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THE

PUNJAB SANSKRIT
No. ONE.

SERIES,

THE

"Punjab Sanskrit Series
OR

A COLLECTION OF RARE AND UNPUBLISHED SANSKRIT WORKS.
EDITED BY

THE Y/ELL-KNOVVN AND EMINENT SCHOLARS
01'

No.

\.

LAHORE
'J'lIE

(INDIA.)

PUNJAB SANSKRIT BOOK DEPOT.
1921.

>

>

^

•• •

» •

>

.

» » . •

~^ • •

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BRIHASPATI SUTRA
^i

OR
THE SCIENCE OF POLITICS ACCORDING TO THE SCHOOL
OF BRIHASPATI EDITSD WITH

AN INTRODUCTION AND ENGLISH TRANSLATION
BY

Dr.

F.

W.

THOMAS,

M.

A.,

LlBRAEIAN, IkDIA OfPJCE LiBEART, LqNDOK.

THE DEVANAGARI TEXT
PEEPAEED PEOM

HIS EDITION (IN

ROMAN

SCRIPT),

WITH

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS AND INDEXES
BY

Pt.

bhagavad datta,
PDBLISHBD BY

b. a.,

Professor of Sanskrit ftnd Saperintendent, Research Department, D, A. V, College, Lahore,

MOTI LAL BANARSI DASS,
PROPRIETOKS

The Punjab Sanskrit Book Depot, Lahore.
1921.

:

?

*

;

,

-

t^

i

S*iWf*»if?»-(*i

L AHOKB
Pbinted by Bhaieo Peasada at the " Vidya Peakasa" Pbbssl


1^5 B73
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r-.v--

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«

1.

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. ANLTQUITY OF ARYAN POLITY.
Artliashastras

The

have

been in existence in

Avyavartaas a saparate literature from very early times.

The
is

superiority of Dbarniashastras over Arthshastras

referred to in the Smriti ascribed to Y4juavalk(ja hi

the following sbloka:—

The same

is

said

in

the Bharishf/a

Purdna

as

quoted in the Apararka

:—

Ndrada Smriti

also

remarks in the same way

:

In

his

well-known Aithashastra, luHitilm not later f

than 3rd century B, C.) says that a literature bearing
this title

was extant

his treatise after

and that he compiled seeing the works of his predecessors.

in his days,

His words are

:

(^Second edition,

p. I),

683101

— —
f.

t

(
J
r.

2

)

*

-^^

*

C

*

*=

Not only Kautilya, but

also

works anterior

to

him

refer to this literature. In Caranavi/uha the forty-ninth

Parishishta of the Atharvaveda ^ •v r

we

read:

•\

«Nr -s

•v
I

3?r^^^Ti5^'^N^^:

ITR'^^IW^R?^'^
Upaveda of Rigveda
to
is

II

'^11
is

This second view that the Arthashastra

the

held in the Caranaryvha ascribed

Shaimaka.

%^Hip^^^^fr
It
is

^f^rT
i

I

iri^^^'T 'ir^^rii'
clear

(

=^1^:

w^x )

i

then that Arthashastra claims a great

antiquity in the history of Sanskrit literature.
II.

BRIHASPATI AND HIS AETHASHASTEA.
Pancatantra
( textits

simplicior 12th century a.d.

according to

Dr. J. Hertel) has a reference to a niti

maxim

of Brihaspati.

Bhoja

in his

Yuktikalpataru (Ilth century A. D.)
:

while refering to the niti literature says

^Compare with

this the teaching of

Mahabharata:-

(

3

)
*r*

»

Ashvaghosha

in his

Buddha Carita

(about

first

century A. D.) has remarked about Brihaspati

:—

The well-known Kdmasutras
shastra but state
creation.

of Vatsyayana not

only refer to Brihaspati as the compiler of an Arthathat he lived about the beginning of
:

The whole account runs thus

m^'^w^^^mi^

^rf^f^m
II

^fi^^ null

lI^qnfT^F>?:fn:^^

^

li

Bhasa
in his

also refers to a
:

Barhaspatya Arthashastra

Pratimd Ndtaka

mWy JTNT^ W\^^^^ ^
point
:

r^

"Wm ^T^

p,79.

The ]Mahabharata has the

following to say on this

So we know that the Barhspatya Shastra claims a great
antiquity in the history of
III.

Aryan

literature.

THE OEIGINAL WORK OF BRIHASPATI.
origisfttras

nal

The question now arises, as to whether the work of Brihaspati was composed in verse or

(
•ir ill

4

)

the mixed

style.

No

doubt some

stitra literature

aloiig^

with g-itha and other works, was extant even before the time of the compilation of the Brahmanas

beoius? the Sliitipxtbx Brahinina (^|5rT3[Fqr^TT^T5TT^ W^o ^\i ^o vS cTfo ^ #»o ?^)alhTdes to it, but it is not

had come into vogue at times as early as those of Swayambhava Manu and Brihaspati, the
sure whether
it

preceptor of Indra,

IV,

MANAVA DHAKMA SHASTRA,
Max Muller
and Buhler held that the

Scholai-s like

Dharmasbastra of JManu was originally a ^composition in
the mixed style of siitrasand shlokas. Biihler tried his
best to pot forward this theory with such ])rcofs as

he

could gather.

One of

his strongest proofs
in

was a passage

JTT'T^^3cgj^T^^f?a

which he found

Va.'ri.'-litLa

Dhaim
Manu-

ashastra.

Now it is sure

that the original work of

had passed through the hands of several editors,as for example Bhrigu^Narada etc., when it reached the compiler of Vas.Dh. and that a carna of theKiishna Yajur Veda namely the ]\Ianava had also come into exist, nee. It is, thereforer, quite clear that a school of the MAnavas had

come into existence even before the 3rd century B. C, The ArthasMstra of Kautilya refers to a certain
author of this vei7 school The views of the Manavas represented in thisArthashastra differ widely from the
Smritiof Manu, it
is,

therefore^ evident that the school
differed greatly.

consisted of authors

who

It

was thig

great difference which troubled Buhkr very much when he could find no reason as to why the teachings of the Smriti differed

from the Manava Grihya Sttra. The whole of
the Manava school came into existence

st\tra literature of

after the

Manava cavnahad been established, and hence

(

5

)

we can sxfelv coiicliide that Mann was purely in verse.

the

orii'inal Sniriti

of

As quoted bj Biihler on the we know that thj orijjhial work
a verse (shlobn, as Narada saysj.
all

authority of Narxda,

of

Manu b32:an with On the other hand
almost

works

in siitra

or

the mixed style begin

with a

siitra.

Again Dbammapada
verses

(circa

4th century B.C.) has two

which are only a Pali version with some change

of words of the text of

Manu

Sniriti.

^%t fed

I

qRT#^?ft ^^e

Kautiliya Arthashastra

also as

referred

to

on

pages 101-03 and

1^)0 of his ''Lectures

on the Ancient

History of India
verses of

Manu

by Shri D. R. Bhandarkar has two Smriti with slight changes only.
"

*

Read hero
of

the note of

MoX

Muller on

pr.ge

83

of Vol.

X

Part

I

S.B.E

(

6

)

Hero, Professor D. R. Bhandarkar
lead of Buhler arrives at

following the
*

the result that

the

verses

(above quoted) were not

composed by Kautilya but

were

by him from some work which was in existence long before he wrote or the (metrical) Manu Smriti was compiled.' This is nothing but a prejudice in
utilised

order to bring down the date of Manusmriti. First a theory
is

started

— Manusmriti
if

is

accepted to belong to a later
to

date,-and then

any work anterior

that date

is

found containing the verses of Manusmriti, (although not mentioning this fact but still indicating that the
verses are not his
tion

own)

it is

said that the

work

in ques-

and the Manusmriti both
be convincing.

utilised a material

of

a very old period. Both this assumption and conclusion

do not seem
Last of

to

all

we may

refer

to

two

verses, to

be

found in the 18th Sarga of Valmiki Ramayana, where
the author of that work
explicitly

says that

the

following two shlokas were sung by INIanu
Vasishtha
t
1.

:—

22

;

Baudhayana

II. 1.

85 and Yishnu.

Nanak Chandra B. A. informs me that Maskri and HArdatta on Gautama Dliarma Sutra have got name of Kanva. They both the first hrdf of this verso on the

My

friend Pandit

mve ?ET^T^^

^^

place

of

^fT^^^,
first

Hard^itta at

the

same

time quotes the full verso from Mc.nu also

with the words

words as and the second half has exactly the same present day Manu.

