Tension Standard end hooks, utilizing 90 and 180 degree end hooks, are used to develop bars in tension where space limitations restrict the use of straight bars. End hooks on compression bars are not effective for development length purposes. Figures 5.1.2-1 and 5.1.2-2 and Table 5.1.2-1 show the minimum embedment lengths necessary to provide 2 inches of cover on the tails of 90 and 180 degree end hooks. Epoxy coating does not affect the tension development lengths, ldh, of standard 90 and 180 degree end hooks. The values shown in Table 5.1-1A5, Appendix A, show the tension development lengths for normal weight concrete with specified strengths of 3,000 to 6,000 psi. D. Splices Three methods are used to splice reinforcing bars; lap splices, mechanical splices, and welded splices. Lap splicing of reinforcing bars is the most common method. The Contract Plans should clearly show the locations and lengths of lap splice. Lap splices are not permitted for bars larger than #11. No lap splices, for either tension or compression bars, shall be less than 2 feet 0 inches (office practice). See Section 8.32 of the Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges and Section 6-02.3(24)D Standard Specifications for additional splice requirements. 1. Lap Splices — Tension Many of the same factors which affect development length affect splices. Consequently, tension lap splices are a function of the bar’s development length, ld. There are three classes of tension lap splices: Class A, B, and C. Designers are encouraged to splice bars at points of minimum stress and to stagger lap splices along the length of the bars.

General

5.1-4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Minimum Embedment Lengths to Provide 2-inch Cover to Tail of Standard 180° End Hooks Table 5.1.2-1 #3 6″ #4 7″ #5 9″ #6 10″ #7 1′-0″ #8 1′-2″ #9 1′-3″ #10 1′-5″ #11 1′-7″ #14 2′-10″ #18 3′-7″

General

Standard 180° and 90° End Hooks Figure 5.1.2-1

Special Confinement for 180° and 90° End Hooks Figure 5.1.2-2

July 2000

5.1-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Recommended End Hooks Table 5.1.2-2

General

5.1-6

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures General

Figure 5.1.2-3

July 2000

5.1-7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures General

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 5.1.2-4

5.1-8

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures General

Table 5.1A6 in Appendix A, shows tension lap splices for both uncoated and epoxy coated Grade 60 bars for normal weight concrete with specified strengths of 3,000 to 6,000 psi. For additional requirements, see Section 8.32.3 of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. For Seismic Performance Categories C and D, Section 8.4.1(F) of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges, the lap splices for longitudinal column bars are permitted only within the center half of the column height and shall not be less than the lap splices given in Table 5.1-A6 in Appendix A, or 60 bar diameters whichever is greater. Note that the maximum spacing of the transverse reinforcement (i.e., column ties) over the length of the splice shall not exceed the smaller of 4 inches or 1/4 of the minimum column plan dimension. 2. Lap Splices — Compression The compression lap splices shown in Table 5.1-A7 (right-hand column) in Appendix A, are for concrete strengths greater than 3,000 psi. If the concrete strength is less than 3,000 psi, the compression lap splices should be increased by one third. Note that when two bars of different diameters are lap spliced, the length of the lap splice shall be the larger of the lap splice for the smaller bar or the development length of the larger bar. 3. Mechanical Splices A second method of splicing is by mechanical splices, which are proprietary splicing mechanisms. The requirements for mechanical splices are found in Section 6-02.3(24)F of the Standard Specifications, Sections 8.32.2 and 8.32.3 of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, and Section 8.4.1(F) of the Standard Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges. 4. Welded Splices Welding of reinforcing bars is the third acceptable method of splicing reinforcing bars. Section 6-02.3(24)E of the Standard Specifications describes the requirements for welding reinforcing steel. On modifications to existing structures, welding of reinforcing bars may not be possible because of the non-weldability of some steels. See Sections 8.32.2 and 8.32.3 of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges and Section 8.4.1(F) of the Standard Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges for additional welded splice requirements. E. Bends For standard hooks and bend radii, see Table 5.1-15. Note that the tail lengths are greater for the 135° seismic tie hook than for the regular or nonseismic 135° tie hook. For field bending requirements, see Section 6-02.3(24)A of the Standard Specifications. F. Fabrication Lengths Reinforcing bars are normally stocked in lengths of 60 feet. They can also be fabricated in longer lengths.

July 2000

5.1-9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
The maximum overall bar lengths to be specified on the plans are: Bar Size #3 #4, #5 #6, #7 #8, #9, #10 #11, #14, #18 Maximum Length 30′-0″ 40′-0″ 60′-0″ 60′-0″ 60′-0″

General

Where possible, specify lengths 60 feet and less for bar sizes #8 through #18. Because of placement considerations, the overall lengths of bar size #3 has been limited to 30 feet and bar sizes #4 and #5 to 40 feet. To use longer lengths, the designer should make sure that the bars can be placed and transported by truck. See Table 5.1-A1 in Appendix A. G. Placement Placement of reinforcing bars can be a problem during construction. Reinforcing bars are more than just lines on the drawing, they have size, weight, and volume. In confined areas, the designer should ensure that reinforcing bars can be placed. Sometimes it may be necessary to make a large scale drawing of reinforcement to look for interference and placement problems. If interference is expected, additional details may be required in the contract plans showing how to handle the interference and placement problems. H. Percentage Requirements There are several AASHTO requirements to ensure that minimum reinforcement is provided in reinforced concrete members. 1. Flexure The reinforcement provided at any section should be adequate to develop a moment at least 1.2 times the cracking moment calculated on the basis of the modulus of rupture for normal weight concrete. The modulus of rupture for normal weight concrete is 7.5 √fc′ . This requirement may be waived if the area of reinforcement provided is at least one-third greater than that required by analysis. For additional minimum reinforcement required, see Section 8.17, AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. 2. Compression For columns, the area of longitudinal reinforcement shall not exceed 0.08 nor be less than 0.01 of the gross area, Ag, of the section. Preferably, the ratio of longitudinal reinforcement should not exceed 0.04 of the gross area, Ag, to ensure constructibility and placement of concrete. If a ratio greater than 0.04 is used, the designer should verify that concrete can be placed. If for architectural purposes the cross section is larger than that required by the loading, a reduced effective area may be used. The reduced effective area shall not be less than that which would require 1percent of the longitudinal area to carry the loading. Additional lateral reinforcement requirements are given in Section 8.18, AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, and for plastic hinge zones, see Section 8.4.1(D), AASHTO Standard Specifications for the Seismic Design of Highway Bridges. For column reinforcing, ASTM A 706 reinforcing should be pecified to improve durability. 3. Other Minimum Reinforcement Requirements For minimum shear reinforcement requirements, see Section 8.19 and for minimum temperature and shrinkage reinforcement, see Section 8.20, AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges.

5.1-10

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5.2 5.2.1 Design Methods Strength Design Method
A. Design Philosophy In the strength design method or ultimate strength method, the service loads are increased by load factors to obtain the ultimate design load. The structural members are then proportioned to provide the design ultimate strength. Several textbooks listed in the bibliography, which are excellent sources [1,2,3]. B. Flexure The basic strength design requirement can be expressed as follows: Design Strength ≥ Required Strength or φ Mn ≥ Mu (1)

Design Methods

For design purposes, the area of reinforcement for a singly reinforced beam or slab can be determined by letting: Mu = φ Mn = φ [As (fy) (d – a/2)] However, if a As(fy)/(0.85)(fc′)(b) and ρ = As/(b)(d) Equation (2) can be expressed as: Mu/φ (b) (d)2 = ρ (fy) [1 – 0.59 (ρ) fy/fc′] Tables 5.2-1 through 5.2-3 in Appendix 5.2-A1, -A2, and -A3, were prepared based on Eq (4) to quickly determine the amount of reinforcing steel required, As required, when Mu, fc′, fy, b, and d are known. An alternate approach is to solve directly for As required from: As required = 0.85 fc′ (b) fy (4) (2) (3)

( √
d –

d2 –

31.3725 Mu fc′ (b)

)

where

Mu = kips – in fc′ = ksi

(5)

Similarly, substituting 1.2Mcr for Mu, As min can be found from: As min = 0.85 fc′ (b) fy

( √
d – fc ′ fy

d2 –

0.124 h2 √ f c′

)

where

h = slab thickness

(6)

From AASHTO 8.16.3.1.1 and 8.16.3.2.2, As max can be found from: As max = 0.6375 β1 (b) (d) where

(

87 87 + fy

)

(7)

β1 = 0.85 if fc′ ≤ 4 ksi and β1 = 0.85 – 0.05 (fc′ – 4) if fc′ > 4 ksi, but not less than 0.65

Tension reinforcement should be designed in the following order: 1. 2. 3. From Eq (5) or Tables 5.2-A1 through 5.2-A3 in Appendix A, determine As required. From Eq (6) determine As min. From Eq (7) or Tables 5.2-A1 through 5.2-A3 in Appendix A, determine As max.

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5.2-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
4. If As required > As max, increase the member’s dimensions. If As max > As required > As min, use As ≥ As required. If As required < As min < 1.33 As required, use As ≥ As min. If 1.33 As required < As min, use As ≥ 1.33 As required. Always use As ≤ As max.

Design Methods

See Appendix 5.2-B1 and 5.2-B2 for design examples. C. Shear The AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges addresses shear design of members in Section 8.16.6. Shear friction provisions (Section 8.16.6.4) are applied to transfer shear across a plane, such as: an existing or potential crack, an interface between dissimilar materials, or at a construction joint between two sections of concrete placed at different times. The shear design for deep beams is not addressed in the AASHTO Standard Specifications, but is discussed in Section 11.8, ACI 318-89 Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete and Commentary, and ACI-ASCE Committee 343 Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Structures [4,5,6]. D. Strut-and-Tie Model 1. General Strut-and-tie models may be used to determine internal force effects near supports and the points of application of concentrated loads [16]. The strut-and-tie model should be considered for the design of deep footings and pile caps or other situations in which the distance between the centers of applied load and supporting reaction is less than twice the member thickness. 2. Structural Modeling The structure and a component or region, thereof, may be modeled as an assembly of steel tension ties and concrete compressive struts interconnected at nodes to form a truss capable of carrying all the applied loads to the supports as shown in Figure 5.2.1-1 for a deep beam. The required widths of compression struts and tension ties shall be considered in determining the geometry of the truss. The truss model does not necessarily need to conform to structural stability as a real truss would. The factored resistance, Pn,of struts and ties shall be taken as that of axially loaded components. Pu′ = ϕ Pn where: Pn = nominal resistance of strut or tie (KIP) ϕ = 0.7 Compression ϕ = 0.9 Tension

5.2-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
3. Proportioning of Compressive Struts a. Strength of Unreinforced Strut The nominal resistance of an unreinforced compressive strut shall be taken as: Pn = fcuAcs where: Pn = nominal resistance of a compressive strut (kips) fcu = limiting compressive stress (ksi) Acs = effective cross-sectional area of strut (in2) b. Effective Cross-Sectional Area of Strut The value of Acs shall be determined by considering both the available concrete area and the anchorage conditions at the ends of the strut, as shown in Figure 5.2.1-2. When a strut is anchored by reinforcement, the effective concrete area may be considered to extend a distance of up to six bar diameters from the anchored bar, as shown in Figures 5.2.1-2(a), 5.2.1-2(b), and 5.2.1-2(c). c. Limiting Compressive Stress in Strut The limiting compressive stress, fcu, shall be taken as: fcu = for which: ε1 = εs + (εs + 0.002) cot2 αs where: as = the smallest angle between the compressive strut and adjoining tension ties (DEG) εs = the tensile strain in the concrete in the direction of the tension tie (in/in) fc′ = specified compressive strength (ksi) d. Reinforced Strut If the compressive strut contains reinforcement that is parallel to the strut and detailed to develop its yield stress in compression as shown in Figure 5.2.1-2(d), the nominal resistance of the strut shall be taken as: Pn = fcu Acs + fy Ass where: Ass = area of reinforcement in the strut (in2) fc ′ 0.8 + 170ε1 ≤ 0.8 fc′

Design Methods

July 2000

5.2-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Design Methods

Strut-and-Tie Model for Deep Beam Figure 5.2.1-1

5.2-4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Design Methods

Influence of Anchorage Conditions on Effective Cross-Sectional Area of Strut Figure 5.2.1-2

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5.2-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
4. Proportioning of Tension Ties a. Strength of Tie Tension tie reinforcement shall be anchored to the nodal zones by specified embedment lengths, hooks, or mechanical anchorages. The tension force shall be developed at the inner face of the nodal zone. The nominal resistance of a tension tie in KIP shall be taken as: Pn = fy Ast + Aps [fpe + fy] where: Ast Aps fy fpe b. = = = = total area of longitudinal mild steel reinforcement in the tie (IN2) area of prestressing steel (IN2) yield strength of mild steel longitudinal reinforcement (KSI) stress in prestressing steel due to prestress after losses (KSI)

Design Methods

Anchorage of Tie The tension tie reinforcement shall be anchored to transfer the tension force therein to the node regions of the truss in accordance with the requirements for development of reinforcement as specified in Article 5.1.2C.

5.

Proportioning of Node Regions Unless confining reinforcement is provided and its effect is supported by analysis or experimentation, the concrete compressive stress in the node regions of the strut shall not exceed: • For node regions bounded by compressive struts and bearing areas: 0.85 ϕ fc′ • For node regions anchoring a one-direction tension tie: 0.75 ϕ fc′ • For node regions anchoring tension ties in more than one direction: 0.65 ϕ fc′ where: ϕ = 0.7 resistance factor for bearing on concrete The tension tie reinforcement shall be uniformly distributed over an effective area of concrete at least equal to the tension tie force divided by the stress limits specified herein. In addition to satisfying strength criteria for compression struts and tension ties, the node regions shall be designed to comply with the stress and anchorage limits.

6.

Crack Control Reinforcement Structures and components or regions thereof, except for slabs and footings, which have been designed in accordance with the provisions strut-and-tie model, shall contain an orthogonal grid of reinforcing bars near each face. The spacing of the bars in these grids shall not exceed 12.0 inches. The ratio of reinforcement area to gross concrete area shall not be less than 0.003 in each direction. Crack control reinforcement, located within the tension tie, may be considered as part of the tension tie reinforcement.

5.2-6

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
E. Shear and Torsion, ACI Method The AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges does not address the design of reinforced concrete members for torsion. The design for shear and torsion is based on ACI 318-95 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary (318F-95) and is satisfactory for bridge members with dimensions similar to those normally used in buildings. The AASHTO LRFD Specifications Article 5.8.3.6 may also be used for design of sections subjected to shear and torsion. F. Shear and Torsion, Strut-and-Tie Method According to Hsu [7], utilizing ACI 318-89 for members is awkward and overly conservative when applied to large-size hollow members. Collins and Mitchell [8] propose a rational design method for shear and torsion based on the compression field theory or strut and tie method for both prestressed and non-prestressed concrete beams. These methods assume that diagonal compressive stresses can be transmitted through cracked concrete. In addition to transmitting these diagonal compressive stresses, shear stresses are transmitted from one face of the crack to the other by a combination of aggregate interlock and dowel action of the stirrups. For recommendations and design examples for beams in shear and torsion, the designer can refer to the paper by M.P. Collins and D. Mitchell, Shear and Torsion Design of Prestressed and Non-Prestressed Concrete Beams, PCI Journal, September-October 1980, pp. 32-100 [8]. See Appendix 5.2-B3 for a strut and tie design example for a pier cap. G. Deflection Flexural members are designed to have adequate stiffness to limit deflections or any deformations which may adversely affect the strength or serviceability of the structure at service load plus impact. The minimum superstructure depths are specified in AASHTO Table 8.9.2 and deflections shall be computed in accordance with Section 8.13, AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. H. Seviceability In addition to the deflection control requirements described above, service load stresses shall be limited to satisfy fatigue (Section 8.16.8.3) and for distribution of tension reinforcement when fy for tension reinforcement exceeds 40,000 psi (Section 8.16.8.4 AASHTO Specifications). To control cracking of the concrete, tension reinforcement at maximum positive and negative moment sections shall be chosen so that the calculated service load stress, fs in ksi, shall be less than the value computed by: z 1/ fs = 3 ≤ 0.6 fy (dc x A) The requirements for control of cracking apply to superstructure elements only The calculated service load stress is calculated utilizing Working Stress Design (WSD) principles described below. The values of dc and A are defined in Section 8.16.8.4 of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. The value z shall be 130 kips per inch for girder and crossbeam reinforcing bars in negative moment regions, and all deck reinforcing bars. A value of 170 kips per inch shall be used for all other positive moment regions. Note that this check is for distribution of flexural reinforcement to control cracking. See Appendix 5.2-B2 which shows the flexural reinforcement at a pier location placed equally in top and bottom layers. When this is done, the total slab thickness can be used in computing A.

Design Methods

July 2000

5.2-7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5.2.2 Working Stress Design Method
Prior to the strength design method, introduced in the 1973, AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, the working stress design (WSD) method was used to design bridges. Many design aids were produced as a result. The ACI Publication SP-3, Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook Working Stress Method [9], is a publication that was widely used by designers and several textbooks have sections devoted to WSD [1,2]. Working Stress Design principles are used to compute the tensile stress, fs, and Mcr, which are used to check crack control and minimum flexural reinforcement respectively. Design aid for working stress design method for Class 3000 and 4000 concrete is provided in Appendix B4.

Design Methods

P65:DP/BDM5

5.2-8

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5.3 Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges
A typical box girder bridge is comprised of top and bottom concrete slabs connected by a series of vertical girder stems. This section is a guide for designing: Top slab Bottom slab Girder stem (web) For design criteria not covered, see Section 2.4.1.C.

Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

5.3.1

Girder Spacing and Basic Geometries
A. Girder Spacing The most economical web spacing for ordinary box girder bridges varies from about 8 to 12 feet. Greater girder spacing requires some increase in both top and bottom slab thickness, but the cost of the additional concrete can be offset by decreasing the total number of girder stems. Fewer girder stems reduces the amount of form work required and a lower cost. The number of girder stems can be reduced by cantilevering the top slab beyond the exterior girders. A deck overhang of approximately one-half the girder spacing generally gives satisfactory results. This procedure usually results in a more aesthetic as well as a more economical bridge. For girder stem spacing in excess of 12 feet or cantilever overhang in excess of 6 feet, transverse post-tensioning shall be used. B. Basic Dimensions (Figure 5.3.1-1) 1. Top Slab Thickness, T1 (includes 1/2″ wearing surface) T1 = 12 x (S+10)/30 but not less than 7″ with overlay or 7.5″ without overlay. 2. Bottom Slab Thickness, T2 a. Near Center Span T2 = 12 x (Sclr)/16 but not less than 5.5″ (normally 6.0″ is used). b. Near Intermediate Piers Thickening of the bottom slab is often used in negative moment regions to control compressive stresses that are significant. Transition slope = 24:1 (see T2′ in Figure 5.3.2-8). 3. Girder Stem (Web) Thickness, T3 a. Near Center Span Minimum T3 = 9.0″ — vertical Minimum T3 = 10.0″ — if sloped b. Near Supports Thickening of girder stems is used in areas adjacent to supports to control shear requirements.

July 2000

5.3-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Changes in girder web thickness shall be tapered for a minimum distance of 12 times the difference in web thickness. Maximum T3 = T3+4.0″ maximum Transition length = 12 x (T3) in inches

Basic Dimensions Figure 5.3.1-1

5.3-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
4.

Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Intermediate Diaphragm Thickness, T4 and Diaphragm Spacing a. For tangent and curved bridge with R > 800 feet T4 = 0″ (Diaphragms are not required.) b. For curved bridge with R < 800 feet T4 = 8.0″ Diaphragm spacing shall be as follows: For 600′ < R < 800′at 1/2 pt. of span. For 400′ < R < 600′ at 1/3 pt. of span. For R < 400′ at 1/4 pt. of span.

C. Construction Considerations Review the following construction considerations to ensure that: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Construction joints at slab/stem interface or fillet/stem interface at top slab are appropriate. All construction joints to have roughened surfaces. Bottom slab is parallel to top slab (constant depth). Girder stems are vertical. Dead load deflection and camber to nearest 1/8″. Skew and curvature effects have been considered. Thermal effects have been considered. The potential for falsework settlement is acceptable. This always requires added stirrup reinforcement in sloped outer webs.

D. Load Distribution 1. Unit Design According to the AASHTO specifications, the entire slab width shall be assumed effective for compression. It is both economical and desirable to design the entire superstructure as a unit rather than as individual girders. When a reinforced box girder bridge is designed as an individual girder with a deck overhang, the positive reinforcement is congested in the exterior cells. The unit design method permits distributing all girder reinforcement uniformly throughout the width of the structure. 2. Dead Loads a. b. c. d. Box dead loads. D.L. of top deck forms — 5 lbs. per sq. ft. of the area. — 10 lbs. per sq. ft. if web spacing > 10′−0″. Traffic barrier. Overlay, intermediate diaphragm, and utility weight if applicable.

July 2000

5.3-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
3. Live Load a. Superstructure No. of lanes = slab width (curb to curb) / 14 Fractional lane width will be used For example, 58 roadway / 14 = 4.14, then no. of lanes = 4.14 b. Substructure No. of lanes = slab width (curb to curb) / 12 Fractional lane width will be ignored For example, 58 roadway / 12 = 4.83, then no. of lanes = 4.0 c. Overload if applicable.

Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

5.3.2

Reinforcement
This section discusses moment reinforcement for top slab, bottom slab, and intermediate diaphragms in box girders. A. Top Slab Reinforcement 1. Near Center of Span Figure 5.3.2-1 shows the reinforcement required near the center of the span and Figure 5.3.2-2 shows the overhang reinforcement. a. b. c. 2. Transverse reinforcing in the top and bottom layers to transfer the load to the main girder stems shall be equal in size and spacing. Bottom longitudinal “distribution reinforcement” in the middle half of the deck span (Seff) to aid in distributing the wheel loads. Top longitudinal “temperature and shrinkage reinforcement.”

Near Intermediate Piers Figure 5.3.2-3 illustrates the reinforcement requirement near intermediate piers. See Appendix 5.2-B2 for design of longitudinal deck reinforcement. a. b. c. Transverse reinforcing same as center of span. Longitudinal reinforcement to resist negative moment (see Figure 5.3.2-3). “Distribution of flexure reinforcement” to limit cracking (see Figure 5.3.2-3). Allowable fs = z/(dc x A)
1/ 3

≤ 0.6fy, where z = 130 kips per inch.

3.

Bar Patterns a. Transverse Reinforcement It is preferable to place the transverse reinforcement parallel to the X-Beam and end diaphragm on skews up to 25 degrees or less. Where skew angles exceed 25 degrees, the transverse bars are normal to bridge center line and the areas near the expansion joint and bridge ends are reinforcement by partial length bars. The bottom transverse slab reinforcement is discontinued at the X-Beam (see Figure 5.3.2-4).

5.3-4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
b. Longitudinal Reinforcement For longitudinal reinforcing bar patterns, see Chapter 6.

Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Partial Section Near Center of Span Figure 5.3.2-1

Overhang Detail Figure 5.3.2-2

July 2000

5.3-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Top Slab Flexural Reinforcing Near Intermediate Pier Figure 5.3.2-3

Partial Plans at Abutments Figure 5.3.2-4

5.3-6

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
B. Bottom Slab Reinforcement 1. Near Center of Span Figure 5.3.2-5 shows the reinforcement required near the center of the span. a. Minimum transverse “distributed reinforcement.” As=0.005 x flange area with 1/2 As distributed equally to each surface. b. c. Longitudinal “main reinforcement” to resist positive moment. Check “distribution of flexure reinforcement” to limit cracking (see Figure 5.3.2-5). Allowable fs = z/(dc x A) d. 2.
1/ 3

Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

≤ 0.6fy, where z = 170 kips per inch.

Add steel for construction load (sloped outer webs).

Near Intermediate Piers Figure 5.3.2-6 shows the reinforcement required near intermediate piers. a. b. Minimum transverse reinforcement same as center of span. Minimum longitudinal “temperature and shrinkage reinforcement.” As=0.004 x flange area with 1/2 As distributed equally to each face. c. Add steel for construction load (sloped outer webs).

3.

Bar Patterns a. Transverse Reinforcement See top slab bar patterns, Figures 5.3.2-1, 5.3.2-2, and 5.3.2-3. All bottom slab transverse bars shall be bent at the outside face of the exterior web. For vertical web, the tail will be 1′-0″ and for sloping exterior web 2′-0″ minimum splice with the outside web stirrups. See Figure 5.3.2-7. b. Longitudinal Reinforcement For longitudinal reinforcing bar patterns, see Chapter 6.

C. Web Reinforcement 1. Vertical Stirrups (see Figure 5.3.2-8) The web reinforcement should be designed for the following requirements: Vertical shear requirements. Out of plane bending on outside web due to live load on cantilever overhang. Horizontal shear requirements for composite flexural members. A b Minimum v = 50 w (#5 bars @ 1′-6″), where bw = no. of girder stems (T3). s fy

July 2000

5.3-7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
2.

Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Web Longitudinal Reinforcement (see Figure 5.3.2-8) If the depth of the side face of a member exceeds 3 feet, longitudinal skin reinforcement shall be uniformly distributed along both side faces of the member for a distance d/2 nearest the flexural tension reinforcement. The area of skin reinforcement Ask per foot of height on each side face shall be ≥ 0.012 (d – 30). The maximum spacing of skin reinforcement shall not exceed the lesser of d/6 and 12 inches. Such freinforcement may be included in strength computations if a strain compatibility analysis is made to determine stresses in the individual bars or wires. The total area of longitudinal skin reinforcement in both faces need not exceed one half of the flexural tensile reinforcement. Where As = Total required area of longitudinal reinforcing steel. Reinforcing steel spacing < Web Thickness (T3) or 12″. For cast-in-place sloped outer webs, increase inside stirrup reinforcement and bottom slab top transverse reinforcement as required for the web moment locked-in during construction of the top slab. This moment about the bottom corner of the web is due to tributary load from the top slab concrete placement plus 10 psf form dead load. See Figure 5.3.2-10 for typical top slab forming.

Bottom Slab Reinforcement Near Center of Span Figure 5.3.2-5

Bottom Slab Reinforcement Near Intermediate Pier Figure 5.3.2-6

5.3-8

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Figure 5.3.2-7

July 2000

5.3-9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Figure 5.3.2-8

5.3-10

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
D. Intermediate Diaphragm (see Figure 5.3.2-9)

Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Figure 5.3.2-9 Intermediate diaphragms are not required for bridges on tangent alignment or curved bridges with an inside radius of 800 feet or greater. Notes: 1. 2. If the bar is not spliced, the horizontal dimension should be 4″ shorter than the slab width. Stirrup hanger must be placed above longitudinal steel when diaphragm is skewed and slab reinforcement is placed normal to center of roadway. (Caution: Watch for the clearance with longitudinal steel). The reinforcement should have at least one splice to facilitate proper bar placement.

3.

Notes:

July 2000

5.3-11

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

1. 2.

The diagonal brace supports web forms during web pour. After cure, the web is stiffer than the brace, and the web attracts load from subsequent concrete placements. The tributary load includes half the overhang because the outer web form remains tied to and transfers load to the web which is considerably stiffer than the formwork. Increase Web Reinf. for Locked-In Construction Load

Due to Typical Top Slab Forming for Sloped Web Box Girder Figure 5.3.2-10

5.3-12

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5.3.3 Crossbeam
A. Basic Geometry For aesthetic purposes, it is preferable to keep the crossbeam within the superstructure so that the bottom slab of the entire bridge is a continuous plane surface interrupted only by the columns. Although the depth of the crossbeam may be limited, the width can be made as wide as necessary to satisfy design requirements. Normally, it varies from 3 feet to the depth of box but is not less than column sizes to utilize the column reinforcement (see Figure 5.3.3-1 and 5.3.3-2). Crossbeams on box girder type of construction shall be designed as a T beam utilizing the flange in compression, assuming the deck slab acts as a flange for positive moment and bottom slab a flange for negative moment. The effective overhang of the flange on a cantilever beam shall be limited to six times the flange thickness. The bottom slab thickness is frequently increased near the crossbeam in order to keep the main box girder compressive stresses to a desirable level for negative girder moments (see Figure 5.3.2-8). This bottom slab flare also helps resist negative crossbeam moments. Consideration should be given to flaring the bottom slab at the crossbeam for designing the cap even if it is not required for resisting main girder moments. B. Reinforcing Steel Details Special attention should be given to the details to ensure that the column and crossbeam reinforcement will not interfere with each other. This can be a problem especially when round columns with a great number of vertical bars must be meshed with a considerable amount of positive crossbeam reinforcement passing over the columns. 1. Top Reinforcement Provide negative moment reinforcement at the 1/4 point of the square or equivalent square columns (see Appendix 5.3-A1 and 5.3-A4). a. When Skew Angle < 10 Degrees If the bridge is tangent or slightly skewed and the deck reinforcement is parallel to the cross beam, the negative cap reinforcement can be placed either in contact with top deck negative reinforcement or directly under the main deck reinforcement (see Figure 5.3.3-1). Reinforcement must be epoxy coated if the location of reinforcement is less than 4″ below top of deck. b. When Skewed Angle > 10 Degrees When the structure is on a greater skew and the deck steel is normal or radial to the longitudinal centerline of the bridge, the negative cap reinforcement should be lowered to below the main deck reinforcement (see Figure 5.3.3-2). c. To avoid cracking of concrete, interim reinforcements are required below the construction joint in diaphgragms and crossbeams. The interim reinforcements shall develop a moment capacity of 1.2 Mcr where Mcr may be given as:

Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

July 2000

5.3-13

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Mcr = fr Ig yt

Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

fr = 7.5 √ fc′ Mcr = 1.25 bh2 0.85 fc′ b fy

√ f c′

Mn = 1.2Mcr = 1.5 bh2 √ fc′ As = d –

( √

d2 –

31.3725M fc ′

)

5.3.4

End Diaphragm
A. Basic Geometry Bearings at the end diaphragms are usually located under the girder stems and transfer loads directly to the pier (see Figure 5.3.3-3). In this case, the diaphragm width should be equal to or greater than bearing sole plate grout pads (see Figure 5.3.3-4). Designer should provide access space for maintenance and inspection of bearings. Allowance should be provided to remove and replace the bearings. Lift point locations, jack capacity, number of jacks, and maximum permitted lift should be shown in the plan details.

Skew Angle ≤ 10° Crossbeam Top Reinforcement Figure 5.3.3-1

5.3-14

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Skew Angle > 10° Crossbeam Top Reinforcement Figure 5.3.3-2

Bearing Locations, Lift Points, Jack Capacity, and Maximum Lift Permitted at End Diaphragm Figure 5.3.3-3

July 2000

5.3-15

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

“L” Abutment End Diaphragm Figure 5.3.4-1 The end diaphragms should be wide enough to provide adequate reinforcing embedment length. When the structure is on a skew greater than 10 degrees and the deck steel is normal or radial to the center of the bridge, the width should be enough to accommodate the embedment length of the reinforcement. The most commonly used type of end diaphragm is shown in Figure 5.3.3-5. The dimensions shown here are used as a guideline and should be modified if necessary. This end diaphragm is used with a stub abutment and overhangs the stub abutment. It is used on bridges with an overall or out-to-out length less than 400 feet. If the overall length exceeds 400 feet, an “L” abutment should be used. B. Reinforcing Steel Details Typical reinforcement details for an end diaphragm are shown in Figure 5.3.3-6.

5.3.5

Dead Load Deflection and Camber
Camber is the adjustment made to the vertical alignment to compensate for the anticipated dead load deflection and the long-term deflection caused by shrinkage and creep. The multipliers for estimating long-term deflection and camber for reinforced concrete flexural members may be taken as shown in Table 1.

5.3-16

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Multipliers for Estimating Long-term Deflection and Camber of Concrete Members Table 5.3.5-1 Multiplier Coefficient Girder Adjacent to Existing/Stage Construction Deflection (downward) — apply to the elastic deflection due to the weight of member Deflection (downward) — apply to the elastic deflection due to superimposed dead load only Girder Away From Existing/Stage Construction Deflection (downward) — apply to the elastic deflection due to the weight of member Deflection (downward) — apply to the elastic deflection due to superimposed dead load only 2.70 3.00 1.90 2.20

In addition to dead load deflection, forms and falsework tend to settle and compress under the weight of freshly placed concrete. The amount of this takeup is dependent upon the type and design of the falsework, workmanship, type and quality of materials and support conditions. The camber should be modified to account for anticipated takeup in the falsework.

5.3.6

Thermal Effects
Concrete box girder bridges are subjected to stresses and/or movements resulting from temperature variation. Temperature effects result from time-dependent variations in the effective bridge temperature and from temperature differentials within the bridge superstructure. A. Effective Bridge Temperature and Movement Fluctuation in effective bridge temperature causes expansion and contraction of the structure. Proper temperature expansion provisions are essential in order to ensure that the structure will not be damaged by thermal movements. These movements, in turn, induce stresses in supporting elements such as columns or piers, and result in horizontal movement of the expansion joints and bearings. For more details, see Chapter 8. B. Differential Temperature Although time-dependent variations in the effective temperature have caused problems in both reinforced and prestressed concrete bridges, detrimental effects caused by temperature differential within the superstructure have occurred only in prestressed bridges. Therefore, computation of stresses and movements resulting from the vertical temperature gradients is not included in this chapter. For more details, see AASHTO Guide Specifications, Thermal Effects on Concrete Bridge Superstructures (1989).

July 2000

5.3-17

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

End Diaphragm With Stub Abutment Figure 5.3.4-2

Typical End Diaphragm Reinforcement Figure 5.3.4-3

5.3-18

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5.3.7 Hinges
Hinges are one of the weakest links of box girder bridges subject to earthquake forces and it is desirable to eliminate hinges or reduce the number of hinges. For more details on the design of hinges, see Section 5.4. Designer should provide access space or pockets for maintenance and inspection of bearings. Allowance should be provided to remove and replace the bearings. Lift point locations, maximum lift permitted, jack capacity, and number of jacks should be shown in the hinge plan details.

Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

5.3.8

Utility Openings
A. Confined Spaces A confined space is any place having a limited means of exit which is subject to the accumulation of toxic or flammable contaminants or an oxygen deficient environment. Confined spaces include but are not limited to pontoons, box girder bridges, storage tanks, ventilation or exhaust ducts, utility vaults, tunnels, pipelines, and open-topped spaces more than 4 feet in depth such as pits, tubes, vaults, and vessels. The designer should provide for the following: • A sign with “Confined Space Authorized Personnel Only.” • In the “Special Provisions Check List,” alert and/or indicate that a special provision might be needed to cover confined spaces. B. Drain Holes Drain holes should be placed in the bottom slab at the low point of each cell to drain curing water during construction and any rain water that leaks through the deck slab. Additional drains shall be provided as a safeguard against water accumulation in the cell (especially when waterlines are carried by the bridge). In some instances, drainage through the bottom slab is difficult and other means shall be provided (i.e., cells over large piers and where a sloping exterior web intersects a vertical web). In this case, a horizontal drain should be provided through the vertical web. Figure 5.3.8-1 shows drainage details for the bottom slab of concrete box girder bridges. C. Access Hole and Air Vent Holes Access holes with doors should be placed in the bottom slab if necessary to inspect utilities inside cells (i.e., waterline, conduits, E.Q. restrainers, etc.). Figure 5.3.8-2 and 5.3.8-3 shows access hole and air vent hole details. Air vents are required when access holes are used.

July 2000

5.3-19

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Figure 5.3.8-1

P65:DP/BDM5

5.3-20

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Figure 5.3.8-2

July 2000

5.3-21

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges

Figure 5.3.8-3

5.3-22

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5.4 Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps
Hinges and inverted T-beam pier caps require special design and detailing considerations. Continuous hinge shelves (both top and bottom projecting shelves) and continuous ledges of inverted T-beam pier caps, which support girders, are shown in Figures 5.4-1 and 5.4-2 respectively. In each case, vertical tensile forces (hanger tension) act at the intersection of the web and the horizontal hinge shelf or ledge. In the ledges of inverted T-beam pier caps, passage of live loads may also cause reversing torsional stresses which together with conventional longitudinal shear and bending produce complex stress distributions in the ledges [10,11]. Provide minimum shelf or ledge support lengths (N, N1, and N2) and provide positive longitudinal linkage (e.g., earthquake restrainers) [12] in accordance with the current AASHTO seismic design requirements. A. Local Failure Modes In addition to conventional longitudinal bending and shearing forces, there are several local modes of failure which should be addressed in the design [10,11]. These are: shear friction failure, flexural failure, hanger tension failure, punching shear failure of the horizontal hinge shelf or ledge, and spalling under the bearing. Figure 5.4-3 shows these local failure modes and potential cracks. For all conditions, except for the bearing strength check, use φ=0.85. For the bearing strength check, use φ=0.7 [13].

Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps

Continuous Hinge Figure 5.4-1

July 2000

5.4-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps

Inverted T-Beam Pier Cap Figure 5.4-2

5.4-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps

The forces acting on the hinge shown in Figure 5.4-3 are: shear, Vu; horizontal tensile force, Nuc; and moment, Mu. Vu Nuc Mu where: af = Factored Shear (Dead Load + Live Load + Impact) ≥ 0.2Vu, but less than 1.0Vu = Vu(af) + Nuc(h-d) = Flexural moment arm is the distance from the reaction to the centerline of the hanger reinforcement, and shall include the thermal movement of the reaction, Vu. = Moment arm for the horizontal load, Nuc. (1) (2) (3)

h-d

The horizontal tensile load, Nuc, is due to indeterminate causes such as restrained shrinkage or temperature stresses and is considered a live load [13]. In addition, service load conditions should also be checked for deflections and crack control.

Crack 1 Crack 2 Crack 3 Crack 4

could lead to a flexural or shear friction failure mode. necessitates hanger reinforcement. could lead to a punching shear failure. can be avoided by reducing the bearing stress or allowing more edge distance. Failure Modes and Potential Cracks Figure 5.4-3

July 2000

5.4-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
B. Shear Friction Design 1. Interior Bearing Figure 5.4-4 shows the effective shelf width used to compute the allowable shear strength. The ratio av/d shall satisfy equation (4) and the factored shear force (including shelf dead load) shall satisfy both equations (5) and (6) [13]: av/d ≤ 1.0 Vu ≤ φ (0.2fc′)(W+4av)(d) Vu ≤ φµ (Avf)(fy) where: av d φ 0.2fc′ W+4av µ Avf = = = ≤ = = Distance from the reaction to the vertical face Depth from compression face to tensile reinforcement 0.85 800 psi Effective shelf width 1.4 for cast-in-place concrete (e.g., monolithic construction, no construction joint) = Shear friction reinforcement (4) (5) (6)

Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps

When W+4av > S, check: Vu ≤ φ (0.2fc′)(S)(d) 2. Bearing at End of Hinge or Ledge When S > 2c < (W+4av), check: Vu ≤ φ (0.2fc′)(2c)(d) When S > (W+4av) < 2c, check: Vu ≤ φ (0.2fc′)(W+4av)(d) When (W+4av) > S > 2c, check: Vu ≤ φ (0.2fc′)(S)(d) In addition, equation (6) shall be satisfied. Avf is distributed over 2c, W+4av, or S, whichever is less. where c = Distance from the end of the hinge or ledge to the center of the exterior bearing. S = Center-to-center of girders or hinge seat bearings. (10) (9) (8) (7)

5.4-4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps

Shear Friction Design Figure 5.4-4 C. Flexural Design (Figure 5.4-5) The primary reinforcement, As, for the shelf or ledge shall be determined from equations (11), (12), and (13), whichever is greater [13]: As ≥ Af + An As ≥ 2(Avf)/3 + An As ≥ ρmin (W+5af)(d) where: ρmin = 0.04(fc′/fy) Af = Flexural reinforcement required for Mu Avf = Shear friction reinforcement An = Tensile reinforcement = Nuc/φ(fy) In addition, closed stirrups or ties parallel to As with a total area Ah of not less than 0.5(As-An) shall be uniformly distributed within two thirds of the effective depth adjacent to As [13]. If the effective width W+5af≥S place the reinforcement over distance S. At the ends of the hinge or ledge, distribute the reinforcement over distance 2c, S, or W+5af, whichever is less. (11) (12) (13)

July 2000

5.4-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps

Flexural Design Figure 5.4-5 D. Hanger Tension Design (Figure 5.4-6) The hanger tension reinforcement, Ahr, shall satisfy both of the following strength and serviceability equations: Vu ≤ φAhr/s)(fy)(S) V ≤ (Ahr/s)(0.5fy)(W+3av) where: Ahr = Hanger reinforcement in square inches s = Spacing of the hanger reinforcement V = Service load reaction W+3av = Effective width for hanger reinforcement-Serviceability Strength Serviceability (14) (15)

Hinge Hanger Reinforcement Figure 5.4-6

5.4-6

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps

In addition to equations (14) and (15), the following equation shall also be satisfied for inverted T-beam pier caps (see Figure 5.4-7): 2Vu ≤ 2[2φ √ fc′ bfdf] + φ(ahr/s)(fy)(W+2df) where bf = Width of bottom flange of inverted T-beam df = Distance from top of ledge to center of longitudinal cap reinforcement near the bottom flange of the inverted T-beam W+2df = Effective width for hanger reinforcement for inverted T-beam. If S>(W+2df), it is not necessary to add the stirrup reinforcement for conventional shear and torsion to the hanger reinforcement. Ensure that the stirrup reinforcement satisfies either the conventional longitudinal shear and torsion reinforcement requirements or the hanger reinforcement requirement, whichever is greater. If S<(W+2df), it will be necessary to add the required hanger reinforcement to that required for shear and torsion [11]. (16)

Inverted T-Beam Hanger Reinforcement Figure 5.4-7 E. Punching Shear Check As shown in Figure 5.4-8, punching shear of the horizontal shelves of hinges and ledges of inverted T-beam pier caps should be checked. For an interior bearing, check: Vu ≤ φ (4 √ fc′ )(W + 2L′ + 2d)(d) For an exterior bearing at the end of a hinge or inverted T-beam cap, check: Vu ≤ φ (4 √ fc′ )(W + L′ + d)(d) where: 4 √ fc′ = Allowable tensile strength of concrete for punching shear W = Width of the rectangular bearing perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the bridge (e.g., width parallel to the centerline of bearings) L′ = Length from face of hinge or ledge to back of bearing = L+c (18) (17)

July 2000

5.4-7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps

Punching Shear at Interior Bearing Figure 5.4-8 F. Bearing Strength Check To prevent spalling under the bearing, the bearing stress should not exceed 0.85(φ)(fc′) [13]: Vu ≤ 0.85(φ)(fc′)(W)(L) where: φ = 0.70 L = Length of the rectangular bearing parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bridge (e.g., parallel to the direction of traffic). (19)

P65:DP/BDM5

5.4-8

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5.5 Widenings
This section provides general guidance for the design of bridge widenings. Included are additions to the substructure and the superstructure of reinforced concrete box girder, flat slab, T-beam, and precastprestressed girder bridges. For additional information, see ACI Committee Report, Guide for Widening Highway Bridges [15].

Widenings

5.5.1

Review of Existing Structures
A. General Obtain the following documents from existing records for preliminary review, design, and plan preparation: 1. 2. Reduced copy of “As-Built”contract plans from our microfilm records in Bridge Records, Office of Bridges and Structures. Reduced copy of original contract plans and special provisions, which can be obtained from Engineering Records (Plans Vault), Records Control. These will not include the “As-Built” plans, since they are made prior to receiving the “As-Built” plans from the Project Engineer. Backup microfilm records are also maintained by Engineering Records (Plans Vault), Records Control, but the “As-Built” plans may not be current. Check with the Bridge Preservation Unit for records of any unusual movements/rotations and other structural information. Original design calculations, which are stored in State Archives and can be retrieved by Bridge Records personnel. Current field data on Supplemental Site Data Form (including current deck elevations at interface of widening and existing deck, as well as cross slopes), are obtained from District. Current field measurements of existing pier crossbeam locations are recommended so that new prestressed girders are not fabricated too short or too long. This is particularly important if piers have been constructed with different skews. This information may not be available in any existing plans, so field trips may be necessary to determine actual details. Original and current Foundation Reports from the Materials Lab or from the Plans Vault. Change Order files to the original bridge contract in Records Control Unit.

3. 4. 5.

6. 7.

B. Original Contract Plans and Special Provisions Location and size of reinforcement, member sizes and geometry, location of construction joints, details, allowable design soil pressure, and test hole data are given on the plans. Original contract plans can be more legible than the microfilm copies. The special provisions may include pertinent information that is not covered on the plans or in the Standard Specifications. C. Original Calculations The original calculations should be reviewed for any “special assumptions” or office criteria used in the original design. The actual stresses in the structural members, which will be affected by the widening, should be reviewed. This may affect the structure type selected for the widening.

July 2000

5.5-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
D. Final Records For major widening/renovation projects, the Final Records should be reviewed particularly for information about the existing foundations and piles. Sometimes the piles indicated on the original plans were omitted, revised, or required preboring. Final Records are available from Records Control or Bridge Records (Final Records on some older bridges may be in storage at the Materials Lab).

Widenings

5.5.2

Analysis and Design Criteria
A. General Each widening represents a unique situation and construction operations may vary between widening projects. The guidelines in this section are based on over 20 years of WSDOT design experience with bridge widenings. 1. Appearance The widening of a structure should be accomplished in such a manner that the existing structure does not look “added on to.” When this is not possible, consideration should be given to enclosure walls, cover panels, paint, or other aesthetic treatments. Where possible and appropriate, the structure’s appearance should be improved by the widening. 2. Materials Preferably, materials used in the construction of the widening shall have the same thermal and elastic properties as the materials used in the construction of the original structure. 3. Load Distribution and Construction Sequence The members of the widening should be proportioned to provide similar longitudinal and transverse load distribution characteristics as the existing structure. Normally this can be achieved by using the same cross sections and member lengths that were used in the existing structure. The construction sequence and degree of interaction between the widening and the existing structure, after completion, shall be fully considered in determining the distribution of the dead load for design of the widening and stress checks for the existing structure. The distribution of live load shall be in accordance with the AASHTO specifications. Where precast-prestressed girders are used to widen an existing cast-in-place concrete box girder or T-beam bridge, the live load distribution factor for interior girder(s) shall be S/5.5. The construction sequence or stage construction should be clearly shown in the plans to avoid confusion and misinterpretation during construction. A typical construction sequence may involve placing the deck concrete, removing the falsework, placing the concrete for the closure strip, and placing the concrete for the traffic barrier. Indicate in the plans a suggested stage construction plan to avoid misinterpretation. 4. Specifications The design of the widening shall conform to the current AASHTO Specifications and the state of Washington’s Standard Specifications for Road, Bridge, and Municipal Construction. The method of design for the widening shall be by load factor design methods even though the original design may have been by service load design.

5.5-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
5. Geometrical Constraints The overall appearance and geometrical dimensions of the superstructure and columns of the widening should be the same or as close as possible to those of the existing structure. This is to ensure that the widening will have the same appearance and similar structural stiffness as the original structure. 6. Strength of Concrete The allowable stresses shown in the latest AASHTO Specifications are to be used. For concrete structures located in rural areas or where the volume of concrete is less than 30 cubic yards, use Class 4000 (fc′ = 4000 psi) and Grade 60 reinforcement. For projects located in urban areas and having a volume of concrete greater than 30 cubic yards, Class 5000 may be specified only if necessary to meet structural requirements and if facilities are available. Concrete with a greater strength may be used, if needed, with consultation and approval of the Bridge Design Engineer. 7. Overlay It should be established at the preliminary plan stage if an overlay is required as part of the widening. 8. Strength of the Existing Structure A review of the strength of the main members of the existing structure shall be made for construction conditions utilizing AASHTO Load Factors. A check of the existing main members after attachment of the widening shall be made for the final design loading condition. If the existing structural elements do not have adequate strength, consult your supervisor or in the case of consultants, contact the Consultant Liason Engineer for appropriate guidance. If significant demolition is required on the existing bridge, consideration should be given to requesting concrete strength testing for the existing bridge and including this information in the contract documents. 9. Special Considerations a. For structures that were originally designed for HS20 loading, HS25 shall be used to design the widening. For structures that were originally designed for less than HS20, consideration should be given to replacing the structure instead of widening it. Where large cambers are expected, a longitudinal joint between the existing structure and the widening may be considered. Longitudinal joints, if used, should be located out of traveled lanes or beneath median barriers to eliminate potentially hazardous vehicle control problems. The Standard Specifications do not permit falsework to be supported from the existing structure unless the Plans and Specifications state otherwise. This requirement eliminates the transmission of vibration from the existing structure to the widening during construction. The existing structure may still be in service. For narrow widenings where the Plans and Specifications require that the falsework be supported from the original structure (e.g., there are no additional girders, columns, crossbeams, or closure strips), there should be no external rigid supports such as posts or falsework from the ground. Supports from the ground do not permit the widening to deflect

Widenings

b.

c.

d.

July 2000

5.5-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

with the existing structure when traffic is on the existing structure. This causes the uncured concrete of the widening to crack where it joins the existing structure. Differential dead load deflection during construction should be given consideration. e. Precast members may be used to widen existing cast-in-place structures. This method is useful when the horizontal or vertical clearances during construction are insufficient to build cast-in-place members. The alignment for diaphragms for the widening shall generally coincide with the existing diaphragms. When using battered piles, estimate the pile tip elevations and ensure that they will have ample clearance from all existing piles, utilities, or other obstructions. Also check that there is sufficient clearance between the existing structure and the pile driving equipment.

f. g.

B. Seismic Design Criteria for Bridge Widenings 1. Adequacy of Existing Structure Early in the project, determine whether earthquake loading poses any problems for the structural adequacy of the existing structure (e.g., original unwidened structure). The amount of reinforcement and structural detailing of older structures may not meet the current AASHTO seismic design requirements. It is important that these deficiencies be determined as soon as possible so that remedial/retrofitting measures can be evaluated. It should be noted that for some structures, because of deterioration and/or inadequate details, the widening may not be structurally or economically feasible. In this case, the Bridge Design Engineer should be consulted for possible structure replacement instead of proceeding with widening the structure. 2. Superstructure Widening Without Adding Substructure No seismic analysis is necessary for this condition. Check the support shelf length required at all piers. Check the need for longitudinal earthquake restrainers and transverse earthquake stops. 3. Superstructure Widening by Adding Column(s) and Substructure Use the AASHTO/BDM seismic design criteria with appropriate R factors to design and detail the new columns and footings for the maximum required capacity. Analyze the widening and the existing structure as a combined unit. If the existing structure is supported by single column piers, and is located in SPC or C (LRFD Seismic Zone 2, 3, or 4), the existing columns should be retrofitted if the existing column does not have adequate ductility to meet current standards. If the existing structure is supported by multiple column piers, determine the need to retrofit the existing columns as part of the widening as follows: a. For existing bridges in SPC B or C (LRFD, Zone 2, 3, or 4) that are widened with additional columns and substructure, existing columns should be considered for retrofitting unless calculations or column details indicate that the existing columns have adequate ductility. Nonductile existing columns will likely not be able to carry vertical load if they experience the inelastic deflection that a new (ductile) column can tolerate.

5.5-4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
b.

Widenings

Only the columns should be retrofitted. Retrofitting the foundations supporting existing columns is generally too expensive to consider for a widening project. Experience in past earthquakes in California has shown that bridges with columns (only) retrofitted have performed quite well. Approval for retrofitting existing multiple column piers is subject to available funding and approval of the Bridge Design Engineer.

c. 4.

Other Criteria a. If recommended in the foundation report, the superstructure widening with new substructure shall also be checked for differential settlement between the existing structure and the new widened structure. All elements of the structure shall be analyzed and detailed to account for this differential settlement especially on spread footing foundations. Check support width requirements; if there is a need for earthquake restrainers on the existing structure as well as the widened portion, they shall be included in the widening design. The current AASHTO seismic design criteria may result in columns with more reinforcement and larger footings for the widened portion than those on the existing structure. If it is not possible to use larger footings because of limited space, an alternate design concept such as drilled shafts may be necessary. When modifications are made near or on the existing bridge, be careful to isolate any added potential stiffening elements (such as traffic barrier against colmuns). The relative stiffness of the new columns compared to the existing columns should be considered in the combined analysis. The typical column retrofit is steel jacketing with grouted annular space (between the existing column and the steel jacket). When strutted columns (horizontal strut between existing columsn) are encountered, remove the strut and analyze the existing columns for the new unbraced length and retrofit, if necessary. Refer to WSDOT Research Report on Strutted Columns (nearing completion).

b.

c.

d. e.

f.

C. Substructure 1. Selection of Foundation a. The type of foundation to be used to support the widening should generally be the same as that of the existing structure unless otherwise recommended by the Geotechnical Engineer. The effects of possible differential settlement between the new and the existing foundations shall be considered. Consider present bridge site conditions when determining new foundation locations. The conditions include: overhead clearance for pile driving equipment, horizontal clearance requirements, working room, pile batters, channel changes, utility locations, existing embankments, and other similar conditions.

b.

2.

Scour and Drift Added piles and columns for widenings at water crossings may alter stream flow characteristics at the bridge site. This may result in pier scouring to a greater depth than experienced with the existing configuration. Added substructure elements may also increase the possibility of trapping drift. The Hydraulics Engineer should be consulted concerning potential problems related to scour and drift on all widenings at water crossings.

July 2000

5.5-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
D. Superstructure 1. Camber Accurate prediction of dead load deflection is more important for widenings than for new bridges, since it is essential that the deck grades match [15]. The multipliers for estimating long-term delfection and camber for bridge widening may be taken as 2.7 times the elastic deflection due to the weight of the member and 3.0 times the elastic deflection due to the superimposed loads. To obtain a smooth transition in transverse direction of the bridge deck, the camber of the girder adjacent to the existing structure shall be adjusted for the difference in camber between new and existing structure. A linear interpolation may be used to adjust the camber of the girders located away from the existing structure. When large cambers are expected, see Section 5.5.2.A9b. 2. Closure Strip Except for narrow deck slab widenings (see Section 5.5.2.A9c) a closure strip is required for all cast-in-place widenings. The width shall be the minimum required to accommodate the necessary reinforcement and for form removal. Reinforcement, which extends through the closure strip shall be investigated in accordance with Section 5.5.4A7. Shear shall be transferred across the closure strip by shear friction and/or shear keys. All falsework supporting the widening shall be released and formwork supporting the closure strip shall be supported from the existing and newly widened structures prior to placing concrete in the closure strip. Because of deck slab cracking experienced in widened concrete decks, closure strips are required unless the mid-span dead load deflection is 1/2 inch or less. 3. Stress Levels and Deflections in Existing Structures Caution is necessary in determining the cumulative stress levels, deflections, and the need for shoring in existing structural members during rehabilitation projects. For example, a T-beam bridge was originally constructed on falsework and the falsework was released after the slab concrete gained strength. As part of a major rehabilitation project, the bridge was closed to traffic and the entire slab was removed and replaced without shoring. Without the slab, the stems behave as rectangular sections with a reduced depth and width. The existing stem reinforcement was not originally designed to support the weight of the slab without shoring. After the new slab was placed, wide cracks, eminating from the bottom of the stem opened, indicating that the reinforcement was overstressed. This overstress resulted in a lower load rating for the newly rehabilitated bridge. This example shows the need to shore up the remaining T-beam stems prior to placing the new slab so that excessive deflections do not occur and overstress in the existing reinforcing steel is prevented. It is necessary to understand how the original structure was constructed, how the rehabilitated structure is to be constructed, and the cumulative stress levels and deflections in the structure from the time of original construction through rehabilitation.

Widenings

5.5-6

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
E. Stability of Widening For relatively narrow box girder and T-beam widenings, symmetry about the vertical axis should be maintained because lateral loads are critical during construction. When symmetry is not possible, use pile cap connections, lateral connections, or special falsework. A minimum of two webs is generally recommended for box girder widenings. For T-beam widenings that require only one additional web, the web should be centered at the axis of symmetry of the slab. Often the width of the closure strip can be adjusted to accomplish this.

Widenings

5.5.3

Removing Portions of the Existing Structure
Portions of the existing structure to be removed shall be clearly indicated on the plans. Where a clean break line is required, a 3/4″ deep saw cut shall be specified for a slab with normal wear and a 1/2″ deep saw cut for worn roadway slabs. In no case, however, shall the saw blade cut or nick the main transverse top slab reinforcement. The special provisions shall state that care will be taken not to damage any reinforcement which is to be saved. Hydromilling is preferred where reinforcing bar cover is shallow and can effectively remove delaminated decks because of the good depth control it offers. When greater depths of slab are to be removed, special consideration should be given to securing exposed reinforcing bars to prevent undue vibration and subsequent fatigue cracks from occurring in the reinforcing bars. The current General Special Provisions should be reviewed for other specific requirements on slab removal. Removal of any portion of the main structural members should be held to a minimum. Careful consideration shall be given to the construction conditions, particularly when the removal affects the existing frame system. In extreme situations, preloading by jacking is acceptable to control stresses and deflections during the various stages of removal and construction. Removal of the main longitudinal slab reinforcement should be kept to a minimum. See “Slab Removal Detail,” Figure 5.5-1, for the limiting case for the maximum allowable removal. The plans should include a note that critical dimensions and elevations are to be verified in the field prior to the fabrication of precast units or expansion joint assemblies. In cases where an existing sidewalk is to be removed but the supporting slab under the sidewalk is to be retained, district personnel should check the feasibility of removing the sidewalk. Prior to design, district personnel should make recommendations on acceptable removal methods and required construction equipment. The plans and specifications should then be prepared to accommodate these recommendations. This will ensure the constructibility of plan details and the adequacy of the specifications.

5.5.4

Attachment of Widening to Existing Structure
A. General 1. Lap and Mechanical Splices To attach a widening to an existing structure, the first choice is to utilize existing reinforcing bars by splicing new bars to existing. Lap splices or mechanical splices should be used. However, it may not always be possible to splice to existing reinforcing bars and spacing limitations may make it difficult to use mechanical splices.

July 2000

5.5-7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
2. Welding Reinforcement Existing reinforcing steel may not be readily weldable. Mechanical splices should be used wherever possible. If welding is the only feasible means, the chemistry of the reinforcing steel must be analyzed and acceptable welding procedures developed. 3. Drilling Into Existing Structure It may be necessary to drill holes and set dowels in epoxy resin in order to attach the widening to the existing structure. When drilling into heavily reinforced areas, chipping should be specified to expose the main reinforcing bars. If it is necessary to drill through reinforcing bars or if the holes are within 4 inches of an existing concrete edge, core drilling should be specified. Core drilled holes shall be roughened before resin is applied. If this is not done, a dried residue, which acts as a bond breaker and reduces the load capacity of the dowel, will remain. Generally, the drilled holes are 1 /8 inch in diameter larger than the dowel diameter for #5 and smaller dowels and 1/4 inch in diameter larger than the dowel diameter for #6 and larger dowels. In special applications requiring drilled holes greater than 11/2″ inch diameter or deeper than 2 feet, core drilling shall be specified. These holes should also be intentionally roughened prior to applying epoxy resin. Core drilled holes should have a minimum clearance of 3 inches from the edge of the concrete and 1-inch clearance from existing reinforcing bars in the existing structure. These clearances should be noted in the plans. 4. Dowelling Reinforcing Bars Into the Existing Structure a. b. Dowel bars shall be set with an approved epoxy resin. The existing structural element shall be checked for its adequacy to transmit the load transferred to it from the dowel bars. Dowel spacing and edge distance affect the allowable tensile dowel loads [14]. Allowable tensile loads, dowel bar embedments, and drilled hole sizes for reinforcing bars (Grade 60) used as dowels and set with an approved epoxy resin are shown in Table 5.5-1. These values are based on an edge clearance greater than 3 inch, a dowel spacing greater than 6 inch, and are shown for both uncoated and epoxy coated dowels. Table 5.5-2 lists dowel embedment lengths when the dowel spacing is less than 6 inch. Note that in Table 5.5-2 the edge clearance is equal to or greater than 3 inch, because this is the minimum edge clearance for a drilled hole from a concrete edge. If it is not possible to obtain these embedments, such as for traffic railing dowels into existing deck slabs, the allowable load on the dowel shall be reduced by the ratio of the actual embedment divided by the required embedment.

Widenings

5.5-8

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
c.

Widenings

The embedments shown in Table 5.5-1 and -2 are based on dowels embedded in concrete with fc′=4,000 psi. Allowable Tensile Load for Dowels Set With Epoxy Resin fc′=4,000 psi, Gr 60 Reinforcing Bars, Edge Clearance ≥ 3 in., and Spacing ≥ 6 in.[14] Table 5.5-1 Bar Size 4 5 6 7 8 9 Allowable Design Tensile Load, T* (kips) 12.0 18.6 26.4 36.0 47.4 60.0 Drill Hole Size (in)
5 3

Required Embedment, Le** Uncoated Epoxy Coated (in) (in) 7 8 9 11 13 16 8 9 10 12 141/2 171/2

/8 /4

1 11/8 11/4 13/8

*Allowable Tensile Load (Strength Design) = (fy)(As). **Based on removed cover. In cases where concrete cover is not removed, the designer should add the cover thickness to the required embedment. Allowable Tensile Load for Dowels Set With Epoxy Resin fc′=4,000 psi, Gr 60 Reinforcing Bars, Edge Clearance ≥ 3 in., and Spacing < 6 in.[14] Table 5.5-2 Bar Size 4 5 6 7 8 9 Allowable Design Tensile Load, T* (kips) 12.0 18.6 26.4 36.0 47.4 60.0 Drill Hole Size (in)
5 3

Required Embedment, Le** Uncoated Epoxy Coated (in) (in) 91/2 101/2 111/2 131/2 161/2 20 101/2 111/2 121/2 15 18 22

/8 /4 1 11/8 11/4 13/8

*Allowable Tensile Load (Strength Design) = (fy)(As). **Based on removed cover. In cases where concrete cover is not removed, the designer should add the cover thickness to the required embedment. 5. Shear Transfer Across a Dowelled Joint Shear should be carried across the joint by shear friction on an intentionally roughened surface instead of depending on the dowels to transmit the shear force. Chipping shear keys in the existing concrete can also be used to transfer shear across a dowelled joint, but is expensive.

July 2000

5.5-9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
6. Preparation of Existing Surfaces for Concreting See “Removing Portions of Existing Structure” in the General Special Provisions for requirements. Unsound, damaged, dirty, porous, or otherwise undesirable old concrete should be removed, and the remaining concrete surface should be clean, free of laitance, and intentionally roughened to ensure proper bond between the old and new concrete surfaces. 7. Control of Shrinkage and Deflection on Connecting Reinforcement Dowels that are fixed in the existing structure may be subject to shear as a result of longitudinal shrinkage and vertical deflection when the falsework is removed. These shear forces may result in a reduced tensile capacity of the connection. When connecting the transverse reinforcing bars across the closure strip is unavoidable, the interaction between shear and tension in the dowel or reinforcing bar should be checked. The use of wire rope or sleeved reinforcement may be acceptable, subject to approval by your supervisor. Where possible, transverse reinforcing bars should be spliced to the existing reinforcing bars in a blocked-out area which can be included in the closure strip. Nominal, shear friction, temperature and shrinkage, and distribution reinforcing bars should be bent into the closure strip. Rock bolts may be used to transfer connection loads deep into the existing structure, subject to the approval of your supervisor. 8. Post-Tensioning Post-tensioning of existing crossbeams may be utilized to increase the moment capacity and to eliminate the need for additional substructure. Generally, an existing crossbeam can be core drilled for post-tensioning if it is less than 30 feet long. The amount of drift in the holes alignment may be approximately 1 inch in 20 feet. For crossbeams longer than 30 feet, external post-tensioning should be considered. For an example of this application, refer to Contract 3846, Bellevue Transit Access — Stage 1.

Widenings

5.5-10

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
B. Connection Details The details on the following sheets are samples of details which have been used for widening bridges. They are informational and are not intended to restrict the designer’s judgment.

Widenings

Slab Removal Detail Figure 5.5.-1

July 2000

5.5-11

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
1. Box Girder Bridges Figures 5.5-2, -3, -4, and -5 show typical details for widening box girder bridges.

Widenings

Box Girder Section in Span Figure 5.5-2

5.5-12

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

Box Girder Section Through X-Beam See Box Girder Section in Span for additional details. Figure 5.5-3 Welding or mechanical butt splice are preferred over dowelling for the main reinforcement in crossbeams and columns when it can be done in the horizontal or flat position. It shall be allowed only when the bars to be welded are free from restraint at one end during the welding process. **If bars are to be dowelled, provide a sufficient embedment depth for moment connection bars into existing structure that will provide the required moment capacity in the existing structure. See Table 5.5-1 or 5.5-2.

July 2000

5.5-13

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

Box Girder Section in Span at Diaphragm Alternate I Figure 5.5-4

5.5-14

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

Box Girder Section in Span at Diaphragm Alternate II Figure 5.5-5

July 2000

5.5-15

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
2. Flat Slab Bridges It is not necessary to remove any portion of the existing slab to expose the existing transverse reinforcing bars for splicing purposes, because the transverse slab reinforcement is only distribution reinforcement. The transverse slab reinforcement for the widening may be dowelled directly into the existing structure without meeting the normal splice requirements. For the moment connection details, see Figure 5.5-6 for “Flat Slab — Section through X-Beam.”

Widenings

Note: Falsework shall be maintained under pier crossbeams until closure pour is made and cured 10 days. Flat Slab — Section through X-Beam Figure 5.5-6

5.5-16

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
3. T-Beam Bridges Use details similar to those for box girder bridges for crossbeam connections. See Figure 5.5-7 for slab connection detail.

Widenings

T-Beam — Section in Span Figure 5.5-7

July 2000

5.5-17

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
4. Prestress Concrete Girder Bridges Use details similar to those for box girder bridges for crossbeam moment connections and use details similar to those in Figure 5.5-8 for connecting to the slab.

Widenings

Prestressed Girder — Section in Span Figure 5.5-8

5.5-18

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5.5.5 Expansion Joints
The designer should determine if existing expansion joints can be eliminated. It will be necessary to determine what modifications to the structure are required to provide an adequate functional system when existing joints are eliminated. For expansion joint design, see Section 8.4.1 “Expansion Joints.” Very often on widening projects it is necessary to chip out the existing concrete deck and rebuild the joint. Figures 5.5-9 and 5.5-10 show details for rebuilding joint openings for compression seal expansion joints. If a widening project includes an overlay, the expansion joint may have to be raised, modified or replaced. See the Joint Specialist for plan details that are currently being used to modify or retrofit existing expansion joints.

Widenings

Expansion Joint Detail Shown for Compression Seal — Existing Reinforcing Steel Saved Figure 5.5-9

July 2000

5.5-19

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Widenings

Expansion Joint Detail shown for compression seal with new reinforcing steed added. Figure 5.5-10

5.5.6

Possible Future Widening for Current Designs
For current projects that include sidewalks (and where it is anticipated that the structure may be modified or widened in the future), provide a smooth rather than a rough construction joint between the sidewalk and the slab. This will normally pertain to flat slab bridges or where the sidewalk width exceeds the slab cantilever overhang.

5.5.7

Bridge Widening Falsework
For widenings which do not have additional girders, columns, crossbeams, or closure pours, flasework should be supported by the existing bridge. There should be an external support from the ground. The reason is that the ground support will not allow the widening to deflect the existing bridge when traffic is on the bridge. This will cause the “green” concrete to crack where it joins the existing bridge. Designer should contact the bridge construction support unit regarding fasework associated with widenings.

5.5-20

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5.5.8 Existing Bridge Widenings
The following listed bridge widenings are included as aid to the designer. These should not be construed as the only acceptable methods of widening; there is no substitute for the designer’s creativity or ingenuity in solving the challenges posed by bridge widenings.
Bridge NE 8th Street U’Xing Higgins Slough ER17 and AR17 O-Xing SR 538 O-Xing B-N O’Xing SR 405 536 5 5 5 Contract No. 9267 9353 9478 9548 9566 Type of Bridge Ps. Gir. Flat Slab Box Girder T-Beam Box Girder Middle and outside widening. Unbalanced widening section support at diaphragms until completion of closure pour. Widened with P.S. Girders, X-beams, and diaphragms not in line with existing jacking required to manipulate stresses, added enclusure walls. Post-tensioned X-beam, single web. Unusual Features Pier replacements

Widenings

Blakeslee Jct. E/W B-N O’Xing SR 536 LE Line over Yakima River SR 18 O-Xing Hamilton Road O-Xing Dillenbauch Creek Longview Wye SR 432 U-Xing Klickitat River Bridge Skagit River Bridge B-N O-Xing at Chehalis Bellevue Access EBCD Widening and Pier 16 Modification Totem Lake/NE 124th I/C Pacific Avenue I/C SR 705/SR 5 SB Added Lane Mercer Slough Bridge 90/43S Spring Street O-Xing No. 5/545SCD Fishtrap Creek Bridge 546/8 Columbia Drive O-Xing 395/16

5 18

9638 9688 9696

T-Beam and Box Girder Box Girder T-Beam Box Girder P.S. Girder T-Beam Flat Slab P.S. Girder P.S. Girder Steel Truss

Similar to Contract 9548. Pier shaft. Lightweight concrete. Precast girder in one span.

90 90 5 5 5 142 5 5

9806 9823 9894

Bridge lengthening. Bridge replacement. Rail modification. Replacement of thru steel girder span with stringer span.