^

a^so the ^X*t^^ There

half of the verso has

^JTT^^
in the

(

7

)

%?5^

W^^

^"i^f

^^ '^"^^
^^:

^'^'^f

"t^" r^

I

\^^^\t

^mm^^
32nd

^fm^ ^m

II

\^.

11

?;rt r^^ra-^i^q ^^(^[tIt

i%r^^ in^

11

The
verse 33rd
It
safely

verse
is

is

Manusmriti VIII. 38,

and

Manu

YIII. 316.

may, therefore, after this beief discussion be
concluded that the original Smriti of

Manu

was

like the present

one composed in verse. 1
Manusmriti, the Smriti of

y.
Like
its

THE SMRITI OF BKIHASPATI.
original, the

Brihaspati was also in verse.
lost

That work

is

however

not be unearthed by some future researches). The small collection of some shlokas which is generally called the Brihaspati Smriti
(if it
is

now

may

but a child's play as compared with the Bc4rhaspatya
Trofessor
of Brihaspatismriti

Shastra referred to in the Mahdbhiirata.
Julius Jolly collected fragments

from different law books and and their commentaries,
for

translating

them

in

the S. B. E. Vol.

XXXIII

But these fragments
fruitless task for
1

are also incomplete.

An

exhaustive

collection of all the sayings of Brihaspati will not be a

some future scholar.2
this

1

hope

to

discuss

tulject

in^ldetwl at

some

later

da.te.

2 After
M?.<:r.zine

the above Unas were written I read in the Vedic

that

Kf.ngri

is

Pandit Jaideva Vidyalank?.r of the Gurukul busy with this work ?.nd will shortly bring out

this useful col ection.

(

^

)

VI KAUTILYA

AND BRIHASPATI.

Just as the views attrilnited to the school of

Kautilya and his follower Kamar.daka are not to be met with in the present law-book of Manu, so also the views ascribed to the school of Brihaspati by Kautilya are not found in the collected fragments

Manu by

of Brihaspati. Brihaspati

is

referred to on six different
pages. 6,
1:9,

occasions by Kautilya. See

68, 177, 192,

and 375.

{Teoct,

sewtid edition)

VIL THE BAUHASPATYA ITS DATE.
The present
Even pruned of
st^tras

SUTRAM AND

even

if

they do, possess but a
matter, they do not

very remote connection with the Barhaspatya shastra.
their
sectarian

appear to belong to any of the adherents of the original
school of Brihaspati. These
sutras

may

only

here and

there contain a view of the old Barhaspatya school.
regards the date of this
w^ork,

As

nothing can be said

with certainty.
that the work
is

The guess

of Dr. F.

W. Thomas may

turn out to be a trueone. This

much however, is certain

not anterior to the sixth or seventh

century A. D.*
• Pc'«nclit
Devi". in

Ji-.i

tho Veclic Magi^ziiie already referred

io says th?«t
the.t in his

work is posterior to Kitlicli-s, for the reason Meghaduta Kalidas refers to Kiiiikhal alone, while
the

Hardwar
origin
is

or

Gangadvara which
all

is

a Shidva

tirtha of a recent
G--'iig:.f!vi;ra
is is

not at

mentioned by him.
]1I. 122.

This

mentioned in Bc^rhaspatya sutra
{ostorior to the recognition of

Hence the work

Hardwar

as a sacred place.

(

^

)

VIII.

A BARHA3PATYA
is

SAMITITA,

There

another

ti'eatise

connected with the

name

of Brihaspati,
it

It is the

Barhaspatya Samhitu,

We

find

^^Hr^^r^
l^etween

quoted in the Tir^r^lir ST^?:i!J' of ^^ ^^fk^\%^' It is in the form of a dialogue
often
Brihaspati,
verse.

Nahusha and

The work

is

in the
also,

mixed

style of

prose and

This Samhita

m

is

apparent from the numerous quotations in the
woi4^.,

above mentioned
present
sti'ras.

beai« no connection

with the

IX.

WAS BRIHASPA TI A CAKv AKA,
doul.^, there

?

No

was a

gro.it

atheistic logician

Brihaspati by name;

but was lie the writer on polity I
his

Somadeva
nayasagar
says

Suri

(

10th century A, D.) says in

Yashastilalva

^c^'jfi?^^^

f^i%^m<|^

(p.

13 Nii^

1 901) and his
J

commentator Shrutasagar Suri

^^ ^5^^^'^fT^^Rf^.tm^^fif f f ^q%iOf!^ Mm %^ ^^flfirfir^T^ ^ JT?^?^ So, according t-o the commentator the Nitikiira Brihaspati was the renowned
I

CarvaJka.

However.,

all

th<e

]^revioais

quotations go
politian,

against this view,

Brihaspati

the

being

connected with

Manu and

othei*s of tlK3 theistic schoo?,

was

certainly a theist. vSoinaideva

and

his

commentator

confuse the two Brihaspatis.

There ha^e been thus three eminent pers'>ns at feast known by the name Brihaspati in the Utei*ary history
of Bharata,

and the most well-luiown was Brihaspati^ the writer on polity; secondly Brihaspati,
first

The

the carvaka logician, and thirdly the pei>jon

who wrote

the samhita.

(

10

)

X.

PARALLEL PASSAGES.
VI

(0 ^im^i^
(k)

^T^T

sFif^^Tf^^iJTqn^^^i?^

On this the commentary says
5RTqT%^Tfi[qTqfi3:^^»
I

5R^

quoted

by
91
of

^rT^TH^^jft
^T^rfirT^^

on

p.

Nirnayasagar edition.

A common
(\s)

saying
Cf.

of the

Dharmashastras. IV. 92.

Manu

n^sTf^^g

c»<

(«^)

^SR^

^f^^

^i?<^

quoted

by

Ramchandra

Budhendra on ^frR[(^^31
(Nirnayasagar editionl 9 17)

(

11

)

These
published in
1.

sfltras

of

Briliaspati

LE MUSEON
script.

were originally Troisicnie Serie— Tome

No.

2,

16 Mars 1916.

in the

Roman

The^text printed there, was To this, Dr. F. W. Thomas had
translation.

attached his valuable introduction and

By

the kind permission of the publishers

versity

Press

Cambridge

—of

—The
in

Uni-

that journal,

through

Professor Balkrishna

M.

A.; the editor

of the Vedic
his

Magazine, Wcis
journal for the

able to publish

this material

month

of October 1920.

The deva-

nagari text of the stitras printed in the Vedic Magazine

was prepared by me.
thinking
form.
if

During

its

preparation I was

the text with the

introductien and trans-

lation of Dr.F. W.Thomas could be preserved in a

book

Even Professor Balkrishna desired the same. This became soon practicable, when the publishers of
In the end I should thank

the present edition undertook this task.

my

friends Pandits

Vishva Bandhu Shastri M. A. and Nanak Chand B. A. and my pupil Desh Raj for going through
the proof-sheets,

Dayananda Anglo Vedic
College, Laiioke,
J.

BHAGAVADDATTA

December, 1920.

(

12

)

A BRIHASPATI
The
treatise,

SUTRA.
was brought

text here edited with a translation
in

to notice

the course of a search for a celebrated
to

also ascribed

a Briliaspati, namely the

exponent of the Lokayata or Carvaka doctrine,the ci^ude corporealism of India, ,The discovery of this
work, to judge from the quotations in
the Sarva-

darshana-samgraha and elsewhere, would contribute notaWy to the entertainment of student^ of Sanskrit
litemture.

The

pi-eseiit

treatise is not devoid of interest,

but
in

the interest

is

of

a

different character.

The work

is

one res|)eet unique, being an exposition of the Science This Indian science of Royal Policy in Sutra style.

may
since

claim no ordinary place in

tlie

history of culture,

two of its suceedanea, the policy in fable and the game of chess, still styled the Royal Game, have
inade the conquest of the world. In its pure form as

a science of monarchical government it does not seem to

have passed beyond the Indian sphere,that i& the sphere dominated by Indian culture, including Further India, the Malay countiies, Central Asia, and Tibet : for,

though the Muhammadans have a science of govern ment, which may go back t'O pre-Islamic Persia,, it does not seem to betray an Indian inspiration. And Macchiavelli's-

Prince, if kiflluenced at

all,

as

is.

'k

priori quiter

conceivablCyby oriental models^would derive rather from

the

Muhammadan than

the Indian.

The propagation
was
first

of the policy in fable (the Fables^ of Pilpay)

adumbrated by Sir William Jones, in a sentence^^
*

From

the Third

Annual Discourse

:

prefixed

to his

transkton of the

Hitopculeshx,

.

(

13

)

which has

l^eaii

expanded by Benfey, with remarkable
treatise
;

learning, into

an important

just

as

another

sentence from the same eminent scholar developed in

the

hands
In

of

B )pp

into the science of Comparative
j=r'

Philology.
its

technical form the

Indian science of polity

became known by the publication of the Kdmand' a'ci-NUisdra with selections from the commentary (e lited b} Kajeiidralal Mitra and others in Bibliotheca
first

Indmi, 1861-1881). The next stage

is

represented by

two valuable publications of Professor Formichi, a translation of the work of KdmandaM and a treatise
entitled Gli Luliani e la loro Scieuza politica (Bologna,

1890 J. In 1008 a notable paper by Professor Hillebrandt drew attention to a number of quotations from a
})rose

work

ascril>ed to

Canakya, also known as Vishnuthe original
later

gupta and Kautilya, which was plainly
authority upon which the

scholastic expositions

by Kamandaki and others were based. Prof. Hillebrandt was unaware at the time that this original treatise had already baen discovered in South India, and
that the discoverer, Pandit

Shama

Shastri of Mysore,
it

had published an
Antiquarif
(

article dealing

with

in the

Indian

1905, pp 5 sqq. ) and had commenced to issue a translation in the Mysore Ee:iew ( 190G-9,
),

completed in the Indian Antiqiiari/ for 1909-10

of

which publications notice was taken
S-nith's

in

Mr

Vincent

Earlij
)

History of India

(

Oxford, 1907, pp.

134 sqq.

was edited by Pandit Shama Shastri Biblio( Mysore Government Oriental Library Series theca Sanslcrita, No. 37) in 1909, in which year, having

The

text

:

(

14

)

bean fiivoured with a perusal of proof-sheets I was able to draw attention ( J. E. A. S. pp. 446-71 ) to tne extreme importance of the work. In 1911-12 Professor
Jacobi in two very valuable
papers
( Kultur-Sprach'

%md
die

Literaturhistorisohes mis

clem Kautiltya

and Uber

Echtheit des

Kautiltya

in

the Berlin

Academy

Sitzungsberichte, 1911, pp. 954-973, 1912, pp. 832-849) discussed the bearings of the work upon the Indian
literary
its

and

linguistic history

and argued

forcibly for

authenticity.

We have

also to take note of interest-

ing

dis3as^ions of the

work by
204-lOJ,
J),

Prof. Jolly,

Lexika-

liscJies

aus dem Arthashd^tra {ladogermanische Forxxxr.,

schuiigen,

pp.

Kolleldaneen

zum
pp.

Kautiliya

Artkashdstra (Z.

M.

G.,

]914,

345-359J,

Dr Johannes

Hertel,

Liter avisches aus

dem

Kautilit/asJidstra

(Vienna Oriental Journal, xxiv, pp.
£'?^

416-422 J, and
hok
i

Dr Jarl vanCharpentier,
300
/.

Indisk hand-

statslara /ran

kr. (Nordisktidskri/t^

1913,

pp. 353-369J, Narendra Nath Law, Studies in Anaent Hindu Polity {Based on the Artkashdstra of Kautilya)

(vol

I.,

London,

etc.,

1914) and a partial commentary
Jolly,

compiled by

Dr L

Sorabji, as a pupil of Prof.

and published at Allahabad in 1914. A revised transby Pandit Shama Shastri is now passing lation through the press. The information contained in the Arthashdstra is still far from exhausted,and the interest
in
it

may

be expected continually to increase.

As Prof.

Jacobi has mentioned, Canakya frequently

quotes his predecessors, both schools and individuals, of a discussthe style often assuming almost the form
ion
;

and

it is

clear that in (say) the fifth

and fourth

<

1-5

)

centuries

b. c.

the subj( ct of royal policy was a recognizschools

ed

topic.

The

are the INIanavas, Barhaspatyas,
)

Aushanasas, Ambhtyas (no doubt, of Taxila

and Para-

sharas,and the individuals Bharadvaja, YishalakshajPi-

shunajKaunpadanta, Yatavyadhi and Bahudanti-putra.
It
is,

therefore,

of interest to find that in the account

of the science occurrig in

the

Mahabharata

(cited

by

Prof. Jacobi, 1911, p. 973)*

some of these names

occur.

There we are

told that the founder of the science

was

Brahma

himself,

whose work was abridged by Shiva in a
and then further abridged

treatise entitled Vaishdld/csha,

in succession

by Indra, who compiled the Bdhudantaka^

Brihaspati the BdrhaspaU,a, and

Kavi

(

Ushanas

),

the(Aushanasa) treatise- of which the last-mentioned

is

named alorg with
(c.

those of

Manu,

Indra,

Bharadvaja,

and Gaurashiras in another passage of the same book
58, 2-3), also in
1.

98, 36

and elsewhere

in the lite-

rature(e.g.5a;wa

mishanasa

in the Jd?iakl kara?ia,xM).

^Tsm^

^^1f^^T

^Tm\
G.

5h:

I

TR^T^ ^mJTl
* Also cited by
Org-iwhiifion

^mm w^r^rf^:
Dr
Oppert in

li

^

li

^q^qv^
Hindus^

his

Weapons, Army
Ancient

And

Politic.Ll

Maxims

of the

1880, p 35. B.Datta.
t I hjA-ve

introduced hero

the

original. slilok»-S

for the

benefit of the rea,der. B. Datta,

1

(

16

)

mfsi w^ik^mn

sqgsfi^^ ^I'^mi \\\^\\

^ ^$^^^^: ^w^?T3^^:
'^f^%T n^t

w iw

II

^-5
II

II

^§wn

f^

"^^-s

II

snTHt

r^Wf^^'^^^T

5?:^:

II

4'.

1

^: T^*i^m qfrp ^^^
^•^RRt

I

HW^ M^^ lfFTf%:

I

'^iW*^ f^"^

fit^^ 'Tf^ U

-?^

II

To complete
SAuk/'aniti,

this brief sketch \ye shoxild

mention the

no very early work, which has several times
been edited in India and

(by Oppert at Madras in 1882,by JJvanandaVidyasagara

at Calcutta, 1832

etc.

etc.)

is

now

accessible in translation (by Piof.
Sa'-red.

Benoy Kumar

Sarkar in

Books of the Hin

las

Allahabad, 1914).

The A^ni-puixWa, has
subject,

also a section devoted to the
fully

which

is,

further,

represented in the

Mdnata Dhannasdstra,

as well as in the Mahabharata.

We need not mention
Sanskrit literature.

the later and minor treatises in

(

1'
of

)

The

Ntti

literature

Burma

is

of a different'^

character. In the Tibetan, however, where

we

find also
are'

quasi-independent works on
translations of Sanskrit

government, there
verse ascriljed
(1)

texts in

to

Masuraksha and
besides

(2)

to Xagarjuna.

a professed

translation

The Javanese has, of the Kdmandaki

Nttisdra^^ho some ntinortracts, pei*hap3 representing- the
lute

moral anthology which bears the name of Canakya.

which is here edited were representative of the ancient Bdrhaspatya doctriiie, it would have
If the sliort text

a considerable

interest.

Unfortunately, this

is

far

from

being the case. It professes, indeed, like the Brihaspati
Smritiy to be dictated to Indra
])y

his

Purohita,

But
from

what

follows

is

a brief and strangely disjointed expositIts ckite,

ion of the subject.

as

it

stands,

seeryis

an apparent mention of the Yadvas of Devagiri to bo
brought down at
refers, in

least to the

twelfth century a.d. It

passages w^hich, however,

may

be suspected

of interpolation (see notes to II. 8-35, III. 8-16, 33-7,

119-33), to the sects af the Shaivas, Vaishnavas, and

Shaktas and names their sacred domains

(A's/ietras)^

some of which may not be

ancient. It does not
citations

seem

to

contain the matter indiciited by the

in the

Arthashastra of Kautilya (pp. 6, 29, 63, 177, 102 of the edition). It displays some grammatical peculiarities,
e.g.

neuters for masculines (which
as

may sometimes
by the

be

explained

accusatives obscured

elliptix^al

sutra style and ^ice ver&a)^ accusative after ti-shvas

(which, however,. occurs elsewhere), and even the

forms^.

samgrahet (which should perhaps be samgrahnitd,

as^

the correct samgrihnii/dt occurs several times) and dlvydt

(

18

)

(old subjunctive of dh'

;

see Lexx.). Finally,

it

presents

some confusions (e.g. T. 36, II. 34, Y. 17), probably due to the Mss., and one strange word hisumdnta, which, though it can hardly be for Musalmfm, might conceivably be a roundabout expression for Pallava
(or

pa li-

ava=vita).
It
is

not, however, the case that
side.

nothing can be said

on the other
ions,

Apart from the suspected interpolatthe tone and style, and even the disjointed and
character of the work, produce
it is

miscellaneous
of antiquity
:

a sense

hard to conceive of such a treatise being deliberately compiled by persons acquainted with
the Nitisdra of Kamandaki and the ShuJcraniti.
of the expressions,
(iv, 10), e.g.