90 405 5 5

3846 3716 3087 3345 3846

Flat Slab and Box Girder T-Beam Box Girder Box Girder CIP Conc. Flat Slab CIP Conc. Box Girder P.C. Units Steel Girder

Deep, soft soil. Stradle best replacing single column. Skew = 55 degrees. Complex parallel skewed structures. Multiple widen structures. Tapered widening of flat slab outrigger pier, combined footings. Tapered widening of box girder with hingers, shafts. Widening of existing P.C. Units. Tight constraints on substructure. Widening/Deck replacement using standard rolled sections.

3845 3661 3379

July 2000

5.5-21

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Contract No. 3207 3087 3565 9220 9267 3967 Type of Bridge CIP Haunched Con. Box Girder CIP Conc. Box Girder CIP Conc. Tee Beam CIP Conc. Tee Beam Prestressed Girders Prestressed Girders CIP Conc. Post-tensioned Box CIP Post-tensioned Box

Widenings

Bridge S 74th-72nd St. O-Xing No. 5/426 Pacific Avenue O-Xing No. 5/332 Tye River Bridges 2/126 and 2/127 SR 20 and BNRR O-Xing No. 5/714 NE 8th St. U’Xing No. 405/43 So. 212th St. U’Xing SR 167

SR

Unusual Features Haunched P.C. P.T. Bath Tub girder sections. Longitudinal joint between new and existing. Stage construction with crown shift. Widened with prestressed girders raised crossbeam. Pier replacement — widening. Widening constructed as stand alone structure. Widening column designed as strong column for retrofit. Skew = 50 degree. Longitudinal “link pin” deck joint between new and existing to accommodate new creep. Sidewalk widening with pipe struts.

SE 232nd St. SR 18

5801

Obdashian Bridge 2/275

N/A 1999

P65:DP/BDM5

5.5-22

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Reinforced Concrete Superstructures 5.99 Bibliography
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. McCormac, J. C., Design of Reinforced Concrete, Harper & Row, New York, 1st Ed., 1978, 507 pp. Wang, C.-K. and Salmon, C. G., Reinforced Concrete Design, Harper & Row, New York, 3rd Ed., 1979, 918 pp. Park, R. and Pauley, T., Reinforced Concrete Design, John Wiley & Sons, New york, 1st ed., 1975, 769 pp. ACI 318-89, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete and Commentary, American Concrete Institute, 1989, pp.353. Ghosh, S. K. and Rabbat, B. G., Editors, Notes on ACI 318-89, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete with Design Applications, Portland Cement Association, 5th ed., 1990. ACI-ASCE Committee 343, Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Structures, American Concrete Institute, 1988, 162 pp. Hsu, T. T. C., Torsion of Reinforced Concrete, Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 1st Ed., 1984, 516 pp. Collins, M. P. and Mitchell, D., Shear and Torsion Design of Prestressed and Non-Prestressed Concrete Beams, PCI Journal, September-October, 1980, pp. 32-100. ACI Committee 317, Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook — Working Stress Method, Publication SP-3, American Concrete Institute, 3rd Ed., 1965, 271 pp.

Bibliography

10. Mirza, S.A., and Furlong, R.W., Design of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Inverted T Beams for Bridge Structures, PCI Journal, Vol. 30, No. 4, July-August 1985, pp. 112-136. 11. Rabbat, B.G., Reader Comments Design of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete inverted T Beams for Bridge Structures, PCI Journal, Vol. 31, No. 3, May-June 1986, pp. 157-163. 12. Supplement A, Standard Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges, AASHTO, Washington, D.C., 1991, pp. 14-16. 13. Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, 16th Edition, AASHTO, Washington, D.C., 1996. 14. Babaei, K. and Hawkins, N. M., Bending/Straightening and Grouting Concrete Reinforcing Steel: Review of WSDOT’s Specifications and Proposed Modifications, Final Report WA-RD 168.1, Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC), December 1988, 75 pp. 15. ACI Committee 345, Guide for Widening Highway Bridges, ACI Structural Journal, July/August, 1992, pp. 451-466. 16. AASHTO LRFD Specifications, 2nd Edition, AASHTO, Washington, D.C., 1998.

P65:DP/BDM5

July 2000

5.99-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Reinforcing Bar Properties

Size #3

Weight (lbs/ft) 0.376

Nominal Diameter* (in)
3

Outside Diameter (in) 0.42

Area (in2) 0.11

Maximum Bar Length (ft) 40′

Normal Bar Length (ft) 30′

/ 8″ / 2″ / 8″ / 4″ / 8″

#4

0.668

1

0.56

0.20

40′

40′

#5

1.043

5

0.70

0.31

60′

40′

#6

1.502

3

0.83

0.44

60′

60′

#7

2.044

7

0.96

0.60

60′

60′

#8

2.670

1″

1.10

0.79

72′**

60′

#9

3.400

1.13 (11/8″) 1.27 (11/4″) 1.41 (13/8″) 1.69 (13/4″) 2.26 (11/4″)

1.24

1.00

72′**

60′

#10

4.303

1.40

1.27

72′**

60′

#11

5.313

1.55

1.56

90′**

60′

#14

7.650

1.86

2.25

90′**

60′

#18

13.600

2.48

4.00

90′**

60′

*Normally 1/8 per bar size number. **Requires large special order. Since these lengths may pose problems in transporting and handling, get your supervisor’s approval before using them. See Chapter 5, Section 5.1.2F. Note: For sizes > #9, area and weight are based on the decimal diameter. Table 5.1-A1

July 2000

5.1-A1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Bar Area vs. Bar Spacing

(Reinforcing Bars

AASHTO M31)

Bar Size

#3 Spacing 3″ 3 1 /4 3 1 /2 3 3 /4 4 4 1 /4 4 1 /2 4 3 /4 5 5 1 /4 5 1 /2 5 3 /4 6 6 1 /2 7 7 1 /2 8 8 1 /2 9 9 1 /2 10 101/2 11 111/2 0.44 0.41 0.38 0.35 0.33 0.31 0.29 0.28 0.26 0.25 0.24 0.23 0.22 0.20 0.19 0.18 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.13 0.13 0.12 0.11

#4 0.80 0.74 0.69 0.64 0.60 0.56 0.53 0.51 0.48 0.46 0.44 0.42 0.40 0.37 0.34 0.32 0.30 0.28 0.27 0.25 0.24 0.23 0.22 0.21

#5

#6

#7

#8

#9

#10

#11

#14

#18

1.14 1.06 0.99 0.93 0.88 0.83 0.78 0.74 0.71 0.68 0.65 0.62 0.57 0.53 0.50 0.47 0.44 0.41 0.39 0.37 0.35 0.34 0.32 1.51 1.41 1.32 1.24 1.17 1.11 1.06 1.01 0.96 0.92 0.88 0.81 0.75 0.70 0.66 0.62 0.59 0.56 0.53 0.50 0.48 0.46 2.06 1.92 1.80 1.69 1.60 1.52 1.44 1.37 1.31 1.25 1.20 1.11 1.03 0.96 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.76 0.72 0.69 0.65 0.63 2.53 2.37 2.23 2.11 2.00 1.90 1.81 1.72 1.65 1.58 1.46 1.35 1.26 1.19 1.12 1.05 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.86 0.82 3.20 3.00 2.82 2.67 2.53 2.40 2.29 2.18 2.09 2.00 1.85 1.71 1.60 1.50 1.41 1.33 1.26 1.20 1.14 1.09 1.04 3.81 3.59 3.39 3.21 3.05 2.90 2.77 2.65 2.54 2.35 2.18 2.03 1.91 1.79 1.69 1.60 1.52 1.45 1.39 1.33 4.68 4.40 4.16 3.94 3.74 3.57 3.40 3.26 3.12 2.88 2.67 2.50 2.34 2.20 2.08 1.97 1.87 1.78 1.70 1.63 6.00 5.68 5.40 5.14 4.91 4.70 4.50 4.15 3.86 3.60 3.38 3.18 3.00 2.84 2.70 2.57 2.45 2.35 8.35 8.00 7.38 6.86 6.40 6.00 5.65 5.33 5.05 4.80 4.57 4.36 4.17

As Per Foot of Bar Table 5.1-A2

5.1-A2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Size No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Bar Area vs. Number of Bars

#3 0.11 0.22 0.33 0.44 0.55 0.66 0.77 0.88 0.99 1.10 1.21 1.32 1.43 1.54 1.65 1.76 1.87 1.98 2.09 2.20 2.31 2.42 2.53 2.64 2.75 2.86 2.97 3.08 3.19 3.30

#4 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 2.20 2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.60 3.80 4.00 4.20 4.40 4.60 4.80 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80 6.00

#5 0.31 0.62 0.93 1.24 1.55 1.86 2.17 2.48 2.79 3.10 3.41 3.72 4.03 4.34 4.65 4.96 5.27 5.58 5.89 6.20 6.51 6.82 7.13 7.44 7.75 8.06 8.37 8.68 8.99 9.30

#6 0.44 0.88 1.32 1.76 2.20 2.64 3.08 3.52 3.96 4.40 4.84 5.28 5.72 6.16 6.60 7.04 7.48 7.92 8.36 8.80 9.24 9.68 10.12 10.56 11.00 11.44 11.88 12.32 12.76 13.20

#7 0.60 1.20 1.80 2.40 3.00 3.60 4.20 4.80 5.40 6.00 6.60 7.20 7.80 8.40 9.00 9.60 10.20 10.80 11.40 12.00 12.60 13.20 13.80 14.40 15.00 15.60 16.20 16.80 17.40 18.00

#8 0.79 1.58 2.37 3.16 3.95 4.74 5.53 6.32 7.11 7.90 8.69 9.48 10.27 11.06 11.85 12.64 13.43 14.22 15.01 15.80 16.59 17.38 18.17 18.96 19.75 20.54 21.33 22.12 22.91 23.70

#9 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 24.00 25.00 26.00 27.00 28.00 29.00 30.00

#10 1.27 2.54 3.81 5.08 6.35 7.62 8.89 10.16 11.43 12.70 13.97 15.24 16.51 17.78 19.05 20.32 21.59 22.86 24.13 25.40 26.67 27.94 29.21 30.48 31.75 33.02 34.29 35.56 36.83 38.10

#11 1.56 3.12 4.68 6.24 7.80 9.36 10.92 12.48 14.04 15.60 17.16 18.72 20.28 21.84 23.40 24.96 26.52 28.08 29.64 31.20 32.76 34.32 35.88 37.44 39.00 40.56 42.12 43.68 45.24 46.80

#14 2.25 4.50 6.75 9.00 11.25 13.50 15.75 18.00 20.25 22.50 24.75 27.00 29.25 31.50 33.75 36.00 38.25 40.50 42.75 45.00 47.25 49.50 51.75 54.00 56.25 58.50 60.75 63.00 65.25 67.50

#18 4.00 8.00 12.00 16.00 20.00 24.00 28.00 32.00 36.00 40.00 44.00 48.00 52.00 56.00 60.00 64.00 68.00 72.00 76.00 80.00 84.00 88.00 92.00 96.00 100.00 104.00 108.00 112.00 116.00 120.00

Areas for Various Bar Sizes and Number of Bars Table 5.1-A3

July 2000

5.1-A3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Tension Development Length of Uncoated Deformed Bars
fc′ = 3,000 psi
Bar Size Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in

fc′ = 4,000 psi
Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in

fc′ = 5,000 psi
Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in

fc′ = 6,000 psi
Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18

1′-5″ 1′-5″ 1′-9″ 2′-3″ 3′-1″ 4′-1″ 5′-2″ 6′-6″ 8′-0″ 10′-11″ 14′-1″

1′-0″ 1′-0″ 1′-3″ 1′-8″ 2′-3″ 2′-11″ 3′-8″ 4′-8″ 5′-9″ 7′-10″ 10′-1″

1′-5″ 1′-5″ 1′-9″ 2′-2″ 2′-8″ 3′-6″ 4′-6″ 5′-8″ 6′-11″ 9′-5″ 12′-3″

1′-0″ 1′-0″ 1′-3″ 1′-6″ 1′-11″ 2′-6″ 3′-2″ 4′-1″ 5′-0″ 9′-9″ 8′-9″

1′-5″ 1′-5″ 1′-9″ 2′-2″ 2′-6″ 3′-2″ 4′-0″ 5′-1″ 6′-3″ 8′-5″ 10′-11″

1′-0″ 1′-0″ 1′-3″ 1′-6″ 1′-9″ 2′-3″ 2′-10″ 3′-8″ 4′-5″ 6′-1″ 7′-10″

1′-5″ 1′-5″ 1′-9″ 2′-2″ 2′-6″ 2′-11″ 3′-8″ 4′-8″ 5′-8″ 7′-9″ 10′-0″

1′-0″ 1′-0″ 1′-3″ 1′-6″ 1′-9″ 2′-1″ 2′-7″ 3′-4″ 4′-1″ 5′-6″ 7′-2″

Tension Development Length of Epoxy Coated Deformed Bars
fc′ = 3,000 psi
Bar Size Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in

fc′ = 4,000 psi
Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in

fc′ = 5,000 psi
Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in

fc′ = 6,000 psi
Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18

1′-9″ 1′-9″ 2′-2″ 2′-9″ 3′-9″ 4′-11″ 6′-3″ 7′-11″ 9′-9″ 13′-3″ 17′-1″

1′-6″ 1′-6″ 1′-11″ 2′-5″ 3′-4″ 4′-4″ 5′-6″ 7′-0″ 8′-7″ 11′-8″ 15′-1″

1′-9″ 1′-9″ 2′-2″ 2′-7″ 3′-3″ 4′-3″ 5′-5″ 6′-10″ 8′-5″ 11′-6″ 14′-10″

1′-6″ 1′-6″ 1′-11″ 2′-3″ 2′-11″ 3′-9″ 4′-9″ 6′-1″ 7′-5″ 10′-1″ 13′-1″

1′-9″ 1′-9″ 2′-2″ 2′-7″ 3′-0″ 3′-10″ 4′-10″ 6′-2″ 7′-6″ 10′-3″ 13′-3″

1′-6″ 1′-6″ 1′-11″ 2′-3″ 2′-8″ 3′-5″ 4′-3″ 5′-5″ 6′-8″ 9′-1″ 11′-8″

1′-9″ 1′-9″ 2′-2″ 2′-7″ 3′-0″ 3′-6″ 4′-5″ 5′-7″ 6′-11″ 9′-4″ 12′-1″

1′-6″ 1′-6″ 1′-11″ 2′-3″ 2′-8″ 3′-1″ 3′-11″ 4′-11″ 6′-1″ 8′-3″ 10′-8″

Top Bars are so placed that more than 12″ of concrete is cast below the reinforcement. Modification Factor for Spacing >=6″ and side cover >=3″ = 0.8. Minimum Development Length = 12″. Modification Factor for Reinforcement Enclosed in Spiral = 0.75

Table 5.1-A4

Tension Development Length of Standard 90° and 180° Hooks
fc′ = 3,000 psi fc′ = 4,000 psi fc′ = 5,000 psi
Side Cover Side Cover < 21/2″ Cover >= 21/2″ Cover on Tail < 2″ on Tail >= 2″ Side Cover Side Cover Side Cover Side Cover < 21/2″ Cover >= 21/2″ Cover < 21/2″ Cover >= 21/2″ Cover on Tail < 2″ on Tail >= 2″ on Tail < 2″ on Tail >= 2″

fc′ = 6,000 psi

Bar Size

Side Cover Side Cover < 21/2″ Cover >= 21/2″ Cover on Tail < 2″ on Tail >= 2″

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18

0′-9″ 0′-11″ 1′-2″ 1′-5″ 1′-8″ 1′-10″ 2′-1″ 2′-4″ 2′-7″ 3′-1″ 4′-2″

0′-6″ 0′-8″ 0′-10″ 1′-0″ 1′-2″ 1′-4″ 1′-6″ 1′-8″ 1′-10″ 3′-1″ 4′-2″

0′-8″ 0′-10″ 1′-0″ 1′-3″ 1′-5″ 1′-7″ 1′-10″ 2′-1″ 2′-3″ 2′-9″ 3′-7″

0′-6″ 0′-7″ 0′-9″ 0′-10″ 1′-0″ 1′-2″ 1′-3″ 1′-5″ 1′-7″ 2′-9″ 3′-7″

0′-7″ 0′-9″ 0′-11″ 1′-1″ 1′-3″ 1′-5″ 1′-8″ 1′-10″ 2′-0″ 2′-5″ 3′-3″

0′-6″ 0′-7″ 0′-8″ 0′-9″ 0′-11″ 1′-0″ 1′-2″ 1′-3″ 1′-5″ 2′-5″ 3′-3″

0′-6″ 0′-8″ 0′-10″ 1′-0″ 1′-2″ 1′-4″ 1′-6″ 1′-8″ 1′-10″ 2′-3″ 2′-11″

0′-6″ 0′-7″ 0′-7″ 0′-8″ 0′-10″ 0′-11″ 1′-1″ 1′-2″ 1′-4″ 2′-3″ 2′-11″

Table 5.1-A5

5.1-A4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Tension Lap Splice Lengths of Grade 60 Uncoated Bars – Class B
fc′ = 3,000 psi
Bar Size Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in

fc′ = 4,000 psi
Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in

fc′ = 5,000 psi
Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in

fc′ = 6,000 psi
Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18

2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-4″ 2′-0″ 2′-11″ 2′-1″ 4′-0″ 2′-11″ 5′-3″ 3′-9″ 6′-8″ 4′-9″ 8′-6″ 6′-1″ 10′-5″ 7′-5″ Lap Splices Not Allowed

2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-4″ 2′-0″ 2′-9″ 2′-0″ 3′-6″ 2′-6″ 4′-7″ 3′-3″ 5′-9″ 4′-2″ 7′-4″ 5′-3″ 9′-0″ 6′-5″ Lap Splices Not Allowed

2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-4″ 2′-0″ 2′-9″ 2′-0″ 3′-3″ 2′-4″ 4′-11″ 2′-11″ 5′-2″ 3′-9″ 6′-7″ 4′-8″ 8′-1″ 5′-9″ Lap Splices Not Allowed

2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-0″ 2′-4″ 2′-0″ 2′-9″ 2′-0″ 3′-3″ 2′-4″ 3′-9″ 2′-8″ 4′-9″ 3′-5″ 6′-0″ 4′-4″ 7′-4″ 5′-3″ Lap Splices Not Allowed

Tension Lap Splice Lengths of Grade 60 Epoxy Coated Bars – Class B
fc′ = 3,000 psi
Bar Size Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in

fc′ = 4,000 psi
Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in

fc′ = 5,000 psi
Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in

fc′ = 6,000 psi
Top Bars ft-in Others ft-in

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18

2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-10″ 2′-6″ 3′-7″ 3′-2″ 4′-11″ 4′-4″ 6′-5″ 5′-8″ 8′-1″ 7′-2″ 10′-3″ 9′-1″ 12′-8″ 11′-2″ Lap Splices Not Allowed

2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-10″ 2′-6″ 3′-4″ 3′-0″ 4′-3″ 3′-9″ 5′-7″ 4′-11″ 7′-0″ 6′-2″ 8′-11″ 7′-10″ 10′-11″ 9′-8″ Lap Splices Not Allowed

2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-10″ 2′-6″ 3′-4″ 3′-0″ 3′-11″ 3′-5″ 5′-0″ 4′-5″ 6′-3″ 5′-7″ 8′-0″ 7′-0″ 9′-9″ 8′-0″ Lap Splices Not Allowed

2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-3″ 2′-0″ 2′-10″ 2′-6″ 3′-4″ 3′-0″ 3′-11″ 3′-5″ 4′-6″ 4′-0″ 5′-9″ 5′-1″ 7′-3″ 6′-5″ 8′-11″ 7′-11″ Lap Splices Not Allowed

Top Bars are so placed that more than 12″ of concrete is cast below the reinforcement. Definition of Splice Classes: Class A: Class B: Class C: Low stressed bars – 75% or less are spliced Low stressed bars – more than 75% are spliced High stressed bars – 1/2 or less are spliced High stressed bars – more than 50% are spliced

Class B Lap splice is the preferred and most commonly used by bridge office. Modification Factor for Class A: 0.77 Modification Factor for Class C: 1.31 Modification Factor for 3-bar Bundle = 1.2

Table 5.1-A6

July 2000

5.1-A5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Minimum Development Length and Minimum Lap Splices of Deformed Bars in Compression

Development Length of Deformed Bars in Compression and Minimum Compression Lap Splice Per AASHTO Standard Specifications, 1991, 16th Edition Articles 8.26, 8.32.4 Concrete Reinf. Bar Size 3&4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18 1′-0″* 1′-2″ 1′-5″ 1′-8″ 1′-10″ 2′-1″ 2′-4″ 2′-7″ 3′-1″ 4′-2″ fc′ = 3,000 psi fc′ = 4,000 psi fc′ = 5,000 psi fc′ = 6,000 psi fc′ > 3,000 psi Grade 60 Grade 60 Grade 60 Grade 60 Grade 60 Minimum Lap Splice 1′-0″* 1′-0″* 1′-2″ 1′-4″ 1′-6″ 1′-9″ 1′-11″ 2′-2″ 2′-7″ 3′-5″ 2′-0″4 2′-0″4 2′-0″4 2′-3″ 2′-6″ 2′-10″ 3′-3″ 3′-7″ 4′-3″ 5′-8″

Development Length, ld 1′-0″* 1′-0″ 1′-3″ 1′-5″ 1′-7″ 1′-10″ 2′-1″ 2′-3″ 2′-9″ 3′-7″ 1′-0″* 1′-0″* 1′-2″ 1′-4″ 1′-6″ 1′-9″ 1′-11″ 2′-2″ 2′-7″ 3′-5″

Note: 1. Where excess bar area is provided, ld may be reduced by the ratio of required area to area provided. 2. *1′-0″ minimum (office practice). 3. ld (compression) must be developed with straight bar extension. Reduced length noted in (1) shall also be straight bar extension. 4. 2′-0″ minimum (office practice). 5. When splicing smaller bars to larger bars, the lap splice shall be the larger of the minimum compression lap splice or the development length of the larger bar in compression, AASHTO Art. 8.32.4.1. Table 5.1-A7

5.1-A6

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Mu φbd2 59.3 65.1 71.0 76.8 82.6 88.4 94.2 100.0 105.7 111.4 117.2 122.9 128.6 134.3 139.9 145.6 151.2 156.8 162.4 168.0 173.6 179.2 184.8 190.3 195.8 201.3 206.8 212.3 217.8 223.2 228.7 234.1 239.5 244.9 250.3 255.7 261.0 266.4 271.7 277.0 282.3 287.6 292.9 Mu φbd2 298.1 303.4 308.6 313.8 319.0 324.2 329.4 334.5 339.7 344.8 349.9 355.0 360.1 365.2 370.2 375.3 380.3 385.3 390.3 395.0 400.3 405.2 410.2 415.1 420.0 424.9 429.8 434.7 439.5 444.4 449.2 454.0 458.8 463.6 468.4 473.2 477.9 482.6 487.4 492.1 496.8 501.4 506.1 510.7

ρ Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fc′ = 3,000 psi fy = 60,000 psi
Mu φbd2 Mu φbd2 705.2 709.2 713.2 717.2 721.1 725.1 729.0 732.9 736.8 740.7 744.6 748.4 752.3 756.1 759.9 763.7 767.5 771.2 775.0 778.7 782.5

ρ 0.0010 0.0011 0.0012 0.0013 0.0014 0.0015 0.0016 0.0017 0.0018 0.0019 0.0020 0.0021 0.0022 0.0023 0.0024 0.0025 0.0026 0.0027 0.0028 0.0029 0.0030 0.0031 0.0032 0.0033 0.0034 0.0035 0.0036 0.0037 0.0038 0.0039 0.0040 0.0041 0.0042 0.0043 0.0044 0.0045 0.0046 0.0047 0.0048 0.0049 0.0050 0.0051 0.0052

ρ 0.0053 0.0054 0.0055 0.0056 0.0057 0.0058 0.0059 0.0060 0.0061 0.0062 0.0063 0.0064 0.0065 0.0066 0.0067 0.0068 0.0069 0.0070 0.0071 0.0072 0.0073 0.0074 0.0075 0.0076 0.0077 0.0078 0.0079 0.0080 0.0081 0.0082 0.0083 0.0084 0.0085 0.0086 0.0087 0.0088 0.0089 0.0090 0.0091 0.0092 0.0093 0.0094 0.0095 0.0096

ρ 0.0097 0.0098 0.0099 0.0100 0.0101 0.0102 0.0103 0.0104 0.0105 0.0106 0.0107 0.0108 0.0109 0.0110 0.0111 0.0112 0.0113 0.0114 0.0115 0.0116 0.0117 0.0118 0.0119 0.0120 0.0121 0.0122 0.0123 0.0124 0.0125 0.0126 0.0127 0.0128 0.0129 0.0130 0.0131 0.0132 0.0133 0.0134 0.0135 0.0136 0.0137 0.0138 0.0139 0.0140

ρ

515.4 0.0141 520.0 0.0142 524.6 0.0143 529.2 0.0144 533.8 0.0145 538.3 0.0146 542.9 0.0147 547.4 0.0148 551.9 0.0149 556.4 0.0150 560.9 0.0151 565.4 0.0152 569.9 0.0153 574.3 0.0154 578.8 0.0155 583.2 0.0156 587.6 0.0157 592.0 0.0158 596.4 0.0159 600.7 0.0160 605.1 ρmax 0.0161 609.4 613.7 618.0 622.3 626.6 630.9 635.1 639.4 643.6 647.8 652.0 656.2 660.3 664.5 668.6 672.8 676.9 681.0 685.0 689.1 693.2 697.2 701.2

Notes: Mu 1. Units of ρbd2 are in psi. 2. ρmin should be based on 1.2 Mcr or 1.33 ρ analysis, whichever is smaller. 3. ρmax = 0.75ρb = 0.0161 based on β1 = 0.85.

Table 5.2-A1

July 2000

5.2-A1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
ρ 0.0010 0.0011 0.0012 0.0013 0.0014 0.0015 0.0016 0.0017 0.0018 0.0019 0.0020 0.0021 0.0022 0.0023 0.0024 0.0025 0.0026 0.0027 0.0028 0.0029 0.0030 0.0031 0.0032 0.0033 0.0034 0.0035 0.0036 0.0037 0.0038 0.0039 0.0040 0.0041 0.0042 0.0043 0.0044 0.0045 0.0046 0.0047 0.0048 0.0049 0.0050 0.0051 0.0052 0.0053 0.0054 0.0055 Mu φbd2 59.5 65.4 71.2 77.1 83.0 88.8 94.6 100.5 106.3 112.1 117.9 123.7 129.4 135.2 140.9 146.7 152.4 158.1 163.8 169.5 175.2 180.9 186.6 192.2 197.9 203.5 209.1 214.7 220.3 225.9 231.5 237.1 242.6 248.2 253.7 259.2 264.8 270.3 275.8 281.2 286.7 292.2 297.6 303.1 308.5 313.9 ρ 0.0056 0.0057 0.0058 0.0059 0.0060 0.0061 0.0062 0.0063 0.0064 0.0065 0.0066 0.0067 0.0068 0.0069 0.0070 0.0071 0.0072 0.0073 0.0074 0.0075 0.0076 0.0077 0.0078 0.0079 0.0080 0.0081 0.0082 0.0083 0.0084 0.0085 0.0086 0.0087 0.0088 0.0089 0.0090 0.0091 0.0092 0.0093 0.0094 0.0095 0.0096 0.0097 0.0098 0.0099 0.0100 0.0101 Mu φbd2 319.3 324.7 330.1 335.5 340.9 346.2 351.6 356.9 362.2 367.6 372.9 378.2 383.4 388.7 394.0 399.2 404.5 409.7 414.9 420.1 425.3 430.5 435.7 440.9 446.0 451.2 456.3 461.4 466.5 471.6 476.7 481.8 486.9 491.9 497.0 502.0 507.1 512.1 517.1 522.1 527.1 532.0 537.0 542.0 546.9 551.8 ρ 0.0102 0.0103 0.0104 0.0105 0.0106 0.0107 0.0108 0.0109 0.0110 0.0111 0.0112 0.0113 0.0114 0.0115 0.0116 0.0117 0.0118 0.0119 0.0120 0.0121 0.0122 0.0123 0.0124 0.0125 0.0126 0.0127 0.0128 0.0129 0.0130 0.0131 0.0132 0.0133 0.0134 0.0135 0.0136 0.0137 0.0138 0.0139 0.0140 0.0141 0.0142 0.0143 0.0144 0.0145 0.0146 0.0147 Mu φbd2 556.7 561.7 566.6 571.5 576.3 581.2 586.1 590.9 595.7 600.6 605.4 610.2 615.0 619.8 624.5 629.3 634.1 638.8 643.5 648.2 653.0 657.7 662.3 667.0 671.7 676.3 681.0 685.6 690.3 694.9 699.5 704.1 708.6 713.2 717.8 722.3 726.9 731.4 735.9 740.4 744.9 749.4 753.9 758.3 762.8 767.2 ρ

ρ Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fc′ = 4,000 psi fy = 60,000 psi
Mu φbd2 771.7 776.1 780.5 784.9 789.3 793.7 798.1 802.4 806.8 811.1 815.4 819.7 824.1 828.3 832.6 836.9 841.2 845.4 849.7 853.9 858.1 862.3 866.5 870.7 874.9 879.1 883.2 887.4 891.5 895.6 899.7 903.9 907.9 912.0 916.1 920.2 924.2 928.3 932.3 936.3 940.3 944.3 948.3 952.3 956.2 960.2 ρ 0.0194 0.0195 0.0196 0.0197 0.0198 0.0199 0.0200 0.0201 0.0202 0.0203 0.0204 0.0205 0.0206 0.0207 0.0208 0.0209 0.0210 0.0211 0.0212 0.0213 ρmax 0.0214 Mu φbd2 964.1 968.1 972.0 975.9 979.8 983.7 987.6 991.5 995.3 999.2 1003.0 1006.8 1010.7 1014.5 1018.3 1022.0 1025.8 1029.6 1033.3 1037.1 1040.8

0.0148 0.0149 0.0150 0.0151 0.0152 0.0153 0.0154 0.0155 0.0156 0.0157 0.0158 0.0159 0.0160 0.0161 0.0162 0.0163 0.0164 0.0165 0.0166 0.0167 0.0168 0.0169 0.0170 0.0171 0.0172 0.0173 0.0174 0.0175 0.0176 0.0177 0.0178 0.0179 0.0180 0.0181 0.0182 0.0183 0.0184 0.0185 0.0186 0.0187 0.0188 0.0189 0.0190 0.0191 0.0192 0.0193

Notes: Mu 1. Units of ρbd2 are in psi. 2. ρmin should be based on 1.2 Mcr or 1.33 ρ analysis, whichever is smaller. 3. ρmax = 0.75ρb = 0.0214 based on β1 = 0.85.

Table 5.2-A2

5.2-A2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
ρ
0.0010 0.0011 0.0012 0.0013 0.0014 0.0015 0.0016 0.0017 0.0018 0.0019 0.0020 0.0021 0.0022 0.0023 0.0024 0.0025 0.0026 0.0027 0.0028 0.0029 0.0030 0.0031 0.0032 0.0033 0.0034 0.0035 0.0036 0.0037 0.0038 0.0039 0.0040 0.0041 0.0042 0.0043 0.0044 0.0045 0.0046 0.0047 0.0048 0.0049 0.0050 0.0051 0.0052 0.0053 0.0054 0.0055 0.0056 0.0057 0.0058 0.0059 0.0060

ρ Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fc′ = 5,000 psi fy = 60,000 psi
ρ Mu φbd2
874.3 878.9 883.5 888.1 892.7 897.2 901.8 906.3 910.9 915.4 919.9 924.4 928.9 933.4 937.9 942.4 946.8 951.3 955.7 960.2 964.6 969.0 973.5 977.9 982.3 986.6 991.0 995.4 999.8 1004.1 1008.5 1012.8 1017.1 1021.5 1025.8 1030.1 ρmax 1034.4 1038.7 1042.9 1047.2 1051.5 1055.7 1060.0 1064.2 1068.4 1072.7 1076.9 1081.1 1085.3 1089.5 1093.6 1097.8

Mu φbd2
59.6 65.5 71.4 77.3 83.2 89.0 94.9 100.8 106.6 112.5 118.3 124.1 129.9 135.8 141.6 147.3 153.1 158.9 164.7 170.4 176.2 181.9 187.7 193.4 199.1 204.8 210.5 216.2 221.9 227.5 233.2 238.9 244.5 250.1 255.8 261.4 267.0 272.6 278.2 283.8 289.4 295.0 300.5 306.1 311.6 317.1 322.7 328.2 333.7 339.2 344.7

ρ
0.0061 0.0062 0.0063 0.0064 0.0065 0.0066 0.0067 0.0068 0.0069 0.0070 0.0071 0.0072 0.0073 0.0074 0.0075 0.0076 0.0077 0.0078 0.0079 0.0080 0.0081 0.0082 0.0083 0.0084 0.0085 0.0086 0.0087 0.0088 0.0089 0.0090 0.0091 0.0092 0.0093 0.0094 0.0095 0.0096 0.0097 0.0098 0.0099 0.0100 0.0101 0.0102 0.0103 0.0104 0.0105 0.0106 0.0107 0.0108 0.0109 0.0110 0.0111 0.0112

Mu φbd2
350.2 355.7 361.1 366.6 372.1 377.5 382.9 388.4 393.8 399.2 404.6 410.0 415.4 420.7 426.1 431.5 436.8 442.2 447.5 452.8 458.1 463.4 468.7 474.0 479.3 484.6 489.8 495.1 500.4 505.6 510.8 516.0 521.3 526.5 531.7 536.9 542.0 547.2 552.4 557.5 562.7 567.8 572.9 578.1 583.2 588.3 593.4 598.5 603.5 608.6 613.7 618.7

ρ
0.0113 0.0114 0.0115 0.0116 0.0117 0.0118 0.0119 0.0120 0.0121 0.0122 0.0123 0.0124 0.0125 0.0126 0.0127 0.0128 0.0129 0.0130 0.0131 0.0132 0.0133 0.0134 0.0135 0.0136 0.0137 0.0138 0.0139 0.0140 0.0141 0.0142 0.0143 0.0144 0.0145 0.0146 0.0147 0.0148 0.0149 0.0150 0.0151 0.0152 0.0153 0.0154 0.0155 0.0156 0.0157 0.0158 0.0159 0.0160 0.0161 0.0162 0.0163 0.0164

Mu φbd2
623.8 628.8 633.8 638.8 643.8 648.9 653.8 658.8 663.8 668.8 673.7 678.7 683.6 688.6 693.5 698.4 703.3 708.2 713.1 718.0 722.9 727.7 732.6 737.4 742.3 747.1 751.9 756.7 761.5 766.3 771.1 775.9 780.7 785.4 790.2 795.0 799.7 804.4 809.1 813.9 818.6 823.3 827.9 832.6 837.3 842.0 846.6 851.3 855.9 860.5 865.1 869.7

ρ
0.0217 0.0218 0.0219 0.0220 0.0221 0.0222 0.0223 0.0224 0.0225 0.0226 0.0227 0.0228 0.0229 0.0230 0.0231 0.0232 0.0233 0.0234 0.0235 0.0236 0.0237 0.0238 0.0239 0.0240 0.0241 0.0242 0.0243 0.0244 0.0245 0.0246 0.0247 0.0248 0.0249 0.0250 0.0251 0.0252

Mu φbd2
1102.0 1106.1 1110.3 1114.4 1118.5 1122.6 1126.8 1130.9 1134.9 1139.0 1143.1 1147.2 1151.2 1155.3 1159.3 1163.4 1167.4 1171.4 1175.4 1179.4 1183.4 1187.4 1191.4 1195.3 1199.3 1203.2 1207.2 1211.1 1215.0 1218.9 1222.8 1226.7 1230.6 1234.5 1238.4 1242.2

0.0165 0.0166 0.0167 0.0168 0.0169 0.0170 0.0171 0.0172 0.0173 0.0174 0.0175 0.0176 0.0177 0.0178 0.0179 0.0180 0.0181 0.0182 0.0183 0.0184 0.0185 0.0186 0.0187 0.0188 0.0189 0.0190 0.0191 0.0192 0.0193 0.0194 0.0195 0.0196 0.0197 0.0198 0.0199 0.0200 0.0201 0.0202 0.0203 0.0204 0.0205 0.0206 0.0207 0.0208 0.0209 0.0210 0.0211 0.0212 0.0213 0.0214 0.0215 0.0216

Notes: Mu 1. Units of ρbd2 are in psi. 2. ρmin should be based on 1.2 Mcr or 1.33 ρ analysis, whichever is smaller. 3. ρmax = 0.75ρb = 0.0252 based on β1 = 0.80.

Table 5.2-A3

July 2000

5.2-A3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Positive Moment Reinforcement

Figure 5.3-A1

July 2000

5.3-A1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Negative Moment Reinforcement

Figure 5.3-A2

5.3-A2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Adjusted Negative Moment Case I (Design for M @ Face of Effective Support)

Figure 5.3-A3

July 2000

5.3-A3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Adjusted Negative Moment Case II (Design for M @ 1/4 Point)

Figure 5.3-A4

5.3-A4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Load Factor Slab Design fc′ = 4,000 psi

Figure 5.3-A5

July 2000

5.3-A5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Load Factor Slab Design fc′ = 5,000 psi

Figure 5.3-A6

5.3-A6

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Slab Design — Traffic Barrier Load

Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4. Section “A-A” is taken to be the critical section. Other sections ordinarily do not need to be investigated. Provide enough extension to the left of “A-A” to develop the As required (usually will require hooking bars). Service Load fs = 20,000, Load Factor = (1.3D + 2.17L). For Load Factor design, check distribution of flexural reinforcement — AASHTO 8.16-8.4. If #5 or #6 bars are used to furnish the As from this chart, then this requirement will not have to be checked.

Figure 5.3-A7

July 2000

5.3-A7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Example 5.2-B1 Given: Center-to-center spacing of girders = Width of top flange of steel girder = Deck concrete, Class 4000 fc′ = = Reinforcing steel, Grade 60 fy Cover to top bars = Cover to bottom bars = Analyze a 1 foot wide section of slab Find: 1. Deck thickness, deck reinforcement 12 feet 3 inches 18 inches wide 4,000 psi 60,000 psi 2.5 inches 1.0 inch

Slab Design

Determine Deck Thickness Seff = 12.25′ – 2 (18″) / (4) (12) = 11.50′ Minimum thickness, tmin = (Seff + 10) (12) / 30 = (11.50 + 10) (12) / 30 = 8.60″ Use 83/4″ thick slab

2.

Determine Transverse Deck Reinforcement — Top Slab Reinforcement Dead Load Moment, MDL: MDL = (1/10) [ (8.75″ / 12) (0.160 kcf) ] (11.50)2 = 1.55 kip-ft/ft Live Load Moment + Impact, MLL+I: MLL+I = (S + 2) (Pwheel) (0.8) (1.30) 32 AASHTO, 1989, Section 3.24.3.1

where: Pwheel = 1.25 (16 kips/wheel) = 20.0 kips/wheel (HS25 Truck) continuity factory = 0.8 impact factor = 1.30 (11.50 + 2) MLL+I = (20.0) (0.8) (1.30) = 8.78 kip-ft/ft 32 Factored Design Moment, Mu: Mu = 1.3 [ 1.55 + (5/3) (8.78) ] = 21.04 kip-ft/ft Determine As req’d: dtop bars = 8.75 – 2.5 – (0.75) / 2 = 5.875″ Mu / (φ) (b) (d)2 = 21.04 (12,000) / (0.9) (12) (5.875)2 = 677.3 psi Interpolating from Table 5.2-A2, Appendix A: ρ = 0.01272 As req’d = ρ (b) (d) = 0.01272 (12) (5.875) = 0.90 in2/ft Use #6 bars at 5″ ctrs, As = 1.06 in2/ft > 0.90 in2/ft ok AASHTO, 1989, Section 3.24.3.1

Use same bar size and spacing for bottom slab reinforcement. An alternate approach is to solve directly for As req’d from Eq (5), BDM Section 5.2.1B: As req’d = 0.85 (fc′ / fy) (b) [ d –

√d2 – (31.3725 Mu / fc′ b) ] √ (5.785)2 – 31.3725 (21.04) / (4) (12) ]

(5)

= [ 0.85 (4) (12) / 60 ] [ 5.875 – As req’d = 0.90 in2/ft

Agrees with value previously computed by tables.

July 2000

5.2-B1-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Check As min using Table 5.2-A2, Appendix A: Mu = 1.2 Mcr = 1.2 fr S = (1.2) 7.5 √ fc′ (1/6) (b) (t)2 = (1.2) 7.5 √ 4,000 (1/6) (12) (8.75)2 87,160 in-lbs/ft Mu / φ bd2 = 87,160 / [ 0.9 (12) (5.875)2 ] = 233.8 psi From Table 5.2-A2, Appendix A, interpolate ρ = 0.00404 As min = ρ (b) (d) = 0.00404 (12) (5.875) = 0.28 in2/ft < 1.06 in2/ft Check As min using Eq (6): As min = 0.85 fc′ (b) fy 0.85 (4) (12) (60)

Slab Design

As min =

( √ ( √
d – d2 – 5.875 – fc′ fy

0.124 h2

√ f c′

)
0.124 (8.75)2

(6)

(5.875)2 –

√4

)
(7)

As min = 0.285 in2/ft Check As max:

Agrees with value from tables.

From Table 5.2-A2, Appendix A, ρmax = 0.75 ρb = 0.0214

As max = 0.0214 (12) (5.875) = 1.51 in2/ft Check As max using Eq (7), BDM Section 5.2.1B: As max = 0.6375 β1 (b) (d) As max 3.

( 87 87 f ) + (4) 87 = 0.6375 (0.85) (12) (5.875) = (60) ( 87 + 60 )
y

1.51 in2/ft

ok

Check Crack Control Requirements Calculate fs due to Service Load: M service load = 1.55 + 8.78 = 10.33 kip-ft/ft fs calc = M(12,000) / Asjd Where j = l – k/3 = 0.884 Agrees with Table 1, page 81, ACI Publication SP-3 Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook Working Stress Design, 1965 k = 1 / 1 [ 1 + fs/nfc] = 1 / [ 1 + 24,000 / (8) (1,600) ] = 0.348 fs = 24,000 psi Grade 60 bars per AASHTO, Section 8.15.2.2 fc = 0.40 fc′ = 1,600 psi for Conc Cl 4000 n = Es / Ec = 29,000,000 / 3,620,000 = 8.0

fs calc = 10.33 (12,000) / (1.06) (0.884) (5.875) = 22,517 psi Using Eq (21), BDM Section 5.2.1G, Calculate allowable fs: fs allowable = z / [ (dc) (A) ]1/3 = 130 / [ (2.875) (5) (5.75) ]1/3 = 29.63 ksi > 22.52 ksi ok Eq (21)

5.2-B1-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Alternate Approach, Check zcalc < 130 kips/in using Eq (22): zcalc = fs calc [ (dc) (A) ]1/3 < 130 kips/in = (22.52) [ (2.875) (5) (5.75) ]1/3 = 98.1 kips/in < 130 kips/in Use #6 bars at 5″ ctrs top and bottom transverse slab reinforcement. ok Eq (22)

Slab Design

Deck Reinforcement — Mid-Span Steel Plate Girder

July 2000

5.2-B1-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Example 5.2-B2 Given: Center-to-center spacing of W58G girders Width of top flange Average flange thickness Girder concrete strength fc′ Deck concrete, Class 5000 fc′ Cover to top bars Cover to bottom bars Find: 1. Deck thickness, deck reinforcement = = = = = = = 8 feet 0 inches 25 inches wide 6 inches 7,000 psi 5,000 psi 2.5 inches 1.0 inch

Slab Design for Prestressed Girders

Determine Deck Thickness Minimum slab thickness = 7.5″ no overlay, per BDM, Chapter 6. This thickness permits the use of #6 transverse and #5 longitudinal bars. Seff = clear span per AASHTO 3.24.1.2(a) Width of top flange/average flange thick = 4.16 Close enough to 4.0, use clear span for Seff Seff = Sg – W2 = 8.0′ – 2.083′ = 5.92′ Check Minimum Slab Thickness, tmin: tmin = (Seff + 10) (12) / 30 = (5.92′ + 10) (12) / 30 = 6.37″ < 7.5″ ok

2.

Determine Transverse Deck Reinforcement — Top Slab Reinforcement Dead Load Moment, MDL: MDL = (1/10) [ (7.5″ / 12) (0.160 kcf) ] (5.92)2 = 0.43 kip-ft/ft Live Load Moment + Impact, MLL+I: MLL+I = MLL+I (S + 2) (6.54 + 2) (Pwheel) (0.8) (1.30) = (20.0) (0.8) (1.30) 32 32 = 5.15 kip-ft/ft

Factored Design Moment, Mu: Mu = 1.3 [ 0.35 + (5/3) (5.15) ] = 11.61 kip-ft/ft Determine As req’d: dtop bars = 7.5 – 2.5 – (0.75) / 2 = 4.625″ Mu / (φ) (b) (d)2 = 12.54 (12,000) / (0.9) (12) (4.625)2 = 651.4 psi Interpolating from Table 5.2-A3, Appendix A: ρ = 0.01089 As req’d = ρ (b) (d) = 0.01089 (12) (4.625) = 0.61 in2/ft Use #6 bars at 8″ ctrs, As = 0.66 in2/ft ok

Use same bar size and spacing for bottom slab reinforcement.

July 2000

5.2-B2-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
3. Check Crack Control Requirements — Transverse Reinforcement Calculate fs due to Service Load: Mservice load = 0.35 + 5.15 = 5.50 kip-ft/ft fs calc = M (12,000) / Asjd where: j = k = fc = Ec = fs = n = l – k/3 = 1 – 0.375/3 = 0.875 1 / 1 [ 1 + fs/nfc ] = 1 / [ 1 + 24,000 / (7.2) (2,000) ] = 0.375 0.40 fc′ = (0.40) (5,000) = 2,000 psi for Concrete Class 5000 57,000 √ 5,000 = 4,030,500 psi 24,000 psi Grade 60 bars Es / Ec = 29,000,000 / 4,030,500 = 7.2

Slab Design for Prestressed Girders

fs calc = 5.50 (12,000) / (0.66) (0.875) (4.625) = 24,710 psi top bar Calculate fs allowable = z / (Adc)1/3: A = (7.5″) (2.875″) (2) / 1 bar = 43.125 dc = 2.5 + 0.75 / 2 = 2.875″ ok

fs allow = 130 / [ (43.125) (2.875) ]1/3 = 26.07 ksi > 24.71 ksi 4. Determine Longitudinal Deck Reinforcement Moments at Pier, Negative Reinforcement: MDL = 187.6 kip-ft/girder MLL+I = 780.0 kip-ft/girder

Service Load Moments

Mu = 1.3 [ 187.6 + (5/3) (780.0) ] = 1,933.8 kip-ft/girder Determine As req’d assume two layers of #5 with davg = 64.0″: Mu / (φ) (b) (d)2 = 1,933.8 (12,000) / (0.9) (25) (64)2 = 251.8 psi Interpolating from Table 5.2-A3, Appendix A: ρ = 0.00433 As req’d = 0.00433 (25) (64.0) = 6.93 in2 Use 24-#5 (12-#5 in each layer) As = 7.44 in2 > 6.93 in2 Spacing is approximately 8.0″, As/ft = 0.47 in2/ft Check longitudinal distribution reinforcement so that spacing can be coordinated with the reinforcement required for negative pier girder moment: P = 220 / √ S = 220 / √ 6.54 = 86.0 percent but not to exceed 67 percent Distribution Reinforcement = 0.67 (As actual) = 0.67 (0.70) = 0.47 in2/ft As provided = 0.47 in2/ft
ok

ok

5.2-B2-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Slab Design for Prestressed Girders

5. Check Crack Control Requirement — Longitudinal Reinforcement 24-#5 k = k = As = 7.44 in2 n = Es/Ec = 29,000,000 / 4,769,000 = 6.0

√ 2 ρ n + (ρ n)2 – ρ n √ 2 (0.0047) (6.0) + [ (0.0047) (6.0) ]2 – (0.0047) (6.0) = 0.210

j = l – k/3 = 0.93 fs calc = M (12,000) / Asjd = 967.6 (12,000) / (7.44) (0.93) (64.0) = 26,220 psi fs allowable = z / [ (dc) (A) ]1/3 Use actual girder spacing = (8.0′) (12) = 96.0″ to compute A A = (96) (7.5) / 24 bars = 30.0 in2/bar fs allowable = 130 / [ 30.0 (3.56) ]1/3 dc = 2.5 + 0.75 + 0.625/2 = 3.56″ ok

= 27.40 psi > 26.22 psi

Deck Reinforcement at Intermediate Pier — Prestressed Girder Bridge Longitutdinal Deck Reinforcement is designed for the negative moment at an intermediate pier. Otherwise, the longitudinal deck reinforcement will be similar to that shown in Example 5.2-B1-1.

July 2000

5.2-B2-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Example 5.2-B3

Strut-and-Tie Design

Design Loads Group I: Pu = 1600k H=0 k Group VII: Pu = 1500 H = 400k Assume crossbeam dead load is included with bearing loads. Use Section 12.4 of AASHTO’s Guide Specifications for Design and Construction of Segmental Concrete Bridges, 1989.

July 2000

5.2-B3-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Develop a Preliminary Strut-and-Tie Model:

Strut-and-Tie Design

Estimate node size at top of column: φb (fcn Acn) ≥ Su Assuming spiral reinforcement provides confinement, use φb = 0.75 and fcn = 0.85 fc′: 0.75 (0.85 × 5) Acn ≥ 2,400 Acn ≥ 753 in2 Use the following node size at the top of column:

5.2-B3-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Determine Truss Element Forces:

Strut-and-Tie Design

Group I Strut Loads

Group VII Strut Loads

Determine Minimum Size of Node Regions: φb (fcn Acn) ≥ Su where: φb = 0.70 for bearing

fcn = 0.85 fc′ in regions with compression only fcn = 0.70 fc′ in regions with one tension tie At base of inclined strut, 0.75 (0.85 × 5) Acn ≥ 2,596 Acn ≥ 873 in2 depth of node = 873 = 12.1″ 72″ (72″ × 12.1″)

where width of crossbeam = 72″ 2,596 At top of inclined strut, Acn ≥ = 1,060 in2 0.70 (0.70 × 5) 1,060 depth of node = = 14.7″ (72″ × 14.7″) 72″ For 1,600k chord: Acn ≥ 1,600 = 538 in2 0.70 (0.85 × 5)

538 = 7.5″ 72″ 915 For 915k chord: Acn ≥ (538) = 308 in2 1,600 308 depth of node = = 4.3″ 72″ depth of node =

July 2000

5.2-B3-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Determine Minimum Sizes of Compression Members: φv (fcu Acs) ≥ Su (inclined compressive struts) (compression chords)

Strut-and-Tie Design

φf (0.85 fc′ Acc + As′ fs′) ≥ Su For 2,596k inclined compressive strut: 0.85 (0.45 × 5) Acs ≥ 2,596k 2,596 = 1,357 in2 0.85 (0.45) (5) 1,357 and depth of strut = = 18.9 in 72 Acs ≥ For 915k inclined compressive strut: 915 Acs ≥ (1,357) = 478 in2 2,596 478 and depth of strut = = 6.6 in 72 For 1,600k compression chord: Acs ≥ 1,600 0.9 (0.85) (5) = 418 in2 418 = 5.8 in 72

(fcu = 0.45 fc′)

and depth of chord =

Incorporate Node and Member Sizes Into Model:

5.2-B3-4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Recalculate Truss Member Forces:

Strut-and-Tie Design

Group I Strut Loads Design Tie Member: φf (As fsy + A*s f*su) ≥ Su without prestress: As ≥ 41.5 in2 Try using 12 bundles of #14 top and #11 bot (As = 45.7 in2) Check development length of tie bars: For #14 bars with fc′ = 5,000 psi, ldh = 2′ – 5″ Development length available = 2′ – 4″ < 2′ – 5″ For #11 bars, ldh = 1′ – 5″ ok 0.90 (As) (60) ≥ 2,240

Group VII Strut Loads

Therefore, total developed steel As = 12 (1.56) + 12 (2.25) As = 44.8 in2 > 41.5 in2 ok

( 28 ) 29

Partial Elevation-Tension Tie at Top of Pier Cap 12 (2.25) (3.26) + 12 (1.56) (5.97) = 4.37″ = 4″ estimate x = ok 45.7

July 2000

5.2-B3-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Strut-and-Tie Design

Determine Minimum Vertical and Horizontal Steel Using Sections 12.5.3.2 and 12.5.3.3: For vertical reinforcing: As fy ≥ 120 bw s d where s < or 12″ 4 120 bw s Therefore, As ≥ = 0.002 bw s 60,000 Assume 4 legs of #6 stirrups: As = 1.76 in2 s ≤ 1.76 As = 0.002 (72) 0.002 bw d 72 – 4.37 = = 16.9″ 4 4 As fy ≥ 120 bw s

s ≤ 12.2 in Check:

Therefore, use 4 #6 legs at 12″ maximum spacing. For horizontal reinforcing: where s < d or 12″ 3

For s = 12″, As ≥ 0.002 (72) (12) = 1.73 in2 Try 2 #8 bars: s ≤ As = 1.58 in2 1.58 = 11.0″ 0.002 (72)

(2 – #9 bars)

Use #8 bars at 11″ maximum spacing on side faces. For bottom bars, use #6 at approximately 12″ (7 – #6 bars)

5.2-B3-6

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Example 5.2-B4 Service Load — Concrete Stresses and Constants Working Stress Design

July 2000

5.2-B4-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Working Stress Design

5.2-B4-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Reinforced Concrete Superstructures Working Stress Design

July 2000

5.2-B4-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Contents
Page 6.0 6.1 6.1.1 Prestressed Concrete Superstructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Allowable Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concrete Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Strength of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Modulus of Elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Creep Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Shrinkage Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prestressing Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Allowable Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prestressing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Anchorages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Instantaneous Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Time-dependent Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Contract Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Shop Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connections (Joints) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deflection and Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precast Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pre-Tensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Post-Tensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Washington Standard Prestressed Girder Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Section Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Basic Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Design Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Prestressing Strands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Development of Prestressing Strand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Fabrication and Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precast Prestressed (Short Span Bridges) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Precast Prestressed Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Precast Prestressed Tri-Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Precast Prestressed Deck Bulb-Tee Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precast Box Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Precast Girder Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Criteria for Girder Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Support Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Composite Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Prestressed Girder Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1-1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6.2-1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 7 8 10 14 14 14 15 15 6.3-1 1 1 1 7

6.1.2

6.1.3

6.1.4

6.1.5

6.1.6

6.1.7 6.1.8 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3

6.2.4

6.2.5 6.3 6.3.1

July 2000

6.0-i

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Contents
Page 6.3.2 Framing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Girder Selection and Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Slab Cantilevers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Diaphragm Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Skew Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Grade and Cross Slope Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Curve Effect and Flare Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Simple Spans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Continuous Spans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Roadway Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Slab Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Transverse Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crossbeam Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Geometry and Construction Requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Skin Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repair of Damaged Bridge Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Repair Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Miscellaneous References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cast-in-Place Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Bridge Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Section Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Strand and Tendon Arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Layout of Anchorages and End Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Superstructure Shortening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Section Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Preliminary Stress Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Tendon Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Prestress Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Steel Stress Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Prestress Moment Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Flexural Stress in Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. Temperature Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J. End Block Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K. Anchorage Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L. Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. Expansion Bearing Offsets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N. Post-Tensioning Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review of Shop Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 10 11 12 13 13 13 13 13 14 18 18 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 24 6.4-1 1 1 1 2 3 3 10 10 11 11 12 13 13 15 16 17 18 19 20 20 20 20 21 6.99-1

6.3.3

6.3.4

6.3.5

6.3.6

6.4 6.4.1

6.4.2

6.4.3 6.99

6.0-ii

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
Appendix A — Design Aids 6.1-A1 “A” Dimension for P.S. Concrete Bridges 6.2-A1 W95G and W83G 6.3-A1 Prestressed Girder Intermediate Hinge Diaphragm 6.4-A1-1 WSDOT Standard Girder — Composite Sections 6.4-A1-2 WSDOT Standard Girder — Non-Composite Sections 6.4-A2 WSDOT Standard Girders Section Properties — Composite Sections 6.4-A3-1 WSDOT Standard Girders Section Properties — Non-Composite Sections 1 of 2 6.4-A3-2 WSDOT Standard Girders Section Properties — Non-Composite Sections 2 of 2 6.4-A4 WSDOT Standard Girders Span Range Capacity 6.5-A1-1 W42G Girder Details 1 of 2 6.5-A1-2 W42G Girder Details 2 of 2 6.5-A2-1 W50G Girder Details 1 of 2 6.5-A2-2 W50G Girder Details 2 of 2 6.5-A3-1 W58G Girder Details 1 of 2 6.5-A3-2 W58G Girder Details 2 of 2 6.5-A4-1 W74G Girder Details 1 of 2 6.5-A4-2 W74G Girder Details 2 of 2 6.5-A5-1 WF74G Girder Details 1 of 3 6.5-A5-2 WF74G Girder Details 2 of 3 6.5-A5-3 WF74G Girder Details 3 of 3 6.5-A6-1 W83G Girder Details 1 of 3 6.5-A6-2 W83G Girder Details 2 of 3 6.5-A6-3 W83G Girder Details 3 of 3 6.5-A7-1 W95G Girder Details 1 of 3 6.5-A7-2 W95G Girder Details 2 of 3 6.5-A7-3 W95G Girder Details 3 of 3 6.5-A8 End Wall on P.S. Concrete Girder — Diaphragm Details 6.5-A9 Abutment Type Pier — Diaphragm Details 6.5-A10-1 Intermediate Pier — Fixed Recessed-Face Diaphragm Details 6.5-A10-2 Intermediate Pier — Fixed Flush-Face Diaphragm Details 6.5-A10-3 Intermediate Pier — Hinge Diaphragm Details 6.5-A10-4 Intermediate Pier — End Wall on Girder Details 6.5-A11 Intermediate Diaphragm Details 6.5-A12 Miscellaneous Diaphragm Details 6.5-A13 Single Span Prestressed Girder Construction Sequence 6.5-A14 Multiple Span Prestressed Girder Construction Sequence 6.6-A1-1 Precast Prestressed 1′-0″ Solid Slab Details 1 of 2 6.6-A1-2 Precast Prestressed 1′-0″ Solid Slab Details 2 of 2 6.6-A2-1 Precast Prestressed 1′-6″ Voided Slab Details 1 of 2 6.6-A2-2 Precast Prestressed 1′-6″ Voided Slab Details 2 of 2 6.6-A3-1 Precast Prestressed 2′-2″ Voided Slab Details 1 of 2 6.6-A3-2 Precast Prestressed 2′-2″ Voided Slab Details 2 of 2

Contents

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6.0-iii

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
6.6-A4 6.6-A5 6.6-A6 6.7-A1-1 6.7-A1-2 6.7-A3 6.8-A1-1 6.8-A1-2 6.8-A1-3 6.8-A1-4 6.8-A2-1 6.8-A2-2 6.8-A2-3 6.8-A2-4 6.8-A3-1 6.8-A3-2 6.8-A3-3 6.8-A3-4 6.8-A4-1 6.8-A4-2 6.8-A4-3 6.8-A4-4 6.8-A5 Precast Prestressed Slab End Pier Details Precast Prestressed Slab Intermediate Pier Details Precast Prestressed Slab Layout Precast Prestressed Ribbed Tri-Beam Girder Details 1 of 2 Precast Prestressed Ribbed Tri-Beam Girder Details 2 of 2 Precast Prestressed Ribbed Tri-Beam Girder Pier Details W35DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 1 of 2 W35DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 2 of 2 W35DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Design Tables W35DG Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details W41DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 1 of 2 W41DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 2 of 2 W41DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Design Tables W41DG Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details W53DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 1 of 2 W53DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 2 of 2 W53DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Design Tables W53DG Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details W65DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 1 of 2 W65DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 2 of 2 W65DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Design Tables W65DG Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details

Contents

Appendix B — Design Examples 6.1-B1 Post-Tensioning Anchorages 6.2-B1 Notes to Designers Post-Tensioning 6.3-B1 P.T. Box Girder Bridges Single Span 6.3-B2 P.T. Box Girder Bridges Two Span 6.3-B3 P.T. Box Girder Bridges Multiple Span

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6.0-iv

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6.0 6.1 Prestressed Concrete Superstructures General
WSDOT uses three types of prestressed concrete bridges. They are (1) prestressed precast concrete girder or slab bridges, (2) cast-in-place post-tensioned bridges, and (3) combination prestressed/post-tensioned bridges. WSDOT utilizes prestressed concrete in special structures such as segmental cast-in-place or precast construction. This section provides criteria for these structure types and provides general guidance for other designs using prestressed concrete.

General

6.1.1

Criteria
A. General AASHTO specifications shall be used to design prestressed concrete bridges, except as modified in this section. Prestressed concrete bridges shall be designed using working stress design and checked for ultimate load capacity. Refer to portions of Chapter 5 for information relating to concrete reinforcement and design methods used for prestressed structures. B. Allowable Stresses AASHTO standard specifications list the allowable stresses to be used in design except as noted below. 1. Concrete Stresses at Service Load Under working stress conditions, tensile stresses in the precompressed tensile zone shall be limited to zero. This prevents cracking of the concrete during service life of the structure and provides more allowance for overloads during the life of the bridge. 2. Shear Capacity Shear in webs of prestressed bridges shall be in accordance with AASHTO specifications. Where additional guidance is needed, the latest ACI Code should be consulted. For special considerations used for design of Washington State standard prestressed girders, see Subsection 6.3.

6.1.2

Concrete Properties
A. Strength of Concrete Pacific NW aggregates have consistently resulted in excellent concrete strengths, to as much as 10,000 psi in 28 days. The following strengths are normally used for design. 1. Precast Girders Nominal 28-day concrete strength (fc′) for precast girders with a cast-in-place deck is 7,000 psi. Where higher strengths would eliminate a line of girders, this strength can be specified, preferably at 8,500 psi, to a maximum of 10,000 psi. The final strength of concrete shall be specified as required by design and shall be shown on the plans. The minimum concrete compressive strength at release (fci′) for each prestressed girder in a bridge is to be calculated and shown in the plans. For a 28-day concrete compressive strength of 7,000 psi, a concrete compressive strength (at release) of between 3,500 and 6,000 psi shall be specified. For high strength concrete, the compressive strength at release shall be limited to

July 2000

6.1-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures General

7,500 psi. Release strengths of up to 8,500 psi can be achieved with extended curing for special circumstances. The specified concrete strength at release should be rounded to the next highest 100 psi. 2. Cast-in-Place Post-tensioned Bridges Since conditions for placing and curing concrete on cast-in-place bridges are not controlled, as they are for precast bridge sections, a lower figure is used for concrete strength. Normally, use class 4000 concrete for post-tensioned cast-in-place bridges. Where significant economy can be gained and structural requirements dictate, the structure could be designed for class 5000 concrete. 3. Cast-in-Place Slabs Concrete class 4000D shall be used for all cast-in-place bridge decks unless otherwise approved by the Bridge Design Engineer. B. Modulus of Elasticity The modulus of elasticity for concrete strength up to 10 ksi is normally 33w3/2 √ fc′, where w is the weight of concrete in lbs/ft3. Normal weight concretes used in Washington generally have weights close to 160 lbs/ft3. With this value, the modules of elasticity equation simplifies to E = 66,800 √fc′. C. Creep Rate The creep coefficient for standard conditions may be taken as follows: Standard conditions are relative humidity ≤40 percent and average thickness of section 6 inches. 1. Cast-in-Place Girders For most designs, the creep coefficient for loading at 7 days for moist-cured concrete and 1-3 days for steam-cured concrete is: 22 . t0.60.6 Ct = 6 + fc ′ 10 + t The final deflection is a combination of the elastic deflection and the creep effect associated with given loads shown by the equation below. ∆ total = ∆ elastic (1+ Ct) For other factors affecting this equation, see Reference 6.99.2 and 6.99.4. Reference to 6.99.4 discusses methods for calculating creep effects. 2. Standard Prestressed Girders The creep coefficient for standard prestressed girders may be taken as: 3.95 . Ct = Ln (t + 1) 6 + f c′ Ct = creep coefficient t = time in days fc′ = ultimate strength of concrete in ksi

6.1-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
D. Shrinkage Rate To compute the variation of shrinkage with time, use the following equations: t (∑SH)t = x 0.51 x 10-3 For moist cured concrete after 7 days: 35 + t t (∑SH)t = x 0.56 x 10-3 For steam cured concrete after 1 to 3 days: 55 + t Where (∑SH)t is the shrinkage strain at any point in time. For corrections to the shrinkage rate values including correction for initial shrinkage, see Reference 6.99.4.

General

6.1.3

Prestressing Steel
A. General Three types of high-tensile steel are used for producing prestress. They are: 1. 2. 3. Strands: ASTM A 416 Grade 270, low relaxation or stress relieved. Bars: ASTM A 722 Grade 150, Type 2. Parallel wires: ASTM A 421 Grade 240.

All WSDOT designs are based on low relaxation strands using either 1/2″ or 0.6″ diameter strands. B. Allowable Stresses Allowable stresses for design are as listed in AASHTO specifications.

6.1.4

Prestressing Systems
A. General There are numerous prestressing systems. Most systems combine a method of stressing the prestressing strands with a method of anchoring it to concrete. B. Anchorages WSDOT requires approval of all multi-strand and/or bar anchorages used in prestressed concrete bridges by testing or by a certified report, stating that the anchorage assembly will develop the yield strength of post-tensioning steel. Manufacturers whose anchorages have been approved are. 1. 2. 3. V.S.L. Corporation Avar Construction System Dywidag Systems International

6.1.5

Losses
AASHTO specifications outline the method of predicting prestress losses for usual prestressed concrete bridges which may be used in design except as noted below. The following sources of prestress loss can influence the effective stress in the strand.

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6.1-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
A. Instantaneous Losses 1. 2. Anchorage slippage. This slippage is assumed to be 1/4 inch for design purposes. Friction losses. These losses are due to intended cable curvature and unintended wobble coefficient. For strands against rigid galvanized metal duct these values are respectively µ = 0.20 and k = 0.0002. For strands against smooth polyethylene duct µ = 0.16 and k = 0.0002. Elastic shortening of concrete.

General

3.

B. Time-dependent Losses 1. 2. 3. Creep of concrete. Shrinkage of concrete. Steel relaxation.

For normal design in lieu of more accurate methods, time dependent losses may be taken as given in Table 6.1.5-1. Type of Section Rectangular Beam Box Girder I-Girder Single/Double T, Hollow Core Voided Slab Low-relaxation Strands 33 ksi 21 ksi 33 [1- 0.15 (fc′ - 6) / 6 ] 37 [ 1- 0.15 (fc′ - 6) / 6 ] Bars 25 ksi 15 ksi 19 ksi 29 [ 1- 0.15 (fc′ - 6) / 6 ]

Time Dependent Prestress Losses Table 6.1.5-1 Prestress losses due to instantaneous sources shall be added to the time dependent losses to determine the total losses. The loss due to elastic shortening in pretensioned members shall be taken as: PLES = (Ep / Eci ) fcgp The loss due to elastic shortening in post-tensioned members shall be taken as: PLES = [(N-1)/2N x Ep / Eci ] fcgp where: Ep = modulus of elasticity of prestressing steel, ksi Eci = modulus of elasticity of concrete at transfer, ksi N = number of identical prestressing tendons

fcgp = sum of concrete stresses at the center of gravity of prestressing tendons due to the prestressing force at transfer (after jacking for posttensioned members) and the self-weight of the member at the section of maximum moment, ksi For pretensioned member and low-relaxation strands, fcgp may be calculated on the basis of 0.7fpu. For post-tensioned members with bonded tendons, fcgp may be calculated on the basis of prestressing force after jacking at the section of maximum moment. For preliminary design of pretensioned prestressed girders with normal strength concrete limited to 7,000 psi, the total prestress loss may be taken as 48 ksi.

6.1-4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6.1.6 Construction
A. General Construction plans for conventional post-tensioned box girder bridges include two different sets of drawings. The first set (contract) is prepared by the design engineer (WSDOT or contracting agency) and the second set (shop) is prepared by the post-tensioning materials supplier (contractor). B. Contract Plans The plans should be prepared to accommodate any post-tensioning system, so only prestressing forces and eccentricity should be detailed. The concrete sections should be detailed so that available systems can be installed. Design the thickness of webs and flanges to facilitate concrete placement. Generally, web thickness for post-tensioned bridges shall be at least 12 inches. C. Shop Plans The shop plans are used to detail, install, and stress the post-tensioning system selected by the Contractor. These plans must contain sufficient information to allow the engineer to check their compliance with the contract plans. These plans must also contain the location of anchorages, stressing data, and arrangement of tendons.

General

6.1.7

Connections (Joints)
The connections or joints must divide the structure into a logical pattern of separate elements which also permit ease of manufacture and assembly. The connection or joint surfaces should be oriented perpendicular to the centroidal axis of the precast element. Types of Connections (Joints): Connections or joints are either wide or match cast. Depending on their width, they may be filled with cast-in-place concrete or grouted. Match cast joints are normally bonded with an epoxy bonding agent. Dry match cast joints are not recommended. Shear and Alignment Keys: In order to assist shear transmission in wide joints, use a suitable system of keys. The shape of the keys may be chosen to suit a particular application and they can be either single keys or multiple keys. Single keys are generally large and localized whereas multiple keys generally cover as much of the joint surface area as is practical.