Some

atihhedapet

(i.

5'^),

alamMrayet
as are the
13,
iv.

are in the old ^K.^a^/^a^ra style,
(e.g.
i.

proverbial expressions

29, 100, n. 11,

v.

12).

The name
age,

Tishya^ as applied to the fourth, or Kali,

recurs in the

Mahdbhdrata and Harixamsha.

A

connection with the Barhaspatyas
( Arthashastra,p. 6),althongh is
II.

may be

seen in the

restriction of the royal sciences to one,

namely dandaniti

they add rdrttd (which again
krishipitsJmpalye bd/iijyd ca

represented in our text by krishigorakshahdnijydni^
4; cf.
).

Arthashastra,

p. 8,

The importance attached to the Lokayta and Bauddha doctrines also points to the same direction. The term Kdpdlika, as applied to adherents of the
mrttd
Kdmashdstra, requires explanation; but some Shaiva sects e.g. the Pashupatas encourage erotic ideas. Upon the whole we should perhaps not be mistaken in
maintaining that the text does, though rather remotely,
dQvi\Q h'oxn.t\ie
^i\(i\Q\\t

Bdrhaspai'ya system.

We

might

compare

it

with such treatises as the existent Vedmigas,

(

19

"^

or with the

Atharmveda Parishishtas, which contain

undoubtedly ancient matter along with strange lexicographiccd and grammatical features (e.g. homayet and even namaskaret see the edition by Negelein and
;

Bolling,-.Leipzig 1909-10, index).

They belong

to the

backwaters of priestly studies preserved in Southern
India,
v.dien

the general

such subjects as

was transferred to Nyaya, Yedanta, law, and grammar.
interest

A Ms.
46-12).*

of the

work seems to be recorded

as in private

possession in South India (see Oppert's

'List,' vol. 1.

No.

This

r^rs.

has not been procurable; but by the
Ranofacharya, late

kindness of Prof.

Curator of the

Government

Oriental

mss. Library in IMadras, I

have
ms.,

been favoured with a Devanagari copy of another

which iSjUnder
the text,

have based recording the slight variants of the Royal
his charge.
this

Upon
(

(M)

I

Asiatic Society's

Whish

ms.

W—noted

in Winternitz's

catalogue under Xo. 160 (3),
in

p. 219).

Both

originals are

Grantha character, and they derive not remotely n^om a common source.^ The punctuation follows almost invarialjly the Madras copy the numbering of
:

the Sutras has been added.

As

the treatise

is

definitely

:

a Sutra, a commentary
exist,

must have been designed.
under Oppert's
i.

Does a copy

perhaps

No.
?

6061 Bdrhaspatya-siitra-tikd
It

(no longer traceable)
* There
is

might contain something
work
with
in

aBother ms.
of

of the

Shri
to

Pandit
in his

T

Gjinapi-iti

Shastri

Travi^ncore.

He

writes

me

letter dated

22nd Dec. 1920 thus— 'As desired

your

letter, I

?hall arrange

on receipt of your printed forms ot Barhaspatya the variants.' These I have not yet rcceived.B.Datta, to note down Whether, this common source was the actual Madr?.s ms. 1.

(

20

)

interesting,

more
its six

especially as it is not quite clear that

the text in

adhydpas

is

complete^.
Niti^siUra
.

I hope shortly to be in possession of a
ascribed to Canakya. *
Or not, I

am
is

unable to domoBstrate. Thi^t

it wi-.s
e

in

the Granthn

chnracter

proved by the confusiois between
iii.
1

ti\d id (v. 15); h
[

°aw and n (read as n:
III.

18.
t

iv.
(i.

88, v. 22)
54. 76.

;

m

and

i.5,n.8,18,

76, 81, 92,
tt

V. 11);
;

k f.nd
hh

iii.

81, 92, 131, v.l3);
(iii.

h and

(III.

122)
;

^

and
.''o

(iii.

67)

;

c

and v

26-7)

;

o

and p
(it.

(II.
:

39)

?2c

and

(ii.

73,

iii.

o3)

n and r
vra and
~

ndhnd ndr (in. 41); nd r.nd (i. 7) nu and nri (i.54); p and
;

23,87, 10^);] and hh ndh (ii.43); t and m (v.26);
v (v. 27); la and/i (11,9)

vi^i

(v 26).

i>

2.

"We

may

here

enumerate the

chief

grammatical
to the

peculiarities above referred to.
elliptical ISntra style, while

Some

of

them njay be due

some masculine plurals

in awi frona

nouns
etc.)
is

in a

may
:

be conjcC ured to be Ms. errors, final n (Grantha,
ni.

having been read as

Also double gender in such nouns

common
(a)

neuter for masc.
(v.
;

:

ahhiprayam
iipa,y&ni(iy.

9)

;

artham
«

?

(vi. 9)

;

nsarani (in. 57)
(ii.

;

43)

kolaham
(ii.
:

iv. 36);

hjm-im T

47): devdoyzkiii

(in. 56) ; dharmam ? (in. 8, elsewhere masc.

46) ; prafik:?ram different sense ?);
^

tiv.

50)

;

mantrAiii
? <\i.

molsham

lohham

22) vadham (it.49) ; s/iaMam (iv.33, !ivaram^\Y, 17) ; vishaya (iii. 113 ?).
(i.

known

el

48) ; ewhere);

(h) compounds with af?t in various genders, having no obvious concord i. 12, 57, 64, 65, 106: n. 16, 19 ; iii. 15. (e) masc for neuter : aushadhJi (hi. 1 39) ; kahetseJi (ni. 1 19-122; also neut.); phaLh see also in. 9. (hi. 73)
:

;

(d)
(e)

i\rj-ior arj

:

11.

7, 9, 13.

suparihritya

(v.

15)

ard

divy9,t (iii.

46,47) arearcbaicr

As

regards Sardhi,! have usually normalized, sometimes leavino*
it is

h in pause, where

legitimate,

* This has now been printed as an appendix to the second edition of Kautilya Arthashastra by Pt. Shama Shastri.

(

%

)

1.

index: of proper
5^iy^ii

names and other important words.

^ff^

2.

INDEX OF GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES.

^^

(

5f

)

i
?T5FT-^grTTlll^^ll

^^^^m

^ic;-ii

i^a

^K«?ii

^R<>«ii
^I^Soll

^11 o"^!!

'T

,

.

9^
-y'

.

Shata Patha Brahmana.

According to the School of KanvaSr.Text in
EDITED BY

XM
It

Dr.
is

W. Caland M.
Brahmana

A.,

Ph. D,
:..•;

the important

of the

White Yajur:

Veda. This recension is of high importance for the study of the Veidc period and the editor has adjoined

an extensive introduction to it, treating of the position of the Brahman in the Yedic Literature and of its linguistic peculiarities as compared with the Brahmana of
the cognate Shakha. This edition
is

highly appreciated*

by the well-known American banskritist Professor C^Rv I^nman. It is a voluminous text hitherto unpublished anywhere. As this is a big and expensive work, wer
will

undertake to publish

it

when we

get r)00 perman-

mit subscribers of this book. So the Colleges, Libraries-

and scholars,who wish
Vcdic work
^.

to have a copy of this important

should get registered their

names.
characters;,
the-

^ftrftr

^^^ — text
list

in

Devanagari

indited

with an introduction, notes, extracts from
of mantras etc. by Dr.
Press).

(K)mmentary and

W.

Caland^

M. A, Ph. D. fin the Apply to

The Punjab Sanskrit Book Depot,
Said Mitha,

LAHORE,

India.

^^I

Wi

'Hi^'M^H^
O

i

[jT^seqpT:!]

in^pn^T^^JHR ^
^ ^m^^^rm^
1.

r^

IP. ©II

www
1

»
;

W ito^st: W ^ W emm^
|2.
3.
it

1

4.

M wases 11

and

inserts

after 12.

^%T^f^
5.

=^

IR4II

W 0^
is

I

6.

W

c^qr

I

7. <SV«;

perhaps a verb

(sra^^)

underst(xxl,

,1

^Tm1r^#^qT^>^

11^511
?

#'^?%WWIT'T^> i[ ^^ J-^^
WT52J

\i

-ill

^R%

IJSV^U

S 5

t^^i:3Triq?i^;Tii^\s|i

R?T5r

"^

nun

I^^^R^^'^:

^lltrTS?? ?:ff^ 11^9
JT

II

T^rw^f 5q%

ij^ii

ij

i^ii

.8. .S'w
1

W o»i?m^-the reading and sense are doubtful. W qfto W W ^JTR For accusative Lexica andxomp. V, 19 W c3tl5Tt^ll7. M includes the next ^f!?* W ow>g?TO5R»% M e^i
«JT^5TIH^f 10.
1

M; W[o?T>jft], Eead o?nf^:

W ngr^
infra
.

?

9.

W
|

11.

12.

|

13.

^ft^^siit^frno

14.

I

15.

after f^->5f3[ see

16.

in

stUra. 18.

<

19.

W

.^5

^H
^5
**»
Iff

20.

^isjto
I

I

21.

M W
1

CSKT^

sro

I

22.
if
|

M

^

o5t
for

«i:9

23.
?

^?r
I

W esjw^o
|

M ^mqto
|

24. 26.

M W insert
I

W
25.
o
1

ejjji;

Read
27.

e%i5^«

28.

M wgo

29.

M ^«n9

M engo; W ©3If

•v •^

*i

80.
(

M here
)
I

inserts strf^tl 31.
I

W B'tV

I

32. Sie

not fqo

33.

W fHl*

34.
I

W

o?q5»;

M ev^^ with

^m{(^ilfTT in the next

stitra

^rf ^q?^5^^^
5^

I

^T^l

^\^

^m

3"gT?!: ii^^ii

85*

W cf W ^qr© next sMra. M W includes ^^^e^ W ^t qtpR
37.

W
I

f^^ro
38.

I

36.

Text corrupt, reading doubtful.
I

M ^K
^fir

:sr?t^
i

39-39.

M includes
|

in the
|

40.

41.

M

o^^

42.

W r^^^qn;
Sic
(
I

43.

in the next siUra.
I

4:4:,

? )

I

45.

46.

W m^o\

for

47.^5Tre

sy^ms'cq-m:

I

v5

yo

'

f f

^W^mr'm mm:

^«t#t!?t>^: i|.^ji

48.

W eqmro
I

'^^A®iMin>)
53.

51.
ITTo

M4 gr

I

W f%%?^r3?lto Sic Sic (omit W ^muRinm^o M W o^^^|55.W omits m W
I

49.

|

50.

(

for
|

?Tf^

?)

52.

54.

56.

^^

m'?r^\^^mi\^-*\\'i\%^

i>m

?q^r%

^^^

•v rs

i'5.iK<<j<ri\+*>i>t^if[

1^^ ]a[fr^i

II ».

0-511

57.

W
I

nmTO^^Co

I

58.

MW of^
Jcft^r

I

59.

TWTR^l
62.
I

60. Sic (see note to trans.) 61.
«ft^fcl J^^T^fTft.
I

M llt?^^^m5^o, W ^5RT5«o 63. M W ift:
W^
\

M ?T^?t^o
1

W
I
I

64.

MW ^i?

Read fw?Tt ff:f^
65. e^Stm

'6G.^M omits

I

[ fefRts^<::q[R:
-*k-0*x>-««-

I

]

5wr T\nn

ii'.ii

^f\^

m

!l«!l

^
.V

mm. m^^\%^^

ip.«ii

-

-

^
II

^f'f^Rit^qrnH'THiiT^^if

'.'.I

q^
«
I I

"^^ji^ ^^,7<^f';mmi\w^'^wj *iHiH*i-

PT^^nri'T^cff 119.511

1.

W mo
(

I

2.

M

5/(7;

doubtful

^qmS-

? )

13.

W ^^m^r^o

W c^&Tft^: correct reading
I

4.

\V

^. Kead

?0

^T^^qr^5Fp(H
rs
'^

I

rN

rs

rs*

"^r

?^i

^^ ^^whY^^^ ^f^Ri%:^: fq^^Rq^-^iT

l(^

^

II'.CII

'i

o

6.

MW
I

o^rjT^
? ) 9.

I

7.

W fe^T; M W g^f?rT
c^:o or

i

8. j\T

Sic

(

read

^^K
11.

M Sic (read
1

^
1

?)

10.

W MW
o^r
i

^^^rm^

M 5?:Tfq^

1^.

W omits

i[5-

13.

W.

I

PJ

K^5?T[%
3 -

II5 5II

t^'TTTr^T^^sT^

tR^THR ^

f qT;T

||5y|j

TT^Rt ^

^f?T^ ll^^ll

^[% 11=^11

17.

W ^TfT^5W
I

I

18.

W^^^

-'1.

M ^r^flT

M W ^^:
I

I

19.
I

W
W

oq^;
o==r<

|

20
I

W

22.

Went

23

9^

^rr^^^^fi^H

J

r>-

^

rv

.^

«m^^

II

rfCii

24.
26.

M sr for
I

fcT

I

25.

W

jtc^^o,
i

M oik: ^^^^^o

\

W tri^^Rf^o

27.

W

omfirfH:

28. Sc. qfrg^?!:

aad so with the accusatives in sutras 46-8. 29. Text
corrupt;

W

o^R^W?%35F. Bead o^IT^ ^?lf

sf

?

1

n

^T^-^j^iw ^r5#u^T 1^ rr^gn: gj^F^

f^-g^.

^r 'TIT frnk^^^^^f VT^j;^

111^411

^lr%^
30.

w^%^

I

ICC

1

f Ir^rr^To
fJT^R
I

i

M W ^^^r<\^ 33. M fefg^

I

31.
^sfr

M W
q^^^,

f^fjfe

I

32.

interpuncuation in either case, 34.

w W

W
No

St^r qf?i^.

cw*^

I

35.

M

^r^ ^Trq-^^^q:

\

l^ir^jq

^^^^ jr^^%

gir^rt lic^ll

.e.

r

•s

3r#w

^Rqri: li^oii

o
n
5^

1^

5rri^Tr^?5^& fkrft[?,o^]^S'£^T€?F:
->5-=

If

36,

W ^^i
I

I

37.

M

of^^rTT

I

38.

M

ofTWv^ro

I

^9. WTTff^

[

gcfR[Sc?TR'
-i^s^j-t t

\

]

rN

"^

T^W^^^'T

m^TT

1 1

',11

%?rpT^^%^ f^frl^ WrT

I

I'll

^IW

^1^^^ f^i^

1
1

^11

^^iH ^'^11% f^Fi:

{\^\\

1.

W

ofev.

W read ^m^:^:')^
4.

i

i^

Sic

M W.

3.

^V here
i^utras

inserts

^

|

M

ot^j^

|

i5.

W

uiii. KTIrfj*

and

13-15.

mk
-"^

i^ '

^f<j<4 ^q:
-^

I

rvi.

^^RI^i*iTR?ITm: RTK ^^^
«gr^^ m*/[R

11^''.^

I

R^q^

li

^'^'Ji

T?^

ir<Mll

6.

11. M ofiT^>^r5Tt^ 10. W ^ 12, W c^i«rM 13. W qt|<T 15, M W '^^ 16. W ^ 17. W q?m
19.
I

W c^^^
I

\

7.

M W o^mfk
rf^^o
I
I

I

I

I

W o?T^ <ft^: W here 14. W
8.

inserts^
i

oiuits q;

I

I

C rv

N

1^

_

iim<iR^^*^R^^!r^«n
"V

vv

13

18.

W ^^K.
I

I

19.
!

21.

W^

(for ?5r)

22.

W omits W wfq ^

JI

I

2!).

W

9??ff

{

f:

(

^5

^^ ^\zqm

||"iivs||

23.

W
I

--a-r

-a

.ar

f^o

I

24.

>S'/c

M

W.

25.

W ^^o
?)

\

26. 27.

M

iiiterpuncuateS"
iHJm'ifi o

here

and not
(for

after c^frf^fir;

|

W

28. Sic

WM

c^i^

9 °

^5r

^f%?!iT# mx^i

^^t

\\^\\[

31.

W omits m W W e%
29.
I

30. Corrupt, reading doubtful.
|

cf?Tt

I

32.


5
;j

^r^^q^fpq:

I

.

'"^

f^r=^5TT: 11^

'.11

^Sf^sf ^i»Ta ^Tr:

11'=;

<u

TR^%*^^t5nn:^^^

^#=nT wmir

^?:^

»>*^[-

33.
esff
I

W

;pr^
I

I

34.

W

c!ir

I

35.

W
ha.s

omits

tR

I

36.

W

37. egiT

38.

M omits ^; W

eg^

|

yc

f^^rfTiffT^^Tr^r^^

^Tf):

^%
41.
|

f^^mt ^iri

39. 43.
47.
50.

W 0^
I

W ^^ W 0^ W o^T

44.
I

48.