Single Key

Multiple Keys

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6.1-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures General

Single keys provide an excellent guide for erection of elements. Single keys are preferred for all match cast joints. For all types of joints, the surfaces must be clean, free from grease and oil, etc. When using epoxy for bonding, the joints should be lightly sand-blasted to remove laitance. For cast-in-place or other types of wide joints, the adjacent concrete surfaces should be roughened and kept thoroughly wet, prior to construction of the joint. Cast-in-place joints are generally preferred.

6.1.8

Deflection and Camber
Deflections of prestressed concrete beams can be predicted with greater accuracy than those for reinforced concrete beams. Since prestressed concrete is more or less homogeneous and obeys ordinary laws of flexure and shear, the deflection can be computed using elementary methods. However, accurate predictions of the deflections are difficult to determine, since modulus of elasticity of concrete, Ec, varies with stress and age of concrete. Also, the effects of creep on deflections are difficult to estimate. For practical purposes, an accuracy of 10 to 20 percent is often sufficient. Prestressing can be used advantageously to control deflections, however, there are cases where excessive camber due to prestress have caused problems. For normal design, in lieu of more accurate methods, the deflection and camber of prestressed members may be estimated by the multipliers as given in Table 6.1.8-1. Multipliers for Estimating Long-term Deflection of Prestressed Concrete Girders Table 6.1.8-1
Normal Strength Concrete fc′ <= 7.0 ksi NonComposite Composite High Strength Concrete fc′ > 7.0 ksi NonComposite Composite

Deflection at Erection
Apply to the elastic deflection due to the member weight at release of prestress Apply to the elastic deflection due to prestressing at release of prestress 1.85 1.80 1.85 1.80 1.75 1.70 1.75 1.70

Deflection at Final
Apply to the elastic deflection due to the member weight at release of prestress Apply to the elastic deflection due to prestressing at release of prestress Apply to the elastic deflection due to the Super Imposed Dead Loads Apply to the elastic deflection due to weight of slab release of prestress 2.70 2.45 3.00 ---2.40 2.20 3.00 2.30 2.50 2.25 2.75 ---2.20 2.10 2.75 2.15

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July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6.2 Precast Sections
Precast sections are generally cast in a permanent plant or somewhere near the construction site and then erected. Precasting permits better material quality control and is often more economical than cast-in-place concrete. The precast ‘U’ sections are commonly called ‘bathtubs’ which can be joined together with “wet joint.”

Precast Sections

6.2.1

Pre-Tensioning
Pre-tensioning is accomplished by stressing high strength steel strands to a predetermined tension and then placing concrete around the strands, while the stress is maintained. After the concrete has hardened, the strands are released and the concrete, which has become bonded to the tendon, is prestressed as a result of the strands attempting to relax to their original length. The strand stress is maintained during placing and curing of the concrete by anchoring the ends of strands to abutments that may be as much as 500 feet apart. The abutments and appurtenances used in this procedure are referred to as pre-tensioning bed or bench.

6.2.2

Post-Tensioning
Post-tensioning consists of installing steel tendons into a hollow metalic duct in a structure after the concrete sections are cast. These tendons are usually anchored at each end of the structure and stressed to a design strength using a hydraulic jacking system. Commonly the tendons are encased in a tight metal tube. This tube is referred to as a sheath or duct and remains in the structure. After the tendon has been stressed, the duct is filled with grout which bonds the tendon to the concrete section and prevents corrosion of the strand. Finally, closure pours are made at the anchor heads to provide corrosion protection.

6.2.3

Washington Standard Prestressed Girder Sections
Washington State Standard girders were adopted in the mid-1950s. These girder shapes proved to be very efficient due to their thin webs and small flange fillets. These are still the most efficient shapes available and variations of these girders have been adopted by other states. The original series was graduated in 10-foot increments from 30 feet to 100 feet. In 1990, revisions were made to the prestressed concrete girder standards incorporating the results of the research done at Washington State University on girders without end blocks. The new standards incorporate three major changes. They have a thicker web, the end blocks are eliminated, and have increased distance between strands. The new standard designations are W74G, W58G, W50G, W42G, and deck bulb tee standards W53DG and W35DG. The numbers refer to the depth of the section. In 1999, deeper girders, commonly called “Supergirders” were added to the WSDOT prestressed concrete girder standards. These new supergirders may be pretensioned or post-tensioned. The pretensioned standards are designated as WF74G, W83G and W95G and the post-tensioned standards are designated as W83PTG and W95PTG. A. Properties The properties which are needed for design of standard girders are listed in Appendix 6.4-A3-1 and 2. B. Section Geometry Table 6.2.3-1 gives the dimensions of the Washington State Standard Girder Sections.

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6.2-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Sections

Dimensions of Standard Prestressed Girder Sections Table 6.2.3-1

6.2-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
C. Basic Assumptions The following basic assumptions are used in the design of these standard girders. Figure 6.2.3-1 illustrates some of the factors which are constant in the WSDOT Prestressed Girder Design computer program. Figure 6.2.3-2 show variations from those assumptions for a typical backwall design and a typical notched girder design.

Precast Sections

Typical Prestressed Girder Span Figure 6.2.3-1

Typical Prestressed Girder Configuration Figure 6.2.3-2 Figure 6.2.3-3 and Appendix 6.5-A1 through A7 show the standard strand positions in these girders.

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6.2-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
1. Prestress For final conditions, the designer shall assume the prestress acting on the section to be NAs (.70 fs′-PL) for stress relieved strands and NAs (.75 fs′-PL) for low relaxation strands. Where: N = number of stressed strands passing through the section

Precast Sections

As = the area of one strand, in2 fs′ = the ultimate strength in ksi PL = indicates total prestress losses in ksi in pretensioned members. For checking of stresses during release, lifting, transportation, and erection of prestressed girders, the elastic and time dependent losses shall be as follows: Release — 1 day (lifting of girders from casting beds) 1 month — 4 months (transportation and erection of girders) After 4 months 2. Strand Patterns Standard strand patterns are shown in Appendix 6.5-A1 through A7. D. Design Procedure 1. General The WSDOT “Prestressed Girder Design” computer program uses a trial and error method to arrive at solution for stress requirement and is the preferred method for final design of length and spacing. Some publications suggest various direct means for determining stress and position, but the procedures are generally quite complex. 2. Stress Conditions The stress limits as described in Table 6.2.3-2 must be met for the girder and its prestress. One or more of the conditions described below may govern design. Each condition is the result of the summation of stresses with each load acting on its appropriate section (such as girder only, composite section). Precast girders shall also be checked during lifting, transportation, and erection stages by the designer to assure that girder delivery is feasible. Impact during the lifting stage shall be 0 percent and during transportation shall be 20 percent of the dead load of the girder. Impact shall be applied either upward or downward to produce maximum stresses. computed losses 35 ksi computed losses

6.2-4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Sections

Prestressed Girder Strand Locations Figure 6.2.3-3 Note: Fo may be increased in 1-inch increments to keep slope of harped strands below the slope limit. Fb may be increased in 1-inch increments in order to reduce tension at the top of the girder at harping point at time of strand release.

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6.2-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
Condition Temporary Stress at Transfer Stress Tensile Location In areas other than Precompressed Tensile Zone Precompressed Tensile Zone Compression Temporary Stress at Lifting Tensile All Locations In areas other than Precompressed Tensile Zone Precompressed Tensile Zone Compression Tempoary Stress at Shipping Tensile All Locations In areas other than Precompressed Tensile Zone Precompressed Tensile Zone Compression Final Stresses at Service Load Tensile All Locations Precompressed Tensile Zone All Locations due to: Permanent loads and effective Prestressing Load Live load, one-half permanent loads and effective prestressing load All load combinations 0.45 fc′

Precast Sections
Allowable Stress 3 √fci′ <=0.2 psi

6 √fci′

0.6 fci′ 6 √fci′

6 √fci′

0.6 fci′ 6 √fci′

6 √fci′

0.6 fc′ 0.0 psi

Compression

0.4 fc′

0.6 fc′

Allowable Concrete Stresses Table 6.2.3-2

6.2-6

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
E. Prestressing Strands 1. Straight Strands The position of the straight strands in the bottom flange and temporary strands for shipping and handling in top flange has been standardized for each size of flange. Those strand positions and the girder flange size are summarized in Appendix 6.5-A1 through A7. 2. Harped Strands The harped strands are bundled at the 4/10 points of the span for series W83G, W95G, WF74G and W58G and at the 1/3 points at the girders for series W50G and W42G. The harped strands are bundled at the harping points. Bundles are limited to 12 strands each. Twelve (12) and fewer harped strands are placed in a single bundle with the centroid normally 3 inches above the bottom of the girder. Strands in excess of 12 are bundled in a second bundle with the centroid 6 inches above the bottom of the girder. At the girder ends, the strands are splayed to a normal pattern. The centroid of strands at both the girder end and the harping point may be varied to suit girder stress requirements. 3. Stirrups Shear for computation of stirrup requirements is computed at a point 1/2 of the girder depth from the end of the girder and at the harping point. Ultimate shear is computed at these points based on 1.3 DL + 2.17 (L.L. + Impact). The portion of this shear which is carried by the concrete is given in section 9.20.2 of AASHTO. The stirrup spacing is then calculated using the formula: S= Av • fy(d) Vs where Vs = Vu / 0.85 – Vc and

Precast Sections

d is the distance from the extreme compressive fiber to the centroid of the prestressing force. For precast girders made continuous for live load, d shall be the distance from the extreme compressive fiber to the centroid of the negative moment reinforcement, i.e., d = h + A - 4.5", where h = height of the girder; A as defined in Subsection 6.3.4 A(3). Shear reinforcement are furnished by two vertical bars. Maximum spacing is taken to be 1 foot 6 inches The point where 1-foot 6-inch spacing starts is found by interpolating between the point 1/2 of the girder depth from the end of the girder and the harping point to find the location where the portion of the shear carried by the stirrups (Vs) yields 1 foot 6 inches Vs for 1-foot 6-inch Avfy(dmin) stirrup spacing can be found by using Vs (18) = where dmin is the smallest of the 18 d values found for the point 1/2 of the girder depth from the end of the girder and the harping point. The 1-foot 6-inch stirrup spacing is used throughout the rest of the girder. If the stirrup spacing at the point 1/2 of the girder depth from the end of the girder is smaller than about 1 foot 2 inches, further interpolation may be done to obtain a multiple step increment of stirrup spacing. 4. End Section Reinforcement The Washington State Standard Prestressed Concrete Girders are not provided with a thickened end block section, but have constant thickness webs. The end section reinforcement is detailed on the Office Standard Plans. This reinforcement is based on the requirement to resist bursting forces due to strand force development in this area. If the stirrup spacing required at the end of

July 2000

6.2-7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Sections

the girder is less than shown on the Office Standard Plans, end section stirrups spacing on the Standard Plans should be altered to show this spacing. For a distance of 1.5d from the end of the girder, reinforcement shall be placed to confine the p/s steel in bottom flange. The spacing of confinement reinforcement shall not exceed 6 inch and shall be shaped to enclose the strands. F. Development of Prestressing Strand 1. General In determining the resistance of pretensioned concrete components in their end zones, the gradual buildup of the strand force in the transfer and development lengths shall be taken into account. The prestress force may be assumed to vary linearly from 0.0 at the point where bonding commences to a maximum at the transfer length. Between the transfer length and the development length, the strand force may be assumed to increase in a parabolic manner, reaching the tensile strength of the strand at the end of development length. For the purpose of this article, the transfer length may be taken as 60 strand diameters and the development length shall be taken as specified in Article 6.2.3F2. The effects of debonding shall be considered as specified in Article 6.2.3F3. 2. Bonded Strand Pretensioning strand shall be bonded beyond the critical section for development length, in inches, taken as: Ld ′ ≥ where: D = nominal strand diameter (in)

(f* –
su

2 3

fse D

)

fse = effective stress in prestressing steel after all losses (ksi) fsu = in the prestressing steel at nominal strength (ksi) * 3. Partially Debonded Strands Where a portion or portions of a pretensioning strand are not bonded and where tension exists in the precompressed tensile zone, the development length specified in Article 6.2.3F2 shall be doubled. The number of partially debonded strands should not exceed 25 percent of the total number of strands. The number of debonded strands in any horizontal row shall not exceed 40 percent of the strands in that row. Debonded strands shall be symmetrically distributed about the centerline of the member. Debonded lengths of pairs of strands that are symmetrically positioned about the centerline of the member shall be equal. Exterior strands in each horizontal row shall be fully bonded.

6.2-8

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
4. Unbonding Strands Where it is necessary to prevent a strand from actively supplying prestress force near the end of a girder, it may be unbonded. This can be accomplished by taping a close fitting pvc tube to the stressed strand from the end of the girder to some point where the strand can be allowed to develop its load. Since this is not a common procedure, it should be carefully detailed on the plans. It is important when this method is used in construction that the taping of the tube be done in such a manner that grout cannot leak into the tube and provide an undesirable bond of the strand. 5. Strand Development Outside of Girder For girders made continuous for live load, extended bottom prestress strands are used to carry positive live load, creep, and other moments from one span to another. Usually four strands per girder will provide an adequate resistance. Strands used for this purpose must be developed in the short distance between the two girder ends. This is normally accomplished by requiring strand chucks and anchors as shown in Figure 6.2.3-4. The nominal development length is normally 2 feet. For wide crossbeams, the strands may be extended straight and a 1 foot 0 inch splice used. At back walls, which are connected to the superstructure, the extended strands may be used to withstand earthquake forces and, in this case, should be developed accordingly. The number of strands to be extended cannot exceed the number of straight strands available in the girder. Designer shall calculate the exact number of extended straight strands needed to develop the required moment capacity at the end of girder. This calculation shall be based on the tensile strength of the strands, the stress imposed to the anchor, and concrete bearing against the projected area of the anchor. The appropriate strand stress available to resist ultimate load (fgu*) at this section shall be no greater than [(Ld / D -2/3 fse] where: Ld is the developed length available D is the diameter of the strand fse is the effective prestress in steel after all losses.

Precast Sections

Strand Development Figure 6.2.3-4

July 2000

6.2-9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
G. Fabrication and Handling 1. Shop Plans Fabricators of prestressed girders are required to submit shop plans which show specific details for each girder that they construct. These shop plans are checked and approved by the Project Engineer’s office for conformance with the Contract Plans and specifications. 2. Special Problems for Fabricators a. Strand Tensioning The method selected for strand tensioning may affect the design of the girders. The strand arrangements shown in the office standard plans and included in the Prestressed Girder Design computer program are satisfactory for tensioning methods used by fabricators in this state. Harped strands are normally tensioned by pulling them as straight strands to a partial tension. The strands are then deflected vertically as necessary to give the required harping angle and strand stress. In order to avoid overtensioning the harped strands by this procedure, the slope of the strands is limited to a maximum of 6:1 for 1/2″ φ strands and 8:1 for 0.6″ φ strands. The straight strands are tensioned by straight jacking. b. Hold Down Forces Forces on the hold-down units are developed as the harped strands are raised. The hold-down device provided by the fabricator must be able to hold the vertical component of the harping forces. Normally a two or more hold-down unit is required. Standard commercial hold-down units have been preapproved for use with particular strand groups. c Numbers of Strands Since the prestressing beds used by the girder fabricators can carry several girders in a line, it is desirable that girders have the same number of strands where practical. This allows several girders to be set up and cast at one time and saves both time and strand material. 3. Handling and Hauling of Long Prestressed Girders a. General Considerations for handling and shipping long prestressed girders relate primarily to weight, length, height, and lateral stability. The effect of each variable differs considerably depending on where the handling is taking place: in the plant, on the road, or at the jobsite. b. In-Plant Handling The primary considerations for in-plant handling are weight and lateral stability. The maximum weight that can be handled by precasting plants in the Pacific Northwest is 200 kips. Pretensioning lines are normally long enough so that the weight of a girder governs capacity, rather than its length. Headroom is also not generally a concern for the deeper sections. Lateral stability can be a concern when handling long, slender girders. When the girder is stripped from the form, the prestressing level is higher and the concrete strength is lower than at any other point in the life of the member.

Precast Sections

6.2-10

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Sections

The WSDOT prestressed girder sections are relatively wide and stiff about their weak axes and, as a result, exhibit good stability, even at their longer pretentioned lengths. The simplest method of improving stability is to move the lifting devices away from the ends. This invariably increases the required concrete release strength, because decreasing the distance between lifting devices increases the concrete stresses at the harp point. Stresses at the support may also govern, depending on the exit location of the harped strands. Alternatively, the girder sections may be braced to provide adequate stability. Temporary prestressing in the top flange can also be used to provide a larger factor of safety against cracking. Other types of bracing have also been used successfully for many years. These systems are generally based on experience rather than theory. Other methods of improving lateral stability, such as raising the roll axis of the girder, are also an option. For stability analysis of prestressed girder during in-plant handling in absence of more accurate information, the following parameters shall be used: • Height of pick point above top of girder = 0.0 in • Lifting loop or lifting bars placement tolerance = 0.25 in • Maximum girder sweep tolerance = 0.00052 in/in c. Pick Up Points The office standard plans show pick-up points for the girders. These points are critical since the girder is in its most highly stressed condition just after strand release. In some cases, fabricators may request to move the pick-up points toward the center of the girder. The request must be reviewed carefully since a decrease in girder dead load moment near centerline span may cause overstressing of the girder. Similarly, the girders must never be supported at any point other than the centerline of bearing during storage. The girders are also very sensitive to lateral loads and accordingly must be stored in a true vertical position. d. Girder Lateral Bending Long prestressed girders are very flexible and highly susceptible to lateral bending. Lateral bending failures are sudden, catastrophic, costly, pose a serious threat to workers and surroundings, and therefore must be guarded against. The office standard plans state that girders over certain given lengths must be laterally braced and that all girders must be handled carefully. It is the fabricator’s responsibility to provide adequate bracing and provide suitable handling facilities. On unusually long girders, however, the designer should give this matter additional consideration. Published material on girder lateral bending should be consulted and used to assure the constructability of the girder design chosen (14, 17, 18, 19). e. Shipping The ability to ship deep girder sections can be influenced by a large number of variables, including mode of transportation, weight, length, height, and lateral stability. Some variables have more influence than others. As such, the feasibility of shipping deep girders is strongly site-dependent. It is recommended that routes to the site be investigated during the preliminary design phase. To this end, on projects using long, heavy girders, WSDOT can place an advisory in their special provisions including shipping routes, estimated permit fees, escort vehicle requirements, Washington State Patrol requirements, and permit approval time.

July 2000

6.2-11

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
f. Mode of Transportation Three modes of transportation are commonly used in the industry: truck, rail, and barge. In Washington State, an overwhelming percentage of girders are transported by truck, so discussion in subsequent sections will be confined to this mode. However, on specific projects, it may be appropriate to consider rail or barge transportation. Standard rail cars can usually accommodate larger loads than a standard truck. Rail cars range in capacity from approximately 120 to 200 kips. However, unless the rail system runs directly from the precasting plant to the jobsite, members must be trucked for at least some of the route, and weight may be restricted by the trucking limitations. For large number of girders construction, barge transportation is usually most economical. Product weights and dimensions are generally not limited by barge delivery, but by the handling equipment on either end. In most cases, if a product can be made and handled in the plant, it can be shipped by barge. Of course, this applies only if both the plant and jobsite are fully accessible by barge. g. Weight Limitations Girders shipped in some states have weighed in excess of 200 kips. The net weight limitation with trucking equipment currently available in Washington State is approximately 167 to 180 kips, if a reasonable delivery rate (number of pieces per day) is to be maintained. Product weights of up to 200 kips can be hauled with currently available equipment at a limited rate. Local carriers should be consulted on the feasibility of shipping heavy girders on specific projects. Some girders can be fabricated and shipped in two or more segments to reduce the weight and assembled and post-tensioned at the bridge site. However, it is more economical to fabricate and ship a single-piece pretensioned girder whenever possible. h. Length Limitations Length limitations are generally governed by turning radii on the route to the jobsite. Potential problems can be circumvented by moving the support points closer together (away from the ends of the girder), or by selecting alternate routes. A rule of thumb of 130 feet between supports is commonly used. The support points can be moved away from the ends while still maintaining the concrete stresses within allowable limits. Length limitations are not expected to be the governing factor for most project locations. i. Height Limitations The height of a deep girder section sitting on a jeep and steerable trailer is of concern when considering overhead obstructions on the route to the jobsite. The height of the support is approximately 6 feet above the roadway surface. When adding the depth of the girder, including camber, the overall height from the roadway surface to the top of concrete can rapidly approach 14 feet. Overhead obstructions along the route should be investigated for adequate clearance in the preliminary design phase. Obstructions without adequate clearance must be bypassed by selecting alternate routes.

Precast Sections

6.2-12

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Sections

Expectations are that, in some cases, overhead clearance will not accommodate the vertical stirrup projection on deeper WSDOT standard girder sections. Alternate stirrup configurations can be used to attain adequate clearance, depending on the route from the plant to the jobsite. j. Lateral Stability During Shipping Long, slender members can become unstable when supported near the ends. However, the stability of girders sitting on flexible supports is governed by the rotational stiffness of the support rather than the girder. Recommended factors of safety 1.0 against cracking, and 1.5 against failure (rollover of the truck) should be used. The control against cracking the top flange is obtained by introducing the number of temporary top strands, jacked to the same load as the permanent strands, required to provide a factor of safety of 1.0. This variable depends on the combination of girder dead load, prestressing, and tension in the top flange induced by the girder tilt. The calculated tilt includes both the superelevation and its magnification based on the truck’s rotational stiffness. For stability analysis of prestressed girders during shipping, in absence of more accurate information, the following parameters shall be used: • • • • • • • • k. Roll stiffness of truck/trailer = 40500 kip-in/rad Height of girder bottom above roadway = 72 in Height of truck roll center above road = 24 in Center to center distance between truck tires = 72 in Maximum expected roadway superelevation = 0.06 Maximum girder sweep tolerance = 0.001042 in/in Support placement lateral tolerance = 1 in Increase girder C.G. height for camber by 2%

Erection A variety of methods are used to erect precast concrete girders, depending on the weight, length, available crane capacity, and site access. Lifting long girders during erection is not as critical as when they are stripped from the forms, particularly when the same lifting devices are used for both. However, if a separate set of erection devices are used, the girder should be checked for stresses and lateral stability. In addition, once the girder is set in place, the free span between supports is usually increased. Wind can also pose a problem. Consequently, when long girders are erected, they should immediately be braced at the ends. Generally, the temporary support of the girders is the contractor’s responsibility.

l.

Construction Sequence for Muli-Span Prestressed Girder Bridges For multi-span prestressed girder bridges, the sequence and timing of the superstructure construction has a significant impact on the performance and durability of the bridge. In order to maximize the performance and durability, the “construction sequence” details shown on the attached sheets shall be followed for all new WSDOT multi-span prestressed girder bridges. Particular attention shall be paid to the timing of casting the lower portion of the pier diaphragms/crossbeams (30 days minimum after release of prestress) and the upper portion of the diaphragms/crossbeams (10 days minimum after placement of the roadway slab). The requirements apply to multi-span prestressed girder bridges with monolithic and hinge diaphragms/crossbeams.

July 2000

6.2-13

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
4. Repair of Damaged Girders This section pertains only to girders which have been damaged before becoming part of a final structure. Repair of damaged girders in existing bridges is covered in Section 6.3.6. a. Repairs to Girders Prior to Strand Release When girders suffer defects during casting or damage prior to strand release, the repair procedures are documented in reference 6.99.7. Normally, no designer action is required. In prescribing repairs for unusual situations not covered in reference 6.99.7, the designer must ensure that the required strength and appearance of the girder can be maintained. Since stressing will occur after the repair is made, normally no test loading is required; however, such a test should be considered.

Precast Sections

6.2.4

Precast Prestressed (Short Span Bridges)
General — To expedite scheduling and promote economy in building short span bridges, the WSDOT’s Bridge Design Office developed standards for short span bridges (range 12 to 70 feet for length of spans). A small bridge program was developed in 1983. A National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report (NCHRP) No. 287, entitled Load Distribution and Connection Design for Precast Stemmed Multibeam Bridge Superstructures was utilized to obtain the most effective keyway geometry between adjacent beam for shear transfer and live load distribution to the girders. These type of bridges are used only for low ADT roads. A. Precast Prestressed Slabs The slab sections utilize low relaxation prestressing strands and are connected together permanently with transverse weld tie and keyway. The following are recommendations for the type of precast slab sections to be used for various span lengths: 1. 2. 3. 12-inch depth precast section (see Appendixes 6.6-A1-1 and 2). This section is capable of spanning between 15 to 35 feet. 18-inch depth voided precast section (see Appendixs 6.6-A2-1 and 2). This section is capable of spanning between 30 to 50 feet. 26-inch depth voided precast section (see Appendixs 6.6-A3-1 and 2). This section is capable of spanning between 40 to 70 feet.

Layout, end abutment, and Intermediate Pier standards have been developed for use with the slab sections noted above (see Appendix 6.6-A4 through A6). B. Precast Prestressed Tri-Beam Tri-Beam sections are available as an option to the slab spans. Low relaxation prestressing strands are utilized which enable these sections to span 25 to 70 feet. Two standards have been developed; one for a 4 foot 0 inch minimum to 6 foot 0 inch maximum wide section (see Appendix 6.7-A1-1 and 2). Standard sheets for abutment and Intermediate pier for tri-beam sections are shown in Appendix 6.7-A3.

6.2-14

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
C. Precast Prestressed Deck Bulb-Tee Girders Deck bulb-tee girders are also available as an option to the slab sections. Precast fabricators often prefer deck bulb-tee girders because voided slabs are less efficient sections. We have developed four standard sections while working closely with local fabricator requirements or constraints. 65-inch, 53-inch, 41 inch, and a 35-inch deep bulb-tee girders are used by the state of Washington 4-foot, 5-foot, and 6-foot wide or variable width deck. For deck bulb tee girders, diaphrams and miscellaneous details, see Appendix 6.8-A1 through A5.

Precast Sections

6.2.5

Precast Box Girders
For moderate bridge spans of up to 160 feet, and where girder depth is critical, precast box girders are generally used. These are generally in the form of U-sections called bath-tubs and joined together with wet joint and post-tensioning.

P65:DP/BDM6

July 2000

6.2-15

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6.3 Precast Girder Bridges
The precast prestressed girder bridge is an economical and rapid type of bridge construction. This section discusses the design of precast prestressed girder bridges.

Precast Girder Bridges

6.3.1

Criteria for Girder Design
The following criteria is described for simple span bridges. Present practice is to use simple span girder designs in continuous prestress bridges. Effects of creep and shrinkage are not considered. This is a somewhat conservative procedure, but it minimizes engineering time. For continuous structures consisting of a large number of girders, a more exact analysis could be used, as directed by the design supervisor. Additional comments concerning special problems in design of continuous bridges are added below. The design criteria for P/S girders may be summarized in Table 6.3.1-1. A. Support Conditions The prestressed girders are assumed to be supported on rigid permanent simple supports. These supports can be either bearing seats or elastomeric pads. The design span length is the distance center to center of bearings for simple spans. For continuous spans erected on falsework (raised crossbeam), the effective point of support for girder design is assumed to be the face of the crossbeam. For continuous spans on crossbeams (dropped or semi-dropped crossbeam), the design span length is usually the distance center to center of temporary bearings. See Figure 6.2.3-1. B. Composite Action 1. General The sequence of construction and loading is extremely important in the design of prestressed girders. The composite section has a much larger capacity than the basic girder section but it cannot take loads until the slab has obtained adequate strength. For assumptions used in computing composite section properties, see Figure 6.3.1-1. 2. Load Application The following sequence and method of applying loads is used in girder analysis: a. Girder Dead Load The dead load of the girder is applied to the girder section. b. Diaphragm Dead Load The dead load of the diaphragms is applied to the girder section. c. Slab Dead Load The dead load of slab is applied to the girder section. Temporary strands shall be removed prior to slab casting. d. Barrier, Overlay Dead Load, and Live Load Dead load of one traffic barrier is divided among a maximum of three girders and this uniform load is applied to the composite section. The dead load of any overlay and live load plus impact is applied to the composite section.

July 2000

6.3-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

Design Specifications Design Method

AASHTO Standard Specifications and WSDOT Bridge Design Manual Prestressed girder are designed for service load stresses and checked for the requirements of load factor design. All other elements are designed in accordance with the requirements of load factor design.

Design Assumption

Prestressed girders are designed as simple span for both simple and continuous span superstructures. BDM Articles 4.2 and 4.3 Service load Load factor design BDM Table 6.2.3-2 BDM Article 6.1.5 and Table 6.1.5-1 Shear Design may be based on one of the following: • Shear design per AASHTO Standard Specifications 9.20 • Predesigned for shear Standard Prestressed Girder plans

Load and Load Combinations

Group I Group I

Allowable Stresses Prestress Losses Shear Design

Shipping and Handling

BDM Article 6.2.3G-3

Design Criteria for Prestressed Girder Superstructures Table 6.3.1-1 3. Composite Section Properties Minimum deck slab thickness is specified as 7 1/2 inches by office practice, but may be thicker if girder spacing dictates. This slab forms the top flange of the composite girder in prestressed girder bridge construction. The properties of this slab-girder composite section are affected by specification and by physical considerations. Figure 6.3.1-1 shows some standard values to be used for design and detailing. a. Flange Width The effective width of slab on each side of the girder centerline which can be considered to act as a compressive flange shall not exceed any of the following: One-eighth of the span length. Six times the thickness of slab plus one-fourth of the girder flange width. One-half the distance to the next girder. The actual distance to the edge of slab. For effective tension flange widths, see AASHTO.

6.3-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
b. Flange Position For purposes of calculating composite section properties, the bottom of the slab shall be assumed to be directly on the top of the girder. This assumption may prove to be true at center of span when excess girder camber occurs. For dimensioning the plans, an increased dimension from top of girder to top of slab is used at centerline of bearing. This is called the “A” dimension. This dimension accounts for the effects of girder camber, vertical curve, slab cross slope, etc. See Appendix 6.1-A1 for method of computing. c. Flange Thickness For purposes of computing composite section properties, the slab thickness shall be reduced by 1/2 inch to account for wearing. Where it is known that a bridge will have an asphalt overlay applied prior to traffic being allowed on the bridge, the full slab thickness can be used as effective slab thickness. The effective slab width shall be reduced by the ratio Es/Eg. The effective modulus of composite section is then Eg. d. Section Dead Load The slab dead load to be applied to the girder shall be based on full thickness plus any overhang. The full effective pad (“A”-t) weight shall be added to that load. This assumed pad weight is applied over the full length of the girder. 4. Shear Transfer Transfer of shear forces in prestressed girder bridge design is critical in three areas. The first has been previously discussed; the section through the web at the point 1/2 of the girder depth from the end of the girder. The other two critical areas for shear transfer are between slab and girder and at the end connection of the girder to the crossbeam for girders in continuous bridges. Shear in these areas will normally be resisted by reinforcement extending from the girder. a. Shear Between Slab and Girder This shear represents a rate of change of compression load in the flange of simple span girders or a rate of change of tension load in the flange near the piers of continuous girders. For a simple span girder as represented by Figure 6.3.1-2, the top flange stress is the factored centerline moment divided by the section modulus of the composite girder at the centerline of the slab. The slab load is this stress times the area of the slab. The factored centerline moment can be taken as total factored moment less 1.0 times dead load applied to girder.

Precast Girder Bridges

July 2000

6.3-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

Composite Prestressed Girder Section Figure 6.3.1-1

6.3-4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

Shear in Simple Girder Figure 6.3.1-2 The design composite section slab modulus is used for this shear calculation However, a full slab width should be used to compute force. As an alternate and for a more accurate analysis, a composite section can be calculated using the full slab width, but this is usually not necessary. Further explanation of this calculation and a solved example are available in reference 5.99.4, PCA Notes on Load Factor Design. This shear is resisted by the girder stirrups which extend up through the interface between the girder and the slab. The top surface of the girder top flange must be roughened. The force may be assumed to be carried uniformly over the entire girder top surface from centerline of bearing to centerline of span. All stirrups in this area can be assumed to be acting in accordance with the shear friction theory as described in Subsection 5.2.1 C. For continuous girders, the span, shear, and moment relationships are shown in Figure 6.3.1-3. Similar methods are used to analyze slab to girder shear. For positive moment resistance, only those stirrups within length Lc are considered effective in resisting the slab force due to moment. Likewise, only those stirrups within one continuous length Le are used to resist the negative moment slab force (tension) in that area.

July 2000

6.3-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

For illustrative purposes, a single concentrated load has been shown. In actual practice, the point of factored maximum moment of the actual moment diagram would be used. Other flange shear problems are described in Section 5.4. These problems also need to be considered for prestressed girder bridges.

Shear in Continuous Girder Figure 6.3.1-3 b. Shear at Girder End A continuous prestressed girder will nearly always be required to carry end reaction shears at the surface of the end of the girder. An exception to this is girders with notched crossbeams where loads must be carried across the connections which act as hinges. See Chapter 5.

6.3-6

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

End Connection for a Continuous Prestressed Girder Figure 6.3.1-4 The usual end condition is similar to that shown in Figure 6.3.1-4. The shear which must be carried along the interface A-A is the actual factored dead load and live load shear acting on the section. The girder end is required by the plans to be roughened. The sawtoothed shear key shown on the office standard girder plans may be assumed to provide a friction factor of 1.0. Shear resistance must be developed using shear friction theory and assuming the G5 bars and the extended strands to be actively participating. The main longitudinal slab reinforcement is already fully stressed by girder bending moments and thus cannot be considered for shear requirements. All bars, including the extended strands, must be properly anchored in order to be considered effective. This anchorage requirement must be clearly shown on the plans. Note that similar requirements exist for connecting the end diaphragm at bridge ends where the diaphragm is cast on the girders. In this case, however, loads consist only of the factored diaphragm dead load, approach slab dead load, and those wheel loads which can distribute to the interface. C. Prestressed Girder Camber 1. General The computer program ‘PGSDEF’ is used to determine the amount of girder camber for prestressed girder bridges. This program computes the deflections due to prestress, girder dead load, slab dead load, and live load.

July 2000

6.3-7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
2. Calculation Figure 6.3.1-5 shows a typical pattern of girder deflection with time at centerline span. Portions of this characteristic curve are described below. The subparagraph numbers correspond with circled numbers on the curve. a. Elastic Deflection Due to Prestress Force The prestress force produces moments in the girder tending to bow the girder upward. Resisting these moments are girder section dead load moments. The result is a net upward deflection. In addition, a shortening of the girder occurs due to axial prestress loading. b. Creep Deflection The girder continues to deflect upward due to the effect of creep. This effect is computed using the equation stated in Subsection 6.1.2C.2. c. Diaphragm Load Deflection The load of diaphragm is applied to the girder section resulting in an elastic downward deflection. d. Deflection Due to Removal of Temporary Strands Removal of temporary strands results in an elastic upward deflection. e. Slab Load Deflection The load of the slab is applied to the girder section resulting in an elastic downward deflection. It is this deflection which is offset by the screed camber that is to be applied to the bridge deck during construction. f. Final Camber It might be expected that the above slab dead load deflection would be accompanied by a continuing downward deflection due to creep. Many measurements of actual structure deflections have shown, however, that once the slab is poured, the girder tends to act as though it is locked in position. To obtain a smooth riding surface on the deck, the deflection indicated on Figure 6.3.1-5 as “Screed Camber” is added to the profile grade elevation of the deck screeds. The actual position of the girder at the time of the slab pour has no effect on the screed camber.

Precast Girder Bridges

6.3-8

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

Prestressed Girder Camber Figure 6.3.1-5

July 2000

6.3-9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6.3.2 Framing
A. Girder Selection and Spacing Cost of the girders is a major portion of the cost of prestressed girder bridges. Much care is therefore warranted in the selection of girders and in optimizing their position within the structure. The following general guidelines should be considered. 1. Girder Series Selection All girders in a bridge will normally be of the same series. If vertical clearance is no problem, a larger girder series, utilizing fewer girder lines, may be a desirable solution. This must be balanced with considerations such as appearance. At the present time, the following relative girder series cost factors may be used as a guide for this decision: Series W42G W50G W58G W74G WF74G W83G W95G Relative Cost Factors 0.89 0.93 0.96 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.25

Precast Girder Bridges

Note that the small marginal cost factors between series tends to make the larger series more economical. The wider spacings expected when using larger series girders may result in extra reinforcement and concrete but less forming cost. These items must also be considered. 2. Girder Concrete Strength Higher girder concrete strengths should be specified where that strength can be effectively used to reduce the number of girder lines. See Subsection 6.1.2 A.1. When the bridge consists of a large number of spans, consideration should be given to using a more exact analysis than the usual design program in an attempt to reduce the number of girder lines. This analysis should take into account actual live load, creep, and shrinkage stresses in the girders. 3. Girder Spacing Consideration must be given to the slab cantilever length to determine the most economical girder spacing. This matter is discussed in Subsection 6.3.2.B. The slab cantilever length should be made a maximum if a line of girders can be saved. The spacing of the interior girders must be considered at the same time. Once the positions of the exterior girders have been set, the positions and lengths of interior girders can be established. The following guidance is suggested. a. Straight Spans On straight constant width roadways, all girders should be parallel to bridge centerline and girder spacings should be equal.

6.3-10

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
b. Tapered Spans On tapered roadways, the minimum number of girder lines should be determined as if all girder spaces were to be equally flared. As many girders as possible, within the limitations of girder capacity should be placed. Slab thickness may have to be increased in some locations in order to accomplish this. c. Curved Spans On curved roadways, normally all girders will be parallel to each other. It is critical that the exterior girders are positioned properly in this case, as described in Subsection 6.3.2.B. d. Geometrically Complex Spans Spans which are combinations of taper and curves will require especially careful consideration in order to develop the most effective and economical girder arrangement. Where possible, girder lengths and numbers of straight and harped strands should be made the same for as many girders as possible in each span. e. Number of Girders in a Span Usually all spans will have the same number of girders. Where aesthetics of the underside of the bridge is not a factor and where a girder can be saved in a short side span, consideration should be given to using unequal numbers of girders. It should be noted that this will complicate crossbeam design by introducing torsion effects and that additional reinforcement will be required in the crossbeam. B. Slab Cantilevers The selection of the location of the exterior girders with respect to the curb line of a bridge is a critical factor in the development of the framing plan. This location is established by setting the curb distance, which is that dimension from centerline of the exterior girder to the adjacent curb line. For straight bridges, the curb distance will normally be no less than 1′-6″ for W42G, W50G, and W58G; 2′-0″ for W74G; and 2′-6″ for WF74G, W83G, and W95G. Some considerations which affect this are noted below. 1. Appearance In the past, some prestressed girder bridges have been designed by placing the exterior girders directly under the curb (traffic barrier). This gives a very poor bridge appearance and is uneconomical. Normally, for best appearance, the largest slab overhang which is practical should be used. 2. Economy Fortunately, the condition tending toward best appearance is also that which will normally give maximum economy. Larger curb distances may mean that a line of girders can be eliminated, especially when combined with higher girder concrete strengths. 3. Slab Strength This is one of the governing conditions which limits the maximum practical curb distance. Chapter 5 Appendix, gives some guidance for cantilever design. It must be noted that for larger overhangs, the slab section between the exterior and the first interior girder may be critical and may require thickening. In some cases, live load moments which produce transverse bending in the exterior girder should be considered.

Precast Girder Bridges

July 2000

6.3-11

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
4. Drainage Where drainage for the bridge is required, water from bridge drains is normally piped across the top of the girder and dropped inside of the exterior girder line. A large slab cantilever length may severely affect this arrangement and it must be considered when determining exterior girder location. 5. Bridge Curvature When straight prestressed girders are used to support curved roadways, the curb distance must vary. Normally, the maximum slab overhang at the centerline of the long span will be made approximately equal to the overhang at the piers on the inside of the curve. At the point of minimum curb distance, however, the edge of the girder top surface should be no closer than 6 inches from the slab edge. Where curvature is extreme and the difference between maximum and minimum curb distance becomes large, say 1 foot 6 inches, other types of bridges should be considered. Straight girder bridges on highly curved alignments have a poor appearance and also tend to become structurally less efficient. C. Diaphragm Requirements 1. General Diaphragms used with prestressed girder bridges serve two purposes. During the construction stage, the diaphragms provide girder stability for pouring the slab. During the life of the bridge, the diaphragms act as load distributing elements, and are particularly advantageous for distribution of large overloads. Standard diaphragms and diaphragm spacings are given in the office standards for prestressed girder bridges. Diaphragms that fall within the limitations stated on the office standards need not be analyzed. Where large girder spacings are to be used or other unusual conditions exist, special diaphragm designs should be performed. 2. Design Diaphragms shall be designed as transverse beam elements carrying both dead load and live load. Wheel loads for design shall be placed in positions so as to develop maximum moments and maximum shears. 3. Geometry Diaphragms shall normally be oriented parallel to skew (as opposed to normal to girder centerlines). This procedure has the following advantages: a. b. The build-up of higher stresses at the obtuse corners of a skewed span is minimized. This build-up has often been ignored in design. Skewed diaphragms are connected at points of approximately equal girder deflections and thus tend to distribute load to the girders in a manner which more closely duplicates design assumptions.

Precast Girder Bridges

On curved bridges, diaphragms shall normally be placed on radial lines.

6.3-12

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
D. Skew Effects Skew in prestressed girder bridges affects structural behavior and member analysis and complicates construction. 1. Analysis Normally, the effect of skew on girder analysis is ignored. It is assumed that skew has little structural effect on normal spans and normal skews. For short, wide spans and for extreme skews (values over 50 degrees), the effect of the skew on structural action should be investigated. All short span prestressed slabs, tri-beams, and bulb-tee girders have a skew restriction of 30 degrees. 2. Detailing To minimize labor costs and to avoid stress problems in prestressed girder construction, the ends of girders for continuous spans shall normally be made skewed. When girder ends are skewed, the angle of the girder end should be rounded to the nearest 5 degrees. If this causes problems where the girder extends into the crossbeam, the angle can be specified to the nearest degree. See Standard Specifications for girder tolerances. E. Grade and Cross Slope Effects Large cross slopes require an increased amount of girder pad dimension (‘A’ dimension) necessary to ensure that the structure can be built. See Appendix 6.1-A1. This effect is especially pronounced if the bridge is on a horizontal or vertical curve. Care must be taken that deck drainage details reflect the cross slope effect (see Subsection 6.3.2 B). Girder lengths may need to be modified to correct for added length along slope. Remember that the girder is a rectangle in elevation; thus, the position of the girder top corner is affected by grade, girder camber, and tolerances. Details must account for this. F. Curve Effect and Flare Effect Curves and tapered roadways each tend to complicate the design of straight girders. The designer must determine what girder spacing to use for dead load and live load design and whether or not a refined analysis, that considers actual load application, is warranted. Normally, the girder spacing at centerline of span can be used for girder design, especially in view of the conservative assumptions made for the design of continuous girders. G. Always skew ends of prestressed girders shall match the piers they rest on at either end.

Precast Girder Bridges

6.3.3

Reinforcement
This section discusses reinforcement requirements for resistance of longitudinal moments in continuous multi-span precast girder bridges and is limited to reinforcement in the top slab since capacity for resisting positive moment is provided by the prestressing of the girders. A. Simple Spans For simple span bridges, longitudinal slab reinforcement is not required to resist negative moments and therefore the reinforcement requirements are nominal. Figure 6.3.3-1 defines longitudinal reinforcement requirements for these slabs. The bottom longitudinal reinforcement is defined by AASHTO requirements for distribution reinforcement. The top longitudinal reinforcement is based on current office practice. The requirements of Distribution of Flexural Reinforcement do not apply to these bars.

July 2000

6.3-13

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

Nominal Longitudinal Slab Reinforcement for Prestressed Girder Bridges With Main Reinforcement Perpendicular to Traffic Figure 6.3.3-1 B. Continuous Spans 1. General Longitudinal reinforcement of continuous spans at intermediate support is dominated by the moment requirement. Where these bars are cut off, they are lapped by the nominal top longitudinal reinforcement described in Subsection 6.3.3A. Typical arrangement of transverse and longitudinal reinforcement is shown in Figure 6.3.3-1. 2. Distribution of Flexural Reinforcement The provision of AASHTO specifications dealing with this subject is provided to limit crack width. At service load, the value of “z” for the equation fs = z/ (dc A)1/3 shall be taken as 130 k/inch regardless of whether or not a deck seal or overlay is used. Figure 6.3.3-2 shows the area to be used for computing “A.” For unevenly spaced bars, this area can be computed as: Total Flange Area/Number of Bars. 3. Distribution Reinforcement Figure 6.3.3-3 shows typical arrangement of main reinforcement in the slab. “Distribution reinforcement” shall be accounted for in the bottom longitudinal layer as follows: a. Prestressed Girder Bridges with Girders Designed as Simple Spans For bridges designed using the “Prestressed Girder Design” program, “distribution reinforcement” need not be added to the area of steel required to resist the negative moments. The bars in the bottom layer, however, shall provide an area not less than that required for distribution reinforcement.

6.3-14

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

Placement of Longitudinal Reinforcement for Negative Moment Over Piers Figure 6.3.3-2 b. Other Prestressed Girder Bridges On bridges where the effect of continuity is taken into account to reduce moments for girder design, additional longitudinal steel shall be provided as “distribution reinforcement.” The sum of the areas in both layers of longitudinal bars shall be equal to the area required to resist negative moments plus the area required by the AASHTO specification for “distribution reinforcement.” Equal area of reinforcement shall be used in the top and bottom layers throughout the negative moment region. See Figure 6.3.3-2. The total area of steel required in the bottom longitudinal layer shall not be less than that required for “distribution reinforcement.” (For “distribution reinforcement,” see Figure 6.3.3-1.)

July 2000

6.3-15

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

The minimum clearance between top and bottom bars should be 1-inch . Table 6.3.3-1 shows required slab thickness for various bar combinations. Minimum Slab Thickness = 7 Inches Slab Thickness (Inches) Transv. Bar Longit. Bar #4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18 #5 7 /2 1 7 /2 1 7 /2 3 7 /4 8 1 8 /2 3 8 /4 ---1

#6 -1 7 /2 3 7 /4 8 1 8 /2 3 8 /4 -----

#7 -3 7 /4 8 1 8 /4 3 8 /4 9 -----

Minimum Slab Thickness for Various Bar Sizes (Slab Without Overlay) Table 6.3.3-1 Note: Deduct 1/2-inch from slab thickness shown in table when asphalt overlay is used and 1 inch when concrete overlay is used. However, the minimum slab thickness shall be 7 inches when overlay is used. 3. Bar Patterns Figure 6.3.3-3 shows two typical top longitudinal reinforcing bar patterns. Care must be taken that bar lengths conform to the requirements of Chapter 5. Note that the reinforcement is distributed over a width equal to the girder spacing according to office practice and does not conform to AASHTO.

6.3-16

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

Staggered Bar Pattern Figure 6.3.3-3 The symmetrical bar pattern shown should normally not be used when required bar lengths exceed 60 feet. If the staggered bar pattern will not result in bar lengths within the limits specified in Chapter 5, the method shown in Figure 6.3.3-4 may be used to provide an adequate splice. All bars shall be extended development length beyond the point where the bar is required.

Bar Splice Within Moment Envelope Figure 6.3.3-4

July 2000

6.3-17

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

In all bar patterns, the reinforcement shall be well distributed between webs. Where this cannot be done without exceeding the 1-foot 0-inch maximum spacing requirement, the nominal longitudinal bars may be extended through to provide the 1-foot 0-inch maximum. Normally, no more than 20 percent of the main reinforcing bars shall be cut off at one point. Where limiting this value to 20 percent leads to severe restrictions on the reinforcement pattern, an increase in this figure may be considered. Two main reinforcement bars shall be carried through the positive moment area as stirrup hangers.

6.3.4

Roadway Slab
Requirements for longitudinal reinforcement of roadway slabs for prestressed girder bridges have been given in Subsection 6.3.3. The following information is intended to provide guidance for slab thickness and transverse reinforcement. Information on deck deterioration prevention systems is provided in Chapter 8. A. Slab Thickness 1. General Slab thickness for prestressed girder bridges shall be controlled by the following limitations: a. b. c. Seven inches minimum thickness when overlay is used; Seven and one-half inches minimum without overlay. The requirements for proper reinforcement clearances. The requirements of strength.

The 7-inch or 71/2 inch minimum thickness is established in order to ensure that overloads on the bridge will not result in premature slab cracking. The requirement of adequate reinforcement clearances: 2 inches clear to top transverse reinforcement for slabs with overlay and 21/2 inches clear to top transverse reinforcement for slabs without overlay; 1-inch clear to bottom transverse reinforcement. 2. Computation of Slab Strength The thickness and reinforcement requirements for usual slabs are shown in Chapter 5. The slab design span is defined Figure 6.3.1-1 (Composite Prestressed Girder Section). The thickness of the slab and reinforcement in the area of the cantilever may be governed by traffic barrier loading. See appendix sheet in Chapter 5. Wheel loads plus dead load shall be resisted by the sections shown in Figure 6.3.4-1. Cantilever loads may govern the slab thickness just inside the exterior girder as shown by “Z” in Figure 6.3.4-1. Design of the cantilever is normally based on the expected depth of slab at centerline of girder span. This is less than the dimensions at the girder ends. See Subsection 6.3.4A.3.

6.3-18

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

Depths for Slab Design at Centerline of Girder Span Figure 6.3.4-1 3. Computation of “A” Dimension The distance from the top of the slab to the top of the girder at centerline bearing (A dimension) is calculated in accordance with the guidance of Appendix 6.1-A1. This ensures that adequate allowance will be made for effects of excess camber, superelevation vertical curve, and horizontal curvature. Ideally the section at centerline of span will have the final geometry shown in Figure 6.3.4-2. This must be modified to account for excess camber which may be present in the girders when the slab is poured. Where temporary prestressing strands at top of girder are used to control the girder stresses due to shipping and handling, the “A” dimension shall be adjusted accordingly.

Geometry for A Dimension Figure 6.3.4-2

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6.3-19

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
B. Transverse Reinforcement The size and spacing of transverse reinforcement may be governed by interior slab span design, cantilever design, or the requirements of traffic barrier load. Where traffic barrier load governs, short hooked bars may be added at the slab edge to increase the reinforcement available in that area. Top transverse reinforcement is always hooked at the slab edge unless a traffic barrier is not used. Top transverse reinforcement is preferably spliced at some point between girders in order to allow the clearance of the hooks to the slab edge forms to be properly adjusted in the field. Usually, the slab edge hooks will need to be tilted in order to place them. On larger bars, the clearance for the longitudinal bar through the hooks should be checked. Bottom transverse slab reinforcement is normally carried far enough to splice with the traffic barrier main reinforcement. The appendix in Chapter 5 can be used to aid in selection of bar size and spacing. For skewed spans, the transverse slab reinforcement is placed parallel to the skew for skew angles of 10 degrees or less. Where skew angles exceed 10 degrees, the transverse bars are placed normal to bridge centerline and the areas near the expansion joints and bridge ends are reinforced by partial length bars. For raised crossbeam bridges, the bottom transverse slab reinforcement is discontinued at the crossbeam. The spacing of bars over the crossbeam must be detailed to be open enough to allow concrete to be poured into the crossbeam. For typical requirements, see Subsection 6.3.5. For slabs with a crowned roadway, the bottom surface and rebar of the slab should be flat, as shown in Figure 6.3.4-3 below.

Precast Girder Bridges

Bottom of Top Slab at Crown Point Figure 6.3.4-3

6.3-20

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6.3.5 Crossbeam Design
A. General Crossbeam shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of Load Factor Design, LFD, and shall satisfy the serviceability requirements for crack control. B. Loads For concrete box girders, prestressed giders with hinged or fixed diaphragms, the superstructure dead load shall be considered as uniformly distributed over the crossbeam. For prestressed girders or other type of girders sitting on the bearings, the superstructure dead load shall be considered as concentrated loads to the crossbeam at girder on web locations. For concrete box girders, prestressed girders with hinged or fixed diaphragms, the live load shall be considered as the truck load directly to the crossbeam from the wheel axles. Truck axles shall be moved transversely over the crossbeam to obtain the maximum design forces for the crossbeam and supporting colums. For prestressed girders or other type of girders sitting on the bearings, the live load shall be considered as concentrated loads to the crossbeam at girder locations. C. Geometry and Construction Requirement The crossbeam section consists of rectangular section with overhanging deck and bottom slab if applicable. The overhang length of the crossbeam shall be taken as the lesser of 6 times slab thickness, 1/10 of column spacing, or 1/20 of crossbeam cantilever. The rectangular section of the crossbeam shall have a minimum width of column dimension plus 6 inches.

Precast Girder Bridges

Geometry and Construction Requirements Figure 6.3.5-1

July 2000

6.3-21

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

Crossbeam is usually cast to the fillet below the top slab. To avoid cracking of concrete on top of the crossbeam, construction reinforcement shall be provided at approximately 3 inches below the construction joint. The design moment for construction reinforcement shall be the factored negative dead load moment due to the weight of crossbeam and adjacent 10 feet of superstructure. The total amount of construction reinforcement shall be adequate to develop an ultimate moment at the critical section at least 1.2 times the cracking moment Mcr. Ig Where, Mcr = 7.5 √ fc′ Yt Mu > = 1.2 Mcr D. Skin Reinforcement If the depth of crossbeam exceeds 3 feet, longitudinal skin reinforcement shall be provided on both sides of the member for a distance of d/2 nearest the flexural reinforcement. The area of skin reinforcement per foot of height on each side shall be Ask >= 0.012 (d-30) The maximum spacing of skin reinforcement shall not exceed d/6 or 12 inches whichever is less.

6.3.6

Repair of Damaged Bridge Girders
A. General This section is intended to cover repair of damaged girders on existing bridges. For repair of newly constructed girders, see Section 6.2.3G. Overheight loads are a fairly common source of damage to prestressed girder bridges. The damage may range from spalling and minor cracking of the lower flange of the girder to loss of a major portion of a girder section. Occasionally, one or more strands may be broken. The damage is most often inflicted on the exterior or first interior girder. B. Repair Procedure The determination of degree of damage of a prestressed girder is largely a matter of judgment. Where the flange area has been reduced or strands lost, calculations can aid in making this judgment decision. The following are general categories of damage and suggested repair procedures. 1. Minor Damage If the damage is slight and concerns only spalling of small areas of the outside surface of the concrete, repair may be accomplished by replacing damaged concrete areas with concrete grout. The area where new concrete is to be applied shall first be thoroughly cleaned of loose material, dried, and then coated with epoxy. 2. Moderate Damage If damage is moderate, consisting of loss of a substantial portion of the flange and possibly loss of one or more strands, a repair procedure must be developed using the following guidelines. It is probable that some prestress will have been lost in the damaged area due to reduction in section and consequent strand shortening or through loss of strands. The following repair procedure is recommended to assure that as much of the original girder strength as possible is retained: a. Determine Condition Sketch the remaining cross section of the girder and compute its reduced section properties. Determine the stress in the damaged girder due to the remaining prestress and loads in the damaged state. If severe overstresses are found, action must be taken to restrict loads on the

6.3-22

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Precast Girder Bridges

structure until the repair has been completed. If the strand loss is so great that AASHTO prestress requirements cannot be met with the remaining strands, consideration should be given to replacing the girder. b. Restore Prestress If Needed If it is determined that prestress must be restored, determine the stress in the bottom fiber of the girder as originally designed due to DL + LL + I + Prestress. (This will normally be about zero psi). Determine the additional load (P) that, when applied to the damaged girder in its existing condition, will result in this same stress. Take into account the reduced girder section, the effective composite section, and any reduced prestress due to strand loss. Should the damage occur outside of the middle one-third of the span length, the shear stress with the load (P) applied should also be computed. Where strands are broken, consideration should be given to coupling and jacking them to restore their prestress. c. Prepare a Repair Plan Draw a sketch to show how the above load is to be applied and specify that the damaged area is to be thoroughly prepared, coated with epoxy, and repaired with grout equal in strength to the original concrete. Specify that this load is to remain in place until the grout has obtained sufficient strength. The effect of this load is to restore lost prestress to the strands which have been exposed. d. Test Load Consideration should be given to testing the repaired girder with a load equivalent to 1.0DL + 1.5(LL + I). 3. Severe Damage Where the damage to the girder is considered to be irreparable due to loss of many strands, extreme cracking, etc., the girder may need to be replaced. This has been done several times, but involves some care in determining a proper repair sequence. In general, the procedure consists of cutting through the existing slab and diaphragms and removing the damaged girder. Adequate exposed reinforcement steel must remain to allow splicing of the new bars. The new girder and new reinforcement is placed and previously cut concrete surfaces are cleaned and coated with epoxy. New slab and diaphragm portions are then poured. It is important that the camber of the new girder be matched with that in the old girders. Excessive camber in the new girder can result in inadequate slab thickness. Girder camber can be controlled by prestress, curing time, or dimensional changes. Pouring the new slab and diaphragms simultaneously in order to avoid overloading the existing girders in the structure should be considered. Extra bracing of the girder at the time of slab pour should be required. Methods of construction should be specified in the plans that will minimize inconvenience and dangers to the public while achieving a satisfactory structural result. High early strength grouts and concretes should be considered.

July 2000

6.3-23

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
C. Miscellaneous References Some of the girder replacement contracts which have been completed are: C-9593 Columbia Center 1C Brs. 12/432 Repair (Simple Span) C-9593 16th Avenue IC-Br. 12/344 Repair (Continuous Span) C-9446 Mae Valley U-Xing (Simple Span) KD-2488 13th Street O-Xing 5/220 (Northwest Region) KD-2488 SR 506 U-Xing 506/108 (Northwest Region) SR 12 U-Xing 12/118 (Northwest Region) C-5328 Bridge 5/411 NCD (Continuous Span) KD-2976 Chamber of Commerce Way Bridge 5/227 KD-20080 Golder Givens Road Bridge 512/10 KD-2154 Anderson Hill Road Bridge 3/130W These and other similar jobs should be used for guidance.

Precast Girder Bridges

P65:DP/BDM6

6.3-24

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6.4 6.4.1 Cast-in-Place Bridges Design Parameters
A. General Post-tensioning is generally used for cast-in-place construction since pretensioning is generally practical only for fabricator-produced structural members. The Post-Tensioned Box Girder Bridge Manual published by the Post-Tensioning Institute in 1978 is recommended as the guide for design. This manual discusses longitudinal post-tensioning of box girder webs and transverse post-tensioning of box girder slabs, but the methods apply equally well to other types of bridges. The following recommendations are intended to augment the PTI Manual and the AASHTO Code and point out where current WSDOT practice departs from practices followed elsewhere. The AASHTO criteria for reinforced concrete apply equally to bridges with or without posttensioning steel. However, designers should note certain requirements unique to prestressed concrete such as special f-factors, load factors (see Chapters 4 and 9 of this manual), and shear provisions. B. Bridge Types Post-tensioning has been used in various types of cast-in-place bridges in this state with box girders predominating. See Appendix 6.4-B1 for a comprehensive list of box girder designs. The following are some examples of other bridge types: Kitsap County Multi-Span Slab C-9788 Covington Way to 180th Avenue SE Widening Two-Span Box Girder Longitudinal Post-Tensioning C-4919 Snohomish River Bridge Multi-Span Box Girder Longitudinal Post-Tensioning C-4444 Chapter 2 of this manual should be consulted when selecting the structure type. In general, a prestressed cast-in-place bridge can have a smaller depth-to-span ratio than the same bridge with conventional reinforcement. This is an important advantage where minimum structure depth is desirable. 1. Slab Bridge Structure depth can be quite shallow in the positive moment region when post-tensioning is combined with haunching in the negative moment region. However, post-tensioned cast-in-place slabs are usually more expensive than when reinforced conventionally. Designers should proceed with caution when considering post-tensioned slab bridges because severe cracking in the decks of bridges of this type has occurred. See reference 6.99.9 of the Bibliography.

Cast-in-Place Bridges

July 2000

6.4-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
2. T-Beam Bridge This type of bridge, combined with slope-leg columns, can be structurally efficient and aesthetically pleasing, particularly when the spacing of the beams and the columns are the same. A T-Beam bridge can also be a good choice for a single-span simply-supported structure. 3. Box Girder Bridge This type of bridge has been a popular choice in this state. The cost of a prestressed box girder bridge is practically the same as a conventionally-reinforced box girder bridge, however, longer spans and shallower depths are possible with prestressing. C. Section Requirements 1 Slabs The Olalla Bridge (Contract 9202) has spans of 41.5 feet - 50 feet - 41.5 feet, a midspan structure depth of 15 inches, and some haunching at the piers. 2. T-Beams When equally spaced beams and columns are used in the design, the width of beam webs should generally be equal to the width of the supporting columns. See SR 16, Union Avenue O’Xings, for an example. Since longitudinal structural frame action predominates in this type of design, crossbeams at intermediate piers can be relatively small and the post-tensioning tendons can be placed side-by-side in the webs, resulting in an efficient center of gravity of steel line throughout. For other types of T-Beam bridges, the preferred solution may be smaller, more closely spaced beams and fewer, but larger pier elements. If this type of construction is used in a multispan, continuous bridge, the beam cross-section properties in the negative moment regions need to be considerably larger than the properties in the positive moment regions to resist compression. Larger section properties can be obtained by gradually increasing the web thickness in the vicinity of intermediate piers or, if possible, by adding a fillet or haunch. The slab overhang over exterior webs should be roughly half the web spacing. 3. Box Girders The superstructure shall be designed as a unit. The entire superstructure section (traffic barrier excluded) shall be considered when computing the section properties. Web spacing should normally be 8 to 11 feet and the slab overhang over exterior girders should be approximately half the girder spacing unless transverse post-tensioning is used. The apparent visual depth of box girder bridges can be reduced by sloping all or the lower portion of the exterior web. If the latter is done, the overall structure depth may have to be increased (for clearance requirements see Subsection 2.3.1D). Web thickness should be 12 inches minimum, but not less than required for shear and for concrete placing clearance. Providing 21/2-inches of clear cover expedites concrete placement and consolidation in the heavily congested regions adjacent to the post-tensioning ducts. Webs should be flared at anchorages. Top and bottom slab thickness should normally meet the requirements of Subsection 5.3.1B, but not less than required by stress and specifications. Generally, the bottom slab would require thickening at the interior piers of continuous spans. This thickening should be accomplished by raising the top surface of the bottom slab at the maximum rate of 1/2-inch per foot. For criteria on distribution of live loads, see Subsection 4.1.2 B. All slender members subjected to compression must satisfy buckling criteria.

Cast-in-Place Bridges

6.4-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
D. Strand and Tendon Arrangements The total number of strands selected should be the minimum required to carry the service loads at all points. Duct sizes and the number of strands they contain vary slightly, depending on the supplier. Chapter 2 of the PTI Post-Tensioned Box Girder Bridge Manual, and shop drawings of the recent post-tensioned bridges kept on file in the Construction Plans Section offer guidance to strand selection. In general, a supplier will offer several duct sizes and associated end anchors, each of which will accommodate a range of strand numbers up to a maximum in the range. Present WSDOT practice is to indicate only the design force and cable path on the contract plans and allow the post-tensioning supplier to satisfy these requirements with tendons and anchors. The most economical tendon selection will generally be the maximum size within the range. Commonly-stocked tendons include 9, 12, 19, 27, and 31 1/2-inch strands, and the design should utilize a combination of these commonlystocked items. For example, a design requiring 72 strands per web would be most economically satisfied by two standard 27-strand tendons and one standard 19-strand tendon containing 18 strands. A less economical choice would be three standard 27-strand tendons containing 24 strands each. Tendons should not be larger than (31) 1/2-inch strand units or (22) 0.6-inch strand units, unless specifically approved by the Bridge Design Engineer and the Design Unit Supervisor. The duct area should be at least 2.5 times the net area of the prestressing steel. In the regions away from the end anchorages, the duct placement patterns indicated in Figure 6.4.1-1 through -4 should be used. Although post-tensioning steel normally takes precedence in a member, sufficient room must be provided for other essential mild steel and placement of concrete, in particular near diaphragms and cross-beams. More prestress may be needed in certain portions of a continuous superstructure than elsewhere, and the designer may consider using separate short tendons in those portions of the spans only. However, the savings on prestressing steel possible with such an arrangement should be balanced against the difficulty involved in providing suitable anchoring points and sufficient room for jacking equipment at intermediate locations in the structure. For example, torsion in continuous, multigirder bridges on a curve can be counter-balanced by applying more prestress in the girders on the outside of the curve than in those on the inside of the curve. Some systems offer couplers which make possible stage construction of long bridges. With such systems, forms can be constructed and concrete cast and stressed in a number of spans during stage 1, as determined by the designer. After stage 1 stressing, couplers can be added, steel installed, concrete cast and stressed in additional spans. To avoid local crushing of concrete and/or grout, the stress existing in the steel at the coupled end after stage 1 stressing should not be exceeded during stage 2 stressing (see Figure 6.4.1-5). E. Layout of Anchorages and End Blocks Consult industry brochures and shop plans for recent bridges before laying out end blocks. To encourage bids from a wider range of suppliers, try to accommodate the large square bearing plate sizes common to several systems.

Cast-in-Place Bridges

July 2000

6.4-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges

Tendon Placement Patterns Box Girder Bridges Figure 6.4.1-1

6.4-4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges

Tendon Placement Patterns Box Girder Bridges Figure 6.4.1-2

July 2000

6.4-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges

Tendon Placement Patterns Box Girder Bridges Figure 6.4.1-3

6.4-6

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges

Tendon Placement Patterns Box Girder Bridges Figure 6.4.1-4

July 2000

6.4-7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges

Figure 6.4.1-5

6.4-8

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges

Plan at Exterior Girder (Roadway Slab Not Shown) Figure 6.4.1-6

July 2000

6.4-9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges

Sufficient room must be allowed inside the member for mild steel and concrete placement and outside the member for jacking equipment. The size of the anchorage block in the plane of the anchor plates should be large enough to provide a minimum of 1-inch clearance from the plates to any free edge. In general, the end block dimensions must meet the requirements of the AASHTO Code. Note that in long-span box girder superstructures requiring large bearing pads, the end block should be somewhat wider than the bearing pad beneath to avoid subjecting the relatively thin bottom slab to high bearing stresses. When the piers of box girder or T-beam bridges are severely skewed, the layout of end blocks, bearing pads, and curtain walls at exterior girders become extremely difficult (see Figure 6.4.1-6). Note that if the exterior face of the exterior girder is in the same plane throughout its entire length, all the end block widening must be on the inside. To lessen the risk of tendon break-out through the side of a thin web, the end block should be long enough to accommodate a horizontal tendon curve of 200 feet minimum radius. For a discussion of the radial component of force in a curved cable, see Chapter 4-7 of reference 6.99.1. F. Superstructure Shortening Whenever members such as columns, crossbeams, and diaphragms in bridges without prestressing steel are appreciably affected by post-tensioning of the main girders, those effects should be included in the design. This will generally be true in structures containing rigid frame elements. For further discussion, see Chapter 2.6 of reference 6.99.8 and Subsection 9.3.2. Past practice in the state of Washington regarding control of superstructure shortening in posttensioned bridges with rigid piers can be illustrated by a few examples. Single-span bridges have been provided with a hinge at one pier and longitudinal slide bearings at the other pier. Two-span bridges have been detailed with longitudinal slide bearings at the end piers and a monolithic middle pier. On the six-span Evergreen Parkway Undercrossing structure, the center pier (pier 4) was built monolithic with the superstructure, and all the other piers were constructed with slide bearings. After posttensioning, the bearings at piers 3 and 5 were converted into fixed bearings to help resist large horizontal loads such as earthquakes. Superstructures which are allowed to move longitudinally at certain piers are typically restrained against motion in the transverse direction at those piers. This can be accomplished with suitable transverse shear corbels or bearings allowing motion parallel to the bridge only. See Subsection 9.3.2E of this manual. The casting length for box girder bridges shall be slightly longer than the actual bridge layout length to account for the elastic shortening of the concrete due to prestress.