W m^^o W W c%^ W W ofrar W W fe^mrfo ?ir!^5fe^o
I

40.

I

orT:

I

42. ^S/^
I

I

45.

otT^:

46.

^T?^Tflf

I

49.

I

I

T^^ ^:
f qn: '^^

IP.'.

'.II

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I

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^^ ^%^fTiTw: q^^r^rqr^c
qpRi: ^Ti:
II?

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51.

W omits ^
I

I

52.
I

W c^
I

|

53.

W ^o

|

54.
\

W =^

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|

57.

W
in

and

fifn:

fmft

^^ r^

i

i

',

^^ii

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61.
119).
66.

W ^rf^grPTT^ll^o
I

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62.

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e^rr

(masc. as in

63.W ^5to
I

64,

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(masc.) 6o. Sic (tbr^fgt^?)

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67.

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s

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Hi:r:

^Sic (
l

mas3.

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69.

W

o^^fqrfto

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? )

inserts
o?^f:
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71. Sic (read off ?) 72. 67c

(

read o^

73.

[

^^^s^'^tR:
ll'.li

I

]

^
r

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r

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1 1

'.^11

P. VII

t'.C
1. 3.

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4.

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5.
1

6.

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inserts

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11.

W sRg^qfwo W
8.

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)

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13. Sic

(neut.) 14.

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see iatroduction,

notes at the end. 16.

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17-17.

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1

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22.

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23.

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l]

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3

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1

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10.

Text corrupt

in this Sutra

?

11. ^^ift^i

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I

inserts

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fk^'^^

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o^

I

13-13. W^'ttT^

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)

5T ?

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15.

iiiid

^
I

f "^ft

see introduction's
I

end.

14.

|

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16.

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I

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]

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_ ^*s

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Read

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i

3.

M tt^

BR [HASP AT! SVIRA
Xow
Now
the
the Bri/iaspati Sufja.
Brihaspati,* the l^-eceptor, expounds to Indui
of Policy
:

Whole Substance
I
1
(

PELISOXAL CON DUCT
is

)

Self-mastery

the qualify of a king.
laastec of

2
3

As minister he should appoint oae

himself,

His sole science is the Administratioa of Punishment [ r^ Goverameut]. 4 Even right he should not practise wbon
disapproved by the world.
o

Should

he practise
it

it,

it

should

be

after

recommending
6
7

by persons of intelligence,
bv his
like.

He

is

to be served

With women,

children or the aged,

he should

not discuss measures of right and policy,
8

He
In

should

not

engage

iu

magic

show!^

9

incantations

[

jnaatra^'

],

however,

and

festivities;

10 Also iu counteracting diseases and poisoning^^
11

Not smearing with ashes

[like

an

ascitic].

Concerning Brihaspati
Policv see the Introduction.

as

founder of

the Science

of

3

On On

the

question

of

the

king's

.sciences

soe

M

Arthash-Aatra^

c

1.

6

this
cc.

question

of

choice

of

ministers

etc.

see

Artha^h\stray

4-5; also 80 infra,
see
Artha^iri\etray

10

On

poison in the pL>laCe

u !?•

.

(

2

)

12

Also not
forth.

gicrifice [a^nikotra'],

Veda-readings

and so
1
"3

Not

processions to sacred places,

14

Also not service of a king.

15
16
17

Nor

service of

women.

He

should not drink intoxicants.

18

19

Nor slay a Brahman. Nor practise theft, Nor much indulge in garlands and unguents,

20
21

He
Nor

should not be dejected,
over- wrathful
is

22 23
25
2()

What

called non-giving

is

greed on a wrong

occasion.

In a (true)

field

he should have seed sown.
greed,

24 T Giving should be practised.
Aversion therefrom
Theft
is
is

also greed,
is

27

Pleasure

a cause of expenditure of means^
gods,

28
29

A will to hurt gurus,
is

wise men, kings,

and so^forth

anger,

And

it is

a smiting of one^s

own

head.

30 An eneni}^ equal in forces and so forth should slay in war;
31

he

Other adversaries [or
gifts,

If

attacking

others,

then] by conciliation,
ignoring,

dissension,

pretended

and so on
shoukl not have sordid dress.
i.nd

32

He
22

Text

tn^nsUtion

uncertraw.

More

intelligible
occ?ision ia

would be
31
'62

c.vii<h:;ye

d..ncm,..

'giving

on a wrong

Called non-giving.'
I triinslate iny?Jjhiyodhmch.
Sc. he slioukl

never bo in de&habiUe,

<

3

)

o3

And

he should not practise over-induigenoo
over attai^hment
to

in hunting.

34
grows;

From

women

ill-rcpute

^
And
vitcvlity

35
<>^

wastes,

In association with those guilty of gaming,
the

provoking others^ abusing others,
others
(

weaknesses of

are exposed) along with the words oimaiitras
(?),

in learned or frivolous pJay

37
faeces,

Taking of medicine, evacuation of urine and bathing, teeth-cleaning, enjoyment of copulation,
are to

worshij) of divinitieSj-these also
private.

be done in

^8
39

A sham professor of

virtue

he should not

trust;

40
50 forth,

Nor censiu'e either, Nor upon seeing mad

or stupid persons.,

and

should he iaTigh at them.

His sport in private should be with those of Hke character and age,
41

42
43

Elephant and horse sports in public; not with

creatures of two (different) kinds.

And

he should not harm living beings of his

own

kind,
Desii'e should

44

be

felt for

superiority to prede-

36

Rendei-iiig conjecturc.1.

40
tlie

So also in

blind, the dwjirf,

Are the manfras quasi oaths ? the Shukra-niH in. 2o0 The miserablo, and the dumb ij-o never to be laughed fit/
'

42

Contests of dissimilar i*rjimals

are here,

it

seems,

denounced. Or

we might
with

take rahasye from
a^nd

41

and, reading
private-

tadvimxxrfam^ render 'Elephe^nt

horse

sports in
is

m

puHic

tliose

otlier

species.'

This

less likeJj*

,

(

*

)

C£'S5ors

and successors in respect of wealth, popiilaritj', Eobility, and magnanimity45 Traditional right, goodwill of dependents, and
councillors, relatives, friends,

kinsmen, he should all alike

consider;

46
47
nsion,

In respect of

dependents,

punishment and

largesse,

within and without;

In respect of caimcillors, conciliation, disse-

and

lai^esse;

In respect of relatives^ allotments of income for the sake af conciliation, dissension, largesse. 48

at

To even an unwelcome speech he should listen. 50 In bad weather, when the planets are hostile,. the nakshatra of three birthdays., and when serious
49
presents
itself

business
iestivitie.^.

Le

should not attend to

51

He

should attach to himself a wife of the same

country, of the same form,, and of noble birth.

52

He should

cause

e&pecially di&sensions (among:

the wives); excessive conciliation, excessive largesse are
not to be practised, nor punishn:>€nt to be nsed towards

women, nor pretended inobservance.
53
54

Among them he should not Among village petitioners,
dancing-women,
pimps, traders, herdsmen,

say

much^
liars,,

panegyrists, bards,,
instnictoFS,

minstrels, actors, boys,

harlots,

mean

kings,,

he

is

to ho^ addressed in

pompous untruths.
r

46

'Within and without
^Three birthdays'
r

sc.

the capital.
his

50
fivthor,

perhaps

own,

thf.t

of

hi»

and that

of his grandf.^ther.
{e''narvifnn\ )
:

51

'Of the same form'

perh?>p!^

=

of

tlio s;'«ino cr.ste

{elcamrnn]

(

•'

)

55 5Q
57 58

Association with

kings,

harlots, .sootlisayrrs,
in long.
is

and de}3endents he should not indulge

He

should

frequent one whose superiority

in himself;


and so forth
[he should regard not
j

Prospects

overmuch.

Those attached to women, gambling, drinking he should not h ive in his service.
59

During

five

nddikds

prayer to

the

divinity

of his choice; that passed, the audience;

60
€lurmg
61

During ten
five

nddikds administration of justice;

nkdikks the bath;

62
63

During three nddikds the repast; Daring five w(fiiM>" amus3ment and play with

dear ones;

During two nddikds twilight worship;
During seven nddikds nautch and During
seven
so f ^rth;

64 65
repast,

nMikks

sexual intercourse,

and so forth; 66 During seven nkdikks

sleep.

67

He

should

rule

himself

without failure

of

vigilance;

68 69

Like the driver of a horse.

High Brahmans [he should gi'e3t] with a shake
welcome and giving of leavings and
'his

of his head,

betel;

56

Or

own

lord.'

59-66c.

On

tlie

dispositiun of a king's timo soe ArJhas\\i*etra^

16,

t"-Tid

Prof. Formichi,

GU

Indiani &c., pp 66 sqq.

A

us,dik\

X^

muhurta = 24 minutes.
68
'Sh?.king of the head'
:

on
in

this as a sign of approval

see the pnssngeg

quoted by

mo

Kovindrcvcrcnf-sornvf^nyfi

»d

T. J.

(

6

)

70
71

A

mean Brahman not with a shake
if

of the

heai, even

he brings a present;
prince or emperor with welcome, with

A like
Men

a

seat,

with a shake of the
talk;

head,

with

gift

of betel

and with jocular
72

of the three castes with a smile,
(?);

with

welcome, and audience

73

Shtidras

not with a glance or smile nor with

welcome;

74
75

Children, the aged, and so forth, with giving
like;
?

of something which they

Low-caste

[

Foreign

]

people

and

heretics

not even with an utterance,

76
77

Owing

to importance of business

he may have

recourse to them;

Let him say employment.
78 79 80
81

little,

however, and assign the
fine gold

Let him not accept

[

or receive

men
him

of the (3) castes] in private.

With workmen, even

in his employ, let

not deliberate upon the task.

With
But
if

his friends let

him choose a

like friend

as councillor;
low-born, he must be one having not

iow-born caste.

Low-born persons have the characteristic of not mentioning their owui objects and of executing orders. 83 So he should not o ver-chei ish them, S4 Nor again should he trust them.
72 78
*Audieiice':l translate tu'fc?ie?ifl,

82

bat the

t(5xt is

corrupt.
-?

VarmkcM-parigrahx

:

R^'nd v&rniha-j>arigraha
.•

79

'Even in his

eaiiploy'

so tra.nsl?ite

yoginah ?

(

'

)
act.

Bo
86
to

Knowing

all,

he need not
to

Secrecy in regard

right,

secrecy

in regard

home and going abroad,

secrecy in regard to measu-

res, secrecy in

regard to enmiiTes; in failure of prestige

he should deny even the truth.
87
Physicians, astrologers, soothsayers he should
if

entertain,
S'^

possessed of conduct and character.
truth, if causing
grief or misfortune,

Even the

he should not speak.
89

Up

to twenty-five years he should passionately

practise the study of sport.

93
91

Thenceforward acquisition of wealth.

He

should keep himself free from indebtedness.

92

Indebted he becomes by three means, pleasure,

'

anger, and greed.

93

94
95
a minor

And he should continually guai-d He should not neglect the regular
If there
rite.
is

his
rites.

person.

a popular clamour,

h.^.

may omit

96
97

Upon

a

lost

cause

let

him not
is

stand;

Far to be

avoide:! then

even a serious matter

of sovereignty.

98
99

He

should not favour

new commanders who are

Kusumdntas.

A slight loss
and

is

to be borne.

100
serpents,

As with famiies

of elephants, bandits, noxious

tigers living in forest or cemetery
this

among

98
is

Kimim^Mcs
Tiio mouiiing

:

word, wiucli

jocurs in i>utra 105,
i

qaito niystorious (^-Pallvcc^ or pJ^.a.Y/,

c

r'da ?).
-sJKtJbld

99

seems to te that a comniMid^.
fi.iluro.

not bo dismissed for a tlight

100

The

ido.'.

seems to be that oi ihj nursery rhj ma

(

H

)

thos3

who

ill

comparison therewith

ai*e

inoffensive

tends of kinsmen are not to be engaged

in.

101

Like dogs with one piece of

fiesh is that estate
is

of sovereignty,

when

the sovereignty

in trouble.

102
103

104
105

PoHcy truly is like a trc e on a river's bank. So he is not to desire [ it ], Kusnmdntas and so forth are inimical to all
Prestige,

creatures.

vigour,

vitality,

greatness

—-these

are destroyed by excessive cultivation of Kudumkntas.

lOG
107
1 08

Desire,

anger, conceit, jealousy,

hypocriry,

and s^ forth he should not encourage.

An enemy

of good

character

is

a friend.

Among friends one of good character is an enemy.
Between moon and sun there
is

109

hostility

by

reason of their

common
so,
is

brightness (tastes):
fast.

110
111

M^ere

it

not

they would both stand
feud

Where

there

among

relatives,

tho«e

two

families perish to the root.

112

Whoso abandons

the science

of

awarding

punishment, helpless he like a moth enters the flame all
unwittino^lv.

Sj sp3aks the holy Precaptor, guru of the chief of
the Gods.

So

in the Brihaspati

Sdtra the First Chapter.
<»kule

'Let dogs dolight &c. '. VVi^h tlnro.^ding
*he dwjlls as
it

we should render
*pAck of

wore in
'

r.

family...

101
do2rs"'
:

S!iu:i%

J

)^'

projjbly mj.mi nurj oxActly

c£.

a shva

raid Panini iv. 2. 48,

lO'J,

110

Wo

might
....

tr..nsliite

4i between sun

:»nd

ir.cou

thora wjro hoitility

thoy would uoi continue'.

11
1

(DUTIES
is

AND

PRINCIPLES)

Sovereignty belongs to one possessing advantages.

2

There

advantage of knowledge, advantage
:

of wealth, -and advantage ofcomrades

3

Gratification

of

his

own

family

also

and

protection of usage;

4
5
is

Agriculture, cattle-rearing, trade,

Universally the Lokayata

system of doctrine

alone to be followed at the time of acquiring gain;
6

Only the Kapalika as regards attainment of

pleasure;

7

8

The Arhata in regard to rights The Tokayata is not really

piT)fital)le (?);

the

advantage quickly perishes.

9 10
11

So the Kapalika, the Arhatrt, and theBauddha. On these relying, he is like the moth and the fire.

The
?1.

fruits are

like

ear-water

\jyr

water in

the ear
I

(?wna

is

here used in ua

uutecliiiic.il

soDb©
the

('stiouir

point'].

4
matters
v^rtlT<i

The

Arfhashs,stra

mentions

( c.

1

(hrishi,

fSishu^alya^

and htm^jya) as

same three the components of
)

or business, one of the studies of a king.

5

The Lok&yata

doctrine, along with Bt^nHhya rnd Yoga^
c. 1),

makes up the
6

triad of philosophy in tb« ArthaihTkstr-a {
sect
:

Elsewhere the Kap^Ukaa are a Shaiva
reff.

see the 8t

Petersburg lexicon and

8-35 These Suirm^ which seem
preceding, and which betray a strong

at

variance with

the

sectarian bias,

may
to

bo

Suspected of being
II
*

z.n

interpolation. No,
'
:

36 joins on well
of

No. 7.

Ear-water
?

is

this

a

synonym
/sc.

'sky-fiower,

Acs 'nonentity'
only heard of
)

or 'water in the ear'

not in the moatii or

?

:

(

10

)

one characterized by ignorance desires in a matter connected with right to effect a human object, then he is a heretic entitled Laukayatika.
12 13

When

When

a Candala

is

desirous

of enjoying fine
entitled

drink, fiesh,

and

so forth, then

he

is

a heretic

Kapalika.

14

When

forth, sacrifice
killing,

abandoning twilight worship and so and so forth, he desires the duty of nonis

then he

a Kshapanaka heretic.
rites

15

W^hen, abandoning the

described in the

Veda,and knoY/ledge of them, also Shiva, the Lord of All, Vishnu, and Shri, a man declares that all is void,
then he
is

a heretic entitled Bauddha,

16
gain,

When
is

he

he declares right to be vain, a means to a Laukayatika; and he declares that the
theft.

pinda and so on are
17

He
To

does

all for profit,-sacrifice,

twihght prayer,

and so
18

forth.

conceal bis failing, one afflicted with

desire

studies the Veda;

19

20 a view to intercourse with women.
21

He }>erforms sacrifices and so forth He does it with a view to drinking wine,

with

He says Vishnu and the others are wine-drinkers

-&o the Kapalika.
14
i
1

Ki>hapanaha:

s Jaina.
rites'?

5
6

'Knowledge^: read karmaj-Atafn 'mass of

Pinda: the reference seems to be to the food offered la the dead: the custom was ridiculed by the followers of Krihaspati, as appears from the Garvakay or Lokayata, chapter
in the

Sarva'damhana'Scmgraha,

(

11

)

22
right as

The Kshapanakca, aiming depanding on the bearing

at right, speaks oi of r^gs and
so

broom

:

23

He

speaks

of

Shiva and

o»,—so the

Kshapanaka.

^
abuse of others he studies

24

With a view

to

Veda, Skdstra, right and so forth: 25 He reproaches all; 26 Eveii Maheshvara, Yishnu and so forth; 27 He slso si3eaks of right with a view to eating; 28 For the sake of discussion he praises othersthis
is

the Bauddha.