6.4.2

Analysis
The procedures outlined in Section 2.1 through 2.5 of reference 6.99.8 for computation of stress in single and multispan box girders can be followed for the analysis of T-beams and slab bridges, as well. The BDS program available on the WSDOT system will quickly perform a complete stress analysis of a box girder, T-beam, or slab bridge, provided the structure can be idealized as a plane frame. For further information, see the program user instructions. The STRUDL program is recommended for complex structures which are more accurately idealized as space frames. Examples are bridges with sharp curvature, varying superstructure width, severe skew, or slope-leg intermediate piers. An analysis method in Chapter 10 of reference 6.99.1 for continuous prestressed beams is particularly well adapted to the loading input format in STRUDL. In the method, the forces exerted by cables of parabolic or other configurations are converted into equivalent vertical linear or concentrated loads applied to members and joints of the superstructure. The vertical loads are

6.4-10

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges

considered positive when acting up toward the center of tendon curvature and negative when acting down toward the center of tendon curvature. Forces exerted by anchor plates at the cable ends are coded in as axial and vertical concentrated forces combined with a concentrated moment if the anchor plate group is eccentric. Since the prestress force varies along the spans due to the effects of friction, the difference between the external forces applied at the end anchors at opposite ends of the bridge must be coded in at various points along the spans in order for the summation of horizontal forces to equal zero. With correct input (check thoroughly before submitting for computation), the effects of elastic shortening and secondary moments are properly reflected in all output listings, and the prestress moments printed out are the actual resultant (total) moments acting on the structure. For examples of the application of STRUDL to post-tensioning design, see the calculations for SR 90 West Sunset Way Ramp (simple), SR 5 Nalley Valley Viaduct (complex), and the STRUDL manuals. A. Section Properties As in other types of bridges, the design normally begins with a preliminary estimate of the superstructure cross-section and the amount of prestress needed at points of maximum stress and at points of cross-section change. For box girders, See Figure 2.0 through 2.5 of Reference 6.99.8. For T-beam and slab bridges, previous designs are a useful guide in making a good first choice. For frame analysis, use the properties of the entire superstructure regardless of the type of bridge being designed. For stress analysis of slab bridges, calculate loads and steel requirements for a 1-foot wide strip. For stress analysis of T-beam bridges, use the procedures outlined in the AASHTO specifications. Note that when different concrete strengths are used in different portions of the same member, the equivalent section properties should be calculated in terms of either the stronger or weaker material. In general, the concrete strength should be limited to the values indicated in Subsection 6.1.2A of this manual. B. Preliminary Stress Check In accordance with AASHTO, flexural stresses in prestressed members are calculated at service load levels. Shear stresses, stirrups, moment capacities vs. applied moments are calculated at ultimate load levels. During preliminary design, the first objective should be to satisfy the allowable flexural stresses in the concrete at the critical points in the structure with the chosen cross-section and amount of prestressing steel, then the requirements for shear stress, stirrups, and ultimate moment capacity can be readily met with minor or no modifications in the cross-section. For example, girder webs can be thickened locally near piers to reduce excessive shear stress. In the AASHTO formulas for allowable tensile stress in concrete, bonded reinforcement should be interpreted to mean bonded auxiliary (nonprestressed) reinforcement in conformity with Article 8.6 of the 1995 ACI Code for Analysis and Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Structures. Normal practice is to use the time-dependent prestress loss from Table 6.1.5-1. The long-hand formulas for computing time-dependent losses in steel stress given in the code should be used only when a more thorough investigation is deemed necessary. To minimize concrete cracking and protect reinforcing steel against corrosion for bridges, the allowable concrete stress under final conditions in the precompressed tensile zone should be limited to zero in the top and bottom fibers.

July 2000

6.4-11

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges

In all cases where tension is allowed in the concrete under initial or final conditions, extra mild steel (auxiliary reinforcement) should be added to carry the total tension present. This steel can be computed as in the following example (also see Chapter 9-5 of Reference 6.99.1):

Figure 6.4.2-1 In case of overstress, try one or more of the following remedies: Adjust tendon profiles, add or subtract prestress steel, thicken slabs, revise strength of concrete of top slab, add more short tendons locally, etc. Then repeat calculations as necessary. C. Tendon Layout After a preliminary estimate has been made of the concrete section and the amount of prestressing needed at points of maximum applied load, it may be advantageous in multispan bridges to draw a tendon profile to a convenient scale superimposed on a plot of the center of gravity of concrete (c.g.c.) line. The most efficient tendon profile from the standpoint of steel stress loss will normally be a series of rather long interconnected parabolas, but other configurations are possible. For continuous bridges with unequal span lengths, the tendon profile (eccentricity) shall be based on the span requirement. This results in an efficient post-tensioning design. The tendon profile and c.g.c. line plot is strongly recommended for superstructures of variable cross-section and/or multiple unsymmetrical span arrangements, but is not necessary for superstructures having constant cross- section and symmetrical spans. The main advantages of the tendon profile and c.g.c. plot are:

6.4-12

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
1.

Cast-in-Place Bridges

The primary prestress moment curves (prestress force times distance from c.g.c. line to center of gravity of steel (c.g.s.) lines) at all points throughout all spans are quickly obtained from this plot and will be used to develop the secondary moment curves (if present) and, ultimately, to develop the resultant total prestress moment curve. Possible conflicts between prestressing steel and mild steel near end regions, crossbeams, and diaphragms may become apparent. Possible design revisions may be indicated. For example, camber in bridges with unequal spans can be balanced by adjusting tendon profiles. The tendon profile and c.g.c. line diagram should also contain a sketch of how the end bearing plates or anchors are to be arranged at the ends of the bridge. Such a sketch can be useful in determining how large the end block in a girder bridge will have to be and how much space will be required for mild steel in the end region. In general, the arrangement of anchor plates should be the same as the arrangement of the ducts to which they belong to avoid problems with duct cross-overs and to keep end blocks of reasonable width.

2. 3.

D. Prestress Losses Friction losses occurring during jacking and prior to anchoring, depend on the system and materials used. For purposes of design, this office has specified a rigid spiral galvanized ferrous metal duct system for which µ shall be 0.20 and K = 0.0002. This system is at present available from several large suppliers. To avoid the substantial friction loss caused by sharp tendon curvature in the end regions where the tendons flare out from a stacked arrangement towards the bearing plates, use 0.10 times the span length or 20 feet as the minimum flare zone length. The recommended minimum radius (horizontal or vertical) of flared tendons is 200 feet. In the special cases where sharp curvature cannot be avoided, extra horizontal and vertical ties should be added along the concave side of the curve to resist the tendency to break through the web. See stirrup calculations for SR 2, EU-Line O’Xing, for a suggested method of calculating this additional steel. When summing the α angles for total friction loss along the structure, horizontal curvature of the tendons as well as horizontal and vertical roadway curvature should be included in the summation. All other losses (those due to shrinkage, elastic shortening, creep, and relaxation of steel) shall be as indicated in Subsection 6.1.5. E. Steel Stress Curve Steel stresses may be plotted either as the actual values or as a percentage of the jacking stresses. A steel stress diagram for a typical two-span bridge is shown below. Spans are symmetrical about pier 2 and the bridge is jacked from both ends. All values are in ksi and pertain to 270 ksi either stress relieved or low relaxation strands. Fs’ denotes ultimate strength of strands in ksi.

July 2000

6.4-13

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges

Losses due to creep, shrinkage, and relaxation of prestressing steel are 33.30 ksi for structures of usual design and normal weight concrete. Yield Stress for Stress-Releive Strands = 0.85 Yield Stress for Low-Relaxation Strands = 0.90 Figure 6.4.2-2 Accurate plotting of steel stress variation due to local curvature is normally not necessary, and straight lines between intersection points on the diagram are usually sufficient. When tendons are continuous through the length of the bridge, the stress for design purposes at the jacked end should be limited to 0.75 x fs′ or 202 ksi for 270 ksi stress relieved strands or 0.79 x fs′ or 213 ksi for 270 ksi low relaxation strands. This would permit the post-tensioning contractor to jack to the slightly higher value of 0.77 x fs′ for stress relieved strands or 0.81 x fs′ for low relaxation strands as allowed by the AASHTO Code in case friction values encountered in the field turn out somewhat greater than the standard values used in design. Stress loss at jacked end should be calculated from the assumed anchor set of 1/4 inch, the normal slippage during anchoring in most systems. At the high points on the initial stress curve, the stress should not exceed 0.70 x fs′ for stress relieved strands or 0.75 x fs′ low relaxation strands after sealing of anchorage. If these values are exceeded, the jacking stress can be lowered or alternately the specified amount of anchor set can be increased. When the total tendon length (L) is less than the length of cable influenced by anchor set (x) and the friction loss is small, as in short straight tendons, the 0.70 x fs′ value governs. In these cases, the maximum allowable jacking stress value of 0.75 x fs′ for stress relieved or 0.78 x fs′ for low relaxation strands cannot be used and a slightly lower value should be specified. See the following sketch:

6.4-14

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges

Figure 6.4.2-3 In single-span, simply supported superstructures friction losses are so small that jacking from both ends is normally not warranted. In the longer multispan bridges where the tendons experience greater friction losses, jacking from both ends will usually be necessary. Jacking at both ends need not be done simultaneously, since final results are virtually the same whether or not the jacking is simultaneous. If unsymmetrical two-span structures are to be jacked from one end only, the jacking must be done from the end of the longest span. F. Prestress Moment Curves 1. Single-Span Bridges, Simply Supported The primary prestress moment curve is developed by multiplying the initial steel stress curve ordinates by the area of prestressing steel times the eccentricity of steel from the center of gravity of the concrete section at every tenth point in the span. The primary prestress moment curve is not necessary for calculating concrete stresses in single-span simply supported bridges. Since there is no secondary prestress moment developed in the span of a single span, simply supported bridge which is free to shorten, the primary prestress moment curve is equal to the total prestress moment curve in the span. However, if the single span is rigidly framed to supporting piers, the effect of elastic shortening should be calculated. The same would be true when unexpected high friction is developed in bearings during or after construction. 2. Multispan Continuous Bridges The primary prestress moment curve for all spans is developed as in 1. above for single span bridges. With the exception of T.Y. Lin’s equivalent vertical load method used in conjunction with the STRUDL program, none of the methods described in the following take into account the elastic shortening of the superstructure due to prestressing. To obtain the total prestress moment curve used to check concrete stresses, the primary and secondary prestress moment curves must be added algebraically at all points in the spans. As the secondary moment can have a large absolute value in some structures, it is very important to obtain the proper sign for this moment, or a serious error could result.

July 2000

6.4-15

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges

A discussion of methods for calculating secondary prestress moments follows: WSDOT BEAMDEF Program If the primary prestress moment values at tenth points are coded into this program, span stiffness factors, carry-overs, and fixed-end moments will be obtained. Distribution of the fixed-end moments in all spans will yield the secondary moments at all piers. The secondary moments will be zero at simply supported span ends and cantilevers. Equivalent Vertical Load See discussion in Subsection 6.4.2 of this manual. Table of Influence Lines See Appendix A.1 of Reference 6.99.8 for a discussion. This method is similar to T. Y. Lin’s equivalent vertical load method and is a relatively quick way to manually compute prestress moments in bridges of up to five spans. Since the secondary moment effect due to vertical support reactions is included in the coefficients listed in the tables, the support moment computed is the total moment at that point. Slope Deflection See Section 2.5 of Reference 6.99.8 for a discussion. The method, though straightforward, is time consuming. G. Flexural Stress in Concrete Stress at service load levels in the top and bottom fibers of prestressed members should be checked for at least two conditions that will occur in the lifetime of the members. The initial condition occurs just after the transfer of prestress when the concrete is relatively fresh and the member is carrying its own dead load. The final condition occurs after all the prestress losses when the concrete has gained its full ultimate strength and the member is carrying dead load and live load. For certain bridges, other intermediate loading conditions may have to be checked, such as when prestressing and falsework release are done in stages and when special construction loads have to be carried, etc. The concrete stresses shall be within the AASHTO allowables except as amended in Subsection 6.4.2.B of this manual. In single-span simply supported superstructures with parabolic tendon paths, flexural stresses at service load levels need to be investigated at the span midpoint where moments are maximum, at points where the cross-section changes, and near the span ends where shear stress is likely to be maximum (see Subsection 6.4.2.I, Shear). For tendon paths other than parabolic, flexural stress should be investigated at other points in the span as well. In multispan continuous superstructures, investigate flexural stress at service load should be at points of maximum moment (in the negative moment region of box girders, check at the quarter point of the crossbeam), at points where the cross section changes, and at points where shear is likely to be maximum. At points of maximum moment, the ultimate moment capacity of the section should exceed or equal the applied ultimate moment. Normally, mild steel should not be used to supplement the ultimate moment capacity. It may be necessary, however, to determine the partial temperature and shrinkage stresses that occur prior to post-tensioning and supply mild steel reinforcing for this condition. In addition, maximum and minimum steel percentages and cracking moment should be checked. See Subsection 2.3.8 of Reference 6.99.8.

6.4-16

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
H. Temperature Effects* Most specifications for massive bridges call for a verification of stresses under uniform temperature changes of the total bridge superstructure. Stresses due to temperature unevenly distributed within the cross-section are not generally verified. In reality, however, considerable temperature gradients are set up within the cross-section of superstructures. Such temperature differences are mostly of a very complex nature, depending on the type of cross-section and direction of solar radiation. Solar radiation produces uniform heating of the upper surface of a bridge superstructure which is greater than that of the lower surface. An inverse temperature gradient with higher temperatures at the lower surface occurs rarely and involves much smaller temperature differences. In statically indeterminate continuous bridge beams, a temperature rise at the upper surface produces positive flexural moments which cause tensile stresses in the bottom fibers. When the temperature gradient is constant over the entire length of a continuous beam superstructure, positive flexural moments are induced in all spans. These moments are of equal constant magnitude in the interior spans and decrease linearly to zero in the end spans. The most critical zones are those which have the lowest compressive stress reserve in the bottom fibers under prestress plus dead load. Normally, these are the zones near the interior supports where additional tensile stresses develop in the bottom fibers due to (1) a concentrated support reaction and (2) insufficient curvature of prestressed reinforcement. Studies have shown that temperature is the most important tension-producing factor, especially in two-span continuous beams in the vicinity of intermediate supports, even when the temperature difference is only 10°C between the deck and bottom of the beam. In practice, a box girder can exhibit a DT=30°C. The zone at a distance of about 0.3 to 2.0d on either side of the intermediate support proved to be particularly crack-prone. Computation of stresses induced by vertical temperature gradients within prestressed concrete bridges can become quite complex and are ignored in typical designs done by WSDOT. It is assumed that movements at the expansion devices will generally relieve any induced stresses. However, such stresses can be substantial in massive, deep bridge members in localities with large temperature fluctuations. If the structure being designed falls within this category, a thermal stress investigation should be considered. See Reference 6.99.10 and the following temperature criteria for further guidance. 1. 2. A Mean temperature 50°F with Rise 45°F and Fall 45°F for longitudinal analysis using one-half of the Modulus of Elasticity. (Maximum Seasonal Variation.) The superstructure box girder shall be designed transversely for a temperature differential between inside and outside surfaces of ±15°F with no reduction in Modulus of Elasticity (Maximum Daily Variation). The superstructure box girder shall be designed longitudinally for a top slab temperature increase of 20°F with no reduction in modulus of elasticity. (In accordance with Post-Tensioning Institute Manual, Precast Segmental Box Girder Bridge Manual, Subsection 3.3.4.) The coefficient of thermal expansion used is 0.000006. Modulus of Elasticity Wc1.5 33

Cast-in-Place Bridges

3.

√ fc′ (W=weight of concrete in lbs. per cubic foot).

*From “Conclusions Drawn from Distress of Prestressed Concrete Bridges” by Dr. Fritz Leonardt.

July 2000

6.4-17

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
I. Shear Concrete box girder and T-beam bridges with horizontal construction joints (which result from webs and slabs being cast at different times) should be checked for both vertical and horizontal shear capacity. Generally, horizontal shear requirements will control the stirrup design. Vertical concrete shear capacity for prestressed or post-tensioned structural members is calculated as the lesser of Vci or Vcw as outlined in Section 9.20.2 of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. Minimum stirrup area, maximum stirrup spacing, and maximum stirrup capacity, Vs, are further subject to the limitations presented in Section 9.20.3. For further explanation, refer to Section 11.4 of the ACI 318-95 Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete and Commentary. Chapter 27 of Notes on ACI 318-95 Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete with Design Applications presents two excellent example problems for vertical shear design. The use of an electronic spreadsheet simplifies the repetitive and detailed nature of these calculations. Horizontal shear stress acts over the contact area, of width bv, between two interconnected surfaces of a composite structural member. The moment gradient produced by vertical shear causes this horizontal stress. At elastic stress levels, this shear stress is generally expressed as t=VQ/(Ibv). Because the concrete section is generally cracked at the full factored load level, VQ/(Ibv), based upon Q and I of the uncracked section, does not apply. Instead, the moment gradient is, essentially, developed as a couple; the steel reinforcement being in tension and the concrete slab being in compression. The distance between these two forces approximately equals the structural depth d. Hence, the resulting horizontal shear stress at the interface can be shown to approximately equal Vu/(bvd). This stress can be resisted by a combination of 1) interlock of the two concrete surfaces and 2) shearfriction resulting from stirrups being placed across the interface. The vertical shear capacity corresponding to the concrete horizontal resistance is Vnh-c. The vertical shear capacity corresponding to the horizontal resistance of the stirrup steel is Vnh-s. The post-tensioning force does not subject the horizontal interface to compression along the full span length. Therefore, the horizontal concrete shear capacity should not be augmented by Vp, as is done when calculating the vertical concrete shear capacity Vcw. Horizontal shear design is relatively straightforward. However, the presentation in Section 9.20.4 of the AASHTO specifications is somewhat confusing in that it deviates from the standard load factor format. The AASHTO procedure differs somewhat from the ACI 318-95 procedure which refers directly to shear-friction design. When the concrete interface is clean, free of laitance, intentionally roughened, and has a minimum quantity of stirrup reinforcement of 50bvs/Fy, the AASHTO specifications allow a concrete ultimate horizontal shear stress of 350 psi, where s is the longitudinal spacing between adjacent stirrups. This corresponds to a concrete vertical shear capacity, Vnh-c, of (350 psi) bvd. Additional stirrups in a quantity exceeding the specified minimum provide additional vertical shear capacity, Vnh-s. It is shown below that the equation in Section 9.20.4.3(d) of the AASHTO specifications for additional shear capacity provided by these stirrups is equivalent to designing for the additional horizontal shear force by mobilizing shear friction using a m value of 0.4. τ·bv·s = Vnh-s·bv·s/(bv·d) = [(160·Fy·bv·d/40000)·Av/(.01·bv·s)]·bv·s/(bv·d) = 0.4·Fy·Av

Cast-in-Place Bridges

6.4-18

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Cast-in-Place Bridges

The total stirrup quantity required is the sum of the minimum 50 bv s/Fy and the additional required amount to mobilize shear friction. In load factor notation, these relationships can be expressed as follows: Vu ≤ φ·Vnh = φ·Vnh-c + φ·Vnh-s Vnh-s ≥ Vu/φ - Vnh-c Vnh-c = (350 psi)·bv·d Vnh-s = 0.4·Av·Fy·d/s (Av/s)total ≥ 50·bv/Fy + Vnh-s/(0.4·Fy·d) ≥ 50·bv/Fy + 2.5·Vnh-s/(Fy·d) ≥ 50·bv/Fy + 2.5·(Vu/φ - Vnh-c)/(Fy·d) The horizontal shear requirements of the AASHTO specifications can be satisfied using either of two methods: (1) Stirrup spacing is designed to satisfy the shear capacity requirement at each and every point along the span (AASHTO Section 9.20.4.3), or (2) Stirrup spacing is designed to transfer the change in flange axial force over a segment length not exceeding one tenth of the span (AASHTO Section 9.20.4.4). The second method permits the designer to average the stirrup spacing over one tenth the span, resulting in an increased minimum stirrup spacing. Again, the use of an electronic spreadsheet can simplify these repetitive computations. For cast-in-place sloped outer webs, increase inside stirrup reinforcement and bottom slab top transverse reinforcement as required for the web moment locked-in during construction of the top slab. This moment about the bottom corner of the web is due to tributary load from the top slab concrete placement plus 10 psf form dead load. See Figure 5.3.2 for typical top slab forming. For precast tub outer webs, increase the stirrup and bottom slab steel as required by moment induced by falsework overhang brackets supporting concrete plus 10 psf overhang deck load. J. End Block Stresses The highly concentrated forces at the end anchorages cause bursting and spalling stresses in the concrete which must be resisted by vertical and horizontal reinforcement. For a better understanding of this subject, see Chapter 7 of Reference 6.99.1, 6.99.3, and Section 2.82 of Reference 6.99.8. Note that the procedures for computing horizontal bursting and spalling steel in the slabs of box girders and T-beams are similar to those required for computing vertical steel in girder webs, except that the slab steel is figured in a horizontal instead of a vertical plane. In box girders, this slab steel should be placed half in the top slab and half in the bottom slab. See Appendix 6.4-A1 for typical box girder end block reinforcement details. The anchorage zones of slab bridges will require vertical stirrups as well as additional horizontal transverse bars extending across the width of the bridge. The horizontal spalling and bursting steel in slab bridges shall be placed half in a top layer and half in a bottom layer.

July 2000

6.4-19

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
K. Anchorage Stresses The average bearing stress on the concrete behind the anchor plate and the bending stress in the plate material should satisfy the requirements of the AASHTO Code. In all sizes up to the 31-strand tendons, the square anchor plates used by three suppliers (VSL, AVAR, Stronghold) meet the AASHTO requirements, and detailing end blocks to accommodate these plates is the recommended procedure. In the cases where nonstandard (rectangular) anchor plates must be specified because of space limitations, assume that the trumpet associated with the equivalent size square plate will be used. In order to calculate the net bearing plate area pressing on the concrete behind it, the trumpet size can be scaled from photos in supplier brochures. Assume for simplicity that the concrete bearing stress is uniform. Bending stress in the steel should be checked assuming bending can occur across a corner of the plate or across a line parallel to its narrow edge. See Appendix 6.4-A3 for preapproved anchorages for post-tensioning. L. Camber The camber to be shown on the plans should include the effect of both dead load and final prestress and may be taken as given in Table 6.1.8-1. M. Expansion Bearing Offsets Figure 6.4.1-6 indicates expansion bearing offsets for the partial effects of elastic shortening, creep, and shrinkage. The initial offset shown is intended to result in minimal bearing eccentricity for the majority of the life of the structure. The bearing should be designed for the full range of anticipated movements: ES+CR+SH+TEMP. N. Post-Tensioning Notes The design plans shall contain the following information for use by the post-tensioner and state inspector: Strength of concrete in superstructure, tendon jacking sequence, friction coefficients, duct type, elastic and time-dependent losses, anchor set, prestress forces, strand elongations, deviation of ±7 percent between measured and theoretical elongations, false work construction and removal. If jacking is done at both ends of the bridge, the minimum strand elongation due to the specified jacking load for the end jacked first as well as the end jacked last should be indicated. When calculating strand elongation, use Es = 28,000 ksi. The calculated strand elongations at the ends of the bridge are compared with the measured field values to ensure that the friction coefficients (and hence the levels of prestressing throughout the structure) agree with the values assumed by the designer. The tendons shall be jacked in a sequence that avoids causing overstress or tension in the bridge. The following notes for the sequence of stressing of longitudinal tendons should be shown in the plans: 1. 2. The final prestressing force shall be distributed with an approximately equal amount in each web and shall be placed symmetrically about the centerline of the bridge. No more than one half of the prestressing force in any web may be stressed before an equal force is stressed in the adjacent webs. At no time during the stressing operations will more than 1/6 of the total prestressing force be applied eccentrically about the centerline of the structure.

Cast-in-Place Bridges

Sidewalks and traffic barriers are normally cast after post-tensioning. See Appendix 6.2-B1 for typical post-tensioning notes for plans.

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July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6.4.3 Review of Shop Plans
See also section on Review of Shop Plans in Chapter 1 of this manual as well as Section 6.2.8 of the Construction Manual. A. Check that the manufacturer provides a “lift off” force as required in Standard Specifications. B. Check that the number of PT strands in a tendon proposed by the contractor do not exceed the number allowed by the contract (i.e., 31-1/2 inch diameter or 22-0.6 in diameter). C. Check that the allowable tendon stress at anchorages and along the tendon are not exceeded. D. The maximum size of a post-tensioned tendon should be 31-1/2 inch strands or 22-0.6 inch strands. Use of a larger tendon requires the approval of the Bridge Design Engineer and the Design Unit Supervisor. E. If the post-tensioning shop drawings show a PT tendon larger than the size specified in contract plans, review should mark “Not Approved” with a note indicating that “the tendon size exceeds the maximum tendon size specified in the contract plans.” F. Temporary strands may be required for shipping, reducing camber, and lower the release strength. These strands may be pretensioned or post-tensioned and are bonded only for the end 10 feet of the girder, or may be post-tensioned prior to lifting the girder from the form. These strands must be cut before the deck slab concrete is placed, and preferably after the diaphragms are cast and cured.

Cast-in-Place Bridges

P65:DP/BDM6

July 2000

6.4-21

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures 6.99 Bibliography
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Prestressed Concrete Structures T. Y. Lin Wiley Prestressed Concrete Design and Construction F. Leonhardt (in WSDOT Library) Prestressed Concrete Vol. I and II Guyon Wiley Designing for Effects of Creep, Shrinkage, and Temperature ACI SP 27 620.1 Design 1 1971 (WSDOT Library) Post-Tensioned Bridges - Design & Construction Manual of WCRSI 1499 Bayshore Highway, Burlingame, California Copyright 1969 Analysis & Design of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Structures ACI Committee 443 Report 71-14 ACI Journal, April 1974 Preapproved Repair Procedures WSDOT Manual for Repair of Concrete Post-Tensioned Box Girder Bridge Manual Post-Tensioning Institute 301 West Osborn, Phoenix, Arizona Cracking of Voided Post-Tensioned Concrete Bridge Decks Ministry of Transportation and Communications Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Bibliography

6.

7. 8.

9.

10. Design of Concrete Bridges for Temperature Gradients ACI Journal, May 1978 11. Transportation Research Board Report No. 226 titled, Damage Evaluation and Repair Methods for Prestressed Concrete Bridge Members. 12. Transportation Research Board Report No. 280 titled, Guidelines for Evaluation and Repair of Prestressed Concrete Bridge Members. 13. AASHTO, LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C. 14. Seguirant, S.J., “New Deep WSDOT Standard Sections Extend Spans of Prestressed Concrete Girders,” PCI JOURNAL, V. 43, No. 4, July-August 1998, pp. 92-119. 15. PCI Bridge Design Manual, Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, IL, 1997. 16. PCI Design Handbook, Precast and Prestressed Concrete, Fifth Edition, Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, IL, 1999. 17. Mast, R.F., “Lateral Stability of Long Prestressed Concrete Beams, Part 1,” PCI JOURNAL, V. 34, No. 1, January-February 1989, pp. 34-53.

July 2000

6.99-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Bibliography

18. Mast, R.F., “Lateral Stability of Long Prestressed Concrete Beams, Part 2,” PCI JOURNAL, V. 38, No. 1, January-February 1993, pp. 70-88. 19. Imper, R.R., and Laszlo, G., “Handling and Shipping of Long Span Bridge Beams,” PCI JOURNAL, V. 32, No. 6, November-December 1987, pp. 86-101. 20. Standardization of Shear Reinf. for WSDOT Standard Prestressed Girders. 21. AASHTO LRFD Specifications. Second Edition 1998.

P65:DP/BDM6

6.99-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
(For Simple Span or Continuous P.S. Bridges)

“A” Dimension for P.S. Concrete Bridges

Definitions:
S = L = G = R = W= m = Span length (ft.) Vertical curve length (ft.) Algebraic diff. in profile tangent grades (%) Horizontal curve radius to girder per next sheet (ft.) Girder top flange width (inches) Deck crown or super slope (ft./ft.)

Note: The following assumes that sag breaks in curb line profiles due to super transitions will occur @ Piers so as not to require any increase “A.”

“A” Dimension (At Piers only)
Slab Thickness + 3/4″) fillet 1 Excess Girder Camber Allowance m Top Flange Width Effect = W × 2
2 Horiz. Curve Effect = 1.5 S m R GS2 Vert. Curve Effect = 100L

=+ (Normally 81/4″) =+ * =+ =+ = {+ for Sag Vert. or - for Crown Vert.) Total “A”

Round “A” to nearest 1/4″

(See minimums below) May make shorter span critical. + / Flange Width { Use “A” = (Slab thicknessDrain″) + Topcrosses girder. Effect) Min. Use “A” = 9″ Min. where Type 5
3 4

The basic attempt is to have the top of girder not higher than 3/4″ below the bottom of slab at the center of the span. This provides that the actual girder camber could exceed the calculated value by 13/4″ before the top of the girder would start interfering with the slab steel. 1 Allowance for the amount the girder camber, at time of slab pour, exceeds the screed camber.

* Use 2.50 @ preliminary plan stage to determine vertical clearance. Note in left margin of Layout: “A” Dimen. = “X” (not for design). Use value from deflection program results to determine “A” Dimen. to use for design.

July 2000

6.1-A1-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Horizontal Curve Effect: “A” Dimension for P.S. Concrete Bridges

φ = 5,730 × S × m 400 R

tan φ = 5,730Sm × 0.01746 400R (approx.)

tan 1°

H = 573Sm × 0.01746 × S × 12 4R 2

1.5 × S2 R (approx.) H

× m (inches)

Vertical Curve Effect:
Algebraic difference in profile tangent grades = G (%) Vertical curve length = L (ft) Span Length = S (ft)

K = 100G 2L

a=K ×

S2 × 12 = G × S2 × 12 400 2L 40,000

a = 1.5 ×

G × S2 (inches) 100 L

6.1-A1-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Check for excess pad at C span L
For bridges which are on sharp crowned vertical curves, the pad at C span can become excessive to the point L where the girder and diaphragm stirrups (based on the “A” dimension) are too short to bend into the proper position. This is a problem on bridges with spans in excess of 100 feet and a total grade change of 10 percent on a 900-foot vertical curve. The effect of girder cambers which are less than the calculated values tends to add to this error.

“A” Dimension for P.S. Concrete Bridges

Pad at C span (A C = top of slab to top of girder at C span) L L L
A C =A+a+C-G L where a is the vertical curve effect as calculated on Appendix 6.1-A1-1, C is the screed camber, and G is the girder camber at the time of slab pour. A value for “G” of 1 inch less than that shown on the deflection program output should probably be used to accommodate the worst case of camber variation. A correction should be made to the stirrup lengths if the value of A C exceeds A by more than 2 inches. L

P65:DP/BDM6

July 2000

6.1-A1-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures W95G and W83G

Notes to Designer for Pretensioned “Deep” Standard Girders — W95G and W83G Section Dimensions and Properties
1. Girder section dimensions and properties of the W95G and W83G are based on hard metric units as shown on the metric version of the Washington Standard Girders sheet in Appendix A. The U.S. Customary unit dimensions of the W95G and W83G are conversions from metric units. Girder section dimensions and properties of other standard girders are based on U.S. Customary units as shown on the U.S. Customary version of the Washington State Girder sheet in Appendix A. Metric versions of other standard girders are conversions from U.S. Customary units.

2.

Design Assumptions and Requirements
1. 2. These design assumptions and requirements apply to pretensioned girders only. Design is to be in accordance with the current edition of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications13, and the following requirements: • Deck thickness is to be 9 inches minimum unless a thinner deck can be justified by analysis or by the space necessary to place the deck reinforcement with the required clearances and cover. • Deck wearing surface is to be assumed as 1/2 inch. • Concrete Strengths: • Deck strength fc′ shall be 4.0 ksi (Class 4000D Concrete). • Girder strength at transfer of pretension force fci′ shall be 3.50 ksi minimum and 7.50 ksi maximum. Girder transfer strength shall be determined by analysis (see section on girder handling), rounded up to the nearest 0.10 ksi. Transfer strengths less than or equal to 7.00 ksi can be achieved on a daily turn around schedule. Transfer strengths between 7.00 ksi and 8.50 ksi can be achieved with extended curing time. For transfer strengths between 7.50 ksi and 8.50 ksi, the girders shall be designed as pretensioned, but the substructure shall be designed for the heavier post-tensioned, segmental sections (W83PTG and W95PTG) to allow for alternate bid proposals. Transfer strengths higher than 8.50 ksi shall not be specified. • Girder design strength fc′ shall be 7.00 ksi minimum and 10.00 ksi maximum. The design strength shall be specified as the calculated maximum of 1) the required transfer strength, 2) the strength required at shipping (see section on girder shipping) and, 3) the strength required in service. The maximum calculated value shall be rounded up to the nearest 0.10 ksi. For design strengths less than or equal to 9.00 ksi, the age at cylinder testing shall be specified at 28 days. For design strengths between 9.00 ksi and 10.00 ksi, the age at cylinder testing shall be specified at 56 days. The design strength shall not be specified higher than 10.00 ksi. • Prestressing: • The prestressing strand shall be 0.6 inch diameter, AASHTO M 203, 270 ksi, low-relaxation strand. • Temporary strands in the top flange of the girder will most likely be required for shipping (see section on girder shipping). These strands may be pretensioned and bonded only for the end 10 feet of the girder, or may be post-tensioned prior to lifting the girder from the form. These strands shall be considered in the design to reduce the required transfer strength, to provide stability during shipping, and to reduce the “A” dimension. These strands must be cut before the cast-in-place deck is placed, and preferably after the diaphragms are cast and cured.

July 2000

6.2-A1-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
• The maximum number of harped strands is 22, harped at 0.40 of the span length. • The maximum number of straight strands is 46 in the bottom flange of the girder. • The center to center strand spacing is 2 inches. • The jacking stress fpi = 0.75fpu = 202.5 ksi. • The slope of the harped strands shall not be steeper than 8 horizontal to 1 vertical. • The harped strand exit location at the girder ends shall be held as low as possible while maintaining the concrete stresses within allowable limits. • Allowable Stresses: • At Service: Tension Sustained compression Total compression Tension Compression = zero (0) fc = 0.45 fc′ fc = 0.60 fc′ ft = 7.5√ fc′ (psi) fci = 0.60 fci′

W95G and W83G

• At Release:

• For flexural strength, it has been determined14 that AASHTO LRFD Article 5.7.3 underestimates the strength of the composite deck-girder system. The strain compatibility method given in Section 8.2.2.5 of the PCI Bridge Design Manual15 is recommended for this analysis. In addition to the effective area of the deck, the top flange of the girder and the mild reinforcement in the deck and the top flange of the girder should be included in the analysis. • Simple spans shall be assumed for positive moment flexural design. • The W83G and W95G girders shall not be used for bridges with skew angles that exceed 30o. 3. The W95G and W83G sections are high performance girders. They generally rely on high strength concrete to be effective for the spans expected as a single piece. Maximum girder length is based on a single piece weight not to exceed 200 kips. The approximate range of maximum span lengths for practical minimum and maximum girder spacings are as follows: Girder W83G W83G W95G W95G Spacing (ft) 5 10 5 10 Span (ft) – 155 – 164 Girder Length (ft)* 185 (maximum) – 172 (maximum) –

*Design may be controlled by 200 kips maximum hauling weight.

6.2-A1-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Handling
The designer shall specify the lifting device locations and the corresponding concrete transfer strength that provides an adequate factor of safety for lateral stability. The calculations shall conform to Article 5.2.9 of the PCI Design Handbook, Precast and Prestressed Concrete, Fifth Edition16, or other approved methods. Other references14,15,17,18,19 provide the derivation of the theory and design examples. Temporary top strands may be used to improve the stability of the girder during handling, and to reduce the required concrete transfer strength.

W95G and W83G

Shipping
1. The designer shall assure that the girders can be reasonably delivered to the site as part of the preliminary design. The girder weight shall not exceed 200 kips. Vertical and horizontal clearances along the selected delivery route shall be verified. The designer shall check the lateral stability of the girder during shipping14,18,19. Temporary top strands shall be used to provide a minimum factor of safety against cracking of 1.0. In the absence of more accurate information on the properties of the truck, the following may be used: 1) the truck rotational spring stiffness Kq = 41,000 kip-in./radian, 2) the height of the roll center above the road hr = 24 in., 3) the height of the top of the truck support above the road = 6 ft, 4) the distance from the center of truck to the center of dual tires zmax = 36 in. and, 5) the maximum distance between truck supports = 130 ft. The maximum superelevation along the selected route shall be used in the analysis.

2.

Shear Reinforcement in End Region
1. 2. The end region is considered to be about 1.5 times the depth of the girder, h, from the end of the girder. The vertical reinforcement shown on the standard plans provides for the maximum bursting (splitting) demand at the end of the girder for the maximum number of straight and harped strands plus six temporary strands in the top flange of the girder (46 + 22 high + 6 respectively). This need not be changed unless the number of strands is increased. Generally the maximum number of strands is limited to 68 plus 6 temporary by the maximum concrete transfer strength of 8.50 ksi. The vertical bursting (splitting) reinforcement is located within approximately h/5 from the end of the girder and closely approximates 4 percent of the applied prestressing force at transfer (AASHTO LRFD 5.10.10). Other reinforcement shown in the end region accounts for vertical shear for the span configurations above and four (4) support conditions, • Lifting with no reaction at the end region, i.e. lifting devices located interior from the end of the girder, • Girder plus three intermediate diaphragms plus 20 psf supported on oak bunking block, • Bridge reactions on elastomeric bearings introducing compression into the end region, and • Bridge reactions at the end face of the girder (End Types C and D). The designer shall investigate any additional vertical reinforcement for reaction forces, in the direction of the applied shear, along the vertical end face of the girder. This applies to girder End Types C and D, where all loads are eventually transferred to the face of the hinge diaphragm or crossbeam. Adequate vertical shear reinforcing is required to take the reaction back up to the top of the girder near the diaphragm interface.

3.

July 2000

6.2-A1-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures W95G and W83G

Shear Reinforcement Beyond End Region
1. Shear reinforcement size and spacing beyond the end region of the girder shall be determined by the designer. The variation in reinforcing demand for the entire range of span and spacing configurations is considerable. The shear reinforcement is likely to be light, or nominal, for the longest single piece spans with a narrow girder spacing, whereas the demand will be significant well out into the span for shorter spans with wide girder spacing. The minimum angle theta, θ, for calculating shear reinforcement should be 25 degrees to avoid excessive horizontal tension demand through the bottom corner of the girder by the AASHTO LRFD modified compression field theory.

2.

Girder Sheets
1. There are four end types shown on the girder sheets. Due to the extreme depth of the W83G and W95G girders, and possible end of girder tilt at the piers for profile grades, the designer will need to pay particular attention to details to assure the girders will fit and perform as intended. The four end types are identified with pertinent detailing dimensions as follows: • End Type A – is for cantilever end piers with an end diaphragm cast on the end of the girders. End Type A has a recess at the bottom of the girder near the end for an elastomeric bearing pad. The maximum bearing pad size expected for the W95G and W83G girders is 18 inches long x 35 inches wide. The recess at the centerline of bearing is 3/4 inch deep to accommodate an elastomeric pad length of 18 inches. This recess is to be used for profile grades up to and including 4 percent. The recess is to be replaced by an embedded steel plate flush with the bottom of the girder for grades over 4 percent. A tapered bearing plate, with stops at the edges to contain the elastomeric pad, can be welded or bolted to the embedded plate to provide a level bearing surface.

6.2-A1-4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures W95G and W83G

Reinforcing bars and pretensioned strands project from the end of the girder. The designer shall assure that these bars and strands fit into the end diaphragm. Embedment of the girder end into the end diaphragm shall be a minimum of 3 inches and a maximum of 6 inches. For girder ends where the tilt would exceed 6 inches of embedment, the girder ends shall be tilted to attain a plumb surface when the girder is erected to the profile grade. Embedment into the end wall shall be 3 inches. The gap between the end diaphragm and the stem wall shall be a minimum of 21/2 inches or 1/2 inch greater than required for longitudinal direction.

July 2000

6.2-A1-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures W95G and W83G

• End Type B – is for “L” type abutments. End Type B also has a recess at the bottom of the girder for an elastomeric bearing pad. Notes regarding the bearing recess on End Type A also apply to End Type B. End Type B is the only end type that does not have reinforcing or strand projecting from the girder end. Note that the centerline of the bearing is not coincident with the centerline of the diaphragm. For girders on a grade, dimensions for each bearing, P1 and P2, from the ends of the girder will be different. Typically the centerline of bearing will be 1′-3″ minimum from the end of the girder to fit the bearing and provide adequate edge distance. The designer may want to locate the diaphragm such that it is equal distance from the centerline of the bearing, and the centerline of the bearing is equal distance from the face of the back wall of both abutments. This should create consistency in dimensions and make it easier to calculate girder lengths.

6.2-A1-6

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures W95G and W83G

• End Type C – is for continuous spans and an intermediate hinge diaphragm at an intermediate pier. There is no bearing recess and the girder is temporarily supported on oak bunking blocks. This detail is generally used only in low seismic areas. This end type is generally used for bridges east of the Cascade Mountains. The designer shall check the edge distance and provide a dimension that prevents edge failure, or spalling, at the top corner of the supporting cross beam for load from the oak bunking block.

July 2000

6.2-A1-7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures W95G and W83G

• End Type D – is for continuous spans fully fixed to columns at intermediate piers. There is no bearing recess and the girder is temporarily supported on oak bunking blocks. The designer shall check the edge distance and provide a dimension that prevents edge failure, or spalling, at the top corner of the supporting cross beam for load from the oak bunking block.

6.2-A1-8

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Summary of Checks Required by Designer
1. 2. Shear reinforcing size and spacing beyond the end region of the girder shall be determined by the designer. It is uneconomical to provide a standard pattern to cover all span and girder spacing arrangements. Determine lifting location and required concrete transfer strength to provide adequate stability during handling. The lifting bar location, concrete release strength, and “A” dimension should be based on six (6) temporary strands in the top flange. Generally the temporary strands provide additional stability for lifting and transportation, and reduce the camber. Less camber allows for less “A” dimension and concrete pad dead weight on the structure. Temporary strands are assumed to be cut after all intermediate diaphragms are cast and cured, but before the cast-in-place deck is placed. Attention to detail: Due to the extreme depth of the W83G and W95G girders, and possible tilt at the piers for profile grades, the designer will need to pay particular attention to details to assure the girders will fit and perform as intended. Girder data required to be placed in the table on Girder Details 2 of 2 include the girder identifiers, “A” dimension, end types, girder geometric data, and strand forces and pattern required. Check edge distance of supporting cross beam. For continuous bridges, design girders as simple spans for live load (Do not deduct negative moments from maximum simple beam positive moments). Provide reinforcement for negative moments at intermediate piers due to live loads and superimposed dead loads from traffic barrier, pedestrian walkway, utilities, etc.

W95G and W83G

3.

4. 5. 6.

P65:DP/BDM6

July 2000

6.2-A1-9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Prestressed Girder Intermediate Hinge Diaphragm

Notes to Designer for Prestressed Girders Intermediate Hinge Diaphragms
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. All girders in each bridge shall be of the same depth. Design girders as simple span (do not deduct negative moments from maximum simple beam positive moments). Provide reinforcement for negative moments at intermediate piers due to live loads and superimposed dead loads from traffic barrier, pedestrian walkway, utilities, etc. Include reinforcement on this sheet in the bar list you prepare. Check hinge bars for minimum embedment in crossbeam. See hinge bar table for size when girders exceed 6.0 ksi. Check hinge bar size.

Design Assumption — Saw Tooth Shear Key
Design criteria based on AASHTO LRFD { Vn = c*Acv + mu*(Auf*fy + Pc) } 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Creep and shrinkage not considered due to simple span design c = 0.100 ksi, and mu = 1.0*lambda, where lambda = 1.0 for normal weight concrete Assume Pc = 0.0 Maximum ultimate shear stress = 0.800 ksi (on sawtooth area only) fy = 60 ksi

Maximum Ultimate Shear = 1.25(DC) + 1.75 (L + IM)
W95G W83G W74G W58G W50G W42G Vu = 629 kips Vu = 588 kips Vu = 291 kips Vu = 241 kips Vu = 215 kips Vu = 170 kips

Minimum Crossbeam Width
In order to have room for placing oak blocks with required clearances on cross-beams, the cross-beams must be designed with a minimum width of 4′-6″ for W95G and W83G, 4′-2″ for W74G, and 4′-0″ for all other girders. Designer is to check edge distance of oak blocks to top outside corner of cross-beam for reaction from girder weight + diaphragms + (20 psf) construction load. Adjust minimum width of cross-beam as necessary to prevent corner support failure.

P65:DP/BDM6

July 2000

6.3-A1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Preapproved Anchorages for Post-Tensioning
The following are the anchorages approved by the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). (Note: The majority of these anchorages have been approved and accepted by WSDOT on the bases of tests done by suppliers for various state and local jurisdictions outside the state of Washington.

Post-Tensioning Anchorages

VSL Corporation (Owned by DYWIDAG Systems International)
Anchorage E5-31 E5-22 E6-22 E5-19 E6-19 E5-12 E6-12 EC5-31 EC5-27 EC5-19 EC5-12 SO6-4 ACS-28.5 ACS-24.5 ACS-22.5 C-22.5 Type Bearing Plate Bearing Plate Bearing Plate Bearing Plate Bearing Plate Bearing Plate Bearing Plate Casting With External and Intermediate Flange Casting With External and Intermediate Flange Casting With External and Intermediate Flange Casting With External and Intermediate Flange Casting With External Flange (for Bearing) Bearing Plate Bearing Plate Bearing Plate Casting With External and Intermediate Flange Maximum Number of Strands 31 1/2-inch strands 22 1/2-inch strands 22 0.6-inch strands 19 1/2-inch strands 19 0.6-inch strands 12 1/2-inch strands 12 0.6-inch strands 31 1/2-inch strands 27 1/2-inch strands 19 1/2-inch strands 12 1/2-inch strands 4 0.6-inch strands used for dock (or slab) post-tensioning 28 1/2-inch strands 24 1/2-inch strands 22 1/2-inch strands 22 1/2-inch strands

Prescon Corporation (Owned by Freyssinet International)
Anchorage 19 KD 5 27 KD 5 Type Casting With External and Intermediate Flange Casting With External and Intermediate Flange Remarks 19 1/2-inch strands 27 1/2-inch strands

July 2000

6.1-B1-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures AVAR Post-tensioning Systems
Anchorage SP 12.5 SP 19.5 SP 27.5 MP 12.5 MP 22.5 C 12.5 C 19.5 C 27.5 Type Single Plane System Single Plane System Single Plane System Multiple Plane System Single Plane System Single Plane System Single Plane System Single Plane System Minimum Number of Strands 12 1/2-inch strands 19 1/2-inch strands 27 1/2-inch strands 12 1/2-inch strands 22 1/2-inch strands 12 1/2-inch strands 19 1/2-inch strands 27 1/2-inch strands

Post-Tensioning Anchorages

Bar Anchorages
DYWIDAG Systems International 1-inch thread bars through 13/8 at fu of 150 ksi only.

(Note: For anchorages not shown, contact supervisor.)

P65:DP/BDM6

6.1-B1-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures Post-Tensioning Notes
1. 2. 3. The cast-in-place concrete in superstructure shall be Class _____. The minimum compressive strength of the cast-in-place concrete at the time of post-tensioning shall be _____. ksi. The minimum prestressing load after seating for each web shall be _____. ksi. Each web shall have a minimum of _____ strands. The design is based on _____ inch diameter low relaxation strands with a jacking load of _____ ksi each web, an anchor set of 1/4 inch, a friction curvature coefficient, m=0.20, and a friction wobble coefficient, k=0.0002. The actual anchor set used by the contractor shall be specified in the shop plans and included in the transfer force calculations. The design is based on the estimated prestress loss of post-tensioned prestressing strands of _____. ksi due to steel relaxation, elastic shortening, creep and shrinkage of concrete. The contractor shall submit the stressing sequence and elongation calculations to the engineer for approval. All losses due to tendon horizontal curvature must be included in elongation calculations. The stressing sequence shall meet the following criteria: A. The prestressing force shall be distributed with an approximately equal amount in each web and shall be placed symmetrically about the center line of bridge. B. No more than one-half of the prestressing force in any web may be stressed before an equal force is stressed in the adjacent webs. At no time during stressing operation will more than one-sixth of the total prestressing force be applied eccentrically about the center line of the bridge. 6. 7. The maximum outer diameter of the duct shall be _____ inches. The area of the duct shall be at least 21/2 times the net area of the prestressing steel in the duct. All tendons shall be stressed from pier _____.

Notes to Designers Post-Tensioning

4. 5.

Note to Designers: 1. 2. 3. 4. Small changes in thickness of web (up to 1 inch) shall not require redesign of structure on the part of the contractor. Commonly used stress levels in note number 1 are 3000 psi and 3500 psi. Use of a tendon with more strands than the maximum noted above requires the approval of the Bridge Design Engineer and the Design Unit Supervisor. Post-tensioning shop drawings detailing a tendon with more strands than the maximum specified by the contract shall be returned “Not Approved” with a note stating “the number of strands per tendon exceeds the maximum specified in the contract.”

P65:DP/BDM6

July 2000

6.2-B1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
Width Curb Curb (ft.) 38

P.T. Box Girder Bridges Single Span

Contract No. Name 9215 AR Line O’xing

County Spokane

Award Date 12/71

Span 112

Span/ Depth 28.9

Skew Deg. Curved 6000′R 52 0

Remarks Limited available structure depth.

9150 9664

Sunset I/C SR 2 O’xing* W-Line O’xing

Spokane Chelan & Douglas King

8/71 12/73

150 130

38 59

21.4 21.7

5′ sidewalk on one side.

9900

W. Snoqualmie I/C O’xing WB EB Euclid Avenue I/C O’xing WB EB

4/75 165 135 68 52 22.0 22.5 45 40

0839

Chelan & Douglas

10/77 158 158 38 50 19.8 19.8 Curved 2200′R Curved 2200′F Curved 3274′R Curved 625′R

0902

Allen Street I/C O’xing*

Cowlitz

2/78

132

52

22.0

2156

14 E Line U’xing (N&S)*

Clark

11/81

112

26

21.3

*Twin bridges.

July 2000

6.3-B1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
Width Curb Curb (ft.) 38

P.T. Box Girder Bridges Two Span

Contract No. Name 8569 Brickyard Road U’xing

County King

Award Date 2/69

Span 137 155 124 124 130 130 141 133 138 138 167 172 178 158 151 151 156 161 142 155 168 157 131 131

Span/ Depth 22.2

Skew Deg. 45

Remarks

9122

NE 50th Avenue U’xing

Clark

7/71

44

24.8

12

9122

NE 69th Avenue U’xing

Clark

7/71

84

23.6

0

9289

SE 232nd Street U’xing

King

3/72

55

23.5

51

9448

NE 18th Street U’xing

Clark

1/73

44

22.8

17

6′ sidewalk on each side. 5′ sidewalk on each side.

9737

Mill Plain Road I/C U’xing

Clark

5/74

84

22.2

8

0862

East Zillah I/C U’xing

Yakima

10/77

40

23.0

44

0862

Hudson Road U’xing

Yakima

10/77

30

22.6

37

1219

Johnson Road U’xing

Yakima & Benton Yakima

8/78

34

22.7

45

1366

Donald Road U’xing

12/78

55

23.8

45

1764

148th Avenue NE U’xing

King

12/79

60

21.9

41

1788

Gap Road U’xing

Yakima

1/80

30

22.1

37

July 2000

6.3-B2-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
Width Curb Curb (ft.) 60

P.T. Box Girder Bridges Two Span

Contract No. Name 2156 14-H Line U’xing

County Clark

Award Date 11/81

Span 114 114 196 196 147 147 150 150

Span/ Depth 22.8

Skew Deg. 0

Remarks

2156

14-D Line U’xing (North)

Clark

11/81

26

21.8

Curbed 600′R 0

2217

SR 12 U’xing

Benton

2/82

55

23.3

2217

Keene Road U’xing

Benton

2/82

34

21.4

Curved 11,459′R

25′ counterweighted cantilever spans at each end. Transv. P.T. 30′ counterweighted cantilever spans at each end. Transv. P.T.

2207

G Line U’xing

Benton

4/82

162.4 180.6

Varies 78.6-84.6

20.5

0

2207

N-S Line U’xing

Benton

4/82

155 155 163.5 163.5

38

22.1

0

2207

SR 240 Connection U’xing (R-Line)

Benton

4/82

72

20.4

0

25′ counterweighted cantilever spans at each end. Transv. P.T.

2236

Road 68 I/C U’xing

Franklin

4/82

191 191 183 167 170 156 159 148

64

23.2

35

2236

Road 100 I/C U’xing

Franklin

4/82

55

21.5

15

2236

SR 14 I/C U’xing (Eastbound)

Franklin

4/82

26

22.4

Curved 1600′R Curved 1500′R

2236

SR 14 I/C U’xing (Westbound)

Franklin

4/82

38

21.8

6.3-B2-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
Width Curb Curb (ft.) Varies 46-53

P.T. Box Girder Bridges Multiple Span

Contract No. Name 8759 Kalama River Bridge SB

County Cowlitz

Award Date

Span 40 200 200 40 40 200 200 40 88 170 88 190 260 190 100.5 145 145 114 114 87.5 160 159 100

Span/ Depth

Skew Deg.

Remarks 6′ sidewalk on one side.

2/70

0

NB

2/70

Varies 46.5

Varies

0

6′ sidewalk on one side.

8761

Valley View Road O’xing

Snohomish

2/70

38

25.2

0

9102

Columbia River Bridge at Olds**

Chelan & Douglas

7/71

74

Varies

0

9749

Evergreen Parkway

Thurston

26

Varies

47

Hourglass columns.

9840

W Sunset Way Ramp U’xing

King

12/74

26

22.9

Curved 500′R & 600′R

1193

24F Over MD Line

Clark

8/78

129 201 129 126 182 126

26

Varies

0

3794

Sen. Sam C. Guess Memorial (Division St. 2/644)

5/90

77

Varies

12

Replaced arch, built in two stages.

**Middle 3 spans of 7-span bridge are post-tensioned.

July 2000

6.3-B3-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
Width Curb Curb (ft.)

P.T. Box Girder Bridges Multiple Span

Contract No. Name

County

Award Date

Span 63.5 133 63.5 167 5@172 167 137 6@172 166

Span/ Depth

Skew Deg.

Remarks

1439

SR 516 O’xing

King

3/79

42

24.2

40

1580

Ahtanum Creek O’xing SB

Yakima 8/79

26

25.1

Curved 1200′R

NB

8/79

38

25.1

Curved 1200′R

1950

Yakima River Bridges North Bridge

Benton

10/80 140+ 161 161 215 147 140+ 161 161 215 147 Varies 48′-100′ Varies Curved 6000′R Transverse posttentioning.

South Bridge

38

Varies

Curved 5900′R

Transverse posttensioning. 10′ bicycle and pedestrian path on one side.

2156

14-I Line

Clark

11/81

163 145 82 128 171 128 90 188 90

38

22.2

Curved 600′R

2156

14 D Line (South)

Clark

11/81

26

24.4

Curved 625′R

2207

GE Line Over G Line

Benton

4/82

38

23.5

Curved 1400′R

6.3-B3-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
Width Curb Curb (ft.) 55

P.T. Box Girder Bridges Multiple Span

Contract No. Name 2207 RA Line Over ER Line

County Benton

Award Date 4/82

Span 47 104 47 49 159 49 43 125 43 175 255 175 118 150 99 126 182 126

Span/ Depth 17.3

Skew Deg. 20

Remarks Transverse posttentioning.

2245

Pearl Street O’xing

Pierce

4/82

54

22.7

Curved 1400′R

2245

6th Avenue O’xing

Pierce

4/82

Varies 87.4102 76

22.7

Curved 1400′R & 400′R 0 Transverse posttentioning.

2327

Spokane River Bridge Stage 1

Spokane

6/82

Varies

***

Green River Bridge

King

74

Varies

22

3794

Sen. Sam C. Guess Memorial (Division St. 2/644)

5/90

77

Varies (depth 5.5 to 8.5 at piers)

12

Replaced arch, built in two stages.

***Not yet to contract.

P65:DP/BDM6

July 2000

6.3-B3-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Contents
Page 7.0 7.1 Structural Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Girder Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Girder Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Estimating Structural Steel Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Types of Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Available Plate Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Girder Segment Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Computer Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Girder Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 “I” Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design “I” Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Composite Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Flanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Webs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Longitudinal Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Bearing Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Crossframes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Bottom Laterals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Bolted Field Splice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Camber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Roadway Slab Placement Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Bridge Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Surface Roughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Fabrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plan Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Structural Steel Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Framing Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Girder Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Typical Girder Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Crossframe Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Camber Curve and Bearing Stiffener Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Roadway Slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Safety Cable Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shop Plan Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.0-1 1 1 7.1-1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 7.2-1 1 1 7.3-1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 5 5 7 7 7 9 10 7.4-1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 7.5-1 7.99-1

7.2

7.3

7.4

7.5 7.99

July 2000

7.0-i

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel
Appendix A 7.0-A1 7.4-A1 7.4-A2 7.4-A3 7.4-A4 7.4-A5 7.4-A6 7.4-A7 7.4-A8 7.4-A9 7.4-A10 7.4-A11 7.4-A12 7.4-A13 7.4-A14 7.4-A15 7.4-A16

Contents

Steel Plate Girder Design Flow Chart Girder Framing Plan and Elevation View Part Longitudinal Girder Elevation Primary Stiffeners Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners Splices Optional Web Splices Fillet Weld Termination Detail Field Splice Detail Drip Plate Details Crossframes Crossframe Attachment Details Lateral Plate Detail Camber Curve and Bearing Stiffener Camber Details Roadway Slab-Plan View Roadway Slab-Section View Safety Cable Details

P65:DP/BDM7

7.0-ii

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7.0 7.0.1 Structural Steel Introduction
The most common type of steel superstructure used on bridges in Washington State is the built-up steel “I” girder. Rolled beams have been used on a very limited basis but much of the following is applicable. Because of their uniqueness and limited application, other types of steel superstructures (box girders, trusses, arches, suspension, etc.) are not addressed. Use English units for all widening and rehabilitation on existing English designed and detailed steel bridge projects. Metric units are acceptable for new previously designed steel bridge projects.

Structural Steel

P65:DP/BDM7

July 2000

7.0-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7.1 7.1.1 Design Considerations General
Use the Strength Design Method Load Factor Design of Section 10 Structural Steel of AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges to design steel girders. Bridges on horizontal curves shall also meet the requirements of the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Horizontally Curved Highway Bridges, as applicable. The information provided in this chapter is intended to help apply these AASHTO specifications and to define office practice. Typical construction is nonshored steel girders acting compositely with a reinforced concrete roadway slab. This is discussed in more detail in Section 7.3.2. Since plate stock of M 270 grade 50W and M 270 grade 50 are close in price, office practice is to specify grade 50W for plate girders. The use of nonredundant load path structures should be avoided. Nonredundant loadpath structures are structures where the failure of a single load carrying member, or a component thereof, could cause a total collapse. An example would be a twin plate girder structure. Nonredundant structures are generally not used because of the extensive ongoing annual maintenance inspections required by FHWA. Also, nonredundant structures increase fabrication costs and require greater attention to detail during design. Even so, the use of nonredundant structures may be approved by the Bridge Design Engineer, however, approval shall be obtained by the designer prior to beginning the design. Steel girder bridges typically require a paint system to provide protection against corrosion. The paint system for girder bridges is defined in the Special Provisions and is a three-part system. The first coat is an inorganic zinc shop primer. This is a sacrificial protection system. The second coat is an epoxy seal normally applied after the slab has been placed. This is a barrier protective system but in combination with the zinc primer, is considered a composite protective system. The third and final coat is a urethane which protects the epoxy from UV attack and provides color for the bridge. The color is specified in the Special Provisions. This paint system will normally require repainting in approximately 30 years. Unpainted weathering steel should be considered for locations deemed appropriate. See NCHRP Report 314. Approval for its use must be obtained from the Bridge Design Engineer. Careful attention to details is required for proper weathering. Accumulation of debris, staining of substructure, and water from expansion joints can pose considerable problems and add to life cycle costs. Provisions to sand blast erected steel and apply controlled wet-dry cycles are required to produce a sound protective coating with good appearance. Recommendations for using weathering steel are contained in Uncoated Weathering Steel Bridges, Vol. I, Chapter 9 of AISC’s Highway Structures Design Handbook. A more comprehensive treatment is found in NCHRP Report 314 Guidelines for the Use of Weathering Steel in Bridges. Surfaces to be embedded in concrete, such as top flanges, should be shop painted.

Design Considerations

7.1.2

Girder Depth
The superstructure depth is initially determined during preliminary plan development and is based upon the span/depth ratios provided in Chapter 2 of this manual. The designer will have to verify this depth by meeting live load deflection requirements and by meeting stress requirements. It is office practice to limit live load deflections to L/800 for HS-25 or L/1000 for HS-20. Live load deflection is calculated on a per bridge basis with reduction for multiple lanes. The superstructure depth is typically the distance from the top of the concrete roadway slab to the bottom of the web. This distance is in multiples of 6 inches for shorter span bridges, and 1 foot 0 inches for longer span bridges, and should be consistent throughout the length of the bridge.

July 2000

7.1-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design Considerations

Other features such as notching at hinges (combined with notching for expansion joint system), vertical clearances, etc., should be considered in selecting the superstructure depth.

7.1.3

Girder Spacing
For simplicity of design, girders should be spaced such that each is designed for the same load; that is basically, girders will be identical. Spacing should be such that slab dead load is equally distributed on all girders and the distribution of wheel loads on the exterior girder is close to that of the interior girder. Barrier weights shall be equally distributed to a maximum of two “I” girders. The least number of girders should be used that is consistent with a reasonable deck design. In general, live load distribution to girders shall be in accordance with AASHTO Section 3, Part C for “I” girders. When these bounds are exceeded, a rational live load distribution method should be used.

7.1.4

Estimating Structural Steel Weights
For the preliminary quantities or preliminary girder design, an estimate of steel weights for built-up plate composite “I” girders can be obtained from Figures 7.1.4-1 through 7.1.4-3. These figures are based upon previous designs with HS-20 live loads with no distinction between service load designs and load factor designs. These charts provide a good double check on final quantities. The weights shown include webs, flanges, and all secondary members (web stiffeners, diaphragms, crossframe, lateral systems, gusset plates) plus a small allowance (usually 5 percent or less) for weld metal, bolts, and shear connectors.

7.1.5

Types of Steel
The most common types of steel used for bridges are now grouped in ASTM A 709 or AASHTO M 270 specifications. The following table shows equivalent designations. Grades of steel are based on minimum yield points. ASTM A 36 A 572 gr 50 A 588 A 852 A 514 ASTM A 709 Grade 36 Grade 50 Grade 50W Grade 70W Grade 100 Grade l00W AASHTO M 183 M 223 gr 50 M 222 M 313 M 244 AASHTO M 270 Grade 36 Grade 50 Grade 50W Grade 70W Grade 100 Grade l00W

Plates and rolled sections are available is these specifications and grades. Rolled sections include beams (W, S, and M shapes), H-piles, tees, channels, and angles. These materials are prequalified under the Bridge Welding Code. Use AASHTO M 270 grade 50W for plate girders. The fabricated costs of structural carbon and structural low alloy steel plate girders are about equal. The use of M 270 grade 100, 100W requires approval by the Bridge Design Engineer. Availability of weathering steel can be a problem for some sections. For example, steel suppliers do not stock angles or channels in weathering steel. Weathering steel wide flange and tee sections are available but difficult to locate. Also, AASHTO M 270 steels are not stocked by local suppliers. The use of M 270 steel should be restricted to large quantities such as found in typical plate girder projects.

7.1-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design Considerations

Structural tubes and pipes are covered by other specifications. See Table 1-4 of AISC Manual of Steel Construction for selection and availability. These materials are not considered prequalified under the Bridge Welding Code. They are covered under the Structural Welding Code AWS D1.1. Structural tubing ASTM A 500 is not recommended for dynamic loading applications.

7.1.6

Available Plate Sizes
Readily available lengths and thicknesses of steel plates should be used to minimize costs. Tables of standard plate sizes have been published by various steel mills and should be used for guidance. These tables are available through the steel specialist. In general, an individual plate should not exceed 14 feet in width, including camber requirements, or a length of about 60 feet. If either or both of these dimensions are exceeded, a butt splice is required and should be shown or specified on the plans. Plate thicknesses of less than 5/16 inches should not be used for bridge applications.

7.1.7

Girder Segment Sizes
Locate bolted field splices so that individual girder segments can be handled, shipped, and erected without imposing unreasonable requirements on the contractor. Crane limitations need to be considered in congested areas near traffic or buildings. Transportation route options between the girder fabricator and the bridge site can effect the size and weight of girder sections allowed. The region should help determine the possible routes, and the restrictions they impose, during preliminary planning or early in the design phase. “I” girder segment lengths should be limited to 150 feet depending upon their cross section. Weight is seldom a controlling factor. However, 40 tons is a practical limit for some fabricators. Long, slender segments can be difficult to handle and ship due to their flexibility. Horizontal curvature of girder segments may increase handling and shipping concerns. Consider the structure’s span length and the above factors when determining girder segment lengths.

7.1.8

Computer Programs
The designer should consult the design supervisor to determine the computer program currently being used for analyses. Instruction manuals for the programs are available in the Bridge Office Computer Section. Office practice and good engineering principles require that the results of any computer program should be independently verified for accuracy. Verification is necessary to identify input errors which renders erroneous output. Also, programs with built-in code checks must be checked for default settings. Default settings may reflect old code or office practice may supercede the code that the program was written for.

July 2000

7.1-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7.1.9 Fasteners
All bolted connections shall be friction type. Design is based on Class B coating on fraying surfaces. The term “slip critical” implies a friction type connection. Properties of High-Strength Bolts Tensile Strength ksi 120 105 120 105 90 Yield Strength ksi

Design Considerations

Material AASHTO M 164 (ASTM A325) ASTM A 449 (No AASHTO equivalent) AASHTO M 314 ASTM F 1554 Grade 105 AASHTO M253 (ASTM A 490) ASTM A 354 Grade BD (No AASHTO equivalent)

Bolt Diameter /2 - 1″ inc. 11/8 - 1″ inc. Over 11/2″ /4″ - 1″ inc. 11/8 - 11/2″ inc. 13/4″ -3″ inc. Over 3″
1 1 1

92 81 Not Available 92 81 58 Not Available 105

/4″ - 3″ inc.

125-150

1

/2″ - 11/2″ inc.

150-170

130

Over 11/2″
1

Not Available 150 140 130 115 Not Available

/2 - 21/2″ inc.

3″ - 4″ inc. Over 4″

7.1-4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel
General Guidelines for Steel Bolts 1. M 164 (A325) High strength, headed structural steel bolts for use in structural joints. Suitable heavy hex nuts and plain hardened washers are covered by this specification. These bolts may be hot-dip galvanized. Do not specify for anchor bolts. High strength steel bolts and studs for general applications including anchor bolts. Recommended for use as anchor bolts where strengths equivalent to A325 bolts are desired. These bolts may be hot-dip galvanized. Grade 105 — Higher strength anchor bolts to be used for larger sizes (11/2″ to 3″). These bolts are not covered in the Standard Specifications so they require coverage in the Special Provisions when called for. High strength alloy steel headed bolts for use in structural joints. These bolts should not be galvanized, because of the high susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. In lieu of galvanizing, the application of two or three coats of an approved zinc rich paint may be specified. Suitable heavy hex nuts and plain hardened washers are covered by this specification. Do not specify for anchor bolts. Grade BD — high strength alloy steel bolts and studs. These bolts are suitable for use as anchor bolts where strengths equal to A490 bolts are desired. Nuts and washers are covered by this specification. These bolts should be treated in the same manner as A490 bolts in regard to galvanizing.

Design Considerations

2.

A449

3.

M 314 (F1554)

4.

M 253 (A490)

5.

A354

July 2000

7.1-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design Considerations

7.1-6

July 2000

Composite Welded Steel Plate “I” Girder — Simple Span Figure 7.1.4-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design Considerations

July 2000

Composite Welded Steel Plate “I” Girder — Two Continuous Spans Figure 7.1.4-2 7.1-7

7.1-8 Composite Welded Steel Plate “I” Girder — Three or More Continuous Spans Figure 7.1.4-3

Criteria Structural Steel BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL

Design Considerations

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Equivalent ASTM and AASHTO Specifications
ASTM Designations AASHTO Designations ASTM Designations AASHTO Designations

Design Considerations

A 6/A 6M ............................................ M 160/M 160M A 27/A 27M ....................................... M 103/M 103M A 36/A 36M ....................................... M 183/M 183M A 48 ................................................................... M 105 A 53 ...................................................... No Equivalent A 108 ................................................................. M 169 A 109 .................................................... No Equivalent A 109M ................................................. No Equivalent A 123 ................................................................. M 111 A 153 ................................................................. M 232 A 252 .................................................... No Equivalent A 307 .................................................... No Equivalent A 325 ................................................................. M 164 A 325M .......................................................... M 164M A 328/A 328M ................................... M 202/M 202M A 354 .................................................... No Equivalent A 370 .................................................................. T 244 A 435/A 435M ..................................... No Equivalent A 446/A 446M ..................................... No Equivalent A 449 .................................................... No Equivalent A 486/A 486M ................................... M 192/M 192M A 490 ................................................................. M 253 A 490M .......................................................... M 253M

A 500 ...................................................... No Equivalent A 501 ...................................................... No Equivalent A 502 ...................................................... No Equivalent A 514/A 514M .................................... M 244/M 244M A 525 ...................................................... No Equivalent A 525M .................................................. No Equivalent A 536 ...................................................... No Equivalent A 563 ................................................................... M 291 A 563M ........................................................... M 291M A 572/A 572M .................................... M 223/M 223M A 588/A 588M .................................... M 222/M 222M A 618 ...................................................... No Equivalent A 668 ................................................................... M 102 A 673/A 673M ....................................... T 243/T 243M A 709/A 709M .................................... M 270/M 270M A 852/A 852M .................................... M 313/M 313M A 898/A 898M ....................................... No Equivalent B 695 ................................................................... M 298 F436 .................................................................... M 293 F436M .................................................... No Equivalent F606 ....................................................... No Equivalent F 606M ................................................... No Equivalent F 959M ................................................... No Equivalent F 1554 ................................................................. M 314

Figure 7.1.5-1

July 2000

7.1-9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7.2 7.2.1 Girder Bridges General
Once the material of choice, steel has been eclipsed by concrete. Numerous graphs and charts are available to demonstrate the falling percentage of steel bridges and the rising percentage of concrete bridges being constructed. Corrosion and fatigue cracking have contributed to unanticipated life cycle costs. Fabrication and material costs have also contributed to steel’s relative cost disadvantage. These trends may be compensated for by simplification of fabrication details, elimination of expansion joints and hinges, and the lowering of steel prices due to the advent of mills that recycle scrap iron. The specifications allow a combination of plastic design in positive moment regions and elastic design in negative moment regions. Plate girders, of the depths typically built in this state, have traditionally been designed to elastic limits or lower. Newer design methods may help reduce steel weight and narrow the cost gap between steel and concrete bridges. Steel girders can also be shallower than the same span prestressed girders.

Girder Bridges

7.2.2

“I” Girders
As stated in the introduction, welded plate “I” girders constitute the majority of steel girders designed by WSDOT. The “I” girder represents an efficient use of material for maximizing stiffness. Its shortcoming is inefficiency in resisting shear. Office practice is to maintain constant web thickness for short to medium span girders. Weight savings is achieved by minimizing the number of webs used for a given bridge. This also helps minimize fabrication, handling, and painting costs. Current office practice is to use a minimum of three girders to provide redundant load path structures. Two girder superstructures are considered non-redundant and hence, fracture critical. Steel plate girder design is complicated by buckling behavior of relatively thin elements. Most strength calculations involve buckling in some form. Either a minimum thickness condition must be met to achieve a given stress state, or strength is reduced by some amount to account for buckling. Buckling can be a problem in flanges as well as webs if compression is present. Also, stability needs to be insured for all stages of construction, with or without a roadway deck. The art of designing these girders is to minimize material and fabrication expense while ensuring adequate strength and stiffness. “I” girders are an excellent shape for welding. All welds for the main components are easily accessible and visible for welding and inspection. The plates are oriented in line with the rolling direction so as to make good use of strength, ductility, and toughness of the structural steel. The web is attached to the top and bottom flanges with continuous fillet welds. Usually, they are made with automatic submerged arc welders. These welds are loaded parallel to the longitudinal axis and resist horizontal shear between the flanges and web. Minimum size welds based on plate thickness controls design in most cases. The flanges and webs are fabricated to full segment length with full penetration groove welds. These welds are inspected by ultrasound (UT) 100 percent. Tension welds, as designated in the plans, are also radiographed (RT) 100 percent. Office practice is to have flanges and webs fabricated full length before they are welded into the “I” shape. Weld splicing built-up sections results in poor fatigue strength and zones that are difficult or impossible to inspect.

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7.2-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7.3 7.3.1 Design “I” Girders General
Composite girders may be used for continuous and simple spans. As mentioned in Section 7.1.1, office practice is to use nonshored girders. The girder section must carry the weight of the fluid (wet) concrete deck as well as its own dead load. After the concrete has cured, the composite section becomes effective in carrying all superimposed loads. Shear connectors are provided over the full length of the top flange of the structure or continuous portions of the structure. The stiffness analysis is performed for superimposed dead loads and live load plus impact, assuming the section acts compositely over the total length of the structure or continuous portion thereof. The fatigue truck shall be HS-20 for LFD design. When designing by the LRFD method, the fatigue truck shall be applied without neglecting axles that do not contribute to the extreme force effect. Assume Case I road type when determining the number of stress cycles for design.

Design “I” Girders

7.3.2

Composite Section
Short-term primary loading live load plus impact is applied to the composite section transformed using ES/EC, commonly denoted n. Long-term loading (dead load of barriers, signs, luminaries, overlays, etc.) is applied to the composite section transformed using 3 ES/EC. The moments resulting from the stiffness analysis are applied to the composite section in the positive moment region. The negative moments from the analysis are applied to the steel girder section including longitudinal reinforcing (negative moment composite section). Longitudinal reinforcing steel shall be used in negative moment regions of composite, continuous spans. Refer to AASHTO Section 10.38.4.3.

7.3.3

Flanges
When determining girder section at locations of maximum positive and negative moment, try to use a constant top and bottom flange width throughout the length of the bridge. If a width change in the top flange is necessary, it is best made at a field splice. The cross sectional areas of the top and bottom flanges may be varied by changing thickness. Generally two changes in girder section located within the negative moment region, one each side of maximum moment and between field splices, will be most economical. Flange thickness changes at field splices are easily accomplished. One girder section change in end spans between maximum positive moment and end bearing may be justified. As a general rule, a welded splice may be justified if more than 500 pounds of steel can be saved.

7.3.4

Webs
Maintain constant web thickness throughout the structure. Except for extremely deep superstructures, maintain webs full depth without longitudinal splices. Vertical web splices for girders should be shown on the plans in an elevation view with additional splices made optional to the fabricator. All welded web splices on exterior faces of exterior girders and in tension zones elsewhere shall be ground smooth. Like splices on interior girders need not be ground in compression zones.

7.3.5

Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners
These stiffeners shall be used in pairs at crossframe locations on interior girders and on the inside of webs of exterior girders. They shall be welded to the top flange, bottom flange and web at these locations. This detail is considered fatigue stress category C. Stiffeners used between crossframes shall be located on one

July 2000

7.3-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design “I” Girders

side of the web, welded to the compression flange, and cut short of the tension flange. Stiffeners located between crossframes in regions of stress reversal shall be welded to one side of the web and cut short of both flanges. Alternatively, they may be welded to both flanges if fatigue Category C is checked.

7.3.6

Longitudinal Stiffeners
On long spans where web depths exceed 12 feet, comparative web evaluations shall be made to determine whether the use of longitudinal stiffeners will be more economical. Fabrication costs indicate the use of longitudinal stiffeners is not economical on webs 12 feet deep or less.

7.3.7

Bearing Stiffeners
Stiffeners are required at all bearings to enable the reaction to be transmitted from the web to the bearing. These stiffeners are designated as columns, therefore, must be vertical under total dead load. The connection of the bearing stiffener to the girder consists of full penetration groove welds to the bottom flange and fillet welding to the top flange and web. These connection details limit the design stress to Category C for all girder sections at points of maximum negative moment. In the case of severe horizontal curvature on structures where girders and crossframes are subjected to large transverse forces resulting in considerable lateral flange bending, full penetration welds at top and bottom flanges may be necessary. Full penetration welds are expensive and should be used only where necessary.

7.3.8

Crossframes
The primary function of intermediate crossframes is to distribute vertical loads transversely and give torsional rigidity to the superstructure. Together with the bottom laterals they stabilize the superstructure during erection, pouring, and curing of the roadway slab. On curved bridges, the crossframes also resist lateral flange bending. Pier crossframes are subjected to lateral loads that originate primarily from wind, earthquake, and curvature and are transmitted from the roadway slab to the bearings. Crossframes are generally patterned as K-frames or as X-frames. Typically the configuration selected is based on the most efficient geometry. The members should closely approach a slope of 1:1 or 45°. Avoid conflicts with utilities passing through the girders. On K-frames like the following, avoid connection congestion at bottom laterals:

K-frames like the following may be better for utilities, however, create some congestion at the bottom lateral connection:

7.3-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design “I” Girders

X-frames like the following, where girder depth approaches girder spacing, are more efficient geometrically:

Intermediate crossframes for straight girders with little or no skew should be designed as secondary members. Choose a section which satisfies AASHTO specifications. In general, crossframes should be installed parallel to piers for skew angles of 0° to 10°. For greater skew angles, other arrangements may be used. Consult with the design unit supervisor or the steel specialist for special requirements. Intermediate crossframes for curved I-girders require special consideration. Curved girder systems should be designed according to AASHTO “Guide Specifications for Horizontally Curved Highway Bridges.” Use Table 1.4A of the guide specifications to distinguish between straight and curved girders. Crossframes at piers must be designed to transmit transverse loads due to wind or earthquake from the roadway slab to the bearings or transverse stops. Design and detail pier crossframes separately from intermediate crossframes. Bolted connections for crossframes are favored because they allow adjustment during fit up and erection. Connections of crossframes to web stiffeners require careful attention to detailing to minimize fabrication difficulties and most importantly increase fatigue resistance. Web stiffeners at crossframes shall be welded to top and bottom flanges. This practice minimizes out-of-plane bending of the girder web. The resulting detail must be checked for Category C stress range.
kL ≤ 140 and design connections only for anticipated loads, r

not for 75 percent strength of member. This should result in greater economy but still meet the intent of

7.3.9

Bottom Laterals
The primary function of a bottom lateral system is to stabilize the girders against lateral loads before the deck hardens and stabilize the steel portion of the superstructure while the roadway slab is placed. On straight bridges, office practice is to design the diagonal members in bottom laterals as secondary members. X-framing may be designed in tension only. K-framing must be designed as compression and tension members. One hundred fifty percent of the allowable service load design stress is permitted in the laterals for the temporary construction condition. Consult AASHTO for further guidance. Determine one size of diagonal member to be used throughout the structure. Partial loading (total panels less one-half of the end panel) yields maximum shear in the end panel. Also, on curved structures, the bottom laterals are effective in resisting live load plus impact thereby becoming primary members and must be modeled in the structure to determine the actual forces the members experience. Lateral patterns are formed depending on number of girder lines, girder spacing, and crossframe spacing. Cost considerations should include geometry, repetition, number, and size of connections. See Figure 5.1.2-1. Consideration should be given to limiting bottom laterals to one or two bays on straight bridges.

July 2000

7.3-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design “I” Girders

Examples of Lateral Bracing Figure 7.3.9-1

7.3-4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design “I” Girders

Note: Where lateral gusset plates are welded to girder webs, the design stress level in the girder, at the web, is governed by the Category E detail. For widening projects, bottom laterals are not needed since new can be braced against existing construction. Framing which is adequately braced should not require bottom laterals.

7.3.10 Bolted Field Splice
Office practice is to use bolted field splices. Splices are usually located at the dead load inflection point to minimize the design bending moment. The latest USS Highway Structures Design Handbook should be consulted for examples of splice designs. See AASHTO Section 10.18 for splice design requirements. Splices should be designed for the greater of: 1. 2. 75 percent of the moment capacity of the smaller section. The average of the required moment due to factored loads and the moment capacity of the smaller section.

Web splice bolts are designed to resist a shear force due to: 1. 2. Total factored shear force plus; Shear force due to moment resulting from the above shear force times the eccentricity of the distances from the centerline of the splice to the center of gravity of the bolt group on one side of the centerline of the splice plus; Shear force due to the portion of the design moment resisted by the web, which is:
 I WEB    × design moment at centerline of splice  I SECTION 

3.

The outer most bolt in the bolt group is the most highly stressed. The shear force can be determined by using the “elastic moment of inertia” method. The flange splice is designed to resist the portion of the design moment not resisted by the web. Split splice plates are used at the bottom of the bottom flange to allow moisture to pass through the splice. Fill plates are used to maintain constant flange splice plate thickness across the splice. Allow fabricators to use steel sheet (ASTM A 715) for fill plates less than
1 4

inch thick.

Fill plates are not subject to tension and therefore a charpy V-notch toughness test should not be required for them. Mark splice plates that carry tensile stress. Allow fill plates to be fabricated from AASHTO M183, if steel is painted.

7.3.11 Camber
Permanent girder deflections shall be shown in the contract plans in the form of camber diagrams. The traditional format for detailing these diagrams should be adhered to for the benefit of construction. Camber curves are used by shop plan detailers, girder fabricators at the shop assembly stage, girder erectors, and field personnel. Most, if not all, phases of girder fabrication and erection involve potential sources of error in camber. Also, the Standard Specifications provide for adjustments at the time of slab forming. Therefore, the slab design should reflect the possibility of reduced slab depths.

July 2000

7.3-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design “I” Girders

Girder camber is accomplished at three stages of construction. First, girder webs are cut from plates so that the completed girder segment will assume the shape of camber superimposed on profile grade. The fabricated girder segment will incorporate the as-cut web shape and some degree of welding distortion. Next, the girder segments are brought together for shop assembly. Field splices are drilled as the segments are placed in position to fit profile grade plus total dead load camber. Finally, the segments are erected, sometimes with supports at field splices. There may be slight angle changes at field splices, resulting in altered girder profiles. Errors at mid-span can be between one to two inches at this stage. The following is a general outline for calculating camber and is based on girders having shear studs the full length of the bridge. Two curves will be required, one for total dead load plus slab shrinkage and one for girder self-weight (steel only). Girder dead load deflection is determined by using various computer programs. Girder self-weight is assumed to include the basic section plus stiffeners, crossframes, welds, shear studs, etc. These items may be accounted for by adding an appropriate percentage of basic section weight. Fifteen percent of total girder weight, distributed evenly along the bridge, should suffice. This loading is applied to the steel section only. Total dead load camber shall consist of: 1. 2. 3. 4. Steel weight. Slab weight. Traffic barriers and overlays. Slab shrinkage.

Slab dead load deflection will require the designer to exercise some judgment concerning degree of analysis. A two-span bridge of regular proportions, for example, should not require a rigorous analysis. The slab may be assumed to act instantaneously on the steel section only. Therefore, the calculation would be performed as above. For long structures, unusual girder arrangements, and especially structures with hinges, an analysis coupled with a slab pour sequence may be justified. This would require an incremental analysis where previous slab pours are treated as composite sections and successive slab pours are added on noncomposite sections. Each slab pour requires a separate deflection analysis. The total effect of slab construction is the superposition of each slab pour. A note must accompany the camber diagram explaining the relation between camber and the slab pour sequence. The contractor should be required to submit a new camber diagram if a different slab pour sequence is proposed. Traffic barriers, overlays, and other items constructed after the slab pour should be analyzed as if applied to a composite section full length of the bridge. The modulus of elasticity of the slab concrete should be reduced to one third of its short term value. For example, if f′c = 5000 psi, then use a value of n = 21. Slab shrinkage has a varying degree of effect on superstructure deflections. Again, the designer must use some judgment in evaluating this effect on camber. Slab shrinkage should be the smallest portion of the total camber (approximately 20 percent). In addition to girder deflections, show girder rotations at bearing stiffeners. This will allow shop plan detailers to compensate for rotations so that bearing stiffeners will be vertical in their final position. Camber tolerance is governed by the Bridge Widening Code AWS D1.5. A note of clarification is added to the plan camber diagram: “For the purpose of measuring camber tolerance during shop assembly, assume top flanges are embedded in concrete without a designed haunch.” This allows a high or low deviation from the theoretical curve. In the past, no negative camber tolerance was allowed.

7.3-6

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7.3.12 Roadway Slab Placement Sequence
The roadway slab is placed in a prescribed sequence allowing the concrete in each sequence to shrink freely. This minimizes cracking of the slab due to shrinkage. Furthermore, placing the slab sequentially allows the contractor to place manageable volumes of concrete at a time. For the first sequence, concrete is placed on the dead load positive moment region of end spans and in the positive moment regions of alternate interior spans. For the second sequence, concrete is placed on the dead load positive moment region of the remaining spans after the concrete in the first sequence has attained a minimum specified tensile strength. Check tensile stresses in the first sequence slab pour due to the second sequence slab pour. For the third sequence, concrete is placed on the dead load negative moment region over each interior pier. Generally, slab placement in negative moment regions does not cause cracking in previously placed concrete.

Design “I” Girders

7.3.13 Bridge Bearings
Office practice and design criteria for bridge bearings can be found in Chapter 8 of this manual.

7.3.14 Surface Roughness
The standard measure of surface roughness is the microinch value. It is specified by the symbol xxx and shall be shown on the plans for all surfaces for which machining is required unless covered by the Standard Specifications or Special Provisions. When used, this symbol means that the average value of the depth of the surface grooves shall not exceed xxx millionths of an inch. The lower the number (xxx), the smoother the surface. Following is a brief description of some finishes: 500 A rough surface finish typical of “as rolled” sections. Suitable for surfaces that do not contact other parts and for bearing plates on sheet lead or grout. 250 A fairly smooth surface. Suitable for connections and surfaces not in moving contact with other surfaces. This finish is typical of ground edges in tension zones of flanges. 125 A fine machine finish resulting from careful machine work using high speeds and taking light cuts. It may be produced by all methods of direct machining under proper conditions. Suitable for steel to steel bearing or rotational surfaces including rockers and pins. 63 32 16 A smooth machine finish suitable for high stress steel to steel bearing surfaces including roller bearings on bed plates. An extremely fine machine finish suitable for steel sliding parts. This surface is generally produced by grinding. A very smooth, very fine surface only used on high stress sliding bearings. This surface is generally produced by polishing. For examples, see Figure 7.3.14. For stainless steel sliding surfaces, specify a #8 mirror finish. This is a different method of measurement and reflects industry standards for polishing. No units are implied.

July 2000

7.3-7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Design “I” Girders

Surface Finish Examples Figure 7.3.14

7.3-8

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7.3.15 Welding
All structural steel and rebar welding shall be in accordance with the WSDOT Standard Specifications, amendments thereto and the special provisions. The Standard Specifications currently calls for welding structural steel according to the AASHTO/AWS D1.5-96 Bridge Welding Code (BWC) and the latest edition of the AWS D1.1 Structural Weld Code. The designers should be especially aware of current amendments to the following sections of the Standard Specifications, 6-03.3(25) Welding and Repair Welding and 6-03.3(25)A Welding Inspection. Exceptions to both codes and additional requirements are shown in the Standard Specifications and the special provisions. Standard symbols for welding, brazing, and nondestructive examination can be found in the ANSI/AWS A 2.4 by that name. This publication is a very good reference for definitions of abbreviations and acronyms related to welding. The designer must consider the limits of allowable fatigue stress, specified for the various welds used to connect the main load carrying members of a steel structure. See Chapter 10 of AASHTO. The minimum fillet weld size shall be as shown in the following table. Weld size is determined by the thicker of the two parts joined unless a larger size is required by calculated stress. The weld size need not exceed the thickness of the thinner part joined. Base Metal Thickness of Thicker Part Joined Inches (mm) To
3 4

Design “I” Girders

Minimum Size of Fillet Weld Inches (mm)
1 4

(20 mm) inclusive
3 4

(6 mm) (8 mm)

Over

(20 mm)
3 16

5

16

The minimum size seal weld shall be

inch (5 mm) fillet weld.

In general, the maximum size fillet weld which may be made with a single pass is 5 16 inch for submerged arc, gas metal arc, and flux-cored arc welding processes. The maximum size fillet weld made in a single pass is 1 4 inch for the shield metal arc welding process. The major difference between AWS D1.1 and D1.5 is the welding process qualification. The only process deemed prequalified in D1.5 is shielded metal arc. All others must be qualified by test. Qualification of M 270 grade 50W (A709 grade 50W) in Section 5 of D1.5 qualifies the welding of all AASHTO approved steels with a minimum specified yield of 50 Ksi or less. Bridge fabricators generally qualify to M 270 grade 50W (A709 grade 50W). All welding procedure specifications (WPS) submitted for approval must be accompanied by a procedure qualification record (PQR), a record of test specimens examination and approval except for SMAW prequalified. Some handy reference aids in checking WPS in addition to PQR are: Matching filler metal requirements are found in BWC Section 4. Prequalified joints are found in BWC Section 2. AWS electrode specifications and classifications are obtained from the structural steel specialist. Lincoln Electric Arc Welding Handbook. Many of Lincoln Electric’s published materials and literature are available through those designers and supervisors who have attended their seminars.

July 2000

7.3-9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel
WSDOT Standard Specifications for preheat and Interpass temperatures. Notes: Electrogas and electroslag welding processes are not allowed in WSDOT work. Narrow gap improved electroslag welding will be allowed on a case-by-case basis. Often in the rehabilitation of existing steel structures, it is desirable to weld, in some form, to the inplace structural steel. Often it is not possible to determine from the contract documents for the structure whether or not the existing steel is weldable. WSDOT fabrication inspectors in the Northwest Region contract with a company which can make that determination economically. Coupons from the steel must be furnished for a spectrographic examination. Contact these inspectors to verify that the service is still available before making preparations.

Design “I” Girders

7.3.16 Fabrication
In most cases, a one girder line progressive longitudinal shop assembly is sufficient to assure proper fit of subsections, field splices, and crossframe connections, etc., in the field. Due to geometric complexity of some structures, progressive transverse assembly, in combination with progressive longitudinal assembly may be desirable. The designer shall consult with the supervisor and the steel specialist to determine the extent of shop assembly and clarification of the Standard Specifications. The desired method of assembly shown in the Standard Specifications will then be required in the special provisions.

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7.3-10

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7.4 7.4.1 Plan Details General
Detailing practice should follow industry standards. Designations for structural steel can be found in Table 2-1 of AISC Detailing for Steel Construction. Old plans are a good reference for traditional detailing practices. Radical or even modest changes in detailing practice can result in misinterpretation of plans. Innovation is best reserved for content, not presentation of steel detailing. Actual details for plate girders are continually being revised or improved. Cost benefits for individual details vary from shop to shop and even from time to time. For these reasons, previous plan details can be guides but should not be considered standards. In general, office practice is to favor field bolted as opposed to field welded connections. In addition, members of cross frames are shop bolted to give some degree of field adjustment. Welded assemblies tend to be less adjustable when it comes time to install them.

Plan Details

7.4.2

Structural Steel Notes
Due to their dynamic nature, the structural steel notes are not shown in this manual. The designer’s attention is directed to the Bridge and Structures Office Book of Knowledge (BOK) which contains the most current version of the structural steel notes in their entirety. These notes must be edited based on the requirements unique to each project and additions and deletions made accordingly.

7.4.3

Framing Plan
Define girders and component parts not shown on the girder elevation view such as jacking stiffeners. Locate panel points (crossframe locations). Show general arrangement of bottom laterals. Provide geometry, bearing lines, and transverse intermediate stiffener locations. Show field splices and detail the general configuration of crossframes in a section through framing plan. For geometrically complicated structures, a rather detailed framing plan should be made to help guide the shop detailer and the shop plan reviewer.

7.4.4

Girder Elevation
Define flanges, webs, and components thereof. Show shear connector spacing, location, and number across the flange. Show shear connectors in the girder details also. Locate transverse intermediate stiffeners and show requirements for clearance from tension flange. Define those components of the girder subject to the Charpy V-notch requirements shown in the Standard Specifications. Define full penetration welds X or portions thereof subject to tension for which Radiographic (x-ray) examination is required. See Standard Specifications. V and X are mentioned also in the Structural Steel Notes, Section 7.4.2. Permissible welded web splices may show, however, the optional welded web splice shown elsewhere in the plans permits the fabricator to add splices subject to the approval of the engineer.

7.4.5

Typical Girder Details
One or two plan sheets should be devoted to showing typical details to be used throughout the girders. Such details include the weld details, various stiffener plates and weld connections, locations of optional web splices, and drip plate details. Include field splices here if only one type of splice will suffice for the plans. An entire sheet may be required for complicated bridges with multiple field splice designs. See Appendix 7.4-A1 to A9. Note: Do not distinguish between field bolts and shop bolts. A solid bolt symbol will suffice.

August 1998

7.4-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7.4.6 Crossframe Details
Typical crossframe and bottom lateral details are shown on Appendix 7.4-A10 to A12. Actual lengths of members and dimensions of connections will be determined by the shop plan detailer. Details should incorporate actual conditions such as skew and neighboring members so that geometric conflicts can be minimized. Tee sections are preferred over double angles for easier painting. If double angles are used, leave a minimum of 1 inch between legs and include fillers as needed for stability.

Plan Details

7.4.7

Camber Curve and Bearing Stiffener Details
Camber curves should be detailed using conventional practices. Dimensions given at tenth points has been office practice in the past. In lieu of tenth points, dimensions may also be given at crossframe locations which are more useful in the field. See Appendix 7.4-A13.

7.4.8

Roadway Slab
The roadway slab is detailed in section and plan views. For continuous spans, add a section showing negative moment longitudinal reinforcing to the typical section shown at mid-span. If possible, continue the positive moment region reinforcing pattern from end-to-end of the slab with the negative moment region reinforcing superimposed on it. The plan views should detail typical reinforcing and cutoff locations for negative moment steel. Avoid termination of all negative moment steel at one location. See Appendix 7.4-A14 and A15. The “pad” dimension for steel girders is treated somewhat differently than for prestressed girders. The pad dimension is assumed to be constant throughout the span length. Ideally, the girder is cambered to compensate for dead loads and vertical curves. However, fabrication and erection tolerances result in considerable deviation from theoretical elevations. The pad dimension is therefore considered only a nominal value and is adjusted as needed along the span once the steel has been erected and profiled. The screed for the slab is to be set to produce correct roadway profile. The plans should reference this procedure contained in Standard Specification 6-03.3(39). The pad dimension is to be noted as nominal. As a general rule of thumb, use 11″ for short span rolled beam bridges, 12″ for short span plate girder bridges (150′ to 180′), 13″ for medium spans (180′ to 220′) and 14″ to 15″ for long spans (over 220′). These figures are only approximate. Use good engineering judgment when detailing this dimension.

7.4.9

Safety Cable Details
Safety cables for maintenance crews are standardized details. If room permits, include safety cables with typical girder details. Cable locations may be adjusted to avoid conflicts with other details such as large gusset plates. See Appendix 7.4-A16.

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7.4-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7.5 Shop Plan Review
Shop plans must be checked for agreement with the Contract Plans, Standard Specifications, and the special Provisions. The review procedure is described in Section 1.3.5 of this manual. Welding procedure specifications and procedure qualification records should be submitted with shop plans. If not, they should be requested and received before shop plans are approved. Most shop plans may be stamped: “GEOMETRY NOT REVIEWED BY THE BRIDGE & STRUCTURES OFFICE” However, the reviewer should verify that lengths, radii, and sizes shown on shop plans are in general agreement with the contract. The effects of profile grade and camber would make exact verification difficult. Some differences in lengths, between top and bottom flange plates for example, are to be expected. The procedures to follow in the event changes are required or requested by the fabricator can be found in Section 1.3.6 of this manual. In the past, shop plans with acceptable changes have been so noted and stamped. STRUCTURALLY ACCEPTABLE, BUT DOES NOT CONFORM TO THE CONTRACT REQUIREMENTS

Shop Plan Review

P:DP/BDM7

August 1998

7.5-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel 7.99 Bibliography
The following publications can provide general guidance for the design of steel structures. Some of this material may be dated and its application should be used with caution. 1. U.S. Steel Highway Structures Design Handbook, Volumes I and II. This is a detailed design reference for “I” girders and box girders, both straight and curved, utilizing either service load design or load factor design. Guidance for the design of wide flange beams is also included. 2. Design of Welded Structures by Omer H. Blodgett. This publication is quite helpful in the calculation of section properties and the design of individual members. There are sections on bridge girders and many other welded structures. 3. Curved Girder Workshop produced by the Federal Highway Administration. This publication is helpful in the design of curved “I” girders and box girders with explanation of the associated lateral flange bending, torsional, and warping stresses.

Bibliography

P:DP/BDM7

August 1998

7.99-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Girder Framing Plan and Elevation View

August 1998

7.4-A1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Part Longitudinal Girder Elevation

August 1998

7.4-A2

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Primary Stiffeners

August 1998

7.4-A3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Transverse Intermediate Stiffener

August 1998

7.4-A4

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Splices

August 1998

7.4-A5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Optional Web Splice

August 1998

7.4-A6

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Fillet Weld Termination Detail

August 1998

7.4-A7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Field Splice Detail

August 1998

7.4-A8

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Drip Plate Details

August 1998

7.4-A9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Crossframes

August 1998

7.4-A10

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Crossframe Attachment Details

August 1998

7.4-A11-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Crossframe Attachment Details

7.4-A11-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Crossframe Attachment Details

August 1998

7.4-A11-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Lateral Plate Detail

August 1998

7.4-A12

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Structural Steel Camber Curve and Bearing Stiffener Camber Details

August 1998

7.4-A13

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Contents
Page 8. 8.1 8.1.1 8.1.2 8.1.3 8.1.4 8.1.5 8.1.6 8.1.7 Miscellaneous Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Bridge Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Railroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movable Bridge and Machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable Stayed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Floating Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suspension Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tunnels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Cut and Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Bored . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elevated Railways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sign and Luminaire Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Deadloads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Wind Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Ice Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Snow Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Load Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge-Mounted Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Vertical Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Geometrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Aesthetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Sign Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Dimensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sign Bridges Mounted on Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Design Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Vertical Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Geometrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impact Attenuator Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Push Force on Back-Up Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Pulling Force from Restraining Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Ground Mounted Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Factored Load Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * * * * * * * * * * * * * 8.2-1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 4 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8.3-1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2

8.1.8 8.2 8.2.1

8.2.2

8.2.3

8.2.4 8.3 8.3.1

*Indicates sections not issued to date.

August 1998

8.0-i

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Contents
Page 8.3.2 Traffic Barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Bridge Railing Performance Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Available Bridge Rail Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. At Grade Cast-in-Place Barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Rail Rehabilitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. WSDOT Bridge Inventory of Bridge Rails . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Available Retrofit Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Approach Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utility Installation on Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Confined Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. General Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Criteria for Utility Installation on New Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Special Considerations for Various Districts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Type of Conduit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Types of Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. Utility Review Procedure for Existing Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. Utility Review Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structural Plate Arches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expansion Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Specifications for Bridge Deck Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Reviewing Shop Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Other Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drainage Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Geometrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Hydrology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. On Bridge Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Forces to Be Resisted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Bearing Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Orientation of Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Bearing Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bridge Railing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ladders, Stairs, Grates, Etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.2-1 1 1 2 5 8.3.3-1 1 1 1 2 * 8.3.5-1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 5 8 * 8.4.1-1 1 1 10 10 11 8.4.2-1 1 1 1 1 1 8.4.3-1 1 1 2 4 15 15 * * *

8.3.3

8.3.4 8.3.5

8.3.6 8.4 8.4.1

8.4.2

8.4.3

8.4.4 8.4.5 8.4.6

*Indicates sections not issued to date.

8.0-ii

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Contents
Page 8.4.7 Deck Protective Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.7-1 A. System Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 B. System 1 (Epoxy Coated Bars) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 C. System 2 (Dense Concrete or Latex Modified Concrete Overlay) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 D. System 3 (Asphalt Overlay with Waterproof Membrane) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 E. System Selection for New Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 F. System Selection for Bridge Deck, Widening, and Rehabilitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Lighting and Electrical Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * Illumination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * Navigation Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * Electrical Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.99-1

8.5 8.5.1 8.5.2 8.5.3 8.5.4 8.99

Appendix A — Design Aids 8.2-A1 Sign Structure Foundation Material Quantities 8.2-A2 Vacant 8.2-A3 Notes to Designers for Truss Sign Bridge Foundations 8.2-A4 Double Faced Barrier Foundation Types 1, 2, and 3 for Truss Sign Bridge 8.2-A5 Notes to Designers for Monotube Sign Bridge Foundations 8.2-A6 Doubled Faced Barrier Foundation Types 1, 2, and 3 for Monotube Sign Bridge 8.2-A7 Notes to Designers for Monotube Sign Structures 8.2-A8 Monotube Sign Structures — Member and Sign Criteria 8.2-A9 Monotube Sign Structures — Sign Bridge Layouts 8.2-A10 Monotube Sign Structures — Cantilever Layouts 8.2-A11 Monotube Sign Structures — Structure Details 8.2-A12 Monotube Sign Structures — Structure Details 8.2-A13 Monotube Sign Structures — Foundation Details Types 1, 2, and 3 8.3-A1 General Notes and Design Criteria for Utility Installation to Existing Bridges 8.3-A2 Guide for Utility Installations Existing Bridges 8.3-A3 Bridge Railing Type BP 8.3-A4 Bridge Railing Type BP-B 8.3-A5 Notes to Designers for Bridge Railing 8.3-A6 Traffic Barrier 8.3-A7 Traffic Barrier w/Fractured Fin Finish 8.3-A8 Pedestrian Barrier 8.3-A9 Pedestrian Barrier w/Fractured Fin Finish 8.3-A10 Notes to Designers for Traffic Barrier 8.3-A11 Utility Hanger Details 8.3-A12 Utility Hanger Details *Indicates sections not issued to date.

August 1998

8.0-iii

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
8.4-A1 8.4-A2 8.4-A3 8.4-A4 8.4-A5 Expansion Joint Details Standard Drain Modifications Bridge Drains Types 7 and 8 Bridge Grate Inlet Bridge Grate Inlet Type 2

Contents

Appendix B — Examples 8-B1 Notes to Designers — Pin Bearings 8-B2 Notes to Designers — Spherical Bearings 8-B3 Notes to Designers — General 8-B4 Notes to Designers — Post-Tensioning 8-B5 Notes to Designers — Structural Steel (Box Girder) 8-B6 Notes to Designers — Structural Steel (Plate Girder) 8-B7 Notes to Designers — Strip Seal Expansion Joint 8-B8 Notes to Designers — Modular Expansion Joint 8-B9 Notes to Designers — Rail Rehabilitation 8.4-B1 Compression Seal Design Example 8.4-B2 Strip Seal Design — Example 1 8.4-B3 Strip Seal Design — Example 2 8.4-B4 Strip Seal Design — Example 3 8.4-B5 Gmin and Gmax for Modular Joints 8.4-B6 Modular Joint Design — Example 1 8.4-B7 Modular Joint Design — Example 2 8.4-B8 Modular Joint Design — Example 3 8.4-B9 Elastomeric Bearing Pad Example for P.S. Girder (Prestressed) 8.4-B10 Vacant 8.4-B11 Vacant 8.4-B12 Girder Stop Bearing Pads Example 8.4-B13 Elastomeric Bearing Pad Design Chart 8.4-B14 Girder Stop Bearing Pads Spacing Chart 8.4-B15 Girder Stop Bearing Pads Pad Thickness Chart

P:DP/BDM8 9807-0802

8.0-iv

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.2 8.2.1 Sign and Luminaire Supports Loads
A. General The reference used in developing the following office criteria is the 1975 AASHTO “Standard Specifications for Structural Supports for Highway Signs, Luminaires, and Traffic Signals,” and shall be the basis for analysis and design. B. Deadloads Sign (incl. stiffeners) Luminaire Fluorescent Lighting Standard Signal Head Mercury Vapor Lighting Sign Brackets (No Maintenance Walkway) Structural Members 5-foot-wide maintenance walkway (incl. sign mounting brackets) 11/2-foot-wide maintenance walkway between signs C. Wind Loads Mean Recurrance Interval 10 10 10 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 25 Velocity (MPH)* 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 Drag Coeff (Cd) 1.10 1.45 1.20 1.20 1.10 .45 1.45 1.30 1.20 .50 1.20 3.25 lbs./ft.2 60 lbs./each 3.0 lbs./ln. ft 60 lbs./each 6.0 lbs./ln. ft Calc. Calc. 60 lbs./ln. ft. 28 lbs./ln. ft.

Sign and Luminaire Supports

Type of Structure Roadside Sign Support Round Roadside Sign Support Square Roadside Sign Support Octagonal Standard Plan G-2 Standard Plan G-3 Chords Standard Plan G-3 Post Monotube Signs Square Luminaires Round Luminaires Signal Heads

*When designing structures on the Olympic Peninsula or south of Olympia and west of Interstate 5 consideration should be given to using a wind velocity between 80 mph and 100 mph, see Isotach figure (Appendix A). Local topography may also dictate the use of higher wind velocities.

April 1991

8.2 - 1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
Wind Pressure ** for 80 MPH Wind P (psf) 22 28 31 35 39 42 44

Sign and Luminaire Supports

Height above Ground (FT) 0 14 29 49 99 149 199 < < < < < < < H H H H H H H < < < < < < < 14 29 49 99 149 199 299

**Values in this table were computed using Cd = 1.00; design pressures must be corrected by using the specified value for Cd. Wind Combination 1 2 Normal Comp. 1.0 BL .6 BL Trans. Comp. 0.2 BL 0.3 BL

BL is a wind force and is equal to P times the exposed area of the sign and support system. BL is then applied to the centroid. D. Live Load 500 lbs. applied as a concentrated load at 3 feet from sign face (only where maintenance walkways are used). E. Ice Loads 3 psf applied around all the surfaces of structural supports, horizontal members, and luminaires, but applied to only one face of sign panels. F. Snow Loads The above stated ice load shall be considered to include any snow load for the commonly used structural support systems. G. Load Groups Sign, luminaire, and signal structures are designed using the maximum of the following three load groups: Loads Group I – DL Group II – DL + W Group III – DL + Ice + 1/2 (W**) Percent of * Allowable Stress 100 140 140

*No load reduction factors shall be applied in conjunction with these increased allowable stresses. **W to be computed on the basis of the wind pressure formula, 25 psf minimum for W Group III.

8.2 - 2

April 1991

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.2.2 Bridge-Mounted Signs
A. Vertical Clearance The bottom of the sign lighting bracket should be placed a minimum of 17 feet 6 inches and a maximum of 21 feet 0 inches above the lower roadway (see Figure 8.2.2-1). The minimum clearance is a requirement of the current electrical code. Greater or lesser clearance may be approved by Roadway Development on an individual project basis.

Sign and Luminaire Supports

Sign Vertical Clearance Figure 8.2.2-1

April 1991

8.2 - 3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
B. Geometrics 1. Signs should be installed at approximate right angles to approaching motorists. For structures above a tangent section of roadway, signs may be installed parallel to the structure provided the structure skew does not exceed 10°. If the structure skew exceeds 10°, support brackets should be designed to provide a sign skew of no more than 10° from perpendicular to the lower roadway (see Figure 8.2.2-2).

Sign and Luminaire Supports

Sign Skew on Tangent Roadway Figure 8.2.2-2

8.2 - 4

April 1991

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
2.

Sign and Luminaire Supports

For structures located on or just beyond a horizontal curve of the lower roadway, signs may be installed parallel to the structure provided the structure chord-skew does not exceed 10°. If the structure chord-skew exceeds 10°, support brackets should be designed to provide a sign chordskew of no more than 10° from perpendicular to the chord-point determined by the approach speed (see Figure 8.2.2-3). The top of the sign shall be level.

3.

Sign Skew on Curved Roadway Figure 8.2.2-3

April 1991

8.2 - 5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
C. Aesthetics 1. 2. 3. 4. Preferably, the top of the sign and its support should not project above the bridge rail (see Figure 8.2.2-4). Whenever possible, the support structure should be hidden from view of traffic. The sign support shall be detailed in such a manner that will permit the sign and lighting bracket to be installed level. When the sign support will be exposed to view, special consideration is required in determining member sizes and connections to provide as pleasing an appearance as possible.

Sign and Luminaire Supports

Sign Vertical Location Figure 8.2.2-4 D. Sign Placement 1. Whenever possible, the designer should avoid locating signs under bridge overhangs. This causes partial shading or partial exposure to the elements. Also avoid placing the sign directly under the drip-line of the structure. These conditions may result in uneven fading, discoloring, and difficulty in reading (see Figure 8.2.2-5). Whenever it is necessary to place a sign under a bridge due to structural or height requirements, the installation should be reviewed by Roadway Development.

2.

Sign Horizontal Location Figure 8.2.2-5

8.2 - 6

April 1991

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
E. Installation 1. Consideration shall be given to the method of installing the sign support and sign on the structure. For example, a sign located underneath the overhang can cause problems in lifting the material into position and making the required connections. When locating sign support brackets on the structure, a minimum of 2 inches of clearance shall be provided between the edge of the required sign lighting zee-bar bracket and edge of the vertical sign support members. An expansion-type concrete anchor is undesirable for attaching sign support brackets to the structure. This is because the nature of the loads imposed on the anchors can cause vibration and pull-out. The Hilti HVA, Molly Parabond, Kelken-Gold Keli Bond, or ITW/Redhead EPCON Ceramic 6, or approved equal with AASHTO M164 anchor bolts should be used for existing structures and cast-in-place anchor bolts (ASTM A307) for new structures. When Hilti HVA, Molly Parabond, or Kelken-Gold, or ITW/Redhead systems are specified, the following should be included: (a) Anchor bolt system is to be installed using manufacturer recommendations in dry conditions. (b) Torque anchor bolt nuts to proof load. F. Dimensioning Where show on the plans, the sign size shall be expressed in terms of horizontal by vertical dimension, i.e., X x Y, where X = horizontal dimension and Y = vertical dimension.

Sign and Luminaire Supports

2.

3.

8.2.3

Sign Bridges Mounted on Bridges
A. Design Loads Design loads for the supports of the sign bridges should be calculated based on assuming a 12-foot deep sign over the entire roadway width, under the sign bridge. This will account for any signs that may be added in the future. The design loads should follow the same criteria as described in Section 8.2.1. Loads from the sign bridge should be included in the design of the structure. B. Vertical Clearance Vertical clearance for sign bridges follow the same requirements as Bridge-Mounted Signs as stated in Section 8.2.1A. C. Geometrics Sign structures should be placed at approximate right angles to approaching motorists. Dimensions and details of sign structures are shown in the Standard Plans, Sheets G-2, G-2a, G-3, and Appendix A of this chapter. When maintenance walkways are included, refer to Standard Sheet G-6.

April 1991

8.2 - 7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.2.4 Foundations
The most efficient foundation design for sign, luminaire, and signal supports is the Caisson Foundation. Standard foundations have been designed; see Standard Plans G-2b, G-3a, J-1b, and Appendix A of this chapter. The headquarters Materials Lab should be consulted as to which foundation type is to be used. Foundation type 1 and 2 are designed for a lateral bearing pressure of 2,500 psf. Type 2 is the alternate to type 1 when drilled shafts are not suitable. The type 3 foundation is designed for poor soil conditions where the lateral bearing pressure is between 2,500 psf and 1,500 psf. The standard foundations have been modified for placement under traffic barrier, see Appendix A of this chapter.

Sign and Luminaire Supports

8-2:V:BDM8

8.2 - 8

April 1991

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.3 8.3.1 Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design Impact Attenuator Supports
A. General Concept This criteria is concerned with the support design of the Hi-Dro Cushion attenuator (liquid-filled cells with cable guides and side panels), which is one of the two FHWA qualified energy-absorbing systems to protect occupants of highway vehicles from fixed objects within the highway system. For other systems, similar design procedures should be followed. B. Push Force on Back-Up Wall 1. Vehicle Force Limitation G loads for varying speeds and number of bay units can be found on page 2 of the Design Data — Hi-Dro Cushion Reusable Systems brochure. These values have good correlation with calculated deceleration. It is desirable that the average vehicle deceleration be limited to a maximum of 10 Gs. If this value is higher than 10 Gs, we should recommend to the district that more units should be used. 2. Design Speed Design speed shall be per highway Design Manual. 3. Design Force The design force shall be determined from other values given in the above-mentioned table or 1.8 x 4k x G, whichever is greater. The table is based on the results of full scale tests. C. Pulling Force from Restraining Cables If the attenuator is impacted at an angle, the restraining cables will exert a pulling force on the back-up wall and the front cable anchorage. The ultimate strength of the 7/8-inch restraining cables is 56 kips each. To avoid a complicated dynamic analysis, design the back-up wall and front cable anchorage for a symmetrical load of 112 kips and also for unsymmetrical load of 56 kips acting through one restraining cable only. Provide flexure, shear and torsion reinforcement in the back-up wall as required by these two loading conditions. D. Ground-Mounted Units It is recommended that the back-up wall and anchor block foundations for ground-mounting units be combined into an integral unit. By this means, the stability of the structure in enhanced. Sliding and overturning should be checked. The service loads should be used in establishing factors of safety. A minimum of 1.5 for overturning and Wφ + Pp > 1.3 for sliding, where: = H W = Weight of Support φ = Friction Coefficient H = Horizontal Force γh2 (1 + Sin φ) Pp = Passive Pressure = 2 (1 - Sin φ) φ = Angle of Internal Friction γ = Unit Weight of Soil

Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

April 1991

8.3 - 1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
E. Factor Load Design The loads previously determined due to impacting or pulling of cables shall be multiplied by a factor of 1.5 for Ultimate Load condition because it is an impulse loading. The dead load of the support shall be multiplied by the usual factor of 1.3. The resultant of these loads should lie in the middle half of the support footing. Minimum steel requirements of AASHTO Reinforced Concrete Design should be checked except where a construction joint makes it impossible for tension to develop in the concrete. F. Details For details of scale anchorages and attenuator hardware required for the back-up wall, see the manufacturer’s brochure or shop drawings of previous installations.

Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

8.3 - 2

October 1993

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.3.2 Bridge Traffic Barriers
A. Guidelines 1. 2. The design criteria for bridge traffic barriers on structures shall be in accordance with Section 2 of the Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges adopted by AASHTO. The standard approach for new bridge rails is a 32 inch high safety shape (F Shape) concrete barrier on all interstate and major highway routes. Use a Single Slope concrete bridge rail when there are Single Slope concrete barriers on grade in the median for approaches to bridges or for continuity within a corridor. (See Design Manual Section 710 for additional background and criteria.) The Standard Single Slope bridge rail is 34 inches high to be consistent with the heights being used on grade applications. Use taller 42 inch high safety shape or single slope bridge rails on interstate or freeway routes in the following circumstances: • When accident history suggests a need. • When roadway geometrics increase the possibility of larger trucks hitting the barriers at a high angle (such as on ramps for freeway to freeway connections with sharp curvature in the alignment). 4. In addition, the Guide Specifications for Bridge Railings have been adopted by AASHTO to give specific requirements for crash testing of bridge barriers prior to their use on all new bridge structures. The AASHTO Guide Specifications differentiate crash test criteria for various performance levels depending upon in part traffic volume, design speed, vehicle mix, and other factors that produce a vast variation in traffic railing performance needs from one site to another. Guardrail approach transitions to bridge railing shall also be crash tested and consistent with the performance level dictated by the bridge site. The criteria for its use shall be in accordance with the Highway Design Manual, Section 710.10 and the appropriate standard plans.

Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

3.

5.

B. Bridge Railing Performance Levels It must be recognized that bridge railing performance needs differ greatly from site to site over our highway network and that railing designs and costs should match facility needs. This concept is embodied within the Guide Specifications for Bridge Railing. Three bridge railing performance levels and associated crash test/performance requirements are given in these guide specifications along with guidance for determining the appropriate performance level for a given bridge. 1. Performance Level 1 (PL1) On low-volume roads with little accident history, the concrete traffic barrier may not be warranted with concurrence of roadway geometrics. Crash tested breakaway guardrail systems and otherwise semi-rigid guardrail systems have shown that they can effectively contain vehicles on the bridge without undue damage to the bridge deck. Other semi-rigid guardrail systems also qualify for this performance level due to geometric features such as height. Examples of these semi-rigid and weak post guardrail systems are shown in Section 8.3.2C.1.

July 2000

8.3.2-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
2. Performance Level 2 (PL2) This performance level is defined as a rigid rail system that generally meets AASHTO’s strength requirements of 10 kips lateral impact capacity. The concrete New Jersey barrier and F shape configuration would qualify under this performance level. Rail systems under this category have to be capable of resisting not only compacts and passenger cars but also 18,000 lb. single unit trucks (see Table G2.7.1.3A in the Guide Specification). 3. Performance Level 3 (PL3) Higher capacity bridge rails are sometimes required for cases of high traffic volume with large truck or bus percentage. High accident rates with these trucks or buses may warrant this performance level. The crash test matrix for this performance category includes a 50,000 lb. tractor trailer. C. Available Bridge Rail Designs 1. Performance Level 1 a. Service Level 1 Weak Post Guardrail This bridge railing is a crash tested weak post rail system that was developed by NCHRP Report 239 for low-volume rural roadways with little accident history. We have utilized this design on some of our short concrete spans and on our timber bridges. A failure mechanism is built into this rail system such that upon impact the post will break away with the thrie beam guardrail containing the vehicle by virtue of its ribbon strength. This failure mechanism assures minimum damage, if any at all, to the bridge deck and stringers. The estimated cost for this system as a retrofit to existing structures is $75 to $85 per linear foot. Details for some examples of retrofitted weak post systems are shown in Figures 8.3.2-1 and 8.3.2-2. This system could be used by cities and counties on new structures in which the cost can be estimated at $40 to $50 per linear foot. The appropriate guardrail approach transition shall be a Case 14 placement as shown on Standard Plan C-2h. b. Oregon Side Mounted Guardrail This thrie beam guardrail system is an approved crash tested rigid rail which will require a Type 4B transition leading up to the bridge (see Standard Plan C-3 2 of 2). This system is ideally suited for cast-in-place and precast slab superstructures with at least 15-inch minimum slab depth (see Figure 8.3.2-3). c. California Side Mounted Guardrail This thrie beam guardrail system is a crash tested rigid rail system which again requires a Type 4B transition. This rail system is suited to slab superstructures of 12-inch minimum depth (see Figure 8.3.2-4). d. Glu-Lam Timber Rail on Wood Deck This is a crash tested treated timber rail system that may be used for low performance level facilities (see Figure 8.3.2-5).

Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

8.3.2-2

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
e. Texas T-202 Concrete Beam and Post This crash tested rail system offers a combination of low maintenance and low profile see-through characteristics. A Type 1 guardrail transition as shown by Standard Plan C-3 1 of 2 is required (see Figure 8.3.2-6). f. Nebraska Concrete Beam and Post This is a similar rail system to the Texas T-202 rail with more opening at the base. Again a Type 1 guardrail approach is required at bridge ends (see Figure 8.3.2-7). g. California Type 115 Tubular Steel Rail This crash tested system offers a see-through low profile steel rail option to the thrie beam guardrail. A Type 1 guardrail approach transition would be required at the bridge ends (see Figure 8.3.2-8). h. Texas T-411 Aesthetic Concrete Baluster Texas developed this standard for a section of highway that was considered to be a historic landmark. So in response to this fact, the existing deficient concrete baluster rail was replaced with a much stronger concrete baluster that satisfactorily passed the crash test performance criteria set forth by the NCHRP Report 230 (see Figure 8.3.2-9). i. Texas Guardrail Fence for Box Culverts Texas developed this semi-rigid standard for the many box culvert situations that face all highway engineers. W-Beam guardrail is attached to steel posts that is mounted to the top of the concrete deck for fill depths of 0 inches to 37 inches. A disadvantage of this is that when this rail system is hit the repair sometimes requires the replacement of the steel post thereby necessitating excavation of the fill. Washington has developed a take off from this design that addresses this point by introducing a stiffer steel post in the fill that will hopefully never need replacement. This detail is shown in Standard Plan C-10. The required guardrail transition is shown in Standard Plan C-2i. 2. Performance Level 2 a. 32-Inch New Jersey (NJ) Shape Concrete Traffic Barrier This rail treatment is preferred for most higher volume state highway facilities because of its past performance as far as the redirection capability and its low maintenance costs. If an overlay is contemplated either at the time of construction or within one year after the project, the vertical lip at the base shall be 3 inches plus the overlay depth. Otherwise this lip depth shall be allowed to vary from 0 inch to 3 inch max. Under no circumstances shall this depth exceed 3 inches. Any additional barrier height adjustments due to camber shall be accommodated at the top of the barrier (see Figure 8.3.2-10). A tapered traffic barrier end section is used to allow a snow plow to approach the bridge using the guardrail as a guide without damaging the toe of the barrier. The vertical face of the barrier end section allows for an easy thrie beam guardrail Terminal Design F connection.

Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

July 2000

8.3.2-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
b. 32-Inch “F” Shape Concrete Traffic Barrier This configuration was crash tested in the late 1960s along with the NJ Shape and then again recently at this performance level. This more vertical shape actually tested better than the NJ face which had more of an inclination to roll vehicles over upon impact. Oregon DOT currently uses this configuration (see Figure 8.3.2-11). An alternate precast barrier with the “F” shape configuration is now available for use adjacent to bridges near the Oregon border (see Standard Plan C-8d). c. 32-Inch Vertical Face Concrete Barrier This crash tested rail system offers a simple to build concrete alternative to the NJ and “F” shape traffic rail configurations (see Figure 8.3.2-12). d. Illinois 2399 Tubular Steel Rail This crash tested model offers a light weight and open rail alternative to the concrete traffic barriers outlined above. A rigid thrie beam guardrail transition would be required at the bridge ends (see Figures 8.3.2-13 and 8.3.2-14). e. New York Thrie Beam Guardrail This crash tested rail system can be utilized at the top of a raised concrete sidewalk to separate pedestrian traffic from the vehicular traffic as shown in Figure 8.3.2-15 or can be mounted directly to the top of the concrete deck. A Type 4B guardrail transition shall be employed at the ends of the bridge. f. Oregon 2 Tube and 3 Tube Curb Mounted Rail This is another crash tested model offering a light-weight, see-through option. A rigid thrie beam guardrail transition would be again required at the bridge ends. A cross-section of this rail is offered in Figure 8.3.2-16. A three tube rail system is also available for sidewalk use without vehicular traffic. This has not been crash tested satisfactorily to be utilized as a vehicular rail. This rail is shown in Figure 8.3.2-17. 3. Performance Level 3 a. 42-Inch “F” Shape Concrete Barrier This barrier is very similar to the 32 inch F shape concrete barrier in that the slopes of the front surface are identical except for its height. This barrier and all remaining options within this section have been crash tested for a 50,000 lb. tractor trailer. This barrier was used on a portion of the Seattle Access project in Seattle due to the large vehicular mix of intercity buses and the fact that there was a building below that needed to be protected. Another application of this barrier was utilized on the SR101 to Southbound SR5 structure where there were an unusually large amount of truck accidents with debris thrown to the structure below (see Figure 8.3.2-18).

Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

8.3.2-4

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
b. 42-Inch Vertical Concrete Parapet This crash tested option offers a simple to build alternative to the “F” shape configuration (see Figure 8.3.2-19). 4. Special Higher Performance Level a. Texas Type HT This crash tested rail employs a combination New Jersey Traffic Barrier and a special steel rail mounted to the top with an overall height of 50 inches. This and other options listed within this section have been crash tested for a 80,000 lb. truck (see Figure 8.3.2-20). b. Texas C202 Bridge Rail This rail system offers a combination open concrete beam/post and a metal rail with an overall height of 54 inches (see Figure 8.3.2-21). D. At Grade Cast-in-Place Barriers 1. Median Barriers a. Cast-in-Place barriers (Type 2) at grade are sometimes required in median areas with different roadway levels at each side (see Figure 8.3.2-22). A Cast-in-Place barrier with 1 foot 0 inch or less difference in elevation has been crash tested successfully with a 10-inch embedment depth. No foundation such as a footing is required. If this difference in elevation is greater than 1 foot, the barrier shall be designed as a wall with AASHTO’s barrier loading and will require a footing. Design criteria for allowable distribution width for impact on barriers with greater than 1 foot of elevation difference is as follows: (1) For stability calculations: distribution width for impact load shall be 16 feet for walls under 16 feet high. (2) For reinforcing steel design in the stem and footing: distribution shall be the smaller of 2H or 16 feet where H is the height of the wall. Additional design data is given on Standard Plan D-2e. 2. Shoulder Barriers Cast-in-Place shoulder barriers at grade are sometimes desired adjacent to bridge sidewalk barriers in lieu of standard precast Type 2 barriers (see Figure 8.3.2-23). This barrier cross section has equivalent mass and resisting moment for stability considerations to that of the embedded double face New Jersey Traffic Barrier which has been satisfactorily crash tested. A wire rope and pin connection shall be made at the bridge barrier end section per Standard Plan C-8. If a connection is made to an existing traffic barrier or parapet on the bridge, 15 inches long holes shall be drilled for the wire rope connection and shall be filled with an adhesive resin.

Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

P65:DP/BDM8

July 2000

8.3.2-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Figure 8.3.2-1

8.3.2-6

September 1992

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

September 1992

8.3.2-7

Figure 8.3.2-2

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

8.3.2-8

September 1992

Oregon Side Mounted Guardrail Figure 8.3.2-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

California Side Mounted Guardrail Figure 8.3.2-4

September 1992

8.3.2-9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

8.3.2-10

September 1992

Glu-Lam Timber Rail Figure 8.3.2-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Texas T-202 Rail Figure 8.3.2-6

September 1992

8.3.2-11

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

8.3.2-12

September 1992

Nebraska Concrete Beampost Rail Figure 8.3.2-7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

September 1992

8.3.2-13

California Type 115 Rail Figure 8.3.2-8

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

8.3.2-14

September 1992

Texas T-411 Aesthetic Concrete Baluster Figure 8.3.2-9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

32-Inch New Jersey Shape Figure 8.3.2-10

September 1992

8.3.2-15

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

32-Inch “F” Shape Figure 8.3.2-11

8.3.2-16

September 1992

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

32-Inch Vertical Concrete Parapet Figure 8.3.2-12

September 1992

8.3.2-17

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

8.3.2-18

September 1992

Illinois 2399R Tubular Steel Rail Figure 8.3.2-13

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

September 1992

8.3.2-19

Illinois 2399R Tubular Steel Rail Figure 8.3.2-14

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

New York Thrie Beam Figure 8.3.2-15

8.3.2-20

September 1992

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Oregon 2 Steel Tube Rail Figure 8.3.2-16

September 1992

8.3.2-21

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Oregon 3 Steel Tube Rail Figure 8.3.2-17

8.3.2-22

September 1992

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

42-Inch “F” Shape Figure 8.3.2-18

September 1992

8.3.2-23

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

42-Inch Vertical Concrete Parapet Figure 8.3.2-19

8.3.2-24

September 1992

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Texas Type HT Rail Figure 8.3.2-20

September 1992

8.3.2-25

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Texas C202 Bridge Rail Figure 8.3.2-21

8.3.2-26

September 1992

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

CIP Median Barrier Figure 8.3.2-22

CIP Median Barrier Figure 8.3.2-23

September 1992

8.3.2-27

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.3.3 Bridge Rail Rehabilitation
A. Policy The bridge rail retrofit policy is “To systematically improve or replace existing deficient rails within the limits of 3R resurfacing projects by (1) utilizing an approved crash tested rail system that is appropriate for the site or (2) designing up to the strength requirements set forth by Section 2 of AASHTO.” B. Guidelines Strength and geometric review, using the latest AASHTO Specifications, is required for all bridge rail rehabilitation projects. If the strength of the existing bridge rail is found to be less than 10 Kips or has not been crash tested, then modifications or replacement will be required to improve its redirectional characteristics and strength. C. WSDOT Bridge Inventory of Bridge Rails The Bridge Condition Unit maintains an inventory of all bridges in the state on the State of Washington Inventory of Bridges and Structures (SWIBS) program. Bridge rail types are indicated by a code from 1 to 8 depending upon type of rail. The coded rail types are shown in Figure 8.3.3-1. 1. 2. This Timber Post and Rail system has been used on timber trestle structures. The rail is structurally deficient and requires a retrofit with thrie beam guardrail (see Section 8.3.2C.1a). This combination steel post and flex beam guardrail system generally includes steel posts with spacing between 9 feet and 12 feet 6 inches, which is in excess of the required 6 feet 3 inches. Generally, additional steel posts are required as well as thrie beam guardrail or other approved rail system to bring this system up to standards. This combination steel post and tubular guardrail system was used in a limited way for a short period of time. It is normally adequate but, if damaged, it is very difficult to repair because the sections of guardrail are welded back to back. Concrete balusters are deficient in lateral load capacity, having approximately 3 kips while 10 kips is required. These rails are normally retrofitted with thrie beam guardrail (see Section 9.3.3D.1). New Jersey shaped traffic barriers have been used by WSDOT since 1970 and meet the current code requirements. This combination low-base concrete pedestal and metal rail is considered deficient and should be replaced with Type 1, 1A, and 2 metal rails. This combination high-base concrete parapet and metal rail may or may not be considered adequate depending upon the rail type. Metal rail Type R, S, and SB are considered capable of resisting the required 5 kips of lateral load. Types 3, 1B, and 3A are considered inadequate. See Highway Design Manual, Section 710.09 for replacement criteria. A combination metal rail and New Jersey Traffic Barrier has been used rarely by WSDOT but is considered to be adequate.

Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

3.

4.

5. 6. 7.

8.

September 1992

8.3.3 - 1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
D. Available Retrofit Designs 1. Washington Thrie Beam Retrofit of Concrete Balusters This system consists of thrie beam guardrail stiffening of existing concrete baluster rails with timber blockouts (see Figure 8.3.3-2). Southwest Research Institute conducted full-scale crash tests of this retrofit in 1987. Results of the tests were satisfactory and complied with criteria for a Performance Level 1 (PL1) category in the Guide Specifications. Bids over the last several years have shown that this retrofit can be estimated at $25 per linear foot. 2. Thru Truss Rail Retrofit High priority is placed upon retrofitting thru truss span bridges, not only because of the possibility of serious injury accidents, but also because severe damage may occur to the main structural elements of the bridge. Design details which accommodate a rigid guardrail system have been developed. The design both alleviates the problems mentioned and provides redirectional capabilities (see Figures 8.3.3-3 through 8.3.3-8). The thrie beam and post system on the curb side are designed for a 10 kip lateral load as described by AASHTO. The thrie beam and steel post on the sidewalk side is the New York crash tested system as described in Section 8.3.2-C. 3. New Jersey Traffic Barrier This is our preferred treatment for replacing deficient rails and parapets on high volume highways with a large truck percentage. All interstate highway bridges shall use this type (see Figures 8.3.3-9 through 8.3.3-11).

Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

8-3-3:V:BDM8

8.3.3 - 2

September 1992

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

WSDOT Bridge Inventory Bridge Rail Types Figure 8.3.3-1

September 1992

8.3.3 - 3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

8.3.3 - 4

September 1992

Washington Thrie Beam Figure 8.3.3-2

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

September 1992

8.3.3 - 5

Rail Retrofit — PL2 Thru Truss Span Figure 8.3.3-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Figure 8.3.3-4

8.3.3 - 6

September 1992

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

September 1992

8.3.3 - 7

Rail Retrofit — PL2 Approach Span — Thru Truss Figure 8.3.3-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Rail Retrofit — Truss Span Figure 8.3.3-6

8.3.3 - 8

September 1992

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Figure 8.3.3-7

September 1992

8.3.3 - 9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Rail Retrofit — Approach Spans Figure 8.3.3-8

8.3.3 - 10

September 1992

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Typical Section — Traffic Barrier Without Overhang Figure 8.3.3-9

September 1992

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Typical Section — Traffic Barrier With Overhang Figure 8.3.3-10

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September 1992

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Traffic Barrier Retrofit Figure 8.3.3-11

September 1992

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

8.3.4 - 1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.3.5 Utility Installation on Bridges
A. Confined Spaces A confined space is any place having a limited means of exit which is subject to the accumulation of toxic or flammable contaminants or an oxygen deficient environment. Confined spaces include but are not limited to pontoons, box girder bridges, storage tanks, ventilation or exhaust ducts, utility vaults, tunnels, pipelines, and open-topped spaces more than 4 feet in depth such as pits, tubes, vaults, and vessels. The designer should provide for the following: • A sign with “Confined Space Authorized Personnel Only.” • In the “Special Provisions Check List,” alert and/or indicate that a special provision might be needed to cover confined spaces. B. Guidelines The utilities which are to be considered under this guideline are power and telephone lines, natural gas, volatile fluid pipes, water pipes, and sewer pipes. Each utility has its unique installation problems. Most utility installations will be initiated by the utility company or the district, and the Bridge Management Section will review the design. In some cases, such as new projects, certain original designs are done by the Bridge Division, such as hanger details for water lines. The following subjects are covered below: General Concepts Criteria for Utilities Installation on New Bridges special Considerations for Various Utilities Type of Conduit Types of Supports Utility Review Procedure for Existing Bridges Utility Review Checklist C. General Concepts On new construction, the utility installation shall be located so as to minimize the effect on the appearance of the structure. In most cases, this will mean installing the utility between girders or in curbs. Utilities and supports shall not normally extend below the bottom of the superstructure. When the utility is located between girders, it shall be installed no lower than 1 foot 0 inches above the bottom of the girders. In some cases when appurtenances are required (such as air release valves), care should be taken to provide adequate space. When the bridge is to receive pigmented sealer, consideration shall be given to painting any exposed utility lines and hangers to match the bridge. When pigmented sealer is not required, steel utility lines and hangers shall be painted or galvanized for corrosion protection. This special provisions shall specify cleaning and painting procedures. On existing structures, proposed utility attachments are normally reviewed by the Bridge Management Section and either approved or returned for correction. A current file for most utility attachments is maintained in the Bridge Management Section. See “Utility Review Procedure For Existing Bridges” and “Utility Review Checklist” (Sections 8.3.5G and 8.3.5H).

Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

July 1994

8.3.5 - 1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
D. Criteria for Utilities Installation on New Bridges 1. All pipelines carrying volatile fluids shall be encased throughout the length of the structure. A sleeve approximately 3 inches larger than the outside diameter of the carrying pipe shall be used. The space between the carrying pipe and the encasing sleeve shall be effectively vented beyond the structure at each end and at high points. Utilities shall not be attached above the bridge deck nor attached to the railings or posts. They may be placed in the concrete traffic barrier no higher than 16 inches above the top of the deck. Utilities shall not extend below the bottom of the superstructure. The utilities shall be provided with suitable expansion devices at bridge expansion joints or expansion methods as required to prevent longitudinal temperature forces from being transferred to bridge members. Longitudinal restraint may often be considered to be the bridge end fill. For telephone and power conduit, this restraint may be considered to be the cable itself. Where long runs of water pipe are used, care must be taken that expansion joints in the pipe are properly spaced with longitudinal load-carrying supports. Rigid conduit shall extend 10 feet minimum beyond the ends of the structure in order to reduce effects of embankment settlements on the utility and provide protection in case of future work involving excavation near the structure. This requirement shall be stated on the plans. Utilities off the bridge must be installed prior to paving of approaches. This should be stated in the Special Provisions. Utility supports shall be designed so that neither the conduit, the supports, nor the bridge structure or members are overstressed by any loads imposed by the utility installation. Provide longitudinal and transverse support for loads from gravity, earthquakes, temperature, inertia, etc. It is especially important to provide transverse and longitudinal support for Grinnell inserts and other similar inserts which cannot resist moment. 7. 8. Utility locations and supports shall be designed so that a failure will not result in damage to the bridge, the surrounding area, or be a hazard to traffic. All conduit shall be steel pipe or rigid PVC pipe.

Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

2. 3. 4.

5.

6.

*(Items 1 through 8 may be cross-referenced with Design Criteria of “General Notes and Design Criteria” in Appendix A of this chapter or Chapter 1 Examples of the Utilities Manual.) 9. Utilities installed in the cells of box girder bridges shall be embedded in concrete where structurally and economically feasible. Where utilities, other than telephone and power conduit, are not embedded in concrete, access shall be provided in each cell. Such access can be from manholes in the shoulder of the roadway or in the sidewalk. Current practice for access to box girder cells is to locate a hatch in the bottom of the box girder at the end piers. Where access is provided into the cells, the Special Provisions must call for removal of the top slab formwork in those cells.

10. Telephone and power conduit may be installed in the cells of box girder bridges without provision for embedment or access provided that conduit is galvanized steel pipe, or Schedule 80 PVC rigid or heavier.

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May 1995

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
E. Special Considerations for Various Utilities 1. Gas Lines or Volatile Fluids Gas lines or lines carrying volatile fluids shall be of steel pipe (usually Schedule 40) designed in accordance with CFR Part 192, Transportation of Natural and Other Gas by Pipeline: Minimum Safety Standards (see WAC 480-93-010). Volatile fluids shall be encased in a steel encasement pipe as noted in C “Criteria.” Gas lines are not required to be encased in a steel encasement pipe. Contact the District Utilities Engineer for guidance on whether or not the utility uses encasement pipe. If it does not, provide the transverse insert as if there will not be encasement and blockouts in the structure as if they will be encasement (BDM 8.3.5-D). All gas lines shall be transversely braced. District Utility Engineers shall be contact by the S&E (Specifications and Estimates) office for additional design requirements that may be stipulated in the utility agreement. Normally, the utility will make provision to electrically insulate the gas line from its support. Lines carrying other volatile materials shall be supported, as required by the utility, with due care taken to protect the structure and traffic. Access and ventilation shall always be provided in box girder cells containing gas lines. 2. Water Lines Water lines shall be galvanized steel pipe or ductile iron pipe. Where freezing may be encountered, consideration should be given to the use of insulation on the pipe. Insulation shall be jacketed and saddles shall be galvanized to avoid electrolysis. Care shall be taken that all inertia loads due to dynamic action (water hammer, etc.) can be properly carried. Transverse supports shall be provided for all water lines. Additional temporary bracing will be required during pressure testing. The design loading of the temporary bracing along with a note stating “See Special Provisions” shall be shown on the plans. Pressure test loading force magnitude shall be obtained from District Utility Engineers by the S&E unit. Fire control piping is a special case where unusual care must be taken to handle the inertial loads and associated deflections. Normally, the Hydraulic Section will also be involved in this case. In box girders, care shall be taken to ensure that a failure of the water line would not flood the cell with an excess amount of water which may cause consequential structural failure of the girder. Additional weep holes or open grating shall be used if necessary (see Figure 8.3.5-3). 3. Sewer Lines Normally, an appropriate encasement pipe is required for sewer lines on bridges. Sewer lines must meet the same design criteria as waterlines. See the utility agreement or the Hydraulic Section for types of sewer pipe material typically used. 4. Telephone and Power Conduit Generally, telephone, television cable, and power conduit shall be galvanized steel pipe or a PVC pipe of a UL approved type and shall be Schedule 40 or heavier. Where such conduit is buried in concrete curbs or barriers or has continuous support, such support is considered to be adequate. Where conduit is supported by hangers or brackets at intervals, the distance between supports shall be small enough to avoid excessive sag between supports (see PVC pipe in E below). Generally, the conduit shall be designed to support the cable in bending without exceeding working stresses for the conduit material. When the conduit is intended to encase Department of Transportation electrical wiring and is encased in concrete, only galvanized steel conduit shall be used. Also, only galvanized steel conduits will be allowed in barriers when slipforming is

Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

July 1994

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

employed. Stub outs for galvanized steel pipe shall be protected against corrosion as stated in subparagraph 5. 5. Rigid Electrical Conduit for Highway Circuits In the case of all new bridge construction where roadway shoulders have not yet been paved and where usable shoulder width is 4 feet or greater in width, electrical conduit shall be stubbed-out and capped 1 foot 6 inches below grade and 3 feet 0 inches horizontally toward roadway centerline from the face of the traffic barrier. Longitudinally, this stub-out location should be near the back of pavement seat. The conduit in this location should clear any foreseeable obstructions. The location of the stubbed-out conduit at bridge ends should be clearly shown on the plans. The galvanized steel conduit stub out shall be wrapped with corrosion resistant tape at least one foot inside and outside of the concrete structure, and this requirement shall be so stated on the plans. The corrosion resistant tape shall be 3M Scotch 50, Bishop 5, Nashua AVI 10, or approved equal. The usual location of the conduit throughout the remainder of the bridge should be in the traffic barrier. The number and size of conduits within the traffic barrier shall be minimized to assure proper concrete consolidation. A maximum of one (1) 4-inch conduit or two (2) 2-inch conduits will be allowed. Pull boxes shall be provided at a maximum spacing of 200 feet. Their size shall conform to the specifications of the National Electric Code or be a minimum of 6 inches by 6 inches by 18 inches to facilitate pulling of wires. Galvanized steel pull boxes (or junctions boxes) shall meet the specifications of the “NEMA Type 4X” standard and shall be so stated on the plans. Stainless steel pull boxes shall be allowed as an option to the galvanized steel. In the case of existing bridges, an area 2 feet in width shall be reserved for conduit beginning at a point either 4 feet or 6 feet outside the face of usable shoulder. The fastening for and location of attaching the conduit to the existing bridge should be worked out on a job-by-job basis. See Figure 8.3.5-1. F. Type of Conduit 1. Steel Pipe All steel pipe conduits shall be Schedule 40 or greater. All pipe and fittings shall be galvanized except for special uses. 2. PVC Pipe PVC pipe may be used with suitable considerations for deflection, the location and placement of expansion fittings, and of freezing water within the conduits. Where conduit is to be exposed in the cells of box girder bridges, PVC should be avoided because of the possibility of damage occurring when the top slab falsework collapses. If such falsework is specified on the plans to be removed after construction, this provision does not apply. PVC pipe should not be placed in concrete traffic barriers due to damage and pipe separation that often occurs during concrete placement and from temperature variations. Where conduit is to be supported by hangers or pedestals at intervals, the distance between supports shall be small enough to avoid excessive sag of the conduit. For recommended support spacing and tabulated properties of PVC pipe, see Table 8.3.5-1.

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July 1994

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
3. High Density Polyethylene This material may be specified by some utilities. Unless other data is available, support as for PVC. Same restrictions to traffic barriers apply. 4. Fiberglass Pipe This material may be specified by some utilities. Unless other data is available, support as for PVC. Same restrictions to traffic barriers apply. G. Types of Supports The following types of supports have been used. Selection of a particular support type should be based on the needs of the installation and the best economy. 1. Concrete Embedment — This is the best structural support condition and offers maximum protection to the utility. Its cost may be high for larger conduit and the conduit cannot be replaced. Special car must be taken to handle expansion joints. Continuous Support — This support condition may be achieved by providing ledge of concrete to support the conduit. In addition, some type of clamping will be required. The support condition here is very good, but the cost may be very high. Concrete Pedestals — This consists of concrete supports formed at suitable intervals and provided with some type of clamping device. Pipe Hangers — This is the most usual type of support for utilities to be supported under the bridge deck. It allows the use of standard ordered parts (usually “Grinnell”) and is very flexible in terms of expansion requirements. It will not normally provide longitudinal support*, and transverse support must be provided by a second hanger extending from a girder or by placing bracing against the girder. *Support at every pipe joint — longitudinal restraint of hangers may be necessary with the use of Grinnell Universal Insert, Figure 282 or similar inserts. 5. The Figures 8.3.5-2, 3, and 4 depict typical utility support installations and placement at abutments and diaphragms.

Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

2.

3. 4.

H. Utility Review Procedure for Existing Bridges It is the responsibility of the District Utilities Engineer to forward any proposed bridge attachments to the Bridge Office. The Bridge Office is responsible for reviewing only those details pertaining to the bridge crossing such as attachment details or trenching details adjacent to bridge piers or abutments. The turnaround time for reviewing the proposals should not exceed two weeks; however, most attachments that have simple connections with epoxy anchors can be reviewed, stamped, and responded to within one day. This is provided that corrections and additional notes are minimal. The number of copies to be returned is determined by the district. Most districts send five copies of the proposed utility attachment. We keep one copy and, if it’s been approved, return four marked copies. If it has been returned for correction or not approved, we keep one and return two marked copies. See the “Utility Review Checklist” below (Section 8.3.5H).

July 1994

8.3.5 - 5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Conduit Location Beyond Bridge End Figure 8.3.5-1

8.3.5 - 6

July 1994

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

July 1994

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Occasionally, a utility company wants a conceptual approval of their proposed attachment before they invest their time in detailed drawings and calculations. Often they will request this approval by sending a sketch of their proposal directly to the Bridge Office. We will usually respond directly to them in a letter by concurring with their proposal or by suggesting an alternate. This letter includes instructions for them to resubmit their final proposal through the District Utilities Engineer with a courtesy copy of this letter sent to the District Utilities Engineer. Utility attachments which exert moments or large forces at the bridge connection should be accompanied by at least one set of calculations from the utility company. Bridge attachments designed to resist surge forces should always be accompanied by calculations. The engineer may request calculations from the utility company for any attachment detail that may be questionable. The engineer shall check the utility company’s design with his own calculations. The connection detail shall be designed to successfully transfer all forces to the bridge without causing overstress in the connections or to the bridge members to which they are attached. For large utilities, the bridge itself shall have adequate capacity to carry the utility without affecting the live load capacity. For more detailed guidelines, see “General Notes and Design Criteria . . .” and “Guide for Utility Installations to Existing Bridges” in Appendix A of this chapter. 1. Utility Review Checklist (For review of all proposed utility attachments to existing bridges.) 1. 2. Do a cursory check to become familiar with the proposal. Determine location of existing utilities. a. b. c. d. 3. Check Bridge Inspection Report for any existing utilities (available in Bridge Conditions). Check utility file for any existing utility permits or franchises and possible as-built plans. (Currently maintained in the Bridge Management Section.) Any existing utilities on the same side of the structure as the proposed utility should be shown on the proposal. Obtain as-built plans from bridge vault if not in an existing utility file.

Review the following with all comments in red: • Layout with directions, SR no. and bridge no. • Adequate spacing of supports. • Adequate strength of supports as attached to the bridge (calculations may be necessary). • Maximum design pressure and regular operating pressure for pressure pipe systems. • Adequate lateral bracing and thrust protection for pressure pipe systems. • Does the utility obstruct maintenance or accessibility to key bridge components. Check with the Bridge Condition Section if in doubt. • Location (elevation and plan view) of the utility with respect to pier footings or abutments. If trench limits encroach within the 45° envelope from the footing edge, consult the Materials Lab.

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July 1994

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Figure 8.3.5-2

July 1994

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

Figure 8.3.5-4

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July 1994

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design

• Force mains or water flow systems may require encasement if they are in excavations below the bottom of a footing. 4. Write a preliminary IDC or letter of reply for the supervisor to review before final typing. Upon his approval, include your initials at the bottom of the IDC or letter so that a copy will be returned to you indicating that the package has been accepted and sent out. Stamp and date the plans using the same date as shown on the IDC. Create a file folder: a. b. Bridge no., name, utility company or type of utility, and franchise or permit number. One set of approved plans and possibly one or two pages of the original design plans if necessary for quick future reference. (Previous transmittals and plans not approved or returned to correction should be discarded to avoid unnecessary clutter of the files.) The letter of submittal and a copy of the IDC or letter of reply after it has been accepted.

5. 6.

c. 7.

Give the complete package to the section supervisor for review and place the folder in the utility file after the review.

8-3-5:V:BDM8

July 1994

8.3.5 - 11

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.4 8.4.1 Bridge Details Expansion Joints
Expansion joints or bridge deck joints are designed to accommodate cyclic and long-term structure movements, to support and to provide smooth and quiet passage of traffic, to prevent water runoff from damaging the supporting structural elements, and to have a long service life. For new construction, the criteria shown below should be followed for expansion joints. Steel Bridges: Use L-Abutments with expansion joints at ends for multiple-span bridges. Expansion joints may be eliminated for single span bridges with the approval of the Bridge Design Engineer. Whenever the bridge skew exceeds 30 degrees, consult the Expansion Joint Specialist and the Bridge Design Engineer for recommendations and approval. Note: The use of intermediate expansion joints should be avoided, where possible. All Concrete Bridges: Use L-Abutments with expansion joints at ends when the bridge length exceeds 400 feet. Whenever the bridge skew exceeds 30 degrees, consult the Expansion Joint Specialist and the Bridge Design Engineer for recommendations and approval. Note: The use of intermediate expansion joints should be avoided, where possible. Expansion joints are not normally designed for seismic movements. The assumption is that damage will occur after a seismic event; and the joint will be repaired. If seismic isolation bearings are used, the expansion joints must accommodate the seismic movement so that the bearings perform properly. The following design, specification, and shop plan review criteria cover the bridge deck joint systems most commonly used in Washington State. A. Design Bridge deck joints are classified as small, medium, or large movement joints. The total movement to be accommodated at the joint determines the classification: Small Movement Joint Medium Movement Joint Large Movement Joint 1. Small Movement Joints Compression seals have most frequently been used for small movement range joints. Compression seals are continuous preformed elastomeric sections, typically with extruded internal web systems, installed within an expansion joint gap to effectively seal the joint against water and debris infiltration. Compression seals are held in place by mobilizing friction against adjacent vertical joint faces. Hence, design philosophy requires that they be sized and installed to always be in a state of compression. Silicone sealant joints and asphalt plug joints have both been used as alternatives to compression seals in recent years, particularly on rehabilitation projects. This office is continuing to monitor these systems in order to assess their long term performance. Consult the Expansion Joint Specialist for the current design policy on each of these systems. Total Movement 1 /4″ < Total Movement 5″ < Total Movement
3

Bridge Details

≤ 13/4″ ≤ 5″

August 1998

8.4.1-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

An asphaltic plug joint consists of polymer modified asphalt (PMA) installed within a blockout over a steel plate. The steel plate spans across the expansion gap to retain the PMA during its installation. In theory, asphaltic plug joints provide a smooth seamless riding surface for traffic. This office has used asphaltic plug joints for motion ranges up to 1 inch. Application guidelines must be carefully followed to assure successful performance of asphaltic plug joints. They should not be used at joints subjected to differential vertical movements (for example, longitudinal separation joints). They should not be used for joints having large skew angles, joints subjected to large rotations, or in situations where the total height of the polymer modified asphalt above the steel plate is less than 2 inches. The PMA has a tendency to creep out of the blockout, particularly within wheel lines. This tendency is amplified by any horizontal loading applied to the asphaltic plug joint. Therefore, asphaltic plug joints should not be used in situations where the adjacent pavement is subjected to significant acceleration or deceleration (off ramps, traffic signals). Overall, asphaltic plug joints have demonstrated erratic performance in Washington State. Consult the Expansion Joint Specialist for current policy and guidelines. Silicone sealants are generally poured in place directly over a foam backer rod placed in the expansion gap. A primer may be sprayed onto the vertical faces of the concrete or steel substrate to enhance bonding of the sealant. Several different chemical variations of silicone sealant are available depending upon the joint geometry and construction requirements. The primary differentiating characteristics of the silicone sealants are viscosity and curing time. A commonly used silicone sealant for rehabilitation projects is the two-part Dow Corning 902 RCS sealant. This product is self leveling, can bond to itself, and cures very quickly. In situations were the rapid curing and self leveling properties are not required, less expensive silicone sealants can be used. The completely cured silicone sealant joint can accommodate tensile movements of up to 100 percent and compressive movements of up to 50 percent of the sealant width at installation. This office has used silicone sealant joints for motion ranges up to 1 inch. A minimum recess is required from the top of the pavement to the top of the silicone sealant in order to prevent tire traffic from contacting and debonding the sealant from the substrate. Consult the Expansion Joint Specialist for guidelines and example details. Polymer concrete headers are generally recommended at compression seal joints and at silicone sealant joints. Polymer concrete provides tensile strength and toughness to resist traffic impact. Generic and proprietary polymer concrete formulations are available. Proprietary elastomeric concretes are occasionally used in lieu of polymer concrete to further enhance impact resistance. Consult the Expansion Joint Specialist regarding patent infringement issues which may result when generic polymer concrete is used in combination with a Dow Corning silicone sealant. a. Design Criteria (1) When more exact temperature data is not available, use the following design temperature ranges: Concrete Structure Steel Structures (Eastern Washington) Steel Structures (Western Washington) 0° to 100°F -30° to 120°F 0° to 120°F

All plan dimensions are based on a normal installation temperature of 64°F in accordance with the WSDOT Standard Specifications.

8.4.1-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

(2) Use a shrinkage coefficient 0.0002 for normal weight concrete. The calculated shrinkage is multiplied by a shrinkage factor, µ, to account for anticipated future shrinkage that occurs after the joint is installed. b. Compression Seal Size Determination To function properly, seals must be compressed at all times, otherwise they will fall out. Generally, the compression range for bridge compression seals is 40 to 85 percent of the uncompressed width. All movement of the joint must be within this range. It is recommended that compression seals not be used when the skew exceeds 45 degrees. To determine the compression seal size (W) required, proceed as follows: (1) Determine the total movement, Mt, along the bridge centerline: Mt = Temp + Shrink + Other Movement = Total Movement where: Temp = 12 L α ∆ T Shrink = 12 L ,ß µ Other Movement includes all other factors which affect movement. α = Coefficient of thermal expansion: 0.000006 per degree Fahrenheit for concrete 0.0000065 per degree Fahrenheit for steel ß = Shrinkage coefficient for reinforced concrete: 0.0002 ft/ft µ = Shrinkage factor: 1.0 for Rat slabs, 0.8 for box girders and T-beams, 0.5 for prestressed-precast girder bridges, and 0.0 for steel bridges L = Length of structure contributing to movement of the joint in feet ∆ T = Design temperature range (2) Determine movements parallel to the joint, Mp, and normal to the joint, Mn (Figure 8.4.1-1): Mp = Mt Sin θ Mn = Mt Cos θ where: θ = skew angle (3) Define the working range of joint width, A, in terms of required uncompressed seal width, W: Width of joint opening, A, shall be: A min = 0.4W = maximum compression of 40% (4) A max = 0.85W = minimum compression of 85% A movement = 0.85W - 0.4W = 0.45W = movement range normal lo the seal (Movement parallel to the joint) (Movement normal to the joint) (2) (3) (1)

(5) (6)

February 2000

8.4.1-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

Skewed Expansion Joint Figure 8.4.1-1 Assume a minimum midrange installation width at 64°F: A install = 0.6W (4) Determine required compression seal size, W: Seal width to accommodate movement parallel to the joint, Mp: W = Mp/0.22 Seal width to accommodate movement normal to the joint, Mn: W = Mn/0.45 (9) (8) (7)

Assume the seal is installed at a temperature of 64°F and the joint opening at installation plus the total opening movement does not exceed the maximum permitted joint opening (0.85W): A max = A install + Cos θ [K(Temp) + Shrink + Other Movement] where: (10)

K = Temperature drop divided by temperature range: 0.64 (64° to 0°F) for concrete bridges, 0.53 (64° to 0°F) for western Washington steel bridges, and 0.63 (64° to -30°F) for eastern Washington steel bridges. Temp = Temperature movement previously defined. Shrink = Shrinkage movement previously defined.

Substituting Eq’s. (5) and (7) into (10), and solving for W yields the following formula: W = 4(Cos θ)[K(Temp) + Shrink + Other Movement] Use a seal size based on the largest value of W from Eqs. (8), (9) and (11). (11)

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August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
(5) Determine width of joint opening at time of construction, A const: A const = 0.6(W) + Cos θ[12(L)α](64°F - Tc) where: Tc = Ambient air temperature during construction of joint, in degrees Fahrenheit. (12)

Bridge Details

(6) When the computed seal size required exceeds the maximum seal widths noted in the “Compression Seal table” (see Appendix 8.4-A1), a joint providing greater movement capacity is required. (7) See Appendix 8.4-B I for example. 2. Medium Movement Joints Strip seals are the first choice for joint movements greater than 13/4 inch and less than 5 inch. Strip seals are available in whole inch sizes from 2 inches to 5 inches, with 3 inches and 4 inches as the most widely used. a. Design Criteria (1) In addition to the design criteria for small movement joints, all factors which affect movements, including rotations, should be considered in dimensioning the joint. These include: creep, shrinkage, stage construction, construction tolerances, temperature range, bearing type and direction(s) of permitted movements, skew, and external restraints. (2) Earthquake movement need not be considered for medium movement joints except when required for structure performance. For example, when using base isolation bearings, the superstructure must be allowed to displace without hitting the backwall. So, to ensure proper functioning of the bearings, a larger size joint than normal may be required. (3) When designing for existing joint rehabilitation or joint modifications, the designer should review as-built plans, past inspection reports for recorded joint movements, and measure the existing joint opening at several locations (note the structure temperature when taking field measurements). (4) Joints with 0 to 30 degree skew should be designed for the movement along the centerline of the bridge. For skews greater than 30 degrees, consult the Joint Specialist. The skew angle can influence strip seal performance. At large skews, large size strip seals can buckle and invert above the top surface of the steel edge rails. Therefore, a system which provides the most movement capacity at a 0 degree skew angle may not always provide the most movement capacity at greater skew angles. (5) The preferred maximum allowable opening, measured in the direction of traffic, for medium movement expansion joints is 4 inches. This maximum limitation improves the ride, reduces impact, and reduces the hazard to motorcyclists and bicyclists. The use of any medium movement joint with an opening greater than 4 inches must be approved by the Joint Specialist. (6) Adjustment of the joint to compensate for the temperature at time of installation must be allowed. Generally, ambient air temperatures, taken in the shade, are used in adjusting the joint at the time of installation.

August 1998

8.4.1-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details
To facilitate installation of the seals, size the joint and position the edge beams so that the joint opening, normal to the joint, is equal to the minimum installation width at 64°F. The seal can now be installed at any temperature below 64°F. Generally, all strip seals have a minimum installation width of 11/2 inch normal to the joint. (7) Use only steel shapes, plates, reinforcement, and anchors in edge beams. No aluminum parts shall be permitted. (8) Use continuous seals for the full width of the bridge including parapets. No splices in the seals other than one preapproved manufacturer’s shop vulcanized field splice per seal is permitted. No welding of shipping clamps, lifting straps, hooks, or temperature adjusting devices shall be permitted. Temporary threaded studs, used for positioning and securing the edge beams during placement of concrete in the blockout, may be tack welded to the edge beams and removed later by grinding. (9) Carefully detail joints at sidewalks and parapets with respect to leakage, constructibility, and maintenance. If required by the manufacturer, strip seal extrusions may be split at the curb or traffic barrier. Do not use steel shapes with horizontal projecting legs in the curb or barrier region. Steel sliding plates shall be used in sidewalk areas to prevent seal damage. (10) Many anchorage systems of bridge joints in the medium movement range have failed because of high impact from wheel loads. These dynamic impact loads can be as much as 70 percent greater than a static wheel load. For an HS25 vehicle, the maximum static wheel load is 20 kips per wheel without impact (1.25 times 16 kips per wheel). Anchorage systems must resist the rebound effect of the impact wheel loads. (11) Bolt-down panel elastomeric joints were widely used in the past. When the bolts holding the panel failed, the panel was no longer restrained and a safety hazard to motorists (particularly to motorcyclists) was created because of the loose panel in the roadway. In addition to continued maintenance because of loose hold down bolts, these joints were subject to snowplow damage. Do not use bolt-down elastomeric expansion joints. b. Strip Seal Size Determination (1) Starting with a temperature of 64°F, calculate the total opening movement, using the length of the bridge along centerline, due to: (a) Temperature 64°F to 0°F for concrete superstructures, and 64°F to either 0°F or -30°F for steel superstructure. (b) Shrinkage Use a shrinkage coefficient of 0.0002 for normal weight concrete and a shrinkage factor, pL, to account for anticipated future shrinkage that occurs after the joint is installed. Shrinkage is not required for rehabilitation projects where shrinkage of the superstructure has already taken place. (2) Starting with a temperature of 64°F, calculate the total closing movement, along the bridge centerline, due to:

8.4.1-6

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
(a) Temperature 64°F to 100°F, for concrete superstructures, and 64°F to 120°F for steel superstructure. (b) Minimum Opening Required for Seal Installation at 64°F For calculation purposes, strip seal joints have been classified as either Group 1 or Group 2 (see Appendix 8.4-A1). A Group 1 joint requires a 1/2 inch gap between steel supporting elements at full closure so the seal is not damaged. The minimum opening normal to the joint is 1 inch (e.g., minimum installation width less 1/2 inch minimum gap equals 1 inch). A Group 2 joint permits full closure between steel supporting elements. Generally, Group 2 joints use a 11/2 inch minimum opening normal to the joint. (3) Determine the required strip seal size by adding the total opening movement and the larger of either the total closing movement or the minimum installation width. (4) Determine the “G” dimension at time of edge beam installation Show the construction width, G, at time of edge beam installation for temperatures of 40°F, 64°F, and 80°F. Note that the “G” dimension is normal to the joint and is measured from face-to-face of edge beams. This helps the Contractor adjust the edge beams during construction at different temperatures. (5) See Appendixes 8.4-B2 through 8.4-B4 for typical design calculations. 3. Large Movement Joints — Modulas Expansion Joints Modular joints are the first choice for movements greater than 5 inches. See the Expansion Joint Specialist for approved manufacturers and latest plan details. a. Design Criteria (1) Where applicable, the “Design Criteria” for medium movement joints applies to large movement joints where the total movement is expected to exceed 5 inches. (2) All seals must be continuous across the full roadway width, including curb and traffic barriers. The entire joint shall be shipped completely preassembled to the job site. No splices in the seals other than one preapproved manufacturer’s shop vulcanized splice per seal is permitted. (3) The expansion joint system must be durable enough to resist the damaging effects of traffic impact, abrasion, and snowplow damage. (4) Joints should be designed for the total movement normal to the joint (e.g., the product of the total movement along the centerline of the bridge and the cosine of the skew angle) plus a 15 percent factor of safety, which allows for unpredictable non-seismic movements. Try to avoid skews greater than 30 degrees for modular expansion joints. (5) The movement allowed per sealing element shall be limited to 3 inch maximum. The maximum gap between centerbeams or centerbeam and edge beams is 31/2 inches at the minimum temperature condition. The purpose of limiting the gap is to reduce the wheel impact on the joint system and subsequent wear on supporting elements.

Bridge Details

August 1998

8.4.1-7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

(6) All supporting structural members shall be designed for the limit states, wheel loads, impact percentages, and distribution factors specified in the Special Provision “Modular Expansion Joint System.” These requirements are derived from research summarized in NCHRP Report 402 “Fatigue Design of Modular Bridge Expansion Joints,” National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1997. (7) In the past, box seals were used; the current practice is to use factory installed strip seals. Consideration should be given to using reinforced strip seals. (8) To allow for replacement of damaged seals or seal installation under stage construction, all seals shall be removable and replaceable at 64°F per manufacturer’s recommended procedure. Generally, this is accomplished by jacking the center beams apart or to one side. This creates a larger gap between center beams for seal removal and reinstallation. For retrofit or stage construction applications, this procedure may be both time consuming and expensive. It may be more convenient to oversize the joint so that the seals can be installed at the minimum manufacturer’s installation width at 64°F. The designer should work closely with his Supervisor and the Expansion Joint Specialist to determine the best solution considering the time constraints of stage construction and increased cost. (9) Access to the modular expansion joint components shall be provided so that repairs, adjustments, and replacement of components can be made. (10) Only manufacturers who have satisfied the prequalification requirements stipulated in the Special Provisions “Modular Expansion Joint System” will be permitted to supply modular expansion joints. This Special Provision includes requirements for fatigue resistance characterization, testing, and design. (11) Traffic barrier cover plates should be designed for removability. b. Modular Expansion Joint Size Determination Modular joints are sized according to movement rating (MR) and are in increments of 3 inches beginning with a 6-inch modular system. The movement rating is equal to the product of the number of seals and the 3 inch maximum allowable movement rating of each seal. For example, a three seal modular joint with three strip seals, each with a maximum allowable movement rating of 3 inches, has a total movement rating of 9 inches. (1) “G” Dimension and Temperature Setting The “G” dimension, face-to-face of edge beams, helps the Contractor adjust the joint assembly in the field for different temperatures. This dimension is normal to the joint and is dependent upon two variables: (a) Flange width of center beams. (b) Minimum gap per seal permitted by the manufacturer at full closure. Therefore, Gmin and Gmax can be determined from: Gmin = (N-l)(B) + (N)(MG) Gmax = Gmin + MR (13) (14)

8.4.1-8

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
where: B MR N N-1 MG MS = = = = = =

Bridge Details
Center beam flange width Total movement rating of the joint system Number of seals = MR/MS Number of center beams Minimum gap per seal permitted at full closure Maximum permitted movement rating per seal = 3 inch maximum

In addition to the Gmin and Gmax dimensions, “G” dimensions should be shown for structure temperatures of 40°F, 64°F, and 80°F following the same procedure as used for strip seals. These dimensions are normal to the joint. For large movement joints, in concrete bridges, consideration should be given to using structure temperatures in determining construction openings at 40°F, 64°F, and 80°F, because of the time lag between ambient air temperature and structure temperature. For long span bridges, where temperature is not constantly monitored as part of the construction procedure, temperature movements require more attention. Consideration should be given to using a two- or three-day running mean temperature for setting joints during construction. (2) Generally, large movement joints are not designed for earthquake movements. It is felt that the joint will suffer damage in a seismic event and have to be rebuilt. However, consideration may be given to accommodating some earthquake movement. The designer should work closely with his Supervisor and the Expansion Joint Specialist to determine the best combination of cost versus design movement. (3) See Appendixes 8.4-B5 through 8.4-B8 for typical design calculations. 4. Large Movement Joints—Steel Finger Joints Prior to the development of watertight modular joints, finger joints were used to accommodate large movements. However, these joints do not provide a watertight seal and are not currently being specified. Consult the Joint Specialist before selecting this type of joint. These joints are open-type, either cantilever or propped cantilever steel tooth plates. The tooth plates can be cut from a plate l1/2 inch thick for movements up to 5 inches, but for larger movements, it is preferable for tooth plates to be cast or fabricated by welding. The teeth should have adequate transverse and longitudinal stiffness to avoid chatter under traffic. The design should also accommodate differential deflection, rotation, or settlement across the joint. The steel fingers should have the top surface parallel to the roadway grade, but tapered downward slightly to prevent snowplow damage. The steel fingers should also be stress relieved to prevent warping. Additional requirements suggested by the FHWA include: (a) Limit deck surface openings in finger joints to permit safe operation of motorcycles. (b) Where narrow bicycle tires are anticipated, use special floor plates in the shoulder area. (c) Limit the minimum joint opening in the longitudinal direction to 1 inch. (d) At the maximum joint opening, the teeth should overlap at least 2 inches. (e) Elastomeric troughs should be provided under the joint to protect the structure below. Reinforced elastomeric material for troughs should have a low durometer (50 or 60) and be at least 3/8 inch thick. The troughs should be continuous across the full width of the bridge including the curb and parapet area and sloped at least 1 inch per foot to prevent

August 1998

8.4.1-9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

sedimentation. However, the slope may vary depending on the expected rainfall and debris at each location. The troughs should be attached in a secure manner with a minimum of 5/8-inch diameter bolts at 18-inch centers. The designer should avoid specifying finger joints for new construction. However, they may be needed where snowplow use is extensive or where widening of an existing structure precludes the use of any other joint system. B. Specifications for Bridge Deck Joints Bridge deck joints shall be specified as follows: 1. 2. Specify only approved manufacturers that provide good field performance and service. Do not specify “or an approved equal.” A single manufacturer (sole source) may be specified if the designer determines that their system is the only one that can satisfy the design criteria. Furnish justification to the Specifications Section and check with the Joint Specialist. Approval will have to be obtained from the FHWA by the Bridge Design Engineer before a sole source can be specified. Specify quality assurance requirements, material specifications, design requirements, fabrication requirements (e.g., welding, personnel requirements, inspection, testing), acceptance criteria, corrosion protection, and payment. Specify that the manufacturers of modular joints or finger joints, be certified under the AISC Quality Certification Program (Simple Steel Bridges). For all joints, specify that welding inspection shall be done by certified welding inspectors under AWS QC1, Standard for Qualification and Certification of Welding Inspectors. Personnel performing nondestructive testing (NDT) shall be certified as NDT Level II under the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1a.

3.

4.

C. Reviewing Shop Plans 1. Review the shop plans to ensure that they conform with the Contract Plans and Special Provisions regarding the following information a. b. c. d. e. Plan and elevation of the joint. Complete details of all components and sections showing all materials incorporated in the joint. All AASHTO or other material designation and method of corrosion protection. Movement rating. HS 25 live loading plus impact. Behavior on skew, if present. Opening dimensions at 40°F, 64°F, and 80°F for setting the joint. Note on the shop plans whether these temperatures are structure temperatures or ambient air temperatures taken in the shade. Installation procedures, including any required services by a manufacturer’s field representative. Consideration of weld details in areas of stress concentration, welding procedures to include pre- and post-heat, and methods proposed by the manufacturer to prevent weld induced cracks.

f. g.

8.4.1-10

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
h.

Bridge Details

Prohibition of temporary lifting, temperature, and construction adjustment devices that are welded to the centerbeams or edge beams, except for threaded studs used to support strip seal joints. Threaded studs should be removed by grinding and an appropriate corrosion protection system applied to the steel affected by grinding. Manufacturer’s part numbers, so replacement parts can be easily identified and ordered. Anchorage details, blockout size to facilitate placement of concrete, method of support during placement of deck concrete, and all blockout reinforcing steel. Treatment of curbs, sidewalks, parapets, and traffic barriers (to include the non-traffic side) with respect to leakage and maintenance. Ease of removal and handling of traffic barrier cover plates by two persons without special lifting equipment.

i. j. k. 1.

m. Minimum radii permitted by the AISC for cold bending steel traffic barrier cover plates. n. Design calculations for all structural elements of modular expansion joints. All calculations shall satisfy the requirements of the Special Provision “Modular Expansion Joint System.” See the Expansion Joint Specialist for sample calculations.

2.

Provide the following information to the Expansion Joint Specialist for performance tracking and maintenance purposes: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Contract Number/Bridge Number. Location. Manufacturer. Type of Joint. Type of Extrusion/Steel Shape Designation. Seal Size/Manufacturer’s Designation. Approved By/Date Approved.

D. Other Considerations 1. Maintenance During design, consideration should be given to maintenance of the joints. For large movement joints, parts availability, replaceability, and access provisions should be considered. The designer should consult with the Expansion Joint Specialist on the maintenance and durability of the modular joints. 2. Widening and Rehabilitation of Bridges a. For the rehabilitation of bridges, existing joints and structure layout should be studied to determine if existing joints can be eliminated. It will be necessary to determine what modifications to the structure are required to provide an adequate and functional system when existing joints are eliminated. Consideration should be given to proper anchorage of edge beams for wheel impact loads.

b.

P:DP/BDM8 9807-0802

August 1998

8.4.1-11

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.4.2 Drainage Design
A. General Even though it is rare that poor drainage is directly responsible for a structural failure, it still must be a primary consideration in the design. Poor drainage can cause problems such as ponding on the roadway, erosion of abutments, and deterioration of structural members. Most of the problems can be prevented by collecting the runoff and transporting it away from the bridge. Proper geometrics during the preliminary stage is essential in order to accomplish this. The Hydraulics Section recommends placing the bridge deck drainage off of the structure. So the Bridge Design Section has adopted the policy that all expansion joints will be watertight. B. Geometrics Bridges should have adequate transverse and longitudinal slopes to allow the water to run quickly to the drains. A transverse slope of .02′/ft. and longitudinal slope of 0.5 percent for minimum valves are adequate. Avoid placing sag vertical curves and superelevation crossovers on the structure which could result in hydroplaning conditions or, in cold climates, sheets of ice from melting snow. The use of unsymmetrical vertical curves may assist the designer in shifting the low point off the structure. C. Hydrology Hydrological calculations are made using the rational equation. A 10-year storm event with a 5-minute duration is the intensity used for all inlets except for sag vertical curves where a 50-year storm intensity is required. D. On Bridge Systems In some cases, such as box girder structures, a bridge drainage system is required for the structure. The first selection is to place 5-inch diameter pipe drains which have no bars and drop straight to the ground. At other times, such as for steel structures, the straight drop drain is unacceptable and a piping system with bridge drains (see appendix) is required. The minimum piping diameter should be 6 inches with no sharp bends within the system. E. Construction Bridge decks have a striated finish in accordance with the Standard Specifications listed below, however, the gutters have an untextured finish (steel trowel) for a distance of 2 feet from the curb. This untextured area provides for smooth gutter flow and a Manning n value of .015 in the design. Standard Specification Section 6-02.3(10) — Bridge Decks Standard Specification Section 5-05.3(11) — Approach Slabs

Bridge Details

P:DP/BDM8 9807-0802

August 1998

8.4.2-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

8.4.2-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.4.3 Bridge Bearings
A. Purpose The purpose of a bridge bearing is to support the superstructure at a constant elevation, to carry all forces from the superstructure into the substructure, and to allow necessary superstructure movements to take place. B. Forces to Be Resisted Bridge bearing reactions can come from any of the forces associated with bridge loadings. These forces can be combined into the basic loading vectors described below. 1. Vertical Force This force can be considered to act directly through the center of the bearings. It is normally made up of dead load and live load. This force is resisted by bearing against the concrete of the pier cap at the reduced stress values specified in AASHTO design specifications for such bearing. 2. Transverse Force This force acts normal to the centerline of the bridge in a horizontal direction at the top of the bearing. It is made up of wind, earthquake, and other horizontal forces, and must be resisted by keys, anchor bolts, pintles, or other suitable means. In some cases, girder stops may be used to resist this force, in which case the bearing itself need not resist it. Friction on the stop may require a “stop bearing.” The transverse force will develop a moment within the bearing itself, which is equal to the product of the force times the height of the bearing. This moment may be significant for tall bearings and should be included in the analysis. For “stop bearings,” see Section 8.4.3D5.e. 3. Longitudinal Force This is any horizontal force acting parallel to the centerline of the bridge, including thermal motion forces and forces due to concrete shrinkage. Longitudinal forces generally will not be developed in an expansion bearing. Curved bridges require special consideration. Expansion bearings may, however, develop significant longitudinal forces due Lo sliding or rolling friction, shear deformation forces in neoprene bearings, and so forth. Where thcse forces may exist, they must be accounted for in the design. 4. Uplift Forces With the exception of elastomeric pads, usual bearings shall be designed for uplift forces due to earthquake in an amount equal to 10 percent of the vertical dead load reaction of the superstructure. 5. Other Forces Bending moments in each of the three planes may be developed by a particular structure. The resulting forces induced in the bearings should be considered and accounted for in the design when they are significant.

Bridge Details

August 1998

8.4.3-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
C. Movements Allowance must be provided in the design of each structure for all anticipated movements. Normally these movements will be primarily in the longitudinal direction. For extremely wide structures, transverse movements may also be significant. The following material provides guidance for design. 1. Temperature Expansion and contraction due to temperature change will occur throughout the life of the structure. Proper temperature expansion provisions are essential to ensure that the structure will not be damaged by restricting such movements Where these movements are restrained due to poor design or construction, extremely high forces may be imposed on other portions of the structure. It should be noted for setting bearings that the mean annual temperature throughout the state of Washington is approximately 50°. Standard construction specifications specify a “normal” temperature of 64°, which is the temperature at which it is assumed steel will be fabricated, expansion joints and bearings set, etc. This means that the plan dimensions are taken to be correct at 64°. Except for elastomeric bearings, bearing setting dimensions should be shown on the plans for a range of temperatures other than 64°. Figure 8.4.3C1-1 gives additional temperature data for specific areas. The National Weather Service has information on other areas.

Bridge Details

30-Year Extreme Temperatures High Olympia Spokane Yakima 100 108 110 Mean Annual Temperature Olympia Spokane 50 1 47.3 Low -7 -25 -25

Typical Temperature Ranges in Washington Figure 8.4.3C1-1 October 1975 a. Steel Structures In the absence of more exact temperature data, use the following design temperature ranges: Eastern Washington: Western Washington: -30° to 120°F 0° to 120°F

Center bearings at 50°F. Specify bearing setting temperatures about a mean construction temperature of 64°F. b. Concrete Structures Concrete structures possess more thermal mass than steel structures. Consequently, the temperature extremes to which they are exposed are less than those of steel structures. In the absence of more exact temperature data, design temperatures for concrete structures throughout Washington State shall be assured to range from 0° to 100°F.

8.4.3-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

Sample Temperature versus Motion Graph for a Concrete Box Girder Bridge Figure 8.4.3Clb-l October 1975 2. Shrinkage All concrete tends to shrink during curing unless special additives are used. See 5.1.1A. The design of bearing elements shall accommodate this shrinkage movement. If the calculated movements are significant, bearings for concrete structures (except elastomeric bearings) should be installed in the direction of the “hot” position (opposite to anticipated shrinkage) in order to be in the “normal” position after shrinkage has taken full effect. Such adjustment must be shown on the plans. 3. Creep In certain structures, creep associated with applied loads must be taken into account in the bearing details. This is particularly true for post-tensioned bridges where the prestressing force will cause an immediate clastic shortening of the structure and an associated long-term creep effect. On very unusual structures, this effect could result from dead load sidesway forces. Similar to the adjustment for shrinkage, bearings should be designed and installed to compensate for this effect.

August 1998

8.4.3-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
4. Earth Pressure In several structures which have been designed and constructed, unanticipated earth pressure movements have resulted in tilted rocker bearings, closed expansion joints, and jammed joint openings. Where it is anticipated that such action may occur, bearings should be designed so that they can be readjusted in position, if necessary, to account for such motions. Similar action should be considered where settlements may cause bearing misalignment. Consideration should be given to providing jacking pads to minimize the labor involved in making such adjustments. In any case, bearings should be designed so that if these motions occur, they will not result in damage to the structure. 5. Force/Motion Combinations In the process Of bearing design, the question often arises as to what position of the bearing to assume for design. Usually the bearing will be designed in the “normal” position for dead load and live load. Design will include an analysis of bearing elements at high and low temperature positions utilizing the load factors normally associated with those temperature conditions. Similar procedures should be used for other motion conditions. 6. Replacement Considerations Whenever possible, bearings shall be detailed, fabricated, and installed to facilitate inspection, maintenance, and eventual replacement if required. Jacking points shall be identified on the contract drawings so that bearings can be reset, replumbed, or replaced to mitigate construction induced displacement. 7. Construction Tolerances Care should be taken that the design includes adequate construction tolerance for setting bearings. D. Bearing Details The following are some specific design criteria with discussion for various bearing types and details (see Figure 8.4.3C-1). 1. Fixed Bearings The bearings are called “fixed” because they do not allow longitudinal motion. They are normally not fixed in the static sense but are actually pinned, in that they allow rotational motion in the longitudinal direction (see Figure 8.4.3C-1). Base plate pressures on the concrete are governed by AASHTO Specifications. Bending stress in the base plate of all steel bearings shall normally not exceed 24,000 psi in order to avoid use of thin plates and the resultant concentration of loads due to flexural distortions of the plate. Higher plate stresses may be allowed if a more rigorous analysis is used. The body of the bearing is normally cast steel or a weldment. Normally, castings will be specified only where the bearings will be duplicated several times due to the high cost of the pattern. Forces in the longitudinal direction are assumed to act through the center of the pin, and the moment applied to the base plate is the horizontal force times h. Forces in the transverse direction (along the axis of the pin) may be assumed to act on the bearing in double bending. That is, the moment applied to the base and to the pin along its length is equal to the force times h/2. The base plate must be capable of transmitting the horizontal forces to the concrete through positive

Bridge Details

8.4.3-4

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

means. This may include anchor bolts, shear lugs, or other suitable devices. Normally, friction alone will not be considered to be adequate. Webs of the body of the bearing will be designed taking into account the minimum thickness requirements for steel plates.

Bearing Details Figure 8.4.3C-l October 1975 2. Rocker Bearings These bearings are intended to allow the end of the structure to move longitudinally along a horizontal line. They are usually used for movable bearings supporting very large loads. The base plate of these and of all movable bearings shall be placed level in order to avoid the tendency for the bridge to move down slope. AASHTO equations are used to select an appropriate line bearing value and a dimension for the rocker radius. Sufficient clearance must be maintained between the edges of the top and bottom bearing blocks to allow the bearing to rotate freely at the extremes of motion. Pintles are always used with thcse bearings to prevent “walking” of the rocker on the base plate and to resist transverse horizontal forces. The line bearing force values should be based on a net contact length, deducting the pintle widths. The line bearing values should take into account the increase in line pressure due to transverse loads when the loading combination being considered contains such loads. Moment at the bearing line of the rocker due to transverse loads can be developed using assumptions similar to those noted for fixed bearings. Base plate design consists of selecting a plate thickness to satisfy the strength requirements shown in Figure 8.4.3C-1. The strength of the plate ends beyond the end of the rocker may require additional investigation. Provision must be made to hold down the rocker to the base plate for earthquake uplift requirements. The designer should be aware of the longitudinal horizontal force which may be developed through pin friction. That force is equal to P w/R, where u is the steel friction coefficient (could be taken as 0.7 for the dry static condition), P the load, and r and R the radius of the pin and rocker respectively. Other design provisions are similar to those for fixed bearings.

August 1998

8.4.3-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
3. Roller Bearings These bearings are simpler than rocker bearings, but due to the smaller radius are suitable for carrying only moderate loads. These bearings are limited to a maximum of about 7 inches in roller size due to availability of bar stock. They are normally made from finished roller stock, but may be manufactured from thick plates (see Figure 8.4.3C-l). Yield points to 70,000 psi may be specified in order to keep the line bearing values within AASHTO allowables. If bearing plates and rollers are fabricated from steels with different yield strengths, the line bearing value will be controlled by the lowest yield strength. Pintles are required at both the top and bottom of the roller. Office practice is to not allow roller nests (multiple rollers in one bearing) except for temporary bearings. Roller nests do not allow rotation of the beam end (unless special pins and guides are used) and are difficult to maintain. For additional criteria, see “fixed bearings” and “rocker bearings.” 4. Sliding Bearings These bearings rely on a reduced coefficient of friction between the two contact surfaces to allow longitudinal bearing motion. These bearings must be used in combination with a device which will allow beam end rotation. This device can be curved sliding surfaces, neoprene pads, or pins. Numerous bearing materials and configurations are possible. Sliding materials may be Tronze, “Teflon,” “Lubrite,” stainless steel, or other patented materials. Many combinations of the above are possible. Sliding bearings will always develop significant horizontal longitudinal forces, and these forces must be accounted for in the design. Reasonable friction coefficients must be selected for the particular materials selected. 5. Elastomeric Bearings An elastomeric bearing is fabricated wholly or partially from either natural rubber or neoprene. Steel reinforced elastomeric bearings are reinforced with multiple steel shim plates vulcanized between adjacent elastomeric layers. Elastomeric bearings rely on their inherent shear flexibility to accommodate bridge movements in any horizontal direction. This shear flexibility also enhances their rotational capability. Steel shim plates limit the tendency for elastomer to bulge laterally. Elastomeric bearings are commonly used on prestressed girder bridges and may be used on other bridge types. The cost of elastomeric bearings is relatively low compared to most high-load multi-rotational bearings. a. General Design Criteria Design of elastomeric bearings shall be in accordance with the AASHTO specifications. Conventional elastomeric bearings are designed using the Method A procedure. High-load elastomeric bearings are designed using the Method B procedure. The Method B design procedure allows significantly higher average compressive stresses. These higher allowable stress levels are justified by an additional acceptance test, specifically a long-duration compression test. Design criteria for both methods is based upon satisfying fatigue, stability, delamination, steel reinforcement yield/rupture, and elastomer stiffness requirements. The design of a steel reinforced elastomeric bearing requires an appropriate balance of compressive, shear, and rotational stiffnesses. The shape factor, as defined by the steel shim spacing, significantly affects the compressive and rotational stiffness of the bearing. However, it has no impact on the translational stiffness of the bearing or its translational deformation capacity. Large rotations and translations generally require taller bearings.

Bridge Details

8.4.3-6

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

High-load elastomeric bearings (AASHTO Method B design) can provide economical alternatives to lightly loaded high-load multi-rotational bearings. Additionally, their flexibility provides some degree of seismic isolation which may reduce substructure costs. Designers shall obtain the approval of the Bearings Specialist and the Bridge Design Engineer in order to use high-load elastomeric bearings on a specific project. The Standard Specifications states that elastomeric bearing pads shall conform to the requirements of AASHTO M 251 Plain and Laminated Elastomeric Bridge Bearings and that internal shims shall be fabricated from ASTM A 570 Grade 36 (A 570M Grade 250) steel unless noted otherwise on the plans. The minimum elastomeric bearing length or width shall be 6 inches (except for girder stop pads). Generally, all pads shall be 60 durometer hardness. Pads shall be laminated in 1/2 inch elastomeric layers with a minimum total thickness of 1 inch. For overall bearings heights less than 3 inches, a minimum of 1/8 inch of side clearance shall be provided over the steel shims. For overall heights between 3 inches and 7 inches, a minimum of 1/4 inch of side clearance shall be provided. For overall heights greater than 7 inches, a minimum of 1/2 inch of side clearance shall be provided. Live load plus impact compressive deflection shall be limited to 1/16 inch. In determining bearing pad thickness, it should be assumed that slippage will not occur. Bearing pad thickness shall be no less than twice the maximum lateral deflection (see Figure 8.4.3D5a-1). The equations shown in b, c, and d below are approximations of this motion. Section 8.4-B9 of Appendix B presents a reinforced elastomeric bearing pad design example using the AASHTO Method A design procedure. Electronic spread sheet programs are available for designing high-load elastomeric bearings using the Method B design procedure. Reference 5 on page 8.99-1 provides additional guidance for the design of elastomeric bearings. b. Elastomeric Bearings for Precast Concrete Spans For prestressed or precast concrete girder spans, it should be assumed that the beams may not be placed at the “mean” temperature range. In addition, allowance must be made for half shrinkage. Minimum Pad Thickness for Prestressed Girders = 2[3/4 (∆ Temp. Rise + ∆ Temp. Fall) + ∆ 1/2 Shrink.]

March 2000

8.4.3-7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

Figure 8.4.3D5a-l October 1975 c. Elastomeric Bearings for Cast-in-Place Concrete Spans For cast-in-place concrete spans, it should be assumed that the temperature of concrete at time of casting is the normal temperature. However, allowance must be made for full shrinkage. Minimum Pad Thickness for Cast-in-Place Girders = 2 [∆ Temp. Fall + ∆ Shrink.], where temperature fall is the deflection corresponding to a temperature change of 45°. d. Elastomeric Bearings for Steel Girder Spans For steel girder spans, it should be assumed that the beams may not be placed at the “mean” temperature and design should provide for 3/4 of the total temperature range. No allowance is needed for shrinkage. Minimum Pad Thickness for Steel Girders = 2 [3/4 (∆ Temp. Rise + ∆ Temp. Fall)] e. Girder Stop Bearing Pads Where earth pressure on the back wall (end diaphragm) of skewed bridges or other transverse loads must be resisted by girder stops, these stops must be capable of allowing the anticipated motion (see Article 9.3.2D and Figure 8.4.3DSe-l). The following procedure is recommended for design of stop pads for skewed prestressed girder bridges for loads due to earth pressure on back walls. Design Assumptions (Series 80, 100, and 120 Prestressed Girders Only) Cold Climate Elastomeric Bearing Pads of 60 Durometer Hardness and 1/2-inch Laminates T = 2 [3/4 (∆ Temp. Range) +1/2 (Shrink.)] Pad Width Equals 5 inches

8.4.3-8

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

Girder Stop Bearing Pad Figure 8.4.3D5e-l October 1975 Procedure The transverse load girder due to earth pressure plus live load surcharge pressure can be determined from the Spacing Chart on page 8.4-B14 of Appendix B. By entering this chart with skew angle, girder series, and girder spacing (normal to girder), the transverse load per girder F(Ep)T may be read on the right-hand side of the chart. Note: If F(Ep)T is less than 2,200 pounds, no girder stop bearing pads are required since the girder bearing pad is capable of resisting 2,200 pounds with a maximum transverse deflection of 1/8 inch. If the Spacing Chart indicates that girder stop bearing pads are required, the required pad thickness can be obtained by entering the Pad Thickness Chart on page 8.4-B15 of Appendix B on the left side with the bridge length (back to back of pavement seat). The pad thickness should be rounded lo the next higher half-inch increment. The width of the girder stop bearing pad is a constant 5 inches for series 80, 100, and 120 girders. The length of the pad is equal to three times the rounded “T.”

August 1998

8.4.3-9

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

By reentering the Pad Thickness Chart on the bottom with the pad thickness (from chart as rounded), F(Ep)T (from the Spacing Chart), and the number of lines of girders in the end span, the number of girders in the end span requiring girder stop bearing pads can be obtained. See the sample problem Appendix B Section 8.4-B12. 6. Preformed Fabric Pads These pads can withstand large compression loads. They can provide for rotation. When used in combination with a PTFE sliding surface, they will allow bridge movements in a horizontal direction. When a PTFE sliding surface is specified, the PTFE sheet shall be 1/8 inch thick and shall be recessed 1/16 inch into 1/2 inch-thick steel plate that is bonded to the top of the fabric pad. They have been used on reinforced and post-tensioned concrete box girder bridges and can be used on other bridge types. The cost of bearings incorporating preformed fabric pads is relatively low compared to most steel bearings. a. Criteria Maximum average allowable bearing pressure on the fabric pad is 1,200 psi at service load. Maximum allowable concrete bearing pressure is determined by 1977 AASHTO Article 1.5.26(3). Maximum total load on bearing is 500 kips. If the design load exceeds this value, another type of bearing should be used. Maximum bearing thickness is 4 inches. b. Sample Problem The following method is used to calculate the required dimensions of a preformed fabric pad used in combination with a TFE sliding surface: Maximum Edge Strain = Average Strain + Rotation Where: T = Pad Thickness L = Pad Length (parallel to longitudinal axis of beam) R = Rotation due to loading plus construction tolerances Allowance for Rotation = .015 Radians minimum (AASHTO) 0.14 = maximum strain with edge stress of 2,000 psi At 1,200 psi, strain = 10 percent or 0.10T Hence: 0.14T = (0.10)T + T = 12.5LR Given: DL + LL + I = 260 kips/bearing Rotation = 0.015 radians Allowable Bearing Pressure for Fabric Pad = 1,200 psi fc′ = 3,000 psi
L (R) 2

8.4.3-10

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
Solution: Pad Area Required = 260,000 lbs./1,200 psi = 216.67 in2 Try a 20-inch-wide by 11-inch-long pad Area = 220 in2 Check allowable concrete bearing pressure by AASHTO Al = 20 inches × 11 inches = 220 in2 A2 = (20+6)(11+6) = 442 in2 Allowable Bearing on loaded area = fb fb = (0.30fc′ )
A2 A1

Bridge Details

A2 A1 = 1.42 ≤ 2

Allowable fb = (.3) (3,000 psi) (1.42) = 1,278 psi > 1,200 psi Allowable Bearing on the Fabric Pad Controls Thickness of Pad: T = 12.5LR = 12.5(11)(0.015) = 2.06 inches Use Fabric Pad that is 20 inches by 11 inches by 21/4 inches 7. Combination Bearings The bearing types which have been discussed above can be used in many combinations in order to develop a satisfactory solution for a bearing problem. For instance, an elastomeric bearing may be used to provide rotational ability when using a sliding bearing. 8. Patented Bearings These bearings are available from several sources. They are quite expensive and have seldom been used to date in Washington. In some cases, they may prove to be a good solution for heavily loaded bearings. If used, care must be taken to ensure that the bearing actually supplied by the Contractor meets all of the requirements of specifications. 9. Bearing Pins Pins of the type shown schematically in Figure 8.4.3C-I, Fixed Bearings, are commonly used with many bearing types. Figure 8.4.3D9-1 shows a typical configuration of such a pin. The pin diameter and strength must be such that vertical loads can be adequately carried. This is normally not a problem. The critical factor in pin design is the ability to carry transverse loads. Normally, in the figure shown, Diameter D2 is Y2 inch less than Dl. The transverse loads are carried from the top bearing plate to the bottom bearing plate by the inner ring of the upper bearing block bearing against the washer and nut. This causes a bending plus axial tension stress in the threaded portion of the pin. This stress must not exceed that allowed for tension at the root of the thread. The position of the acting force may be taken as shown in Figure 8.4.3C8-1 by force “H,” half of D2 from centerline pin. This is allowable because any slight bending of the pin will tend to move the point of application of the force vector closer to the centerline. High strength bar steel should be used where necessary to keep pin sizes reasonable. It is desirable to have pins fabricated of a

August 1998

8.4.3-11

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

steel with slightly different composition from the bearing blocks in order to avoid the possibility of “freezing” of the bearing surface. Pins of ASTM A-108 grade 1040, 70,000 Y.P. have been used successfully with A36 bearing blocks. The keeper rings used with such pins must be adequate to carry required uplift loads.

Typical Bearing Pin (For Use With Bearing Blocks) Figure 8.4.3D9-1 October 1977 10. Bearing Blocks The bearing blocks for use with the typical pin described above are rectangular steel blocks machined for the pin shaft and the keeper ring (see Figure 8.4.3D10-1).

Bearing Block Figure 8.4.3D10-1 September 1986

8.4.3-12

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

Design of such blocks is nominal. The dimension “T,” least thickness to pin, must be large enough to clear the nut and the weld on the end of the block. It must also be large enough to ensure that the stress due to vertical pin loads is within allowables. If P is the vertical load applied to the bearing, R is the pin radius, W is the width of the load applying element, H is the horizontal component of force developed by the pin curvature, and x and y are the distances to the reactive forces P/2 and H then; the movement on the section dimensioned at “T” can be shown to be:
 T + R − W M=P  2π π 8 

This moment tends to fail the bearing block in bending at this section and must be resisted by the strength of the section at that point. 11. Anchor Bolts Anchor bolts are used for all except neoprene bearings and perform a variety of functions. These functions may be: Hold down uplift loads. Resist transverse loads from bearings. Provide temporary support for base plate. Hold base plate firmly to erection shims. Not all of these functions are necessarily needed in each design. Figure 8.4.3C11-1 shows a section through a typical anchor bolt. AASHTO Specifications give sizes for nominal anchor bolts. Where uplift loads must be held, the bolts must be adequate in length and the washer nut must be of sufficient size and strength to engage a mass of concrete as specified in AASHTO under “Uplift.” Where reinforcement in the concrete can be engaged, that reinforcement may also be considered to act to resist uplift Transverse loads cannot be resisted by the anchor bolts unless the void between the pipe and the bolt has been well grouted. The plans should require that the contractor grout from the bottom of the pipe before grouting the bearing plate. An arrangement for doing this must be shown on the plans. See Figure 8.4.3C11-2 for a typical detail. If the anchor bolt is to provide temporary support for a base plate, sufficient number of shims shall be used to carry the weight of the plate and other loads applied before grouting the plate. These may include the weight of erected steel superstructure for structural steel bridges. Anchor bolts shall be ASTM A 449 where strengths equal to ASTM A 325 are desired, and ASTM A 354, Grade BD, where strengths equal to ASTM A 490 are desired. For anchor bolt specifications and properties, see Bridge Instruction 7.1.8, Volume 1. 12. Construction Shims The Construction Specifications require that bearings for steel bridges be supported on sets of 21/2 inch square shims while the steel is being erected. The plans shall normally show how these shims are to be placed in order to avoid overstressing the base plate or bearing webs or the concrete of the pier. 13. Pintles Pintles are used with rollers and rockers to carry transverse loads and to keep the moving parts in alignment. They are detailed so that transverse shear is applied at the surface of the parts. Their size must be such that these shear forces can be adequately resisted by the cross section of the pintle.

August 1998

8.4.3-13

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

Typical Anchor Bolt Figure 8.4.3C11-1

Anchor Bolt as Detailed Figure 8.4.3C11-2 E. Orientation of Bearings Movable bearings must be aligned to correspond to the actual direction of motion anticipated in the structure. On curved and skewed structures, care must be taken that the details clearly show the bearings set relative to the actual axis of motion. On curved bridges, this axis may correspond with a chord between the two ends of the span. STRUDL may be helpful in establishing the exact motion vectors of the structure.

8.4.3-14

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
F. Bearing Selection Consideration should be given to elimination of bearings by making the superstructure continuous with the substructure, where feasible. Engineering judgment based on the particular design conditions should govern bearing in any particular case. The following bridge types and bearings are commonly used together: Prestressed Girder Bridges Slab Bridges Concrete Box Girder Bridges Elastomeric Bearings Continuity or Elastomeric Bearings Elastomeric Bearings Roller Bearings Preformed Fabric Pads w/TFE Sliding Surfaces Roller Bearings Sliding Bearings Rocker Bearings Rocker Bearings

Bridge Details

Steel Girder Bridges

-

Steel Truss Bridges

-

Occasionally, other devices which act as bearings may be used. These include hinged columns and bents.

8.4.4 8.4.5 8.4.6

Bridge Railing (Vacant) Ladders, Stairs, Grates, Etc. (Vacant) Surface Treatments (Vacant)

P:DP/BDM8 9807-0802

August 1998

8.4.3-15

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.4.7 Deck Protection Systems
A deck protective system is to be included in all projects involving concrete bridge deck construction or rehabilitation. The type of system to be used shall be determined by the Bridge and Structures Branch during the preliminary plan stage and shall be shown on the preliminary plan in the left margin. The most commonly used systems are listed below. Future overlays for bridges with one of the following systems is unlikely; however, if an overlay becomes necessary, a layer of concrete shall be removed equal to the weight of the asphalt overlay that will replace it so that the dead load remains unchanged. A. System Types 1. System 1: A 21/2-inch concrete cover over an epoxy-coated top mat of reinforcing with no overlay (see Section 8.4.7B). The 21/2-inch cover includes 0.15 feet of depth for traction striations in the roadway surface and 1/4-inch tolerance of the placement of reinforcing steel. System 2: A 13/4-inch concrete design cover over an epoxy-coated top map of reinforcing steel with 11/2 inches of later modified concrete overlay (see Section 8.4.7C). The design concrete cover includes 1/4-inch tolerance for placement of reinforcing steel and 1/4-inch for scarifying the concrete deck. The 11/2-inch latex modified concrete overlay is a minimum depth and includes .015 feet for traction striations. The bridge elevations shown on the layout sheet are to be based on top of the overlay (3 inches total cover). Deck elevations shown on other plan sheets shall be top of concrete as constructed (13/4-inch cover). System 3: A 11/2-inch or 2-inch concrete cover over an epoxy-coated top mat of reinforcing with a waterproofing membrane and asphalt overlay. Overlay thickness should be .15 feet (see Section 8.4.7D). The 2-inch concrete cover is for cast-in-place construction and includes a 1/4-inch tolerance for the placement of rebar. Because of the high quality of concrete and better control of reinforcing placement, the concrete cover for the precast prestressed deck members is reduced to 11/2 inches. Other Systems: The type of systems available for use may change as new products become available. At present, there are four other systems available, namely thin polymer concrete overlays, polyester polymer concrete, microsilica modified concrete, and cathodic protection. Thin polymer concrete overlays can be methyl methacrylate overlay or epoxy concrete overlay. All of the above systems are considered to be experimental and should not be used without the approval of the Bridge Design Engineer.

Bridge Details

2.

3.

4.

June 1994

8.4.7-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
B. System 1 (Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Only) 1. With this system, only the roadway slap top mild reinforcing mat and traffic barrier S1 bars are coated. This includes the top longitudinal negative moment reinforcing tied to the transverse deck reinforcing. Indicate the epoxy-coated reinforcing on the plan sheets and with an “E” in the “Epoxy Coated” column of the bar list. Add a note to the traffic barrier sheet to epoxy coat the S1 bars. Secure all stirrups for crossbeams, diaphragms, webs, and prestressed girders for the roadway slab with 135 hooks. Do not epoxy coat stirrups (see Figure 8.4.7-1).

Bridge Details

2.

March 1984 Figure 8.4.7-1

8.4.7-2

April 1991

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

C. System 2 (Latex Modified Concrete Overlay with Epoxy Coated Reinforcing) Note: See System 1 for additional details.

March 1984 Figure 8.4.7-2

April 1991

8.4.7-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

D. System 3 (Asphalt Overlay with Waterproof Membrane and Epoxy-Coated Reinforcing) Note: The class of asphalt is to be determined by the district. See System 1 for additional details.

March 1984 Figure 8.4.7-3

8.4.7-4

April 1991

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design
E. System Selection for New Structures 1. 2. System 1: This system will normally be used. System 2: This system is considered to provide double protection and shall be specified for structures with transverse post-tensioning in the deck. Deterioration of such decks seriously impairs the structural integrity, and their restoration is complex and costly. Consideration should also be given to this system for other types of structures. Factors that may influence the decision are the type and size of structure, ADT, nature of traffic, impact of future deck reconstruction on traffic flow, and anticipated use of deicing chemicals. The Bridge Design Engineer should be consulted before considering the use of a double protection system. 3. System 3: This system is also considered to provide some degree of double protection. However, the primary use of this system is for decks where a flexible leveling course is needed for joints in precast deck units. This system is most suitable for bridges with Bulb “T” girders and precast slabs.

Bridge Details

F. System Selection for Bridge Deck, Widening, and Rehabilitation Only design widenings for a future overlay when the adjacent existing structure is not overlaid as part of the widening. 1. 2. Epoxy-coated reinforcement is to be specified in the widened portion of the bridge. System 2: This system is preferred since it provides long-term protection. This system will normally be used when one or more of the following criteria are met: a. b. c. d. Delaminated and patched areas of the concrete deck exceed 5 percent of the deck area. A pacometer survey shows concrete cover over reinforcing steel of less than or equal to 1 inch over 15 percent or more of the deck area. Chloride contamination at the rebar level exceeds 2 pounds per cubic yard for 40 percent or more of the samples tested. When removal of an asphalt and membrane system is required. (This requirement will remain in effect until such time as a removal procedure is developed which will not result in damage to the underlying concrete. Concrete in the deck exhibits inferior durability based on visual observation.

e. 3.

System 3: In this system, asphalt concrete is a nonstructural component; it tends to reduce the load carrying capacity of the bridge by the amount of the overlay added. This system may be used when all of the following criteria are met: a. b. c. d. e. Delaminated and patched areas of the deck are less than 5 percent of the deck area. Concrete cover exceeds 1 inch or 90 percent or more of the deck area. ADT is less than 10,000 and the traffic index is less than 7.5. Chloride contamination at the rebar level is less than 2 pounds per cubic yard or exceeds 2 pounds per cubic yard for less than 40 percent of the samples tested. Deck surface must be compatible with the membrane system. A rough or pocked surface will result in damage to or early failure of the protective membrane.

4.

Other Systems: Thin Polymer Concrete Overlay systems should be considered only in special cases. They are particular suitable for bridges where weight of the overlay is critical, such as movable span bridges, or where extended traffic disruptions are intolerable, but due to their experimental nature should be used only in special cases.

June 1994

8.4.7-5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design Bridge Details

Adoption of thin overlays should be coordinated with the district through the Bridge Planning and Technology Unit. The bridge Planning and Technology Development Unit must be contacted early in the planning stage for using this system. This is required to coordinate development of the project with the district and if necessary the FHWA. Use of a system other than Systems 2 and 3 (stated previously) is considered as an exception and will require approval of the Bridge Design Engineer for its use. The Bridge Planning and Technology Unit should be consulted about the latest information on the new products available and also about the condition of the existing decks. 5. Deck Replacement: In some cases, deck deterioration will have advanced beyond the point of cost effective rehabilitation and/or protection. Excessive delamination, high chloride content, reactive aggregate, and freeze-thaw have been the predominant factors contributing to deck deterioration. When deck replacement or bridge replacement becomes necessary, the replacement scheduled should be coordinated with the districts.

8-4-7:V:BDM2

8.4.7-6

April 1991

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Miscellaneous Design 8.99 Bibliography
1. 2. E. I. Dupont de Nemours, Inc. “Design of Neoprene Bridge Bearing Pads.” Bridge Drainage System NCHRP—Synthesis of Highway Practice No. 67 Transportation Research Board National Research Council Washington, D.C. December 1979 Bridge Deck Drainage Guidelines Report No. FHWA/RD-87/014 December 1986 Hydraulics Manual WSDOT M23-03 Olympia, WA 98504 Burke, M. P. Jr., “Bridge Deck Joints,” NCHRP 141, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1989, 66 pp. Puccio, G. S., “Extruded Seals for Bridges and Structures,” Joint Sealing and Bearing systems for Concrete Structures, Vol. 2, SP-70, American Concrete Institute, 1982, p. 959. Bashore, F. J., Price, A. W., and Branch, D. E., “Determination of Allowable Movement Ratings for Various Proprietary Bridge Deck Expansion Joint Devices at Various Skew Angles, Second Testing Series,” Research Report No. R-1245, Michigan Transportation Commission, Lansing, Michigan, May 1984, 24 pp. Koster, W., “The Principle of Elasticity for Expansion Joints,” Joint Sealing and Bearing Systems for Concrete Structures, Vol. 2, SP-94, American Concrete Institute, 1986, pp. 675-712. Babaei, K. and Hawkins, N. M., “Development of Durable Anchorage Systems for Bridge Expansion Joints,” Final Report WA-RD 181.1, Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC), June 1989, 56 pp.

Bibliography

3.

4.

5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

10. Fatigue Design of Modular Bridge Expansion Joints NCHRP-Report 402 Transportation Research Board National Research Council Washington, D.C. — 1997 11. Handbook of Bridge Engineering Chen, W. F. and Lian Duan, editors Chapter 25: Expansion Joints CRC Press — 1988 12. Steel Bridge Bearing Selection and Design Guide National Steel Bridge Alliance American Iron and Steel Institute, 1996

P:DP/BDM8 9807-0802

August 1998

8.99-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design Sign Structure Foundation Material Quantities

September 1992

8.2 - A1 - 1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design Sign Structure Foundation Material Quantities

8-2-A1:VP:BDM8

8.2 - A1 - 2

September 1992

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design Notes to Designers Truss Sign Bridge Foundations

Notes to designers pertaining to the use of BDM Appendix A, 8.2-A4 (double-faced barrier foundation, Type 1, 2, and 3, for truss sign bridge). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Indicate type of foundation to be used (Type 1, 2, or 3). Determine conduit needs. If none exist, delete all references to conduit. If it is needed, verify with district as to size and quantity needed. Show sign bridge base elevation, number, “D” dimension and station. Modify details if other than a 3-inch curb is required. Transition section can be 10 feet 0 inches or 12 feet 6 inches. Note vertical shaft and tie steel No. 1 and No. 2. Quantities for the barrier as shown: Class 4000 concrete Class 3000 or 3000W concrete Gr. 60 Rebar Mark No. 21 and 22 Mark No. 24 Mark No. 26 8. Example contracts: .185 CY/LF above foundation cap .269 CY/LF outside foundation cap Varies with type and depth of foundation. See Standard Plan G-2b for dimensions. Varies, depends upon type of foundation and “D” dimension. Constant Maintain 6-inch o.c. spacing between end posts of truss. Varies with span length and “D” dimension 3345 SR 5 Southbound Add Lane 3393 Interstate VMS Signing

8-2-A3:V:BDM8

September 1992

8.2 - A3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design Notes to Designers Monotube Sign Bridge Foundations

Notes to designers pertaining to the use of BDM Appendix A, 8.2-A6 (double-faced barrier foundation, Type 1, 2, or 3, for Monotube Sign Bridge). 1. 2. 3. 4. Indicate type of foundation to be used (Type 1, 2, or 3). Determine conduit needs. If none, delete. If needed, contact district for number and size. Determine sections needed to “build” foundation, transition sections can be 10 feet 0 inches or 12 feet 6 inches. Show sign bridge : 1. 2. 3. 5. Base elevation Station Number

Modify details if other than 3-inch curb is required. Approximate quantities for foundation as shown: Class 4000 Class 3000 or 3000W Steel Reinforcing Gr. 60 .289 CY/LF over shaft foundation. Varies – see typical foundation sheet. 372 pounds

Steel AASHOT M222 or M223 GR. 50 60 feet & under 60 feet to 90 feet 90 feet to 120 feet 120 feet to 150 feet 6. Example contract = 1,002 pounds = 1,401 pounds = 1,503 pounds N/A 3283 Eastside to Plum

8-2-A5:V:BDM8

September 1992

8.2 - A5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design Notes to Designers Monotube Sign Structures

Notes to designers pertaining to the use of BDM Appendix A, 8.2-A8 through A-13 (Monotube Sign Structures). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Note if view is looking ahead or back on stationing. Note the bridge sheets on which the structure details are contained. If not Type 1, 2, or 3, note the average lateral bearing pressure for each foundation. If some span lengths are not used on a particular project, delete these from lower table to free up room. Note size and quantity (if any) of conduit to be installed. If no cantilevers are included, delete detail.

List of contracts with special designs C-3199 C-3334 C-3502 First Hill Lid Third Lake Paving and Systems Seattle Transit Access Phase 1

8-2-A7:V:BDM8

September 1992

8.2 - A7

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design Notes for Utility Installations to Existing Bridges

July 1996

8.3 - A1 - 1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design Notes for Utility Installations to Existing Bridges

8.3 - A1 - 2

July 1996

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design
1. 2. 3. 4.

Notes to Designers for Bridge Railing

Bridge Railing Type BP, Appendix 8.3-A3, is to be used when clear anodic coating is desired. Bridge Railing Type BP-B, Appendix 8.3-A4, is to be used when bronze anodic coating is desired. To determine height of railing, use 4′-6″ measured from the top of the railing to the reference surface (as defined by AASHTO). On the final plan sheet, show only one dimension for the height of the metal railing in two different places.

Notes to Designers for Type BP and Type BP-B Bridge Railing

8-3-A5:V:BDM8

September 1992

8.3-A5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix A Miscellaneous Design
1. 2. 3. 4. Show back of Pavement Seat in “Plan — Traffic Barrier” detail. At roadway expansion joints, show traffic barrier joints normal to centerline, except as shown in Appendix 8.4-A1. When an overlay is required, the 3″ maximum and 2′-8″ minimum dimensions shown in “Typical Section — Traffic Barrier” shall be referenced to the top of the overlay. Approximate quantities for the Traffic Barrier are as follows: Class 4000 Concrete 0.100 cu. yds./L.F. with 3″ curb 0.110 cu. yds./L.F. with overlay 427 lb./L.F. with 3″ 470 lb/L.F. with overlay 15.2 lb/L.F. (Bars R1 to R6) Bars S1, S2, and S3 (when applicable) should be included in normal Bar List.

Notes to Designers for Traffic Barrier

Steel Reinforcement Bars

5. 6.

The horizontal leg of S2 should lap the transverse slab bars by 1′-0″ minimum. When bridge lighting is a part of the contract, show lighting bracket and conduit details on a separate sheet.

Notes to Dsigners for Cast-in-Place Traffic Barrier

8-3-A5:V:BDM8

September 1992

8.3-A10

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Pin Bearing Notes
(These notes change constantly. For the latest information, check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor.) 1. 2. 3. Anchor bolts shall conform to ASTM A 490, ASTM A 449. Paint anchor bolts (from top of bolt to 6 inches below top of pier), nuts and washers with two coats of zinc rich paint, Standard Formula A-9-73. Anchor bolts shall be pressure grouted from the bottom up utilizing the grout tube. The grout tube shall extend to the bottom of the pipe. Anchor bolts shall be grouted prior to grouting under the masonry plate. Pressure grout the masonry plat from the center to the outside edges through a grout tube. Pin nuts shall conform to AASHTO M291 Grade DH. Pin nuts shall be tightened to a minimum of 200 ft.-lbs. of torque for a snug fit. Pin blocks shall conform to AASHTO M102, including supplementary requirement S4 with a minimum yield point of 50,000 psi. Bearing pins shall conform to ASTM A 434 with a minimum yield strength of 70,000 psi. Clean pin and adjoining bearing surfaces and coat these surfaces with grease. The bearing plate of each expansion bearing shall be centered transversely between the guide bars immediately prior to grouting of the pipes and grouting under the masonry plates. The bearing plate shall be positioned longitudinally as shown. Shim stacks shall be plumb and level. The bottom shim of each stack shall be machine tapered to account for both transverse and longitudinal top of pier slopes.

Notes to Designers Pin Bearings

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9.

10. The 28-day compressive strength of the grout in the grout pad and in the pipes shall be 4,000 psi. 11. Stainless steel screws shall conform to ASTM F 593 Type 304. 12. Do not paint sliding surfaces and bearing pin mated surfaces.

8-B1:V:BDM8

May 1993

8 - B1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Spherical Bearing Notes
(These notes change constantly. For the latest information, check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor.) 1. 2. Bearing elements shall be designed by the manufacturer in accordance with the Special Provisions to resist the forces given in the Table of Bearing Loads. Bearing elements and keeper plates shall be sized to fit the geometric limitations shown and to accommodate girder details. __________. The Contractor shall verify this bearing height after design of the bearing elements and shall provide new grout pad elevations as necessary. Upon receipt of grout pad elevations, the Engineer will review the affected pier and girder elements and implement any revisions (i.e., column/pier cap reinforcement). Centerline of bearing locations are shown on bridge sheets _____. 4. Bearing elements shall be removable and replaceable. Shop drawings shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval prior to the manufacture of the bearings. This submittal shall include a complete set of calculations. 5. 6. 7. Keeper plates shall be designed for applied bearing pressures resulting from the loads and movement provided in the table. Bearing elements shall be sized utilizing Service Load Design methods except for the AASHTO Group VII, allowable stresses shall be increased by 50 percent. Anchor bolts as shown shall be used to secure the lower keeper plate and masonry plate where applicable to the pier. The bearing manufacturer shall determine the weld size connecting the upper keeper plate to the girder based upon the bearing loads and size of the upper keeper plate required to accommodate the bearing as per AASHTO. Full horizontal forces shall be resisted by the external restrainer. The stainless steel sheet shall completely cover the T.F.E. surface in all operating positions and shall extend one additional inch in the longitudinal direction.

Notes to Designers Spherical Bearing

* 3. Top of grout pad elevations shown on the column sheets are based on an assumed overall bearing height of

8. 9.

10. Spherical bearings shall be used at piers _____. 11. Rotational capacity = + _____ degrees minimum. 12. Pressure grout masonry bearing plates after the structural steel has been erected and prior to pouring the roadway slab. Group bearings from the center to the outside edges of the masonry and lower keeper plate through the grouting tube. 13. Shim stacks shall be level. The bottom shim of each stack shall be machine tapered to account for both transverse and longitudinal top of pier slopes. Reminders: *Bearing height becomes very important at hinges when the bearings are contractor designed. Hinge gap should be sized before bearings are designed.

8-B2:V:BDM8

8 - B2

May 1993

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design General Notes
(These notes change constantly. For the latest information, check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor.) 1. All material and workmanship shall be in accordance with the requirements of the state of Washington, Department of Transportation, Standard Specifications for Road, Bridge and Municipal Construction dated ________. A. This structure has been designed in accordance with the requirements of the ________ AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. All prestressed concrete elements have been designed for service load stresses and checked for the requirements of load factor design. All other structural elements are designed in accordance with the requirements for load factor design. B. This structure has been designed in accordance with the requirements of the _______ AASHTO Specifications for Highway Bridges. All structural elements have been designed in accordance with load factor design. 3. Seismic design of this structure conforms with the provisions of the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges, dated 1983 and interims through __________. An acceleration coefficient of __________ has been used. Footing elevations and substructure details are subject to change depending upon foundation material encountered. Reinforcing steel for footings, abutment walls, and columns shall not be cut until final elevations have been determined and substructure details have been modified, if necessary. The concrete in the seals and shafts shall be Class _______. The concrete in the superstructure, including roadway deck and crossbeams, as well as bridge columns, shall be Class _______. All other cast-in-place concrete shall be Class _______. The concrete seals at piers __________ are designed for a water surface elevation of _________. After seals are poured, cofferdams shall not be dewatered when the water is above elevation _________. Provision shall be made to flood the cofferdam in the event that water surface is above the design elevation. The maximum design soil pressure per square foot is _____ tons for piers _____, the maximum design load for the piles for piers _____ is _____ tons. The maximum design load for the shafts is _____ tons. Falsework shall be carefully released to prevent impact or undue stress in structure. The traffic barrier and sidewalk shall not be poured until the falsework has been released. All steel shall be AASHTO M183 and galvanized after fabrication according to AASHTO M111, unless noted otherwise.

Notes to Designers General

2.

4.

5.

6.

7. 8. 9.

10. All bolts except as noted shall be ASTM A307 and shall have standard nuts and washers and galvanized according to AASHTO M232. All screws and miscellaneous fasteners shall be ASTM A 307 and galvanized according to AASHTO M232. 11. All bolt hole sizes shall be 1/16-inch diameter larger than bolt diameter. Bolt lengths not shown shall be as required to fit. 12. All dimensions and elevations shall be verified in the field by the contractor.

May 1993

8 - B3 - 1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Notes to Designers General

13. Unless otherwise shown on the plans, clear concrete cover from top of roadway slab to any reinforcement bar shall be 21/2 inches, 1 inch from the bottom of the roadway slab, 3 inches from the bottom of footing, and 11/2 inches from all other concrete surfaces. Reminders: Normally used concrete mixes in Item #5 above are 4000W, 4000, and 4000 respectively. Items #9, #10, and #11 may be omitted on steel superstructure bridge designs as they may conflict with Structural Steel Notes. Item #12 is normally appropriate for rehabilitation and widening projects.

8-B3:V:BDM8

8 - B3 - 2

May 1993

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Post-Tensioning Notes
(These notes change constantly. For the latest information, check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor.) 1. 2. The concrete in superstructure shall be Class 5000 mix, fc′ = 5000 psi. The minimum compressive strength of the cast-in-place concrete at the time of post-tensioning shall be _____ psi. Design is based on a friction curvature coefficient, µ = 0.2 and a friction wobble coefficient, K = 0.0002. The loss of stress in post-tensioned prestressing strands due to steel relaxation, elastic shortening, creep and shrinkage of concrete is estimated to be 32 ksi. Design is based on _____ 1/2-inch diameter low relaxation strands with an anchor set of 3/8 inch. The actual anchor set will depend on the jacking equipment used by the contractor and shall be specified in the shop plans. Each web shall be stressed to a load of _____ kips at jacked end after seating. The contractor shall submit the stressing sequence, elongation calculations, and force after anchor set to the engineer for approval. The stressing sequence shall meet the following criteria: A. Unless otherwise noted, the prestressing force, P-jack shall be distributed with an approximately equal amount in each web and shall be placed symmetrically about the center line of bridge. B. Whenever possible, no more than one-half of the prestressing force in any web may be stressed before an equal force is stressed in the adjacent webs. At no time during stressing operations will more than one-six of the total prestressing force be applied eccentrically about the center line of the bridge. 5. 6. 7. The maximum outer diameter of the duct shall be ____ inches. The area of the duct shall be at least twice the net area of the prestressing steel in the duct. All tendons shall be stressed _____________________________ (either one end or both ends). The maximum number of strands permitted in a duct is limited to 34 numbers. Contractor shall obtain approval of the Engineer for any deviation to the number of strands in a duct as shown on the plans. Any changes associated to the thickness of the web shall be at contractor’s expense.

Notes to Designers Post-Tensioning

3.

4.

Reminders: 1. 2. 3. 4 5. 6. Commonly used stress levels in note number 1 are 3000 psi and 3500 psi. For tendons made of 19 or less strands of 1/2-inch diameter, adopt web thickness of 101/2 inches. For tendons made of 20 to 31 strands of 1/2-inch diameter, adopt web thickness of 111/2 inches. For tendons made of 34 strands of 1/2-inch diameter, adopt web thickness of 12 inches. Do not use any tendon made of 1/2-inch strand greater than 34 strands. All longitudinal bars will be placed between vertical stirrups.

8-B4:V:BDM8

May 1993

8 - B4

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Structural Steel Notes
(These notes change constantly. For the latest information, check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor.) 1. 2. 3. All structural steel shall be structural low alloy steel AASHTO M222 or M223 grade 50, except members marked C may be fabricated from AASHTO M183 steel. ASTM A 715 may be used for filler plates less than 1/4-inch thickness. All field and shop connections shall be made with high strength bolts, with the bolt heads toward the outside and underside of the bridge. High strength bolts shall be to AASHTO M164 and shall be 7/8-inch diameter. Nuts and washers shall conform to Standard Specifications, Section 9-06.5(3). The minimum center-to-center dimension shall be 3 inches unless shown otherwise. All connections shown are for field bolting. Shop bolting may be used where approved in the shop plans. All welding shall be done with minimal distortion. The welding sequences and procedures to be used shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval prior to the start of welding. Top flanges, bottom flanges, and webs shall be fabricated to full length between field splices prior to welding flanges to webs. Welding Sequence: (1) flange and web splices, (2) flanges to web, (3) stiffeners to webs and flanges, (4) gusset plates to webs, and (5) shear connectors to top flange. One butt splice will be permitted for flange and web plates exceeding 60 feet in length. A permissible location will be shown in the plans. Any proposed butt splice shall be shown on the shop drawings submitted for approval. Intermediate transverse stiffeners, web splices, and all intermediate cross frames shall be normal to the flanges. All dimensions are horizontal and vertical, unless otherwise shown. All welded shear studs shall be 7/8-inch diameter. Members marked V are main load carrying tensile members or tension components of flexural members and shall meet the longitudinal Charpy V-Notch tests as described in the Special Provisions.

Notes to Designers Structural Steel (Box Girder)

4.

5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

10. Members marked FCM are fracture critical members and shall meet the fracture control requirement tests as described in the Special Provisions. 11. X denotes tension butt weld for flanges or webs. 12. Galvanizing shall be in accordance with AASHTO M111 or M232 as applicable. 13. Bolt holes remaining in girder webs upon removal of deck formwork and temporary bracing shall be treated in accordance with the Standard Specifications. Deck formwork shall not be supported on top laterals. 14. Remove temporary cross frames between box girders after the entire bridge deck has been placed and reached a minimum strength of 4,000 psi. 15. The contractor shall provide temporary web bracing and/or stiffening at locations where slab forms are attached to unbraced or unstiffened webs. 16. The designations V , FCM , and C marked on portions of the bottom flange also apply to stiffeners attached to or supported by the bottom flange. 17. All structural steel shall be painted. Reminders: Remove Note: “A 715 for Filler Plates” when minimum thickness is > 1/4 inch. Remove Note Regarding: FCM when not applicable.

May 1993

8 - B5 - 1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Notes to Designers Structural Steel (Box Girder)

Butt splice locations are the contractor’s option, except, no splice will be permitted within 20 feet of the centerline of a pier or within 6 inches of an intermediate cross frame stiffener. Intermediate transverse web stiffeners shall be located a minimum of 6 inches from a welded web or flange splice.

8-B5:V:BDM8

8 - B5 - 2

May 1993

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Structural Steel Notes
(These notes change constantly. For the latest information, check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor.) 1. 2. 3. All structural steel shall be structural low alloy steel AASHTO M222 or M223 grade 50, except members marked C may be fabricated from AASHTO M183 steel. ASTM A 715 may be used for filler plates less than 1/4-inch thickness. All field and shop connections shall be made with high strength bolts, with the bolt heads toward the outside and underside of the bridge. High strength bolts shall be to AASHTO M164 and shall be 7/8-inch diameter. Nuts and washers shall conform to Standard Specifications, Section 9-06.5(3). The minimum center-to-center dimension shall be 3 inches unless shown otherwise. All connections shown are for field bolting. Shop bolting may be used where approved in the shop plans. All welding shall be done with minimal distortion. The welding sequences and procedures to be used shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval prior to the start of welding. Top flanges, bottom flanges, and webs shall be fabricated to full length between field splices prior to welding flanges to webs. Welding Sequence: (1) flange and web splices, (2) flanges to web, (3) stiffeners to webs and flanges, (4) gusset plates to webs, and (5) shear connectors to top flange. One butt splice will be permitted for flange and web plates exceeding 60 feet in length. A permissible location will be shown in the plans. Any proposed butt splice shall be shown on the shop drawings submitted for approval. Intermediate transverse stiffeners, web splices, and all intermediate cross frames shall be normal to the flanges. All dimensions are horizontal and vertical, unless otherwise shown. All welded shear studs shall be 7/8-inch diameter. Members marked V are main load carrying tensile members or tension components of flexural members and shall meet the longitudinal Charpy V-Notch tests as described in the Special Provisions.

Notes to Designers Structural Steel (Plate Girder)

4.

5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

10. Members marked FCM are fracture critical members and shall meet the fracture control requirement tests as described in the Special Provisions. 11. X denotes tension butt weld for flanges or webs. 12. Galvanizing shall be in accordance with AASHTO M111 or M232 as applicable. 13. Bolt holes remaining in girder webs upon removal of deck formwork and temporary bracing shall be treated in accordance with the Standard Specifications. 14. The contractor shall provide, if required, temporary web bracing and/or stiffening at locations where slab forms are attached to unbraced or unstiffened webs. 15. All structural steel shall be painted. Reminders: Remove Note: “A 715 for Filler Plates” when minimum thickness is > 1/4 inch. Remove Note Regarding: FCM when not applicable.

8-B6:V:BDM8

May 1993

8 - B6

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Strip Seal Expansion Joint Notes
(These notes change constantly. For the latest information, check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor.) 1. 2. 3. See strip seal table for approved manufacturers. The entire strip seal assembly shall be constructed so that the strip seal may be removed and replaced. The contractor shall submit details and installation procedure for strip seal assembly to the engineer for approval. Temporary lifting, temperature, and construction adjustment devices shall not be welded to the steel shapes. However, threaded studs may be welded to the steel shapes then removed by grinding and a corrosion protection system applied to the areas affected by the grinding. The strip seal shall be continuous. One factor vulcanized splice will be permitted per seal. If the opening between the steel shapes will be less than 11/2 inches at the time of seal installation, the seal may be installed prior to encasement of the extrusions in concrete. The shear studs attached to the steel shapes shall be shown on the shop drawings and shall not interfere with reinforcing in the blockout. A. (When Class 4000D concrete is used in the deck.) Class 4000LS concrete shall be placed in the blockout between the expansion joint system and adjacent roadway slab. B. (When Class 5000D concrete is used in the deck.) Class 5000LS concrete shall be placed in the blockout between the expansion joint system and adjacent roadway slab.

Notes to Designers Strip Seal Expansion Joint

4. 5. 6. 7.

8-B7:V:BDM8

8 - B7

May 1993

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Modular Expansion Joint Notes
(These notes change constantly. For the latest information, check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor.) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The modular expansion joint system shall allow a minimum total movement normal to joint of ____ inches at pier 1 and ____ inches at pier _____. Modular expansion joint system shall be as specified in the modular expansion joint table found in the contract plans. Aluminum components shall not be used. Blockout dimensions as shown in the plans shall be verified by the contractor. Blockout reinforcing steel shall be specified by the expansion manufacturer. The roadway slab reinforcing steel shown elsewhere is the minimum required. The contractor shall submit details of the modular expansion joint system to be used together with installation procedures, and reinforcing steel required to the engineer for approval prior to installation. The contractor shall not install the modular expansion joint until the entire superstructure, except the traffic barriers, is completed. Sealing elements shall be strip seals. Minimum size and strip seal shall be 80 mm. “G” dimension is measure from nose to nose of steel edge beams and includes effects of anticipated creep and shrinkage.

Notes to Designers Modular Expansion Joint

10. Class _____ LS concrete shall be placed in the blockout between the expansion joint system and adjacent roadway slab.

8-B8:V:BDM8

May 1993

8 - B8

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Rail Rehabilitation Notes
(These notes change constantly. For the latest information, check the Bridge Section’s “Book of Knowledge” (BOK) which is available through your supervisor.) 1. 2. All material and workmanship shall be in accordance with the requirements of the current version of WSDOT Standard Specifications for Road, Bridge, and Municipal Construction, and admendments. This structure has been designed in accordance with the requirements of the 1992 AASHTO specifications for highway bridges and interims through _______. All elements have been designed in accordance with the requirements for load factor design. A. The concrete in the traffic barrier shall be Class 4000. B. All steel shall be AASHTO M183 and galvanized after fabrication according to AASHTO M111, unless otherwise shown in the plans. 4. All bolts, unless otherwise shown in the plans, shall be AASHTO M164, and shall be galvanized after fabrication according to AASHTO M232. All screws and miscellaneous fasteners shall be ASTM A 307 and galvanized in accordance with AASHTO M232. All bolt hole sizes shall be 1/4-inch diameter larger than the bolt diameter. Bolt lengths not shown shall be as required to fit with 1-inch minimum threads exposed beyond nut. Unless otherwise shown on the plans, the concrete cover measured from the face of the concrete to the face of any reinforcing steel shall be 21/2 inches at the top of the roadway slab, 1 inch at the bottom of the roadway slab, 2 inches at the top of footing, 3 inches at the bottom of footing, and 11/2 inches at all other locations.

Notes to Designers Rail Rehabilitation

3.

5. 6.

8-B9:V:BDM8

8 - B9

May 1993

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Compression Seal Design Example

Reinforced concrete box girder bridge with an overall length of 248 feet out to out of pavement seats. End abutments are “L” abutments with one foot thick backwalls. Note: Joints at the end piers for this bridge could be eliminated by using monolithic or integral end abutments. Skew angle = 28° < 45° Temperature range = 0° to 100°F 1. Determine Compression Seal Width Required Determine total movement of joint, Mt: Temperature: Shrinkage: L = (248′/2) - 1′ = 123′ = 0.89" = 0.24“ = 1.13"

12(123)(0.000006)(100°F) 12(123)(0.0002)(0.8) Mt

Total movement parallel to the joint: Total movement normal to the joint: Determine seal width required: From Eq. (8) From Eq. (9) From Eq. (11)

Mp = 1.13(Sin 28°) = 0.53" Mn = 1.13(Cos 28°) = 1.00"

W = 0.53/0.22 = 2.41" W = 1.00/0.45 = 2.22" W = 4(Cos 28°)[0.64(0.89) + 0.24] = 2.86" <= Controls

Use a 3" wide seal (W = 3"). 2. Determine Width of Joint at Time of Construction: Use Eq. (12) Construction Width at Tc = 40°F: A const = 0.6(3.0) + Cos 28°(12)(123)(0.000006)(64-40) = 1.99" Construction Width at Tc = 64°F: A const = 0.6(3.0) = 1.80" Construction Width at Tc = 80°F: A const = 0.6(3.0) + Cos 28°(12)(123)(0.000006)(64-80) = 1.68" Use 15/8" Use 13/4" Use 2"

8-4-B1:V:BDM8

September 1992

8.4 - B1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Strip Seal Design Example 1

Cast-in-place concrete bridge with an overall length of 400 feet. The structure is symmetrical and has 200 feet (at 64°F) between point of zero movement and the end pier joints. Skew = 30°, use movement along bridge centerline Temperature range = 0° to 100°F 1. Determine Size of Strip Seal Required Total opening movement of joint: Temperature: Shrinkage: 64° to 0°F (12)(200)(0.000006)(64) (12)(200)(0.0002)(0.8) = 0.92" = 0.38“ = 1.30"

Total closing movement of joint: Temperature: 64° to 100°F (12)(200)(0.000006)(36) = 0.52"

Set minimum installation width at 64°F: Min. at installation, Group 1: (1.5-0.5)/Cos 30° = 1.15" > 0.52" (Group 1 joints have a 1/2" gap at full closure) Min. at installation, Group 2: (1.5-0.0)/Cos 30° = 1.73" > 0.52" (Group 2 joints have no gap at full closure) Determine size of joint required using the larger of either the minimum installation width or the total closing movement: Group 1: Group 2: 2. Add opening and closing 1.30 + 1.15 = 2.45" Add opening and closing 1.30 + 1.73 = 3.03" Use 3" Use 3"

Determine Width Calculations for Various Temperatures Construction Width at 64°F for both Group 1 and 2 Strip Seals: G = Manufacturer's minimum installation width at 64°F Construction Width at 40°F: G = 1.50 + Cos 30°(12)(200)(0.000006)(64-40) = 1.80" Construction Width at 80°F: G = 1.50 + Cos 30°(12)(200)(0.000006)(64-80) = 1.30" Use 13/8" Use 17/8" Use 11/2"

Note: In this case, the minimum seal installation width at 64°F is the same for both Group 1 and 2 strip seals, because the minimum installation width at 64°F exceeded the total calculated closing movement of the joint. This may not be true in all cases as shown in Appendix 8.4-B4.

8-4-B2:V:BDM8

September 1992

8.4 - B2

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Strip Seal Design Example 2

Cast-in-place concrete bridge with an overall length of 900 feet. The structure is symmetrical and has 450 feet (at 64°F) between point of zero movement and the end pier joints. Skew = 40° > 30° degrees, see Joint Specialist Temperature range = 0° to 100°F 1. Determine Size of Strip Seal Required Total opening movement of joint: Temperature: Shrinkage: 64° to 0°F (12)(450)(0.000006)(64) (12)(450)(0.0002)(0.8) = 2.07" = 0.87“ = 2.94"

Total closing movement of joint: Temperature: 64° to 100°F (12)(450)(0.000006)(36) = 1.17"

Set minimum installation width at 64°F: Min. at installation, Group 1: Min. at installation, Group 2: 1.0/Cos 40° = 1.31" > 1.17" 1.5/Cos 40° = 1.96" > 1.17"

Determine size of joint required using the larger of either the minimum installation width or the total closing movement: Group 1: Group 2: Add opening and closing 2.94 + 1.31 = 4.25" Add opening and closing 2.94 + 1.96 = 4.90" Use 5" Use 5"

Watson Bowman ACME (Group 2) has a 2" minimum opening for a 5" seal: Minimum at installation, Watson Bowman Acme: 2.0/Cos 40° = 2.61" Add opening and closing for Watson Bowman ACME 2.94 + 2.61 = 5.55" > 5" Cannot use Watsom Bowman ACME 5" Seal

After consulting with the Joint Specialist on the skew and size of strip seal required, the 5-inch seal cannot close without possibly buckling and inverting above the roadway surface. Therefore, a modular joint should be used.

8-4-B3:V:BDM8

September 1992

8.4 - B3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Strip Seal Design Example 3

Steel bridge with an overall length of 600 feet. The structure is symmetrical and has 300 feet (at 64°F) between point of zero movement and the end pier joints. Skew = 20° Temperature range = -30° to 120°F (Eastern Washngton) 1. Determine Size of Strip Seal Required Total opening movement of joint: Temperature: 64° to -30°F 12(300)(0.0000065)(94) = 2.20"

Total closing movement of joint: Temperature: 64° to 120°F 12(300)(0.0000065)(56) = 1.31"

Set minimum installation width at 64°F: Min. at installation, Group 1: Min. at installation, Group 2: 1.0/Cos 20° = 1.07" < 1.31" 1.5/Cos 20° = 1.60" > 1.31"

Determine size of joint required using larger of either the minimum installation width or the total closing movement: Group 1: Group 2: 2. Add opening and closing 2.20 + 1.31 = 3.51" Add opening and closing 2.20 + 1.60 = 3.80" Use 4" Use 4"

Construction Width Calculations for Various Temperatures Group 1 Strip Seals: Construction Width at 64°F: Use the larger of the manufacturer's minimum installation width at 64°F or the total closing movement of the joint. G = Manufacturer's minimum installation width at 64°F = 11/2" Total closing movement of the joint: Cos 20°(1.31) + 0.50 = 1.73" > 1.50" (Group 1 joints have a 1/2" gap at full closure.) Construction Width at 40°F: G = 1.75 + Cos 20°(12)(300)(0.0000065)(64-40) = 2.28" Construction Width at 80°F: G = 1.75 + Cos 30°(12)(300)(0.0000065)(64-80) = 1.40" Group 2 Strip Seals: Construction Width at 40°F: G = Manufacturer's minimum installation width at 64°F = 11/2" Use 13/8" Use 21/4" Use 13/4"

September 1992

8.4 - B4 - 1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design
Total closing movement of the joint: Cos 20°(1.31) + 0.0 = 1.23" < 1.50" (Group 2 joints have no gap at full closure.) Construction Width at 40°F: G = 1.50 + Cos 20°(12)(300)(0.0000065)(64-40) = 2.03" Construction Width at 80°F: G = 1.50 + Cos 20°(12)(300)(0.0000065)(64-80) = 1.15" Use 11/8" Use 2" Use 11/2"

Strip Seal Design Example 3

8-4-B4:V:BDM8

8.4 - B4 - 2

September 1992

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design
1. D. S. Brown Co., D-241, Modular Joint B MR N N-1 MG MS = = = = = = Center Beam Flange width Total movement rating Total No. of seals (= MR/MS) Number of centerbeams Minimum gap per seal at full closure Maximum movement rating per seal = = = = = = 2.213" 9" 3 seals 2 centerbeams 1 /2" per seal 3" max.

Determine Gmin and Gmax for Modular Joints

Calculate Gmin and Gmax: See Equations (13) and (14) in Section 8.4.1. Gmin = (N-1)(B) + (N)(MG) = (2)(2.213) + (3)(1/2) = 5.93" Gmax = Gmin + MR = 6 + 9 = 15" 2. Watson Bowman ACME, WABO D-1200, Modular Expansion Joint B MR N N-1 MG = = = = = 2.5" 12" 4 seals 3 centerbeams 0" per seal Use 6" Use 15"

From Equations (13) and (14), determine Gmin and Gmax: Gmin = (3)(2.5) + (3)(0) = 7.50" Gmax = 7.5 + 12 = 19.5" Note: Gmin and Gmax for other modular joint manufacturers are computed in a similar manner. Use 71/2" Use 191/2"

8-4-B5:V:BDM8

September 1992

8.4 - B5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Modular Joint Design Example 1

Steel bridge with 600 ft (at 64°F) between the point of zero movement and the end pier joint. Skew = 20° < 30° Temperature range = -30° to 120°F (Eastern Washngton) 1. Determine Size of Joint Required Total opening movement of joint: Temperature: 64° to -30°F (12)(600)(0.0000065)(94) = 4.40"

Total closing movement of joint: Temperature: 64° to 120°F (12)(600)(0.0000065)(56) = 2.62"

Design movement along bridge centerline: Add opening and closing (4.40 + 2.62) = 7.02" Design movement normal to joint + 15 percent: Cos 20°(7.02)(1.15) = 7.59" Need a modular joint with a 5" movement rating (MR). 2. Construction Width Calculations for Various Temperatures a. D. S. Brown Co., Type D-241, MR = 9" Gmin = 6" Gmax = 15" (See Appendix 8.4-B5 for Gmin and Gmax.)

Construction Width at 64°F: Set the joint opening (normal to the joint) at 64°F and allow a 15 percent safety factor: G at 64°F = Gmin + total closing movement of joint = 6.0 + Cos 20°(2.62)(1.15) = 8.83" Any setting greater than 8.83" would be adequate. Choose a setting so that the extra capacity is shared equally between closing and opening of the joint. Extra capacity = MR - Design Movement = 9 - 7.59 = 1.41" -30° to 64°F: (94°F/150°F)(1.41) = 0.88" Therefore, set G at 64°F = 8.83 + 0.88 = 9.71" Construction Width at 40°F: G = 9.75 + Cos 20°(12)(600)(0.0000065)(64-40) = 10.81" Construction Width at 80°F: G = 9.75" + Cos 20°(12)(600)(0.0000065)(64-80) = 9.05" Check spacing between centerbeams at 64°F for seal replacement: Spacing = [9.75 - 2(2.213)]/3 seals = 1.77" > 1.50" ok Use 9" Use 107/8"

Use 93/4"

September 1992

8.4 - B6 - 1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Modular Joint Design Example 1

Therefore, seals can be replaced without jacking the centerbeams apart. Check spacing between centerbeams at minimum temperature: G at -30°F = 9.75 + Cos 20°(4.40) = 13.88" < Gmax = 15" ok Maximum spacing = [13.88 - 2(2.213)]/3 seals = 3.15" < 31/2" ok b. Watson Bowman ACME, WABO D-900, MR = 9" Gmin = 5" Gmax = 14" Note that Gmin and Gmax are 1" less than those computed for D. S. Brown’s, Type D-241. Therefore, the temperature setting calculations will also be 1" less than those for D. S. Brown’s type D-241. G at 40°F = 97/8" G at 64°F = 83/4" G at 80°F = 8" Check spacing between centerbeams at 64°F for seal replacement: Spacing = [8.75 - 2(2.50)]/3 seals = 1.25" < 1.50" Since the spacing is less than the 11/2" minimum recommended by the manufacturer for seal installation, the centerbeam will have to be jacked toward one of the edge rails in order to replace the seals. Check spacing between centerbeams at minmum temperature: G at -30°F = 8.75 + Cos 20°(4.40) = 12.88" < Gmax = 14" ok Max. spacing = [12.88 - 2(2.50)]/3 seals = 2.63" < 31/2" ok

8-4-B6:V:BDM8

8.4 - B6 - 2

September 1992

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design
Concrete Post-tensioned C.I.P. Box Girder Bridge Skew = 0° Temperature range = 0° to 100°F The following calculated movements due to temperature, shrinkage, elastic shortening, and creep were obtained: Temp Fall 64° to 0°F Shrinkage Elastic Shortening (ES) Creep Ct(ES) = 1.5(0.8) 1. 2.1" 1.1" 0.8" = 1.2" Temp Rise 64° to 100°F 1.2"

Modular Joint Design Example 2

Determine Size of Joint Required The Contractor would like to set the joint assembly 60 days after post-tensioning the structure. The elastic shortening due to post-tensioning has occurred. Assuming a long term creep factor, Ct, of 1.5, and that half of the shrinkage has occurred, determine: Total opening movement of the joint: 2.1 + 0.5(1.1) + 1.2 = 3.9" Total closing movement of the joint: Temp Rise 64° to 100°F = 1.2" Design Movement = 3.9 + 1.2 = 5.1" > 5" Use a Modular Joint

Determine Size of Modular Joint: Add 15 percent safety factor Add opening and closing: (3.9 + 1.2)(1.15) = 5.9" Need a modular joint with a 6" movement rating (MR) 2. Construction Width Calculations for Various Temperatures a. D. S. Brown Co., Type D-161, MR = 6" From Eq’s. (13) and (14), calculate Gmin and Gmax: Gmin = (1)(2.213) + (2)(0.5) = 3.21" Gmax = 3.25 + 6 = 9.25" Construction Width at 64°F: Set the joint opening at 64°F and allow a 15 percent safety factor G at 64°F = Gmin + (Total Closing Movement due to Temp. Rise + 15 percent safety factor) = 3.25 + (1.2)(1.15) = 4.63" Use 43/4" The total temperature movement for 100°F is 3.3" Construction Width at 40°F: G = 4.75 + (24°F/100°F)(3.3) = 5.54" Construction Width at 80°F: G = 4.75 - (16°F/100°F)(3.3) = 4.22" Check spacing between centerbeam and edge rail at 64°F for seal replacement: Spacing = (4.75 - 2.213)/2 seals = 1.27" < 1.50" ok Therefore, centerbeams will have to be jacked to one side in order to replace the seals. Use 41/4" Use 51/2" Use 31/4" Use 91/4"

September 1992

8.4 - B7 - 1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design
Check spacing between centerbeams at minimum temperature: G at 0°F = 4.75 + 3.9 = 8.65" Maximum spacing = [8.65 - 2(2.213)]/2 seals = 2.11" < 31/2" ok b. Watson Bowman ACME, WABO D-600, MR = 6" Gmin = 2.5" Gmax = 8.5" Construction Width at 64°F: G at 64°F = Gmin + (Closing Movement due to Temperature Rise + 15 percent safety factor) G at 64°F = 2.15 + (1.2)(1.15) = 3.88" The total temperature movement for 100°F is 3.3" Construction Width at 40°F: G = 4.0 + (24°F/100°F)(3.3) = 4.79" Construction Width at 80°F: G = 4.0 + (16°F/100°F)(3.3) = 3.47" Check Gmin and Gmax, if G at 64°F is 4": Include the 15 percent safety factor Total closing = 4.0 - (1.2)(1.15) = 2.62" > Gmin = 2.5" ok Total opening = 4.0 + [2.1 + 0.5(1.1) + 1.2](1.15) = 8.42" < 81/2" ok Check spacing between centerbeam and edge rail at 64°F for seal replacement: Spacing = (4.0 - 2.5)/2 seals = 0.75" < 1.50" Since spacing is the than the 11/2" minimum recommended by the manufacturer for seal installation, the centerbeam will have to be jacked toward one of the edge rails in order to replace the seal. Use 33/2" Use 43/4" Use 4"

Modular Joint Design Example 2

8-4-B7:V:BDM8

8.4 - B7 - 2

September 1992

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Modular Joint Design Example 3

Two C.I.P. Post-tensioned concrete box girder bridges meet at a hinge adjacent to a pier. Skew = 0° The following calculated movements due to temperature, shrinkage, elastic shortening, and creep were obtained: Bridge A Temp Fall 64° to 0°F Shrinkage Elastic Shortening Creep, (Ct)(ES) = (1.5)(1.2") = Temp. Rise 64°F to 100°F 1. Determine Size of Joint Required Determine joint opening 60 days after post-tensioning when the joint will be installed. Assume the elastic shortening and half of the shirnkage has occurred; assume a long-term creep factor, Ct = 1.5. Remember that the two bridges move opposite to one another. Total opening movement of the joint due to Bridge A: 3.0 + (0.5)(1.3) + 1.8 = 5.45" Total opening movement of the joint due to Bridge B: 1.2 + (0.5)(0.6) + 0.75 = 2.25" Total opening movement due to Bridge A and B = 5.45 + 2.25 = 7.7" Total closing movement due to Bridge A and B = 1.7 + 0.7 = 2.4" Determine size of Modular Joint: Include 15 percent safety factor Add total opening and closing movements = (7.7 + 2.4)(1.15) = 11.6" Need a Modular Joint with a 12" Movement Rating (MR) 2. Construction Width Calculations for Various Temperatures a. Watson Bowman ACME, WABO D-1200, MR = 12" Gmin = 7.5" Gmax = 19.5" Construction Width at 64°F: G at 64°F = Gmin + Closing Movement due to Temperature Rise = 7.50 + (2.40)(1.15) = 10.26" The total temperature movement for 100°F = 3.0 + 1.7 + 1.2 + 0.7 = 6.6"/100°F Construction Width at 40°F: G = 10.375 + (24°F/100°F)(6.6) = 11.96" Construction Width at 80°F: G = 10.375 - (16°F/100°F)(6.6) = 9.32" Use 93/8" Use 12" Use 103/8" 3.0" 1.3" 1.2" 1.8" 1.7" Bridge B 1.2" 0.6" 0.5" 0.75" 0.7"

September 1992

8.4 - B8 - 1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design
Check if G at 64°F is 103/8" (include 15 percent safety factor): Total Closing = 10.375 - (2.4)(1.15) = 7.16" > Gmin = 7.50" ok Total Opening = 10.375 + (7.7)(1.15) = 19.23" < Gmax = 19.50" ok Check spacing between centerbeams at minimum temperature: G at 0°F = 10.375 + 7.7 = 18.075" < Gmax Maximum spacing = [18.075 - 3(2.5)]/4 seals = 2.643" < 31/2" ok b. D. S. Brown Co.,Type D-321, MR =12" Gmin = 3(2.213) + 4(0.5) = 8.64" Gmax = 8.75 + 12 = 20.75" Construction Width at 64°F: G at 64°F = Gmin + Closing Movement Due to Temperature Rise = 8.75 + (2.40)(1.15) = 11.51" Use 115/8" Use 83/4" Use 203/4"

Modular Joint Design Example 3

By comparison to previous calculations for Watson Bowman ACME, the construction width calculations for the D. S. Brown Co.’s, Type D-321, will be 11/4" greater (11.625" = 10.375") than those computed for the Watson Bowman ACME, WABO D-1200. Construction Width at 40°F: G = 131/4" Construction Width at 80°F: G = 105/8" Check if G at 64°F is 115/8" (include 15 percent safety factor): Total Closing = 11.625 - (2.4)(1.15) = 8.86" > Gmin = 83/4" ok Total Opening = 11.625 + (7.7)(1.15) = 20.48" < Gmax = 203/4" ok Check spacing between centerbeams at minimum temperature: G at 0°F = 11.625 + 7.7 = 19.325" Max. spacing = [19.325 - 3(2.213)]/4 seals = 3.17" < 31/2" ok

8-4-B8:V:BDM8

8.4 - B8 - 2

September 1992

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing Pad Design Example for Prestressed Girder (AASHTO Design Method A)

Standard WSDOT W74G simple span prestressed concrete girder bridge. Span length is 130 feet. Bottom flange width of the girder is 25 inches. Use a temperature range of 0°F to 100°F for concrete bridges with a normal construction temperature of 64°F. Use AASHTO Standard Specifications Section 14.4.1 Design Method A. Bearings shall be installed so that they are horizontal (level) under dead load. Loading: Dead Load reaction per bearing: PDL, Girder = 108 kips PDL, Slab+Traffic Barrier = 112 kips Live Load reaction per bearing (excluding impact): PLL,HS25 = 60 kips Live Load rotation (calculated from analysis) θLL,x = Live load rotation (excluding impact) = 0.003 radians (from structural analysis) Constants: α = Coefficient of thermal expansion for concrete = 0.000006/°F β = Shrinkage coefficient for reinforced concrete = 0.0002 in/in µ = Shrinkage factor = 0.5 BDM Section 8.4.1A.1.b.(1) Elastomer Design Parameters: Durometer Hardness = 60 From AASHTO Table 14.3.1, for a 60 durometer hardness elastomer, the shear modulus varies between 0.130 ksi and 0.200 ksi. Use a value corresponding to the most conservative design. Internal Steel Reinforcement: 14 gauge plate (thickness = 0.075") Fy = 36 ksi Fsr = 20 ksi The bearing design shall conform to the following additional WSDOT standard requirements: (a) Design for a 60-durometer elastomer. (b) Unreinforced (plain) pads shall not be used. (c) Internal elastomer layers shall be 1/2 inches thick; external elastomer layers shall be 1/4 inches thick. (d) Minimum number of internal elastomer layers shall be two. (e) Maximum overall height of the bearing shall not exceed 5 inches. (f) Tapered elastomer layers shall not be used. (g) The shape factor of each layer of any reinforced bearing shall be equal to or greater than 5.0.

August 1998

8.4-B9-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing Pad Design Example for Prestressed Girder (AASHTO Design Method A)

(h) The average compressive stress from dead load and uplift, if any, shall not be less than 200 psi to avoid “walking” of the bearings. (i) Design loading shall take into account the effect of skew and curvature. (j) The bearing design movement shall be based upon 75 percent of the total calculated temperature rise and fall using an assumed normal temperature of 64°F plus any other anticipated movements or translations. (k) Girders are placed on the elastomeric bearing pads 30 days following casting. The remaining creep of the girders tributary to each bearing has been calculated to be 0.20". (l) The design details shall provide access for inspection, maintenance, and future replacement of each bearing. (m) For thick bearings, calculate the grout pad elevations using the compressed height of the bearing. 1. Determine preliminary bearing size Temperature fall (64° → 0°F): Temperature rise (64° → 100°F): Shrinkage: Creep (calculated from girder age of 30 days to infinity): ∆s = 0.75 (Dfall + Drise)+ Dshrink +Dcreep = 0.75(0.30 + 0.17) + 0.08 + 0.20 = 0.63″ Determine bearing thickness: Minimum total elastomer thickness ≥ 2∆s hrt ≥ (2)(0.63″) = 1.26″ Minimum total elastomer thickness required Use (2) - 1/2″ thick interior layers of elastomer and 1/4″ thick cover layers. 2 interior layers at 1/2″ 2 cover layers at 1/4″ Total elastomer thickness, hrt = = = 1.0″ 0.5″ 1.5″ > 1.26″ (AASHTO Section 14.4.1.3) (0.000006)(64) (65)(12) (0.000006)(36)(65)(12) (0.5)(0.0002)(65)(12) = 0.30″ = 0.17″ = 0.08″ = 0.20″

ok

Use (3) - 14 gage steel shims. Sum of shim thicknesses = (3)(0.075″) = 0.225″ Total bearing thickness = T = 1.50″ + 0.225″ = 1.725″ < 5″ maximum Determine bearing width, W: Use a width equal to the width of the prestressed concrete girder bottom flange less two 1″ chamfers less an additional 1/2″ on each side. W = 25 in - 2(1″) - 2(0.5″) = 22″ Determine bearing length, L: σc,TL ≤ 1.000 ksi for steel reinforced bearings (220 kips + 60 kips) ∏ [(L)(22)] £ 1.000 ksi L ≥ 12.73″ Use L = 13″ (AASHTO 14.4.1.1) Use W = 22″ ok

Preliminary bearing size: 13″ wide ξ 22″ long × 1.725″ thick

8.4-B9-2

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design
2. Check allowable compressive stress Determine the Shape Factor, S, of the 1/2″ thick interior layers: S = (L)(W) ∏ [2(hri)(L + W)] = (13)(22) ∏ [(2)(0.50)(13 + 22)] = 8.17 > 5.0 minimum σc,TL,allowable= GS/b = (.130)(8.17)/1.0 = 1.062 ksi, but not greater than 1.000 ksi 14.4.1.1) σc,TL= 280 kips ÷ [(13)(22)] = 0.979 ksi £ 1.000 ksi ok (AASHTO (AASHTO 14.2)

Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing Pad Design Example for Prestressed Girder (AASHTO Design Method A)

Check compressive stress under minimum load only. Keep σc,DL > 0.200 ksi to keep bearing from “walking” under minimum load. Assume minimum load occurs under dead load and uplift, if any. σc,DL= 220 kips ∏ [(13)(22)] = 0.769 ksi ≥ 0.200 ksi 3. Check bearing stability (AASHTO 14.4.1.5) To ensure stability, the total thickness of the bearing should not exceed the lesser of W/3 or L/3. W/3 = 22″/3 = 7.33″ > 1.725″ L/3 = 13″/3 = 4.33″ > 1.725″ 4. ok ok ok

Check steel reinforcement (AASHTO 14.4.1.6) Resistance of internal elastomer layer = 1,700hri = 1,700(0.5≤) = 850 lbs/inch Pallow = (Fsr)(hs) = (20000 psi)(0.075≤) = 1500 lbs/inch > 850 lbs/inch ok

5.

Check if bearing needs to be secured against horizontal movement (AASHTO 14.5): Determine the design shear force on bearing, H: H = GA∆s /hrt = (0.200)(13)(22)(0.63) ÷ (1.5) = 24.0 kips PDL / 5 = 220 / 5 = 44.0 > 24.0 kips → Anchorage of the bearing is not required.

6.

Check rotation (AASHTO 14.4.1.4) Rotation perpendicular to the beam’s longitudinal axis: θTL,x ≤ 2∆c/ L Rotation parallel to the beam’s longitudinal axis: θTL,z ≤ 2∆c/ W Determine the compressive deflection, ∆c, using AASHTO Figure 14.4.1.2B: Compressive stress = 0.979 ksi and Shape factor = 8.17 → Compressive strain = 0.039 ∆c = (.039)[2(0.5″) + 2(0.25″)] = 0.058″ Assume girders are level after placement of slab and traffic barriers. Therefore, θTL,x = θLL,x = 0.003 radians and θTL,z= 0.000 radians. qTL,x, allowable = 2∆c / L qTL,x,allowable= 2(0.058)/13 = 0.0090 radians > 0.003 radians ok

August 1998

8.4-B9-3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design
Summary: Size: Length = 13″ Width = 22″ Overall total thickness = 1.725″

Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing Pad Design Example for Prestressed Girder (AASHTO Design Method A)

Elastomer layers:

2 interior layers at 1/2″ thick 2 cover layers at 1/4″ thick Total Thickness = 1.725" 3 steel shims, 14 gage (0.075 inch thickness) Provide 1/8″ minimum side clearance for the steel shims

Steel reinforcement:

P:DP/BDM8 9807-0802

8.4-B9-4

August 1998

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Elastomeric Bearing Pad Example for Steel Girder

July 1996

8.4 - B11

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Girder Stop Bearing Pads Example

Spacing Chart: Page 8.4-B14 Pad Thickness Chart: Page 8.4-B15 Known: Skew = 33° Girder = Series 120 Spacing = 8′-0″ (Normal to Girder) From Spacing Chart (F(Ep)T ≅ 7,500 Lbs. > 22,200 Lbs. ∴ Pad Required Known: From Pad Thickness Chart: Bridge Length = 420″ (Bk-Bk. Pavement Seat) T = 2.32″ Use T = 21/2″ (1/2″ Laminates) Girder Stop Bearing Pad Dimensions Thickness = 21/2″ Length = 3 × 2.5 = 71/2″ Width = 5″ (Flange Depth - Chamfer) (Number of Pads Required): Known: Pad Thickness = 31/2″ F(Ep)T = 7,500 Lbs. (From Spacing Chart) Number of Girders = 6 From Pad Thickness Chart: 2.4 Pads Required

Use Girder Stop Bearing Pads on three (3) of the girders in each end span. Place pads on proper side of girder to oppose lateral component of force from earth pressure.

August 1998

8.4-B12-1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Girder Stop Bearing Pads Example

8.4-B12-2

July 1996

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Elastomeric Bearing Pad Design Chart

July 1996

8.4 - B13

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Girder Stop Bearing Pads Spacing Chart

July 1996

8.4 - B14

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Appendix B Miscellaneous Design Girder Stop Bearing Pads Pad Thickness Chart

July 1996

8.4 - B15

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Contents
Page 9. 9.1 9.1.1 Substructure Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Dead Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Wind Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Earthquake Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Prestressing Effects from Superstructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concrete Design for Substructures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Application of Loads to Substructure Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Live Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Earthquake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Piers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Spacing of Piers and Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Section Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Construction Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Column Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Column Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Column Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Slenderness Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. The Moment Magnification Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Second-Order Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Resisting Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Service Load Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Seismic Design of Multicolumn Bents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Size and Construction Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Representative Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Bearing Seats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Bearing Restraints and Girder Stops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Face Slope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Sizing Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Class of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Abutment and Retaining Wall Junctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. Construction Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. Drainage and Backfilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J. Embankment at Bridge Ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abutment Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Applicable Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Usual Governing Load Combinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Special Handling of Lateral Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Loads on Girder Stop Bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Loads on Girder Stops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1-1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 9.2-1 1 1 1 1 2 4 11 11 11 15 17 20 21 21 9.3-1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 6 12 12 16 16 19 19

9.1.2 9.1.3

9.2 9.2.1

9.2.2

9.3 9.3.1

9.3.2

July 2000

9.0-i

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Contents
Page 9.3.3 General Design Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Design for Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Earth Pressure at Front Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Design for Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Minimum Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load and Reinforcement Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Requirements for Pile Cap Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Requirements for Pile Stub Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Requirements for Cantilever Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Requirements for Spill-Through Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Requirements for Rigid Frame Abutments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Retaining Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Common Types of Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Cantilevered Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Counterfort Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Gravity Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Cribbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Cylinder Pile Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Tieback Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Proprietary Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. Slurry Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I. Rock Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J. Soil Nailing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K. Wingwall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L. Noise Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Cantilever Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Diaphragm Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Tieback Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Architectural Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Concrete Fill for Soldier Pile Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Detailing of Standard Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spread Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Load Distribution Under Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Pedestals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Footing Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pile Supported Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Pile Spacings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Horizontal Forces on Pile Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Uplift Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3-19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 23 23 23 9.4-1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 9 10 14 29 29 29 29 30 30 9.5-1 1 1 5 5 6 9 9 9 10 10

9.3.4

9.4 9.4.1 9.4.2

9.4.3

9.4.4

9.5 9.5.1

9.5.2

9.0-ii

July 2000

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Contents
Page 9.6 9.6.1 Piles and Piling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Selection of Pile Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Friction vs. Point Bearing Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Pile Loads and Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Column Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Uplift Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Lateral Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Other Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Concrete Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Concrete Pile Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steel Piling (H Piles) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Timber Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sheet Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cylinder Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Normal High Water Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Seal Vent Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Scour Depth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Recommended Foundation Elevation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spread Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Seal Positively Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Seal May Not Be Required . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pile Supported Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drilled Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Types of Drilled Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Classification by Load Transfer to the Soil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Classification by Type of Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages and Disadvantages of the Drilled Shaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary Soils Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Surface Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Subsurface Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Methods of Investigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Subsurface Conditions Affecting Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6-1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 9.7-1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 9.8-1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3

9.6.2

9.6.3

9.6.4 9.6.5 9.6.6 9.6.7 9.7 9.7.1 9.7.2

9.7.3

9.7.4 9.8 9.8.1

9.8.2

9.8.3

9.8.4

July 2000

9.0-iii

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Contents
Page 9.8.5 Design of Drilled Shafts for Axial Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Ultimate Failure vs. Excessive Settlement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Factor of Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Spacing, Depth, Diameter Reinforcing, and Concrete Strength of Drilled Shafts . . . . . . . . . . Design of Drilled Shafts Subject to Lateral Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. General Modeling Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. P-Y Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Analysis by Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Shaft Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Dry Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Casing Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Slurry Displacement Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Application of LRFD Code to WSDOT Foundation Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overall Design Process, Roles, and Responsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definitions and Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Load Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LRFD Load Combinations, Basic Equation, and Characteristic Soil/Rock Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . A. LRFD Basic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Characteristic Soil/Rock Properties and Their Use in LRFD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spread Footing Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Loads and Load Factor Application to Spread Footings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Footing Bearing Stress and Capacity — Strength and Extreme Event Limit States . . . . . . . . . C. Sliding Stability for Footings — Strength and Extreme Event Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Overturning Stability for Footings — Strength and Extreme Event Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . E. Overall Stability for Footings — Service and Extreme Event Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Resistance Factors for Footing Design — Strength Limit State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Design of Footings at the Service Limit State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. What the Geotechnical Branch Will Provide to the Bridge Office for LRFD Footing Design Loads and Load Factor Application to Deep Foundation Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drilled Shaft Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Drilled Shaft Capacity — Strength and Extreme Event Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Uplift for Drilled Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Lateral Load Analysis for Drilled Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Group Effects for Bearing Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Group Effects for Uplift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Group Effects for Lateral Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Service Limit State Design for Drilled Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H. What Geotechnical Branch Will Provide to Bridge Office for LRFD Shaft Design . . . . . . . . Pile Foundation Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Pile Type, Pile Size, Bearing Capacity, and Estimated Tip Elevation — Strength and Extreme Event Limit States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Determination of Minimum Pile Tip Elevations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Resistance Factors for Pile Foundation Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Determination of Pile Driveability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. What Geotechnical Branch Will Provide to Bridge Office for LRFD Pile Design . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4 4 5 9.8-6 6 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 9.9-1 1 4 5 7 7 7 9 10 13 14 15 15 16 17 17 19 22 23 24 24 24 26 26 28 28 31 33 37 38 39 39 9.99-1

9.8.6

9.8.7

9.9 9.9.1 9.9.2 9.9.3 9.9.4

9.9.5

9.9.6 9.9.7

9.9.8

9.99

9.0-iv

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Contents

Appendix A — Design Aids 9.2-A1 24-Inch Diameter Round Column Section Capacity Chart 9.2-A2 36-Inch Diameter Round Column Section Capacity Chart 9.2-A3 48-Inch Diameter Round Column Section Capacity Chart 9.2-A4 60-Inch Diameter Round Column Section Capacity Chart 9.2-A5 72-Inch Diameter Round Column Section Capacity Chart 9.2-A6 Column Design Flow Chart 9.2-A7 Column Design Effective Length Factors 9.2-A8 Buckling Load — Round Columns 9.2-A9 Factor Charts 9.2-A10 Moment Magnification Factor 9.2-A11 Column Design Example 9.3-A1 Wing Wall Notes to Designers 9.3-A2 General Wing Wall Details (applies to 9.3-A1, A-3, A-4, and A-5) 9.3-A3 20-Foot Wing Wall 2:1 Slope 9.3-A4 15-Foot Wing Wall 2:1 9.3-A5 15-Foot Wing Wall 1 3/4:1 Slope 9.4-A1 Earthquake Force — Retaining Wall 9.5-A1 Stress on a Rectangular Footing Normal Load Outside Kern 9.7-A1 Thickness of Foundation Seals 9.7-A2 Pile Extension Below Foundation Seals 9.9-A1-1 through 5 Simplified Example for Pile Foundation Design, Including Resistance Factor Calibration Appendix B — Design Examples 9.2-B1-1 through 4 Column Shear Example 9.3-B1-1 through 5 L-Abutment Design Example — Sheet 1 9.4-B1-1 through 8 Curtain Wall

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 9.1 9.1.1 General Considerations Loads
A. General 1. Substructure elements shall be designed to carry all of the loads specified in AASHTO, the Guide Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges and Chapter 4 of this manual. Good judgment is needed to select those load conditions which govern in order to minimize calculation time. Computer programs such as GPLOAD, GROUPLDS, and YIELD tabulate the load combinations as described in Chapter 4 of this manual. Consideration shall be given during design to construction loads in order to ensure that stability and appropriate stresses can be handled during all construction conditions. For example, a single column pier could be overloaded by placing all of the precast girders on one side of the roadway before placing those on the other side. In some cases a sequence of construction is shown on the plans in order to avoid unacceptable loadings. On curved bridges, the substructure units shall be designed for the eccentricity resulting from the differences in girder lengths. Where curved girder theory has been used in design of the superstructure, the reactions from such analysis shall be used appropriately as loads to the substructure.

General Considerations

2.

3.

B. Dead Loads Substructures shall be designed for all anticipated dead load conditions. Sidesway effect shall be included where it tends to increase stresses. C. Live Loads Live load shall be distributed to the substructure by placing the appropriate live load wheel line reaction in the lane configuration giving maximum stresses in the substructure unit. Liveload impact is not included in some elements of the substructure. See AASHTO “Impact.” The loads are considered to act directly on the substructure without further distribution through the superstructure except as previously noted. No consideration is given to torsional or lateral distribution. (See Figure 9.1.1-1.) Normally, sidesway effect from live load need not be considered. The computer program GTSTRUDL will include this effect. For maximum cantilever moment on the substructure units, the outside vehicle wheel shall be placed 2 feet from the curb. For the design loads in the crossbeam members, the design lanes are to be loaded to obtain the maximum moment in the member, then loaded again to obtain the maximum shear in the member. For the design loads in columns, the design lanes are to be loaded to obtain the maximum transverse moment at the top of the column, then loaded again to obtain the maximum axial force on the column. In each case, the lane reduction factor as described in AASHTO Article “Reduction in Load Intensity” can be applied to the number of lanes actually loaded to obtain the design loads. The live load wheel line reaction can be obtained by the computer programs BDS or UCONBRG. The wheel line reaction will be 1/2 the results for one lane load from BDS or the results for one wheel load from UCONBRG. For simple span structures, Appendix A of AASHTO can be used. The values in Appendix A are for one lane. The wheel line reaction will be 1/2 of the values listed.

April 1991

9.1 - 1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design General Considerations

9.1 - 2

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design
D. Wind Loads Wind forces shall be applied to the substructure units in accordance with the loadings specified in AASHTO Article “Wind Loads.” Transverse stiffness of the superstructure may be considered, as necessary to properly distribute loads to the substructure, provided that the superstructure is capable of sustaining such loads. Uplift wind, per AASHTO Article “Overturning Forces,” shall be included in the design where appropriate, for example, on single column piers. Wind loads shall be applied through shear keys or other positive means from the superstructure to the substructure. Wind loads shall be distributed to the piers and abutments in accordance with the laws of statics. Transverse wind can be applied to the piers assuming the superstructure to act as a rigid beam. For large structures, a more appropriate result might be obtained by considering the superstructure to act as a flexible beam on elastic supports. E. Earthquake Loads Earthquake loads on elements of the substructure are describe in the Guide Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges. The resulting loads shall be taken in any horizontal direction to give maximum design load for the substructure element. Final design acceleration coefficient and site coefficient will be given in the Foundation Report. Earthquake uplift forces shall be designed per Guide Specifications “Hold-Down Devices.” As a minimum, earthquake forces shall be considered to cause a temporary uplift on the substructure equal to 10 percent of the dead load reaction of the superstructure. Where such forces can be developed, the crossbeam, column and footing shall be designed to carry these temporary loads. For concrete superstructures built integrally with the substructure, the substructure elements shall be designed to carry their dead load plus all the elements below them including soil overburden as though they were suspended from the superstructure. (Seal not included). For this condition, the ultimate downward force shall be 1.0 (EQ + Uplift). For structures carried on elastomeric pads or where there is no positive vertical connection, the uplift force from the superstructure shall be neglected. F. Prestressing Effects from Superstructure When cast-in-place, post-tensioned superstructures are constructed monolithic with the piers, the substructure design should take into account frame moments and shears caused by elastic shortening and creep of the superstructure upon application of the axial post-tensioning force at the bridge ends. Frame moments and shears thus obtained should be added algebraically to the values obtained from the primary and secondary Pe moment diagrams applied to the superstructure. If the equivalent uniform vertical load method presented in T. Y. Lin’s text, Reference 6.99-1, is coded into the computer program GTSTRUDL along with axial forces (and moments at bridge ends if they exist), then the output results will represent all of the above mentioned effects. When cast-in-place, post-tensioned superstructures are supported on sliding bearings at some of the piers, the design of those piers should include the longitudinal force from friction on the bearings generated as the superstructure shortens during jacking. When post-tensioning is complete, the full permanent reaction from this effect should be included in the governing AASHTO load combinations for the pier under design.

General Considerations

January 1991

9.1 - 3

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 9.1.2 Concrete Design for Substructure
The class of concrete for substructure units shall normally be as specified below: Seals Footings Pedestals Massive Piers Columns Std. Retaining Walls Wing Walls Crossbeams Retaining Walls Traffic Barriers Class 4000W Class 4000 Class 4000 Class 4000 Class 4000 Class 3000 Class 4000 Class 4000 Class 4000 Class 4000

General Considerations

Where retaining walls are connected directly to the bridge superstructure and color matching is important, consideration could be given to using Class 4000 in the retaining wall or using pigmented sealer in order that the concrete color will not vary from adjacent portions of the structure.

9.1.3

Application of Loads to Substructure Units
A. Live Load For application of live load, see Figure 9.1.1-1. B. Earthquake For earthquake loading, the intermediate pier(s) of each unit of a multispan continuous structure shall be designed to resist the entire longitudinal earthquake force for that unit (unless the end piers are an integral part of the superstructure). The calculated longitudinal movement shall be used to determine the shear force developed by the pads at the abutments. The Modulus of Elasticity of Neoprene at 70˚F (21˚C) shall be used for determine the shear force. However, the force transmitted through a bearing pad shall be limited to that which causes the pad to slip. For single-span structures supported on pads, see Guide Specifications “Design Requirements for Single Span Bridges.”

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April 1991

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 9.2 9.2.1 Piers Columns
A. Spacing of Piers and Columns 1. Pier Spacing Piers normally are spaced to meet the geometric and aesthetic requirements of the site and to give maximum economy for the total structure. Tall piers will generally justify greater spacing (longer spans) than short piers. Difficult and expensive foundation conditions will also justify long spans. Good judgment must be used in determining pier locations on each job. 2. Multicolumn Spacing Columns shall be spaced to give maximum structural benefit except where aesthetic considerations dictate a modification. The spacing should be selected so that column moments are minimized for dead load. Multiple columns should be considered if earthquake loads control the column design. 3. Changing Spacing Column and pier spacing is usually set at the preliminary plan stage based on preliminary analysis. The designer may, for structural reasons, after column spacing in a multicolumn pier or change from a single-column pier to a multicolumn pier. Multicolumn piers are generally better suited for handling lateral loads due to wind and/or earthquake. These changes must be reviewed by the supervisor, who will determine if the changes need to be reviewed by the Bridge Planning Engineer or the Bridge Architect. Pier spacing is usually not changed after the preliminary plan stage. However, if substantial structural improvement and/or cost savings can be realized, changes can still be made. The designer should discuss the possibilities of changing the pier spacing or skew with his/her supervisor at the earliest possible time. Changes in pier spacing could affect the Materials Lab’s soils investigation. B. Section Shape Column section shape shall be selected for strength and aesthetics and shall give proper dimensions for long column action. Columns should be designed so that construction is as simple and repetitious as possible. The diameter of circular columns should be a multiple of one foot. Rectangular sections should have lengths and widths that are multiples of 3 inches. Long rectangular columns are often tapered to reduce the amount of column reinforcement required for strength. Tapers should be kept to one plane for ease of construction. The column shape is determined at the preliminary plan stage. Changes to column size and shape may be made by the designer. Any changes must be reviewed by the supervisor, who will determine if the change needs to be reviewed by the Bridge Planning Engineer or the Bridge Architect. C. Construction Joints Construction joints in columns are normally placed at the top of the footing or pedestal and the bottom of the crossbeam. Optional construction joints with roughened surfaces should be provided at approximately 30-foot vertical spacing.

Piers

January 1991

9.2 - 1

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design
D. Column Reinforcement 1. Longitudinal Reinforcement The maximum reinforcement ratio (ratio of the steel area to the gross area of the section - As/Ag) shall be 0.06. The minimum reinforcement ratio shall be 0.01. The reinforcement ratio may be reduced to 0.005 provided that all loads can be carried on a reduced section of similar shape such that the selected reinforcement ratio is equal to .01. All dimensions of the section shall be reduced by the same ratio to obtain the reduced section. The properties of the reduced section should not be used to compute K1/r ratios for long columns. Longitudinal reinforcement should extend into the footing and rest on the bottom mat of footing reinforcement with standard 90° hooks. Embedment must be at least 1.25 1dh (1dh is development length of a standard hook). Longitudinal reinforcement should extend into the crossbeam at least 1.25 1d. Hooks should be avoided in the crossbeam. If the crossbeam is not deep enough to develop the bars, 180° hooks generally provide less congestion. A detailed clearance check is essential at the column/crossbeam connection. 2. Splicing of Longitudinal Reinforcement Column reinforcement shall not be spliced at points of maximum moment, plastic hinge locations, and in columns less than 30 feet long between the top of footing and the bottom of crossbeam. Splices of No. 11 and smaller bars shall be made by lapping the bars. When space is limited, No. 11 and smaller bars can be spliced by welds, an approved mechanical butt splice, or the top bar can be bent inward (deformed by double bending) to lie inside and parallel to the bars below. When the bar size exceeds No. 11, welded splices or an approved mechanical butt splice shall be used. The smaller of the bars being spliced determines the type of splice required. The appropriate weld details shall be shown on the plans and approved mechanical splices are covered in the Standard Specifications. All splices of No. 7 and larger bars shall be staggered. For usual practice in splicing, see Figure 9.2.1-1. Show splice locations on the plans. Where a column is to have an intermediate construction joint, the shortest bar shall project above the joint 60 bar diameters in the case of lap splicing, or 20 bar diameters in the case of welded splices. If the splice is indicated on the plans as “optional,” the method of payment for splice steel shall be defined in the Special Provisions. The Guide Specifications require that splices fall within the middle one-half of the column. For extremely tall columns (where a 60-foot bar length cannot reach the middle half), splices should not be closer than 30 feet from the columns ends. 3. Ties and Spirals Ties or spirals are required in all columns to resist shear forces and to maintain the column’s structural integrity after catastrophic forces have severely cracked the outer shell. Two section views of transverse reinforcing differentiating the column ends and the typical middle sections should be shown. The column end section will only be used for the confinement zones, where it must both provide confinement and resist shear. Hoops and ties in the confinement zones are normally No. 6 bars. No. 7 bars can be used for hoops and ties, but the concrete cover (1 inch to the tie) must be maintained using the standard radius for a No. 7 bar. Hoops can be made up of several reinforcing elements with 135° hooks extending into the core a minimum of 10 diameters or 6 inches. Ties can have a 180° hook on one end and a 90° hook on the other end. The 180° hook is to be alternated both horizontally and vertically with the 90° hook. The tie is to engage the peripheral

Piers

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers

hoop and be tied to the longitudinal reinforcement. The designer should check that the 180° hook can fit between adjacent hoops and longitudinal bars. Where confinement is not required, the transverse reinforcing needs to resist the column shear. Crossties outside the confinement zones are usually No. 4 or No. 5 bars. Cross-ties should be spaced so as to leave horizontal openings of 18 inches to 21 inches to allow for placing and consolidating concrete. The area of the transverse reinforcement required to resist the column shear is defined in Article “Column Shear and Transverse Reinforcement” of the Guide Specifications and AASHTO Article “Shear.” The area of transverse reinforcement required for confinement is determined from Guide Specifications Article “Spacing of Transverse Reinforcement for Confinement” for spirals and ties. The area of transverse reinforcing in the confinement zones is the larger of the two requirements. Transverse reinforcement may be provided by spirals, hoops, or cross-ties. See Design Example 9.2B-1 through -5. The general arrangement for column spirals in circular columns is shown in Figures 9.2.1-1 and 2. Note that spirals are to be used for all circular columns including and less than 8 feet diameter. Standard sizes for column spiral use are No. 4 or No. 5 deformed bar, 1/2-inch diameter or 5 /8-inch diameter plain steel bar, or W20 or W31 cold drawn wire. Label these spirals with all three options (for example: No. 4, 1/2-inch diameter or W20 spiral). The pitch shall allow for 1 inch or 11/3 times the maximum coarse aggregate size clearance to allow aggregate to flow through. Anchor spirals at the top and the bottom with a hook that extends into the core a distance of 10 inches past the bend. Twelve feet zero inches is the maximum height normally fabricated. Show full height of the spiral in the bar list; the fabricator will provide required splices. For diameters larger than 8 feet 0 inches, hoops are to be used. Constant dimension rectangular columns shall be detailed as shown in Figure 9.2.1-4 with the use of spirals. The same provisions as a spirally-reinforced circular column apply. The general arrangement for ties in tapered rectangular columns is shown in Figures 9.2.1-5 through 5. The maximum vertical spacing for hoops and ties in the confinement zones and over the length of lap splices is 4 inches for Seismic Performance Categories C and D and 6 inches for Seismic Performance Categories A and B. The vertical opening between layers of confinement reinforcement should be at least 21/2 inches to allow aggregate to flow through. The spacing at lap splices should be shown on the splice detail and tied to the splice location. 4. Location of Confinement Zones The typical locations of confinement zones for circular columns are shown in Figure 9.2.1-2 and for tapered rectangular columns in Figure 9.2.1-3. The locations of confinement zones are the same for columns of any shape. Column ends that are framed into footings, multicolumn crossbeams, or longitudinal frames must have confinement reinforcing over the maximum of: a. The lesser of: (1) 1/6 the clear column height, or (2) The maximum column dimension. For wall type piers where plastic hinging occurs only along the weak axis, use the short dimension. b. 18 inches.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers

Confinement reinforcing is required to extend into these framed footings, multicolumn crossbeams, etc., the larger of one-half the maximum column dimension and 15 inches, but not more than three-quarters the depth of the crossbeam or footing. Crossbeam and footing steel can be counted as confinement steel as long as it is fully developed at the extended planes of the side of the column. 5. Column Hinges The area of the hinge bars in square inches is as follows: 1/ (Pu) Pu2 2 + + Vu2 2 4 As =

[

]

0.85 Fy Cos θ

Where: Pu is the factored axial load Vu is the factored shear load Fy is the reinforcing yield strength (60 ksi) θ is the angle of the hinge bar to the vertical The development length required for the hinge bars is 1.25 times that described in AASHTO Article “Development of Flexural Reinforcement.” Figure 9.2.1-6 shows some typical hinge details. Space the ties and spirals to satisfy Article “Spacing of Transverse Reinforcement for Confinement” of the Guide Specifications, AASHTO Article “Shear,” or a maximum of 12 inches (6 inches if longitudinal bars are bundled). Premolded joint filler should be used to assure the required rotational capacity. There should also be a shear key at the hinge bar location. When the hinge reinforcement is bent, additional confinement reinforcing may be necessary to take the horizontal component from the bent hinge bars. The maximum spacing of confinement reinforcing for the hinge is the smaller of that required above and the following: Av Fy Smax = Where: Av, Vs, and d are as defined in AASHTO Article “Notations” and 1h is the distance from the hinge to where the bend begins. Continue this spacing one-quarter of the column width (in the plane perpendicular to the hinge) past the bend in the hinge bars. E. Column Loads Loads applied to the columns consist of reactions from loads applied to the superstructure and loads applied directly to the columns. The load combinations are described in AASHTO Article “Combination of Loads” and in Chapter 4 of this manual. The Earthquake Load Combination is described in the Guide Specifications, Article “Design Forces for Structural Members and Connections.” For long columns, it may be advantageous to reduce the amount of reinforcement as the applied loads decrease along the column. In these cases, load combinations need to be generated at the locations where the reinforcement is reduced. Computer programs such as YIELD, GROUPLDS, and GPLOAD can be used to combine the loads.

[

Pu Tan θ V + s 0.85 lh d

]

9.2 - 4

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers

9.2 - 5

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers

Spiral Details for Circular or Rectangular Columns Show splice details on the plans. Figure 9.2.1-2

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October 1993

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers

January 1991

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers

Constant Rectangular Column Section Figure 9.2.1-4

9.2 - 8

November 1993

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers

Tapered Rectangular Column Ties Figure 9.2.1-5

July 1994

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers

9.2 - 10

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 9.2.2 Column Design
A. General Understanding the effects on long columns due to applied loads is fundamental in their design. The following is intended to give further guidance of long column design. 1. Modes of Failure A column subject to axial load and moment can fail in several modes. A “short” column can fail due to crushing of the concrete or to failure of the tensile reinforcement. A “long” column can fail due to elastic buckling even though, in the initial stages, stresses are well within the normal allowable range. Failure of a long column is normally a combination of stability and strength failure which might occur in the following sequence: a. b. c. d. e. 2. Axial load is applied to the column. Bending moments are applied to the column, causing movement of the center line with respect to the line of action of the axial loads. Axial loads act eccentrically to the new column center line producing P-∆ moments which are additive to applied moments. The P-∆ moments increase the deflection of the column and lead to higher eccentricities and moments. At some curvature (bending strain), failure of the concrete or reinforcement results in sudden failure of the column.

Piers

Peculiarities of Bridge Columns Unlike building columns, bridge columns are required to resist lateral loads through bending and shear. As a result, these columns may be required to resist relatively large applied moments while carrying nominal axial loads. In addition, columns are often shaped to give good appearance. This results in complicating the analysis problem with non-prismatic sections.

B. Slenderness Effects The goal of a slenderness analysis is to estimate the additional bending moments in the columns and the foundations that are developed as a result of axial loads acting upon the deflected structure. The following is intended to supplement and clarify the provisions of the AASHTO Specifications. Valuable information is available in the Commentary on Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, ACI 318 R-83. Two primary analysis methods exist: Method 1: Method 2: The approximate moment magnifier method detailed in AASHTO Article “Approximate Evaluation of Slenderness Effects.” A second-order structural analysis which accounts directly for the axial forces.

The decision as to which method to use is based upon a consideration of the slenderness ratio (kLu/r) of the column(s). Method 1 is allowable if kLu/r ≤ 100. Method 2 is recommended (by AASHTO) for all situations and is mandatory (Article “Slenderness Effects in Compression Members”) for kLu/r > 100.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers

When compatible assumptions are made, Method 1 is generally more conservative and is easier to apply. For certain structures, however, use of Method 2 can lead to significant economy in the final structure. Determination of (kLu/r) requires an estimate of the value of the effective length factor, k. For unbraced columns, k ≥ 1.2; for braced columns, k ≤ 1.0. 1. Braced or Unbraced Columns The AASHTO Specifications use the expression “compression members braced against sidesway” in order to establish an effective column length. In a braced member with loads applied at the joints, any tendency toward sidesway is resisted by other members. In building design, bracing is commonly provided by diagonal bracing, shear walls, or similar elements. Bracing for some columns is provided by other columns within a story. Design procedures developed for these situations are not readily adaptable to bridge design since typical bridge columns tend to be dominated by lateral loading while building columns are usually dominated by axial loading. In the transverse direction, sidesway, due to axial loads may be resisted by lateral flexure of the superstructure as a result of the connections at the end piers. The usual practice is to consider the piers as unbraced in the transverse direction. Normal bridge practices is to provide expansion bearings at the end piers. Thus, the columns must resist the longitudinal lateral loading and therefore are considered unbraced. The only time a column can be considered as braced in the longitudinal direction is when it is framed to a bracing member that does not let the column displace more than L/1500, where L is the total column length. In this case, the bracing member must be designed to take all of the horizontal forces. 2. Effective Length Factor, k The computation of the effective length factor for columns can be readily accomplished by using the charts shown on Design Aid Sheet 9.2-A7. The effective length factor (k) should be computed for both axes of the column. These charts are appropriate only for prismatic members. For nonprismatic columns, k is not used in the column design, a second order analysis is more appropriate. G on these charts is the ratio of the sum of the flexural stiffnesses of the columns to the sum of the flexural stiffnesses of the restraining members. a. Gtop (1) Transverse Direction When the connection between a single column pier and the superstructure is moment resisting, the torsional rigidity of the superstructure may be accounted for in the computation of the restraining stiffness. In this case, Gtop can be computed as follows:

9.2 - 12

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design
Gtop = where: Ec is the modulus of elasticity of the column Ic is the column moment of inertia computed for the gross section Lc is the column length Es is the modulus of elasticity of the superstructure Ls is the average length of the adjacent connecting spans Rs is the torsional rigidity of the superstructure (the I11 value computed for the computer program SEISAB) µs is Poisson’s ratio for the superstructure (2) Longitudinal Direction When the connection between the pier and the superstructure is moment resisting, Gtop can be computed as follows: Gtop = where: Ec, Ic, and Lc are as defined above for the column Es and Ls are for the connecting spans n = 3 for an end span; n = 4 for an intermediate span with fixity at both ends Is can be taken as the I33 value computed for the computer program SEISAB AASHTO Article “Approximate Evaluation of Slenderness Effects” requires that the effect of cracking and reinforcement on the relative stiffnesses must be considered when determining k. The use of 1.2Ic for the column stiffness approximates the effect of the column reinforcement. The use of 0.5Is and 0.5Rs for the superstructure accounts for the effects of cracking. More rational approaches may be considered in some cases. b. Gbot By definition, Gbot = Kcol/KR, where: Kcol = flexural stiffness of the column Kcol = 4Ec(1.2Ig)Lu for a prismatic column KR = rotational stiffness constant describing the restraint of the foundation The rotational stiffness constant, KR, is related to the base fixity, γ, as follows: Given KR, γ = KR KR + Kcol 4Ec(1.2Ic)/Lc ΣnEs(0.5Is)/Ls 4Ec(1.2Ic)/Lc 9.5EsRs/2(1+µs)Ls

Piers

or given γ, KR , = [γ /(1- γ)]*Kcol Therefore, Gbot = (1- γ)/γ Note that 0 ≤ γ (free) ≤ 1.0 (fixed)

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Procedures for establishing KR and/or γ will be discussed in Chapter 4, “Foundation Modeling.” In most cases, there is a substantial amount of uncertainty involved in the computation of KR or γ. Therefore, care must be taken to use conservative values in the slenderness analysis. For preliminary design or when detailed foundation information is not available, an approximate, conservative value for base fixity, γ, should be used. In this case, Gbot should not be taken ≤ 1.0. (1) Piers on multiple rows of piles are 100 percent fixed at the connections to the piles. (2) Piers on a single row of piles are pinned at the connection to the piles. (3) Piers on spread footings: (a) allowable* soil pressure of 3-6 TSF; γ = 0.3, (b) allowable* soil pressure of 6-9 TSF; γ = 0.4, (c) allowable* soil pressure 9 TSF (competent rock); γ = 1.0. *at service load level If additional information becomes available, the effective length of the column(s) should be recalculated. When the new effective length is significantly different, the design should be checked using the new values. Lower limits on k values: k ≥ 1.2 for unbraced columns with rotational restraint at both ends, k ≥ 2.1 for unbraced columns with no rotational restraint at one end (i.e., cantilever column). For braced columns, a value of k = 1.0 will normally be used. c. Alternate Procedure for Determining Base Fixity, γ The moment induced in columns is dependent on the rotational restraint at the top and the degree of fixity at the base. In turn, the base fixity is dependent on the connection between the column and the footing, and the resistance of the soil to footing rotation. For most cases, it is adequate to assume a base fixity between 0.5 and 1.0, but in some cases a more detailed analysis is warranted. The degree of fixity between a column and a footing is a function of several factors including the size and spacing of anchor bolts, thickness of base plate, grout strength, etc. The degree of fixity or restraint, γ, between the footing and soil, assuming a fixity of 1.0 in the column-footing connection, can be calculated from: γ= kIf

kIf + 4EccIc/h where: k = Soil modulus, similar to “Modulus of Subgrade Reaction,” used in paving design. Where this value is not available, it can be estimated from Figure 9.2.2-2. Because the equation is not sensitive to values of k, these values will usually be adequate, psi/in. If = Moment of inertia of the plan of the footing in the direction of bending, in.4. Ic = Moment of inertia of the column, in.4. h = Height of column, in. Ecc = Modulus of elasticity of concrete in column, psi. 9.2 - 14 April 1991

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design
Figure 9.2.2-2 modulus, k.

Piers
Approximate relationship between allowable soil bearing value and subgrade

C. The Moment Magnification Method This method can lead to rapid column design. The procedure for its use is well defined in the AASHTO Specifications. Design Aid Sheets 9.2-A1 through 9.2-A6 can be helpful for design by this method. 1. General Procedure The following information is required: • Column geometry and properties: E, I, Lu, and k. • All ultimate group loads and column understrength factors, φ (see Figure 9.2.2-1), obtained from conventional elastic analyses using appropriate stiffness and fixity assumptions. The basic procedure is as follows: a. b. Compute Pc for all columns per AASHTO Article “Approximate Evaluation of Slenderness Effects.” Check Pu* ≤ .7Pc. Pu* is the load at the top of the column plus a portion of the column weight: Pu* = Putop + 1/3 * factored column weight. This ensures that Euler buckling is not approached. Compute the moment magnification factors as specified in AASHTO using Pu*. Since φ may vary for different columns for the same load group, Equation 8-41a is modified as follows: δs = d. 1 ≥ 1.0 1-(ΣPu*/ΣφPc)

c.

Compute the magnified factored moments, Mc, as specified in AASHTO Equation 8-40. M2b is defined by the specifications as the bending moment due to gravity loads which result in no appreciable sidesway (∆ < Lu/1500). Since creep, shrinkage, post-tensioning effects, and thermal deformations do not result in sidesway of the entire frame, it is considered appropriate to include those moments in the definition of M2b. This provision applies only to those columns framed together by the superstructure and/or a crossbeam. Note that the use of Equation 8-40 will generally require that Pc be computed for both the unbraced and the braced conditions.

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PHI Factor Figure 9.2.2-1

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2. Critical Load, Pc The critical load, Pc, can be readily computed for a prismatic column. For a nonprismatic column, however, the computation becomes more difficult. Numerical methods are available for solving this problem accurately; the computer program COLUMN can be used if an estimate of the effective length factor (k) is made. Other numerical methods require that the rotational restraint at the column ends be input directly (the effective length is not required). 3. Biaxial Bending When using the AASHTO specifications regarding bending about both principal axes, the appropriate values of Pc and moment magnifiers must be computed for each axis separately. 4. Yield Program Economy in design time can be achieved by using the program YIELD. The program groups the AASHTO loads, magnifies the moments, and checks or designs the column steel. Under the check mode, it will determine the Plastic Hinging Moment Envelope to determine foundation loads. The moments are all assumed to be acting on an unbraced column; therefore, the results will be conservative. If magnification factors controlling the column design exceed 1.4, the designer should use either the more correct method described above or a second-order analysis described in the following section. D. Second-Order Analysis 1. General A second-order analysis which includes the influence of axial loads on the deflected structure is required under certain circumstances and may be advisable in others. It can lead to substantial economy in the final design of many structures. Performing a second-order analysis can be difficult and time consuming. The designer should consider all of the options carefully and should discuss the situation with the supervisor before proceeding with the analysis. The ACI Building Code Commentary (ACI 318 R-83) discusses some general aspects of carrying out a second-order analysis. Some additional aspects which should be considered are given here. Previous practice has been to analyze columns separately. This is appropriate only for those columns that are isolated structurally from the frame as a whole (with sliding bearings in the direction of interest). For columns framed together, the entire frame should be analyzed as a unit. Analyzing individual columns results in overly conservative results for some columns and nonconservative results for others. This is a result of redistribution of the lateral loads in response to the reduced stiffnesses of the compression members. For example, in a bridge with long, flexible columns and with short, stiff columns both integrally connected to a continuous superstructure, the stiff columns will tend to take a larger proportion of the lateral loading as additional sidesway under axial loads occurs. For a second-order analysis, loads are applied to the structure and the analysis results in member forces and deflections. It must be recognized that a second-order analysis is non-linear; thus, the commonly used principle of superposition may not be applicable. The loads applied to the structure should be the entire set of factored loads for the load group under consideration. The analysis must be repeated for each group load of interest. The problem is complicated by the fact that it is often difficult to predict in advance which load groups will govern.

Piers

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As with a conventional linear elastic frame analysis, various assumptions and simplifications must be made in regard to member stiffness, connectivity, and foundation restraint. Care must be taken to use conservative values for the slenderness analysis. For compression members, use of the equations for EI stated in AASHTO Article “Approximate Evaluation of Slenderness Effects” will give an adequately conservative value. For concrete beams, use EI = 0.5EcIg. This is inexact in that reinforcement, cracking, load duration, and their variation along the members are not explicitly taken into account. More precise methods may be used. Foundation restraint will often be modeled as rotational springs (lateral and vertical springs may also be incorporated). A stiffness matrix may be computed to represent the soil-foundation interaction. Procedures to compute these values will be discussed in Chapter 4, “Modeling Foundations.” For certain loadings, column moments are sensitive to the stiffness assumptions used in the analysis. For example, loads developed as a result of thermal deformations within a structure may change significantly with changes in column, beam, and foundation stiffnesses. Accordingly, upper and lower bounds on these stiffnesses should be determined and the analysis repeated using both sets to verify that the governing load has been found. The specifications include the strength reduction factor, φ, in the computation of the moment magnifiers. No guidance is given with respect to the use of φ in a second-order analysis scheme. The following procedure is adopted: • For the lower-bound analysis, use the reduced member stiffnesses discussed earlier and the lower-bound foundation restraint stiffness values. Multiply the member stiffnesses by the appropriate reduction factor: φ = 0.9 for beams, and φ varies for columns. • For the upper-bound analysis, use stiffness assumptions normally employed for elastic analysis; IB = Ig, IC = 1.2Ig, and the upper-bound foundation restraint stiffnesses. The stiffnesses for the upper-bound analysis should not be reduced (φ = 1.0). E for concrete varies with loading type; thus, some superposition of results may be required in spite of the non-linearity of the analysis. In most cases, the non-linear effects will be small for the relatively stiff upper-bound analysis. Judgment is required. Note: Computations of effective length factors, k, and buckling loads, Pc, are not required for a second-order analysis, though they may be helpful in establishing the need for such an analysis. In general, if magnification factors computed using the AASHTO Specifications are found to exceed about 1.4, then a second-order analysis may yield substantial benefits. Methods for satisfying the requirements of a second-order analysis are given as follows: a. The preferred method for performing a second-order analysis of an entire frame or on isolated single columns is to use the program GTSTRUDL with appropriate stiffness and restraint assumptions. The columns are divided into a number of individual segments (10 gave good results in tests). The factored group loads (including the self-weight of the columns) are applied to the frame. The model is then analyzed using the nonlinear option available in GTSTRUDL. The final design moments are obtained directly from the analysis. Care must be taken in modeling complex structures as the cost of a nonlinear analysis can be high. For isolated single columns, the program COLUMN gives the magnified moments directly (P-∆ moments are added to the applied moments using an iterative process until stability is reached).

b.

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c.

Piers

For isolated single columns, the program LPILE1 can be manipulated to also give the magnified moments directly. Note: Neither of these programs, COLUMN nor LPILE1, includes the effect of the column weight; therefore, the axial load must be adjusted as follows: Pu* = Pu + 1/3 * factored column weight. Care and judgment must be used as they have limitations on the boundary conditions and configurations that may be analyzed.

d.

For isolated single columns, the iterative hand method is sometimes economical. Loads affected by column stiffness (temperature, shrinkage, and post tensioning) cannot be analyzed this way. The factored load is applied to the column and the deflections are computed along the length of the member taking into account restraints top and bottom and the effect of variations in moment and I along the length of the column. The load is adjusted for the P-∆ moment. The adjusted loads are applied to the column and the deflections are computed again. The deflections usually converge in about five iterations (deflections from last cycle are within 5 percent of the total deflections). If not, the column is too flexible and is unstable for that load. The program LOTUS can be used to do the repetitious hand calculations. Column EI must be adjusted according to AASHTO Article “Approximate Evaluation of Slenderness Effects.” Pu* including one-third the factored column weight must not exceed .7Pc. *At service load level.

2.

Special Provisions for Seismic Loading The following applies to those structures designed according to the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Seismic Design. The seismic analysis program SEISAB does not include the secondary effects of the axial loads. Therefore, a modified approach is necessary to perform a second-order analysis for this loading. The moment magnifier method magnifies the Group VII loads as follows: Mu = δbMDL + δs(MEQ/R) where MEQ is the elastic seismic moment obtained from SEISAB and R is the response modification factor defined in the Guide Specifications. The design philosophy of the Guide Specifications may be summarized as follows: The columns are designed to hinge (fail in flexure) at a specified percentage of the computed fully elastic seismic moment. This will occur at a deflection and shear force corresponding to δsMEQ/R. At this point, inelastic deflection will continue to some unknown maximum, but bending moments and shear forces in the columns will theoretically not increase. Therefore, the problem is to come up with an approach to compute the additional design moment due to slenderness effects, M, such that: MEQ/R + M = δsMEQ/R. A suggested second-order analysis is given as follows: Estimate the maximum primary elastic deflection of the frame: ∆PR = ∆EQ/R where ∆EQ is the CQC elastic deflection computed from SEISAB.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Piers

Apply ∆PR to a GTSTRUDL model of the frame. This will yield a set of primary deflections and forces, MPR and VPR, corresponding to ∆PR. (Note that for some structures, these forces may not agree exactly with the SEISAB results.) Apply the external gravity loadings and the primary lateral force determined above to the original model. Use the nonlinear option of GTSTRUDL to analyze the structure. The final moments (MF) obtained are then equal to the sum of the primary moments (MPR) and the additional moments due to slenderness effects (M). Thus, the design moments for the columns are given by: Mu = MDL + MEQ/R + M where: M = MF - MPR obtained from the GTSTRUDL analysis. Note: The response modification factor, R, used for footing or pile design is generally less than the value used for the columns. Thus, a separate analysis may be required to obtain the footing design moments. E. Resisting Capacities Once magnified moments have been established, the resisting capacity of the column section must be made adequate to carry this magnified moment. The appropriate capacity reduction factor (φ) must be used in the computation of this resisting capacity. In addition, the superstructure and the foundation must also be designed to resist this magnified moment. 1. Reduction Factor (φ) According to AASHTO Article “Design Strength,” the reduction factor (φ) may be increased linearly from the value for compression members to the value for flexure as the design axial load strength, φPn, decreases from .10fc′Ag or the balanced load strength φPb, whichever is smaller, to zero. Since moment capacities are based on the factored axial load, Pu, this axial load is equal to the design axial load strength, or Pu = φPn. The balanced load strength can be less than .10fc′Ag when the area of reinforcement in tension of the column exceeds .02Ag. This is rarely the case in column design but can be the case in pile design. According to the Guide Specifications Article “Flexural Strength,” for Seismic Performance Categories C and D, the value of φ for Group VII Loading may be increased linearly from .50 to the value for flexure when the stress due to the maximum axial load decreases from .20fc′Ag to zero. Figure 9.2.2-1 shows a graph of φPn versus φ. This graph is appropriate unless φPb is less than .10fc′Ag. Computer program YIELD computes φ according to this graph. 2. Moment Capacity Computer programs such as YIELD and ULT2AX can be used to compute the moment strength, φMn. The program YIELD computes the moment strength in the direction of the resultant Mx and My. The program ULT2AX computes the moment strength in the direction given in the input; therefore, the φMn curve must be plotted for the axial load strength, Pn. The resultant of Mux and Muy must fall within the curve.

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F. Service Load Requirements When widening bridges originally designed by the allowable stress method, the analysis procedure for the Moment Magnification Method is as follows. Compute the capacity of the column by load factor design procedures. The allowable service load capacity of the column shall be taken as: Mallow = where: δ= Cm 1 - 2.5P/Pc 0.35 φ Mn δ

Piers

and P is the service axial load G. Seismic Design of Multicolumn Bents The Guide Specifications require that connections to the superstructure be designed for either the elastic demand moment (Seisab Load Case 2) at the top of the column using an “R” of “1,” or the plastic moment capacity of the top of the column, whichever is less. These column moments are to be carried into the crossbeam and accounted for in the design. (For a center column of a three-column bent, the moment is distributed to the crossbeam on either side of the column.) The seismic design moment for the crossbeam would then be the moment at the face of the column or the equivalent square column.

9-2WORK:V:BDM3

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 9.3 9.3.1 Abutments Size and Construction Details
A. Representative Types Several representative types of abutments that have been used by the Bridge and Structures Division are shown in Figure 9.3.1-1. The types shown are intended for guidance only and may be varied to suit the type of bridge being designed. B. Bearing Seats The bearing seats shall be wide enough to accommodate the size of the bearings used with a minimum edge dimension of 3 in. and satisfy the requirements of the Guide Specification for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges, Article “Design Displacements.” On L-abutments, the bearing seat should be sloped away from the bearings to prevent a build up or pocket of water at the bearings. The superelevation and profile grade of the structure should be considered for drainage protection. Normally, a 1/4 in. drop across the width of the bearing seat is sufficient. C. Bearing Restraints and Girder Stops All structures shall be provided with some means of restraint against lateral displacement at the abutments due to earthquake, temperature and shrinkage, wind, earth pressure, etc. Such restraints may be in the form of concrete hinges, concrete girder stops with or without vertical elastomeric pads, or pintles in metal bearings. Other solutions are possible. Article “Connection Design Forces” of the Guide Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges describe longitudinal linkage force and hold-down devices required. To eliminate alignment conflicts between prestressed girders and girder stops, prestressed girders should be placed in final position before girder stops are cast. Allow 1/8 in. clearance between the prestressed girder flange and the girder stop to prevent binding. Incorporate details of Figure 9.3.1-2 in bridge plans. D. Face Slope A vertical abutment wall or a 1:4 slope is used on the front face of the abutment as shown on Design Aid Sheets 9.3-A2 through 9.3-A6. On very high abutments, where a 1:4 slope would create an excessively wide bearing seat, the slope should be adjusted or using the slope only at the exposed leading edge of the abutment and wing wall while leaving the remaining abutment wall surface vertical. On abutments with fractured fin surface, the front face should be vertical to match the fractured fins. E. Sizing Abutments Other portions of the abutment shall be sized for stress. As indicated in Figure 9.3.1-1, additional stem width, where required, may be obtained by sloping the back face of the wall. On extremely high walls (30 feet and above) subjected to large earth pressures, consideration should be given to using counterfort construction. See Section 9.4.2 B of this manual, Counterfort Retaining Walls. F. Class of Concrete The class of concrete used in abutments and standard wingwalls shall be Class 4000.

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G. Abutment and Retaining Wall Junctions Vertical expansion joints extending from the top of footings to the top of the abutment are usually required between abutments and adjacent retaining walls to handle anticipated movements. The expansion joint is normally filled with premolded joint filler which is not water tight. There may be circumstances when this joint must be water tight; 1/8 butyl rubber may be used to cover the joint. The open joint in the barrier should contain a compression seal to create a water tight joint. Figure 9.3.1-3 shows typical details that may be used. Aesthetic considerations may require that vertical expansion joints between abutments and retaining walls be omitted. This is generally possible if the retaining wall is less than 60 feet long. The footing beneath the joint may be monolithic or cast with a construction joint. In addition, dowel bars may be located across the footing joint parallel to the wall elements to guard against differential settlement or deflection. For further discussion, see Section 9.4, Retaining Walls. Particular attention should be given to the horizontal reinforcing steel required at the junction between abutment and retaining wall. To account for the resistance to rotation found in retaining walls and cantilever abutment walls rigidly connected to one another in a U-shape (as seen in Plan View), an equivalent fluid pressure of 45 pcf shall be assumed for design. This increased loading can normally be reduced to 30 pcf at a distance, from the junction between the abutment and retaining wall, equal to the average height of the wall under design. At this location, active state soil pressure is assumed to be developed. H. Construction Joints To simplify construction, vertical construction joints are often necessary, particularly between the abutment and adjacent wing walls. Construction joints should also be provided between the footing and the stem of the wall. Shear keys shall be provided at construction joints between the footing and the stem, at vertical construction joints or at any construction joint that requires shear transfer. The Standard Specifications cover the size and placement of shear keys. The location of such joints shall be detailed on the plans. Construction joints with roughened surface can be used at locations (except where needed for shear transfer) to simplify construction. These should be shown on the plans and labeled “Construction Joint With Roughened Surface.” When construction joints are located in the middle of the abutment wall, a pour strip should be used for a clean joint between pours. Details of the pour strip should be shown in the plans. See Section 5 of this manual and Design Aid Sheets 9.3-A1 through A6 for further guidance on construction joints. I. Drainage and Backfilling Three-inch (3 in.) weep holes shall be provided in all bridge abutment walls. These shall be located 6 inches above the final ground line at about 12 feet on centers. In cases where the vertical distance between the top of the footing and the bearing seat is greater than 10 feet, additional weep holes shall be provided 6 inches above the top of the footing. No weep holes are necessary in cantilever wing walls where a wall footing is not used. The details for gravel backfill for walls, underdrain pipe and backfill for drains shall be indicated on the plans. The gravel backfill for walls shall be provided behind all bridge abutments. The underdrain pipe and gravel backfill for drains shall be provided behind all bridge abutments except abutments on fills with a stem wall height of 5 feet or less. When retaining walls with footings are attached to the abutment, a blockout may be required for the underdrain pipe outfall. Cooperation between Bridge and the district as to the drainage requirements is needed to guarantee proper blockout locations.

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Underdrain pipe and gravel backfill for drains are not necessary behind cantilever wing walls. Threefoot (3 ft.) thickness of gravel backfill for walls behind the cantilever wing walls shall be shown in the plans. The backfill for walls, underdrain pipe and gravel backfill for drains are not included in bridge quantities, the size of the underdrain pipe should not be shown on the plans. Figure 9.3.1-4 illustrates backfill details. J. Embankment at Bridge Ends The minimum clearances for the embankment at the front face of abutments shall be as indicated on Standard Plan Sheet H-9. At the ends of the abutment, the fill may be contained with wing walls or in the case of concrete structures, placed against the exterior girders. On stub abutments with the end diaphragm cast on the superstructure, the open expansion joint must be protected from the fill. Normally, 1/8 in. butyl rubber is used to seal the opening. Figure 9.3.1-5 and Figure 9.3.1-6 show typical details using butyl rubber. The bearings must also be protected from the fill. Figure 9.3.1-7 and Figure 9.3.1-8 show typical details to protect the bearings. There are many other different ways to protect the open expansion joints and bearings than shown in Figures 9.3.1-5 through 8. The method used should be well detailed in the plans. The Special Provision and Estimates unit can advise as to what types of materials would or would not require special provisions.

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Open Joint Details — End Diaphragm on Girder Figure 9.3.1-7

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 9.3.2 Abutment Loads
A. Applicable Loads In general, bridge abutments will be subjected to the following loads: Dead load reaction of superstructure. Dead load reaction of approach slab, where applicable, taken as 2 kips per foot of wall applied at the pavement seat. Live load surcharge on earth pressure shall not be included with this load. Weight of the abutment itself. Weight of wing walls where applicable. Weight of backfill and toe fill usually taken as 125 pcf. Frame shortening of post-tensioned superstructure where applicable. Buoyancy where applicable. Live load reaction from superstructure without impact. Live load reaction from approach slab, where applicable, taken as 4 kips per foot of wall for HS-20 loading, 3 kips per foot for H-20 and HS-15 loading and 2 kips per foot for H-15 loading applied at the pavement seat. Live load surcharge on earth pressure shall not be included with this load. Earth pressure is normally taken at 30 pcf equivalent fluid pressure for group loads I through VI. For group load VII, an equivalent fluid pressure with a rectangular distribution and a magnitude of 1/2 γ H(KAE-KA) is added to the earth pressure. Where γ is the unit weight of the backfill (normally taken as 125 pcf), H is the height of the wall, KA is the Coulomb active pressure coefficient, and KAE is the Mononobe-Okabe active pressure coefficient for earthquake as described in the Guide Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges. Live load surcharge on earth pressure where applicable, normally taken as a 2-foot surcharge, causes a vertical and horizontal reaction. Dead load reaction of approach slab and live load reaction from approach slab shall not be included with this load. Earthquake transmitted through bearings, girder stops, or a rigidly attached superstructure. Seismic inertia force of the substructure, taken as the horizontal acceleration coefficient (1/2 acceleration coefficient) times the weight of the abutment (including footing and soil weight). This force acts horizontally in the same direction as the earth pressure, at the mass centroid of the abutment. This is described in the Guide Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges. Seismic inertia force is only applied for stability and sliding analysis, it is not to be applied to determine the reinforcement required in the abutment. Longitudinal live load from superstructure. Temperature and shrinkage. Centrifugal force. Wind load from superstructure. Figure 9.3.2-1 shows the typical loads applied to an L-abutment and Figure 9.3.2-2 shows the typical loads applied to a cantilever abutment. Figure 9.3.2-3 shows longitudinal and transverse forces from the superstructure with a skew.

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B. Usual Governing Load Combinations The AASHTO Specifications for load combinations supplemented by Bridge Division Criteria shown in Chapter 4 of this manual apply in the design of abutments. Normally for the design of abutments, only Group I (Service Load) and Group IV and VII (Load Factor) need to be checked. For abutment footing design loadings, see Section 9.5. The designer should consider other groups if it appears they might be critical. For the typical abutment with wing walls, check the outer 10-foot portion of the abutment with wing wall and approach slab. Beyond the 10-foot section, check the abutment without applying the wingwall and approach slab (using the live load surcharge on earth pressure). In Group I and IV, apply live load surcharge with and without the live load reaction from the superstructure. Both the vertical and horizontal component of live load surcharge on earth pressure should have the appropriate live load factor applied to it. C. Special Handling of Lateral Forces The longitudinal forces from the superstructure is normally transferred to the abutments through the bearings. The calculated longitudinal movement shall be used to determine the shear force developed by the bearing pads at the abutments. The Modulus of Elasticity of Neoprene at 70°F (21°C) shall be used for determining the shear force. However, the force transmitted through a bearing pad shall be limited to that which causes the bearing pad to slip. Normally, the maximum load transferred through a teflon sliding bearing is 6 percent and through an elastomeric bearing pad is 20 percent of the dead load reaction of the superstructure. For Group VII (Seismic), assume no load transfer through the bearings because end diaphragm is in contact with abutment wall. The bearing force shall not be added to seismic earth pressure forces. The transverse forces from the superstructure is transferred to the abutment through the girder stops or the bearings. 1. Special Abutment Loads a. Cantilever abutment with end diaphragm cast on superstructure: For structures without expansion joints, the earth pressure against the end diaphragm is transmitted through the superstructure. b. Cantilever L-abutment: The compressibility of the expansion joint shall be considered in the design of the abutment for earthquake, temperature, and shrinkage when these forces increase the design load. The following cases will illustrate the handling of typical longitudinal forces: 2. Case A — Force in Direction of Span The intermediate pier(s) of a multi-span continuous structure shall be designed to resist the entire longitudinal force of the superstructure (unless the end piers are an integral part of the superstructure). The calculated movement at the abutments determined from analysis of the superstructure shall be used to determine the shear force developed by the bearing pads. The limiting bearing pad force shall be as indicated above. For the earth pressure force, use the βE factor (see Section 4.2), associated with earth pressure tending to decrease stability (cause overturning), except for group load VII, bE shall be taken as 1.0.

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3. Case B — Force in Direction of Backfill The force in the bearing pad caused by longitudinal superstructure movements shall be calculated in a manner similar to Case A. The βE factor for this case shall be the one associated with earth pressure tending to increase stability (resist overturning), except for group load VII, βE shall be taken as 1.0. 4. Case C — Temporary Construction Condition (longitudinal forces in either direction) a. Superstructure Built Before Backfill at Abutment In some cases the superstructure of a bridge may be built and falsework underneath released before backfill is placed at the end abutments. At this stage the structure may be subjected to earthquake, wind or other horizontal forces. The factor (see Section 4.2) associated with these forces shall be taken as 1.1 owing to the temporary nature of the condition, except for group load VII where the factor shall be taken as 1.0 The force in the bearing pad shall be calculated as in Case A. In some instances, this loading condition may govern the design and might be severe enough to require very large footings or excessive amounts of reinforcing steel when compared with loading combinations that include earth pressure and overburden. Rather than trying to design for severe loading conditions, the designer should consider recommending to the district that backfill be placed before construction of the superstructure. If agreed to, note this in the sequence of construction on the plans. b. Superstructure Built after Backfill at Abutment If the superstructure is to be built after the backfill is placed at the abutments, the resulting temporary loading on the abutments will cause them to act like retaining walls. Such walls require additional tensile reinforcement in the top of the footing heel. The bottom of the footing will normally require tensile reinforcement extending from the heel to the toe once the superstructure is completed. c. Sequence of Falsework Removal Another temporary construction condition to be considered is the sequence of falsework removal. For example, it is usually advantageous in sizing the footing to release the falsework from under the wing walls after some portion of the superstructure load is applied to the abutment. This item, when applicable, can be covered by a note in the sequence of construction on the plans. 5. Special Considerations When the force transmitted through the bearing pads is very large, the designer should consider increasing the bearing pad thickness, using TFE sliding bearings and/or utilizing the flexibility of the abutment as a means of reducing the horizontal design force. When the flexibility of the abutment is considered, it is intended that a simple approximation of the abutment deformation be made.

Abutments

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Abutments

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design
D. Load on Girder Stop Bearings For skewed structures with earth pressure against the end diaphragm (see Figure 9.3.2-4), the need for girder stop bearings shall be investigated. When required, these bearings are placed vertically against the girder stop to transfer the skew component of the earth pressure to the abutment without restricting the movement of the superstructure in the direction parallel to centerline. The design procedure for elastomeric girder stop bearing pads for Series 8, 10, and 14 Prestress Girders is shown in Chapter 8, Appendix A of this manual. In some cases bearing assemblies containing sliding surfaces may be necessary to accommodate large superstructure movements. Girder stops are often required to transfer earthquake load from the superstructure to the abutment. In these cases, all components of the girder stop, including the bearing assembly, shall be designed for the earthquake loading in addition to the earth pressure described above. E. Loads on Girder Stops The loads mentioned in Section 9.3.2 D above apply to girder stops and superstructure restraints. Girder stops are designed using shear friction theory. The possibility of torsion combined with horizontal shear when the load does not pass through the centroid of the girder stop shall also be investigated. Some type of transverse girder stop is required for all abutments.

Abutments

9.3.3

General Design Procedures
A. Design for Stability The factors of safety against overturning and sliding shall be as specified in Section 9.3.2 A(d) of this manual. Special requirements for individual abutments types are covered in Section 9.3.4 A through E. Also see Section 9.5, Footings. B. Earth Pressure at Front Face In the usual case, the earth pressure exerted by the fill in front of the abutment is neglected in the design. The weight of the fill in front of the abutment should be included in the analysis for overturning if it adds to overturning. C. Design for Strength When the primary structural action is parallel to the superstructure or normal to the abutment face, the wall shall be treated as a column subjected to combined axial load and bending moment. Compressive reinforcement need not be included in the design of cantilever walls, but the possibility of bending moment in the direction of the span as well as towards the backfill shall be considered. A portion of the vertical bars may be cut off where they are no longer needed for stress. For footing design see Section 9.5, Footings. In addition, see the special requirements for individual abutment types under Section 9.3.4 A through E. D. Minimum Reinforcement 1. Minimum Wall Steel The minimum area and maximum spacing of stressed wall reinforcement stipulated in AASHTO Specifications shall be furnished.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design
2. Minimum Temperature and Shrinkage Steel in Wall The AASHTO Specifications, Article “Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement,” requires a minimum temperature and shrinkage steel of 0.125 sq. in. per foot of wall. This is not sufficient to limit shrinkage cracks in thick walls. A more appropriate minimum temperature and shrinkage steel is taken from the ACI-83, minimum area of reinforcing steel per foot of the wall, in both directions on each face of the wall, shall be 0.011 times the thickness of the wall (in inches), spaced at 12 inches. On abutments that are longer than 60 feet, consideration should be given to have vertical construction joints to minimize shrinkage cracks. 3. Minimum Cross Ties in Wall Ties, no. 4 bars with 180 degree hooks, spaced at approximately 2 feet center to center vertically and at approximately 4 feet center to center horizontally shall be furnished throughout the abutment stem in all but stub abutments, see Figure 9.3.3-1.

Abutments

9.3.4

Load and Reinforcement Requirements
A. Requirements for Pile Cap Abutments Earth pressures on some pile caps are either negligible or very small (when the lateral force on each pile is less than 6 kips), and vertical dead load and live load are the major effects. The design of this type of abutment is like that of a crossbeam, and transverse bending as well as shear shall be investigated for the spans between the piles. For the analysis of the pile cap, the wheel loads should be placed for the maximum moment on the pile cap. For the analysis of the piles, the wheel loads should be placed unsymmetrically to obtain the largest pile reaction. For narrow bridges (one-lane ramps and two-lane bridges without skew) the transverse live load moment on the abutment shall be taken about the center of gravity of the pile group assuming the abutment to be a rigid beam. The maximum pile reaction from transverse effect will then be P/N + Mt/S, where P is the total vertical load, N is the total number of piles, Mt is the transverse moment about the centerline of abutment and S is the transverse pile modulus. This analysis is only valid if the lateral forces from earth pressure, etc. are less than 6 kips per pile and all the piles have no batter. For wide bridges (2 lanes with skew and wider) the abutment may be assumed to act as a flexible beam on knife-edge supports. The maximum pile live load reaction from transverse loading can be obtained by assuming the abutment acts as a simple beam between piles and each wheel load (in the design lane or approach lane) is proportionally distributed to the adjacent piles (see Figure 9.3.4-1). Transverse moments and shears may be found assuming the spans between piles as semi-simply supported: i.e. maximum positive or negative moment = 0.80 times the simple beam moment. Maximum shear = simple beam shear. This analysis is valid for piles with a stiffness much less than the pile cap. For pile caps with lateral loads greater than 6 kips, with battered piles, or for piles with a stiffness about the same magnitude as the pile cap, such as shafts, the analysis for the pile cap should be as a crossbeam, see Section 9.2.1, and the analysis for the piles should include the lateral capacity of the pile, see Section 9.6. B. Requirements for Stub Abutments For stub abutment (girder seat to top of footing less than approximately 4 feet), the footing and wall can be considered as a continuous inverted T-beam. The analysis of this type abutment shall include investigation into both bending and shear stresses parallel to centerline of bearing. If the superstructure is relatively deep, earth pressure combined with longitudinal forces from the superstructure may become significant (see Section 9.3.4 C).

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Abutments

Pile Cap Abutment Figure 9.3.4-1

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design
C. Requirements for Cantilever Abutments If the height of the wall from the bearing seat down to the bottom of the footing exceeds the clear distance between the girder bearings, the assumed 45° lines of influence from the girder reactions will overlap, and the dead load and live load from the superstructure can be assumed equally distributed over the abutment width. The design may then be carried out on a per foot basis as described earlier under Section 9.3.3 A through C. The primary structural action takes place normal to the abutment, and the bending moment effect parallel to the abutment may be neglected in most cases. The wall is assumed to be a cantilever member fixed at the top of the footing and subjected to axial, shear, and bending loads. D. Requirements for Spill-Through Abutments The analysis of this type of abutment is similar to that of an intermediate pier. The crossbeam shall be investigated for vertical loading as well as earth pressure and longitudinal effects transmitted from the superstructure. Columns shall be investigated for vertical loads combined with horizontal forces acting transversely and longitudinally. For earth pressure acting on rectangular columns, assume an effective column width equal to 1.5 times the actual column width. Short, stiff columns may require a hinge at the top or bottom to relieve excessive longitudinal moments. E. Requirements for Rigid Frame Abutments Abutments which make up parts of rigid frame bridges shall be designed in accordance with service load criteria. Whenever a preliminary analysis establishes that the effects of vertical loads are far greater than the effects of horizontal earth pressure loads (generally the case with low abutments and long horizontal spans), load factor criteria may be used. Earth pressure loading shall be a maximum of 60 pcf equivalent fluid pressure and a minimum of 30 pcf equivalent fluid pressure to be applied in any combination except as noted below. The 60 pcf value is to be used for normal rigid frames where there is a high degree of restraint to the soil mass. Lower figures may be used if lower degree of restraints exist. The 30 pcf value is equivalent to a normal cantilever retaining wall. Earth pressure loading of up to 15 pcf may be used to reduce moments in the superstructure provided that such pressure can be developed. This reduction may also be used for earthquake acting on rigid frame structures. Earthquake forces from the soil mass need not be applied as loads. The abutment design should include the live load impact factor from the superstructure. However, impact shall not be included in the footing design. The rigid frame itself should be considered restrained against sidesway for live load only. For requirements for rigid frames with ceramic tile lining, see Section 8.4.6.

Abutments

9-3WORK:V:BDM3

January 1991

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design 9.4 9.4.1 Retaining Walls General
A retaining wall is a structure built to provide lateral support for a mass of earth or other material, the top of which is at a higher elevation than the earth or rock in front of the wall. Retaining walls depend either on their own weight or on their own weight plus an additional weight of the laterally supported material, or on a tieback system for their stability. All retaining walls not covered under Standard Walls or Preapproved Proprietary Walls are designed in the Bridge and Structures Division. The Hydraulics Section should be consulted for any walls that could be threatened by flood water or are located in a flood plain. The Architectural Section should review architectural features and visual impacts at the Preliminary Design stage. For illustrations of different types of walls, see Figures 9.4.2-1 through 9.4.2-4 at the end of this section.

Retaining Walls

9.4.2

Common Types of Walls
A. Cantilevered Walls Cantilevered walls are reinforced concrete walls consisting of a base slab footing from which a vertical stem wall extends. These walls are suitable for heights up to 35 feet. Details for construction are given in the Standard Plans, along with design criteria. For nonstandard designs, the computer program RETWAL can be used for analysis. The major disadvantage of these walls is the low tolerance to post-construction settlement, which may require use of piling to provide adequate support. B. Counterfort Walls Counterfort walls are a type of cantilever wall which have ribs on the backside to strengthen the junction between footing and stem wall. These walls can exceed heights of 50 feet and generally become economical for walls having considerable portions exceeding heights of 25 feet. C. Gravity Walls Gravity walls can be made from many different materials including plain concrete, rubble masonry, mortar rubble masonry and gabions. Gravity walls depend on their own weight for stability. They are generally used for wall heights of 10 feet or less, with the exception of gabion walls, which can exceed 30 feet in height. 1. Mortar Rubble Masonry Walls Basic design and construction standards for these walls are given in the Standard Plans. Use of masonry walls are quite limited due to the excessive cost of placing the material by hand. They are primarily used when it is necessary to blend with previously completed projects where a masonry wall already exists. 2. Gabion Walls Gabion walls consist of wire baskets laced together and filled with rock. These walls are flexible and some post-construction settlement can be tolerated. Details for gabion wall construction are found in the Standard Plans and Specifications. D. Cribbing Cribbing is made of metal bins, precast reinforced concrete or logs. Cribbing height is generally 10 to 30 feet.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design
1. Metal Cribbing There are two types of metal cribbing approved for use in the state of Washington. The details are shown in the Standard Plans. 2. Reinforced Concrete Cribbing Concrete cribbing is similar to metal and can be used as an alternate. It is recommended to use this type in marine areas for its ability to withstand corrosion. 3. Log Cribbing Log cribbing has a rustic aesthetic value which makes it popular for use in locations having a natural environment, such as parks, national forests, or primitive areas. It is well suited for use on detours or temporary walls used for stage construction. E. Cylinder Pile Walls This wall utilizes a large diameter, 4 to 10 feet, drilled shaft filled with Class 4000 concrete. The shaft is reinforced with steel beams or steel reinforcing bars. Wall heights, up to 50 feet, have been built to retain fills. Wall panels made of cast-in-place concrete, precast concrete or timber are connected to cylinder piles. F. Tieback Walls Tieback walls use vertical main load carrying members, such as soldier piles, cylinder piles, sheet piles, or slurry walls, to resist horizontal forces. The main members are connected to high strength steel bars or strand anchors, which are fixed into soil or rock with high strength grout and stressed to counteract the horizontal earth pressure loads. These walls can be built to heights exceeding 50 feet. The anchors can be incorporated into a permanent wall by the use of a double corrosion protection system or can be used in a temporary condition for shoring and cribbing. The greatest advantage in using tiebacks is that it causes minimal disturbance to the soil behind the wall and any structures resting on this soil. Nonstressed anchors, called deadman anchors, rely on passive pressure of the soil in front of the deadman panel to resist horizontal forces. G. Proprietary Walls A wall specified to be supplied from a single source (patented, trademark, or copyright) is a proprietary wall. These walls can range in heights from 15 to 50 feet. The following is a description of the most common types of proprietary walls: 1. Structural Earth Walls A structural earth wall is a flexible system consisting of concrete face panels that are held rigidly into place with thin galvanized steel or aluminum strips extending into a select backfill mass. These walls will allow for some settlement and are best used for fill sections. The walls have three principal elements: • The backfill or wall mass: a grandular soil with good internal friction (gravel borrow). • The reinforcing metal strips, steel mesh, welded wire, or geotextiles. • The facing: precast concrete panels, welded wire with vegetation, geotextiles, or shotcrete.

Retaining Walls

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls

There are several important factors when selecting a structural earth wall. These are as follows: a. Height In fills more than 10 feet high, structural earth walls are generally less costly than other wall types in fill locations. b. Length Adequate room is needed for earthwork equipment. Short, low walls should be avoided. c. Backfill A granular soil meeting the requirements of gravel borrow is required for the wall mass. In areas where the wall may become saturated, the backfill shall be free-draining. The Materials Lab will supply the Special Provisions for the wall mass material. d. Excavation Structural earth walls are typically more costly than other wall types in excavation areas. Greater excavation is needed to accommodate the wall mass which has a width of about 70 percent of the wall height. e. Foundation These walls perform well in settlement sensitive areas, but are not adaptable to pile support. f. Aesthetics Facing is available in a variety of surface textures, shapes and colors. Welded wire wall surfaces may have vegetation growing on exposed surfaces to match existing terrain. The backfill used in this case must be suitable to sustain vegetation growth at the face of the wall. 2. Geotextile Walls Geotextile walls are structural earth walls that use geotextile fabric for the reinforcement and the facing. The main use of fabric walls is for temporary walls, which can become permanent walls with a cast-in-place or shotcrete facing. The Materials Lab is responsible for the design and review of geotextile walls. 3. Other Proprietary Walls Other wall systems similar in concept to the standard crib, bin, precast cantilever, or tieback can offer cost reductions, reduce construction time, and provide special aesthetic features. A list of preapproved proprietary walls is on file in our office, including height limitations. The district can select a particular wall type from the list and include it in the contract plans, as an alternate to a Standard Wall. The Materials Lab and the Preliminary Plans Unit will approve the concept prior to Ad. The Special Provisions will be written by the Bridge Office with design criteria, and the Materials Lab will give the soil criteria needed for design and check the soil for overall stability. Prior to wall construction, the supplier will submit design calculations and shop drawings for approval. The following is a list of the proprietary wall systems that are preapproved: a. Criblock Retaining Walls Northwest Inc. — “Criblock” up to 30 feet.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design
b.

Retaining Walls

Hilfiker Retaining Walls, a cast-in-place concrete face is not allowed with these wall systems. (1) “Reinforced Soil Wall” — up to 30 feet. (2) “Welded Wire Wall” — up to 20 feet.

c. d.

The Reinforced Earth Co. — “Reinforced Earth” — up to 30 feet. VSL Corporation — “Reinforced Earth” — up to 30 feet.

H. Slurry Walls Slurry wall construction method enables wall placement to precede wall excavation. This is useful when restricted by tight right-of-way, staging construction, or where ground water is a problem. A trench is excavated for the wall and simultaneously filled with a bentonite slurry. The bentonite slurry restricts the ground water flow and holds the trench sides in place. Reinforcing steel is placed in the slurry-filled trench and concrete is placed by means of a tremie or a concrete pump while displacing the slurry. After the concrete has cured, the excavation can be completed. With the addition of tiebacks, these walls can exceed heights of 50 feet. For an aesthetically pleasing appearance, facing is used in the form of precast panels, cast-in-place concrete, or shotcrete. I. Rock Walls Rock walls are gravity walls made of stacked large rock. They are used primarily in cut sections to provide erosion protection and limited support. They are generally 15 feet or less in height. J. Soil Nailing Soil nailing is a technique used to stabilize moving earth, such as a landslide, or as a means of temporary shoring. Soil anchors are used along with the strength of the soil to provide stability. The Materials Lab will design the system of soil nailing to be incorporated in the bridge contract plans. K. Wingwall A wingwall retains the fill beyond the bridge end. It acts like a horizontal cantilevered wall with its main support from the end abutment. The two Office Standards lengths are 15 feet with 1 3/4:1 and 2:1 fill slope and 20 feet with 2:1 fill slope wingwalls. The standards also show different surface treatments, e.g., fractured fin finish or plain concrete finish. A separate design is required when using a nonstandard length. See Design Example 9.4 B1-10 for curtain wall rigidly attached to footing and abutment wall. L. Noise Walls Noise walls are primarily used in urban or residential areas to mitigate noise or to obstruct view of roadway. Precast wall panels supported by precast pilasters, cast-in-place wall and footing, or wood fencing are the common types. The Architectural Section is responsible for determining wall type. Design criteria for noise walls is based on AASHTO’s Guide Specifications for Structural Design of Sound Barriers.

9.4.3

Design
A. General Refer to AASHTO Specifications and Bridge Design Manual Criteria 9.1.2, 9.3.1F and G, and 9.5.1A2. Service Load Design is used for design of retaining walls and the loading combinations shall be as described in AASHTO. Service Load Design is used rather than Load Factor Design, because of its long history of good performance and due to the lack of development of Load Factor Design criteria for retaining walls.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls

January 1991

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design
B. Cantilever Walls In general, concrete for retaining walls shall be Class 3000 Concrete with a 28-day compressive strength of 3,000 psi. For special retaining wall design, the use of Class 4000 is appropriate. Earth pressures shall be based on soil weight = 120 lb./cu. ft., the surcharge slope, the coefficient of internal friction and/or the cohesion of the backfill material. Normally the earth pressure is taken as 30 lb./cu. ft. equivalent fluid pressure when well draining granular backfill material is used. Special consideration should be given to the design of the “U” shape abutment without expansion joints between the abutment and retaining walls. At the junction of the abutment and retaining wall an equivalent fluid pressure of 45 lb./cu. ft. shall be used. This increased loading can normally be reduced to 30 lb./cu. ft. at a distance from the junction of the abutment and retaining wall equal to the average height of the wall under design. The resultant for Group I loadings (except for walls with traffic barriers having a height (H) of 16 feet or less, see table below) shall be kept within the middle one-third of footing. This can be expressed as a minimum Factor of Safety (FS) of two against overturning about the toe of the footing for spread footings or the front row of piles for pile footings (see 9.5.1 for additional criteria regarding pile footings). For all other loading combinations, the resultant shall be kept within the middle one-half of the footing. To maintain adequate safety against sliding, the following should be observed for spread footings. (FS)P (P = total horizontal force on wall) ≤ 0.5 W (W= total minimum vertical load) For walls having a height (H) of 16 feet or less, the controlling load is the 10 kip collision load. This load occurs occasionally and will have a reduced factor of safety. Wall Height, H Roadway Grade to Bottom of Footing H, 16 feet or less for 10K collision load H, 17 feet or more for all Wall load cases Earthquake Group VII All Heights Overturning* M abt. toe resist M abt. toe loads greater than 1.5 Location of Resultant* within middle 1/2 of footing within middle 1/3 of footing within middle 1/2 of footing Sliding FS(EP + Sur or 10k) < 0.5 Weight F.S. = 1.2

Retaining Walls

greater than 2.0

F.S. = 1.5

greater than 1.5

FS(EP + EQ) < 0.5 Weight FS = 1.1

Factor of Safety (FS) Table *Both cases shall be met for determining wall stability. The 10 kip collision load shall be distributed over 16 feet. This is the minimum wall length allowed for Type 2 Retaining Walls in the Standard Plans. In a special design, the distribution width shall be the smaller of wall length between expansion joints (24′-0″ max.) or 5 feet + 2H (assumes AASHTO traffic barrier distribution plus a 45 degree influence line).

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls

For sliding, the passive resistance in the front of the footing may be considered if the earth is more than 2 feet deep on the top of the footing and does not slope downward away from the wall. The design soil pressure at the toe of the footing shall not exceed the allowable soil bearing capacity supplied by the Foundation Engineer. For retaining walls resting on foundation piles, refer to Bridge Design Manual Sections 9.5.1, 9.5.2, and 9.6. Mononobe-Okabe analysis in AASHTO Guide Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges shall be used as a check in the design of the wall. AASHTO article “Abutments” gives equations to calculate the earthquake forces. Reduced factors of safety are shown in the preceding table. The Mononobe-Okabe equation requires the following assumptions: • Kv = 0, vertical acceleration coefficient is zero. • Kh = A/2, A is the acceleration coefficient. • δ, angle of friction between soil and abutment i, backfill slope angle • δ = i, slip is more likely to occur within the backfill than between soil and abutment interface. The earthquake force will be in the same direction as the slope of the surface of the backfill. • β = 0, For cantilever walls, the soil fails in a vertical plane through the footing heel. This results in β = 0 for cantilever walls, regardless of wall batter. See example in Design Aid 9.4-A1 to determine earthquake load. C. Diaphragm Walls (Other names: Slurry Wall, Cut-off Wall, or Curtain Wall) The permanent diaphragm walls include cylinder or tangent pile walls, simple panel slurry walls, and T-section slurry walls. 1. Advantages of diaphragm walls are: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 2. No formwork required; No lowering of the ground water table required; Can form outer wall of structures; Irregular shapes are possible; Relatively impervious in comparison with other types of walls, if dry excavation is necessary; Construction possible under adverse circumstances, such as unfavorable soils and hydrologic conditions and where other techniques may have limitations; Can be constructed to considerable depths ahead of the main excavation; Relatively free from vibrations and noise during construction.

Disadvantages of diaphragm walls are: a. b. c. Limited local contractor experience which may result in higher bid prices or unforeseen construction problems; The disposal of used slurries in urban areas may pose special problems. Higher cost.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design
3. Design Criteria a. b. Class 4000 concrete is typically used. Higher strength concrete may be specified for special cases with approval of the Bridge Design Engineer. To compensate for the effects of the concrete being cast in a slurry, the assumed concrete compressive strength shall be fc = 0.85fc′. Modulus of elasticity shall be calculated from the reduced concrete strength. Use 80 percent of the allowable bond stress (i.e., increase development length by 25 percent) for deformed bars due to the thin, slippery film coating on the reinforcing steel from the slurry. Lap splices shall be 1.5 times normally specified splice length. To allow for proper placement of concrete, use the following minimum spacing: • Vertical bars at 6 inch spacing, preferably 9 inch spacing. • Horizontal bars at 12 inch spacing. f. g. Concrete cover shall be a minimum of 3 inches; The wall panel shall be a maximum of 48 inches thick for both simple and T-section diaphragm walls. The maximum panel width is limited to 8 feet for T-section and 24 feet for simple diaphragm wall. Use the same thickness for the flange and the stem of a T-section if possible. There are tree common types of analysis: (1) Factored soil strength parameters of Cm, φm, and δm with full passive coefficient KP (so-called Duncan’s method): φm = tan-1 (tanφ) F C Cm = F 2 δm = φ 3 m By reducing soil strength parameters, the length of embedment required for wall stability is used in design. An approximate correlation between depth factor and factor of safety applied to shear strength is shown as follows: Soils Good Typical Bad Depth Factor* 1.2 1.3 1.4 Corresponding Value of F 1.15 ~ 1.17 1.25 1.29 ~ 1.36

Retaining Walls

c.

d. e.

h.

*Conventional practice is to use a factor of safety which increases the embedded depth by 20 to 40 percent above the value required for barely stable equilibrium. The choice of depth factor is based on engineering judgment.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls

(2) Unfactored soil parameters use KP/1.5, without adding additional length. (3) Unfactored soil parameters use KP, when providing 20 ~ 40 percent additional length. i. Soil loading due to earthquake is based on Mononobe-Okabe pseudo-static analysis (refer to Guide Specification, Commentary “Foundation and Abutment Design Requirements, FreeStanding Abutments”) KAE = KA + KAE where KAE KAE = the coefficient of total earthquake earth pressure = KA (Coulomb’s static active coefficient), when θ = 0°

∆KAE = the additional dynamic load The static loads are triangularly distributed and the additional dynamic loads are uniformly distributed on the wall. It is recommended that the horizontal acceleration coefficient Kh for diaphragm walls be the value of 1.0A, which falls in between the value of 0.5A for yielding walls and 1.5A for nonyielding walls. (A = acceleration coefficient) The design seismic passive resistances represent the total resistance during earthquake. The coefficient of passive resistance can be determined from the Guide Specifications for Seismic Design of Highway Bridges. Note that if, θ = 0°, then KPE = KP (Coulomb’s static passive coefficient)

For the submerged portion of soils, KAE and KPE shall be calculated by replacing γ with γ′. ( Kh . γ ) = tan-1 γ′ 1-Kv where γ ′ = submerged unit weight of soil Kv = vertical acceleration coefficient j. Two different techniques can be used for design of diaphragm walls: (1) Fixed Earth Support Method — So-called “Conventional Method” (refer to USS Steel Sheet Piling Design Manual). (2) Free Earth Support Method — So-called “Simplified Method.” This method uses active earth pressure on the projecting portions of the wall, and passive pressures on the front of the wall for the entire embedded length. The required depth of embedment is determined based on: (a) Moment equilibrium about the base of the wall; (b) Overall wall and slope stability using unfactored (or peak) soil strength parameters and factor of safety ≥ 1.5; and (c) A minimum wall depth below the excavation level depending on engineering judgment or criteria from the Materials Laboratory.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls
Due to its simplicity and accuracy, the “Free Earth Support Method” is recommended to design diaphragm walls. A computer program name “Wall” is available. k. The maximum deflection at the top of the wall at service load levels shall be limited to H/120 or 4 inches, whichever is less, and to about 2 inches at the base, and to about 11/2 inches at the potential deteriorated plane (or slip plane). The calculation of deflection is based on a value of n = 16 for determining modulus of elasticity of concrete used. The wall is designed based on “Ultimate Strength Design Method” (or Load Factored Design Method”). The following procedures should be used. (1) The minimum reinforcement provided shall be adequate to fulfill the requirements of AASHTO Article “Minimum Reinforcement.” (2) Find the amount of reinforcement (on a trial basis). (3) Check flexural cracking (see AASHTO Article “Distribution of Flexural Reinforcement”). (4) Calculate moment and shear capacity and check if they are larger than the applied moment and shear based on AASHTO table “Table of Coefficients γ and β.” (5) When using the equivalent (or pseudo)-static earthquake loadings and ultimate strength design methods, the section capacity, U, should be: U ≥ 1.3 (DL + βE · EP + W) or U ≥ 1.0 [DL + βE (EQ + W)] where DL = dead load of the structural element; EP = static earth pressure acting on the element (plus surcharge); EQ = earthquake earth pressure acting on the element; W = hydrostatic water pressure βE = 1.0 when using Duncan’s Method 1.3 when using Conventional Method with full KP m. For diaphragm wall with tiebacks: (1) Recommended embedment is a minimum of at least 10 feet below the proposed excavation level. Actual embedment may be increased to provide adequate kick-out resistance through development of passive pressure or for vertical load capacity. (2) Due to soil-structure interaction, a redistribution of lateral stresses is anticipated, resulting in reduction of pressure near the center of spans between anchors, and a concentration of pressure at supports. The design of the wall with regard to moment capacity, estimate the actual moment in the walls as follows: Mactual = R · Mcalculated The value of R for clay approaches unity as the compressibility of the soil increases. The value of R for loose sand is larger than that for dense sand. The typical value of

l.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls
R for sand is recommended to be 0.8. Also, the values of R for stiff walls are larger than for flexible walls. D. Tieback Walls 1. Principles of Anchor Design Anchor design includes: • Evaluation of the feasibility of anchors, • Selection of an anchor system, • Estimation of anchor capacity, • Determination of unbonded length, bonded length, and • Selection of corrosion protection. The engineer should determine whether anchors can be economically used at a particular site based on the ability to install the anchors and to develop capacity. The presence of utilities or other underground facilities may govern whether anchors can be installed. The tendon may consist of bars, wires, or strands. The choice of appropriate type is usually left to the contractor but may be specified by the designer if special site conditions exist which preclude the use of certain tendon types. In general, strands and wires have advantages with respect to tensile strength, limited work areas, ease of transportation, and storage. Bars are more easily protected against corrosion, easier to stress and transfer load. A reliable estimate of the safe anchor capacity is required from the soil’s report recommendations for each project to determine the feasibility of anchoring. The capacity of each anchor shall be verified by testing. Testing shall be part of anchor installation and included in the specifications. Based on previous experience, a range of typical design values is listed as follows: a. b. Design loads between 30 and 120 tons. The anchor wall system must be analyzed to ensure long-term stability. The minimum unbonded length must be specified in the contract document, and is usually 15 feet for soil and rock anchors (longer free lengths may be required in plastic soils, consult the Geotechnical Engineer) in order to avoid unacceptable prestress losses due to creep in the steel, soil, or rock. Angle of inclination between 10 degrees and 45 degrees. A 15 degree angle is preferred to simplify grouting and minimize vertical forces imposed on the wall by the anchors. Steeper angles, up to 45 degrees, are only recommended to reach deep bearing strata or avoid existing substructures.

c.

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October 1993

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls

The estimated ultimate load transferred from the bond length to different types of soils is listed as follows: Corrected Standard Penetration No. N Loose (4-10) Medium Compact (10-30) Compact (30-50) Loose (4-10) Medium Compact (10-30) Compact (30-50) Loose (4-10) Medium Compact (10-30) Compact (30-50) Stiff (10-20) Hard (20-40) Estimated Ultimate Transfer Load in Kip/ft 10 15 20 7 10 13 5 7 9 2 4

Soil Type Sand & Gravel

Sand

Sand & Silt

Silt-clay mixture with minimum LL, PI, and LI restrictions, or fine micaceous sand or silt mixtures

The maximum allowable anchor design load in soil may be determined by multiplying the bond length by the ultimate transfer load and dividing by a safety factor of 2.5. The ultimate load transferred from the bond length to rock deposits may be estimated from the rock type in the following table. Estimated Ultimate Transfer Load in Kip/ft 50 40 30 30 25 10

Rock Type Granite or Basalt Dolomitic Limestone Soft Limestone Sandstone Slates and Hard Shales Soft Shales

The maximum allowable anchor design load in rock may be determined by multiplying the bond length by the ultimate transfer load and dividing by a safety factor of 3.

January 1991

9.4 - 15

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design
2. Coefficient of Earth Pressure Practically, the design should be first considered using active pressure coefficients (KA) unless structures exist within a lateral distance equal to twice the wall height. For this case, an average earth pressure coefficient (K) should be computed as follows: x K = Ko - 2H (Ko - KA) where x = H = Ko = Note: distance from structure wall height of wall coefficient of at-rest earth pressure KA allows lower wall design pressure (if small wall displacements) can be tolerated, i.e., ground subsidence occurs. Ko increases wall design pressure but limits wall displacement, i.e., ground subsidence is limited. (1)

Retaining Walls

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls

January 1991

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls

Typical amount of wall translation (top movement) to develop the active earth pressure. Soil and Condition Cohesionless Dense Cohesionless Loose Cohesive Firm Cohesive Soft 3. Corrosion Protection The corrosion protection of anchors can be divided into two categories*: a. Simple Protection The use of simple protection relies on Portland cement grout to protect the tendon, bar, or strand in the bond zone. The unbonded lengths are sheaths filled with anti-corrosion grease, heat shrink sleeves, and secondary grouting after stressing. Except for secondary grouting, the protection is usually in place prior to inserting the tendon in the hole. Double Protection Complete encapsulation of the anchor tendon is accomplished by a corrugated PVC, high-density polyethlene, or steel tube. The same provisions of protecting the unbonded length for simple protection are applied to those for double protection. Amount of Translation (0.1% to 0.2%)H (0.2% to 0.5%)H (1% to 2%)H (2% to 5%)H

b.

*Provide simple protection for temporary tieback walls (less than 18 months) and double protection for permanent tieback walls. 4. Angle of Wall Friction The wall friction depends on the soil properties, the amount and direction of wall movement, the wall material, and the surface condition. Values of δ = 0 or δ = φ are generally too low and high, respectively, for most practical cases. The typical values are between 1 φ/3 and 2 φ/3. It is conservative if assumed δ = 0. 5. Determination of Tieback Spacing The preliminary anchor spacing can be determined from Figure 9.4.3-1. Suggested temporary test loads are between 75 and 80 percent of Guaranteed Ultimate Tensile Strength (GUTS). Suggested Limits for design loads, T, are between 0.5 and 0.6 of GUTS (typically 53 percent). Therefore, (S1 + S1)S2 = T cos q 2 PE Typical pile spacings (horizontal) of 6 to 10 feet and anchor spacings (vertical) of 8 to 12 feet are commonly used. The minimum spacing of 4 feet in both directions is not recommended for considering the effectiveness and disturbance of anchors due to installation.

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design Retaining Walls

January 1991

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BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria Substructure Design
6. Design of Soldier Pile Tieback Walls a. Lateral Earth Pressures Case 1 Cantilever Soldier Piles and Piles with Single Level Tieback

Retaining Walls

Figure 9.4.3-2 For the submerged portion of soil, KAE and KPE should be calculated by replacing θ with θ′ in Equations (4) and (5) and replacing γ with γ′ for calculating earth pressure.

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July 1996

BRIDGE DESIGN MANUAL Criteria S