29
hell,

The Laukayatika, when

dead,

is

a denizen of
liberaton.
;

extern to

profit, pleasure, right,

and

30

And

the same applies to

his family

that

family perishes within the period of sons and gi^andsons. 31

The Kapali,abandoned by his
becomes a denizen of
:

village,

household,

and
all

relatives,

hell,

deuovmced by

people

32
33
those

And

at that very time his family perishes.
family, and

The Kshapanaka is denounced by his
live in the village,

who

34
of
hell;

and three families perish. The Bauddha becomes a very detested denizen

and his existing family perishes, or in the time of sons and grandsons, 35 Connection with hei'etics of tliis sqrtjbe should
36
22

not have, even in thought,

Even by one whose counsels are
The "broom"
is

^weil

ordered,

the brush

of

twigs which the Jain
:

ascetics carry in order to brush

away
is

insects.

34
ing
is

The Sanskrit sentence
[Not]
:

here confused

but theme^ai-

clear.

36
JSu-tra

we may,

if

we

profer, ro.id adhiki'tdUitui-^ ihis

connects well with No. 7.

;

(12
who
[not
discerns tlie
?]

)

weak

points of others, and

who

is

a

man of

virtue, sovereignty

cannot be preserved.
filled

37

One

infatuated with the conceit of power,

with greed and pride, loses what has been acquired.

VS
39

Whoso,

after

reflecting

upon

his

measures,

enjoys himself, he achieves the highest success.

by his action he is not known by the world as 'knowing what to do, bent upon
so do that
profit,
'

He must
*

or as

a

man
is

of righteousness

':

40
41

Like Ishvam, like
Counsel
the

Moon and
of

Sun.
unity of

action

eff'ecting

opinion on the pirt of persons conforming to a master's

mind.

42

A councillor must speak of measures, regardless
The
fruit of policy is

of his master's preference.

43
44
right

attainment of right, adv-

antage^ and plesure.
Pleasure and advantage are to be tested by

45
46
47

Right by right

;

Advantage by advantage
Pleasure by pleasure
;

;

48
49

Liberation of the soul by liberation,

Injunction of a guru

is

to be

executed, even

when at

variance with right, as the

marriage of the

P4ndavas,Arjuna's asceticism, Vyasa's intercourse with

a widow, the begetting of of a mother and so on.
40 49
'Like Ishvara'
:

Kama, Rama's punishment

his motives
to

must be inscrutable.
stories

The references are

well-known

in

the

(

13

)

50

Even a

son,

at

variance

with

policy,

is

an

enemy.
51

The young, the
Dull
-

vicious, reckless,

unacquainted

with shdstrasy he should notmdmit to counsel.
52
counsel.

witted,

immoral,

violent,

thoughtlesi?,

irascible, foolish

young men are not

to be

employed

in

53

Let

all

jewels even be given to preserve one's

own

purpose,

life,

and

prestige.

54
55

During counsel he should not not evoke anger.
Right
is

the main factor

;

not personal objects,
is

56
57
cement,

Happiness unrighteously enjoyed

no
]

friend,

Maintenance of position
Like one

is

[

or and

enhan-

58
is

who

eats

what

is

not wholesome but

on good terms with [>r as taking a precaution against, Prattkdra ] death,

A man true to his

word, relying upon the Shctstras^

might even diy the ocean. 59 If he is angry [ his dependents uraged and timid, 60 One bad man ruins many. 61 Fate depends upon manhood.
51

]

become

disco-

We
The

translate mantre
'jewels' are the

na praveshayet,
various

53

HreaiUres'

of

a king,

his wife, minister, general

and

so forth.
:

57

I translate sthitir
*

vardhanam

reading stkstivardlm"
]

nam, we might render

[

he should aim at

enhancement

of hi^

actual position' or '...conservation and enhancement.'

58
poison.

The idea may be that

of

fortifying

oneself sgains^

61

A common

sentiment

:

f/.

Shukra-niti^ 1.05-^

(

1*

)

62 Whoso loves his own wife and in taming himself has capacity, is without equal. 63 64

A good man turns not aside
What
One
at that time
is

hrough
is

fear.

proper

not to be spoken

by

friends not conversant with matters of speech.

of arrogant heart, lost to respect for right, not self-controlled, he could not admonish.

65

66

w^hen exhausted with frightful

acts,

sunk

in

the sleep of ignorance, he should enlighten

the fool

with the cool
67
the sun.

airs of righteous speeches.

Among

bad men a good

man shines

forth like

68 69
himself.

Those committed to unrighteousness he should
In unrighteousness he
In ill-repute
Tie

check by proper conduct.
should not involve

70
71

should not involve himself.
slay.

He

should not
fool

72

Let a

be restrained, like an elephant, with

the hook of righteous reading.

73

A guru's word is not to be
if

transgressed,

if in

accordance with reason.

74 Even a guru, should disregard,

not equipped

with policy, he

75 So

A

guru says

it.

in the

Brihaspati

SMra

the Second Chapter.

;

Ill
1

(

VIDVA

).

Manliness

is

the quality of one superior to

weakness.

^
superior to weakness by residence
times,

2
3

One becomes

in other countries.

Of all powers,
:

countries,

conciliations,
is

natures, strengths, exercises, ages knowledge

to be

acquired

4
5
robes.

Also endurance of fasting and so forth. He should make treasures with fragrances and

6

A long conversation
All his like-minded

he should hold only
jewels

if

a

gracious one.
7
' '

he should ever

seek to please.
8

He

should

know new mantras
:

:

9

These are threefold
their further divisions.

Shakta, Vaishnava, Shaiva

and

10
11

Entrance to the city of Liberation
Shakta, Vaishnava, Shaiva.

is

by three:

12

13
14
is

The Shakta is like a journey in a The Vaishnava like a high road
;

vessel;

That which

believes in Kerala

and Pradhdna

like

a horse chariot

15

The Laukayatika, Kshapanaka, Bauddha and
a cavernous route

80 foith are like forest
beasts.
9

through a desolate

swarming with many

tigers

and

malignant

— 16 Again apparently a
83.
Sh?.iva

sectc.riiin

inserton

:

cf. ad. II. 8, III.

14
aamgrciha^

This
c,

is

the

system

j

see

SafVadarshana

Vli

(

10

)

16
oiie.

Having marked

tkis, let

him hare recourse Uy
lord of

17
lights
(

Let him ever mark the aspect of the
the

18 10

moon ? And let him defend the order of four And let him make use of medicines
).
;

castes.

20

These which

foilify

strength,

complexion,
compassion,

energy, self-esteem, intelligence,

courage,

and reduce the faulty humours. 21 Let him procure success by gifts, honours, orn* amen ts, and sciences. 22 Let him watch the eighteen Tirihas. 23 Tirthas are the six constituents of royalty,
also

enemy,

friend,

and neutral

:

24
neutral;
friends.

Also intestine enemy, intestine friend, intestine

and these are dependents, companions, and
Also wives, sons, and kinsmen.
[

25

Others also places for dances and.
27
sacrifices,

26

to

be watched

]

are

temples,

twilight, pools, cross-roads,
ils

heretic

abodes, shops, scho
fields,

for

the young, parade-grounds,
houses, the seafor
sale of

new-mo

m

etc. festivals, harlots'

shore, presence of ascetics, frontiers, places
liquor, serais for travellers.

22

Tirthi

:

a technical term

in

the Science of Policy

for the important personalities in the kingdom.

The use

is

some-

what peculiar 23

in 23,

coBstituonts f pralcriti )^ ns usually enunierated, are kin^, minister, country, fortress, treasury, army, and friendt

The

see Arthishastra,

c.

9o, and Formichi, op.

cif-',

p. 92.

27

'Twiiight-poob'*

would be

places

for

performing

twilight worship.

(

ir

)

28 29 30
31

Lot him have

festive attire.

At

the vlty gate let there be agenero! stoppage.
let hiia

However,

not exclude

all,
i

Let him honour ItiMsas and Purdnas

32 33

34
3o
I

36
37
38

And And And And And
As

expositions thereof

.'

the Shdkta scriptures

:

the VaUchduam scriptures
the Sdnkkya
the Shaiva.
all
;

;

regards

these,

let

him perform and
even
if

require the due study,

A Brahman let him not slay,

infected

with

faults.

39

To

the

unmerciful

[

no

]

meix^y should be

shown, 40
41

Let him show respect
Also to city magnates.

to village

headmen

;

42
43

Let him conciliate even the weak,

By

largesse
also

much

:

44
45 46

Not

with

little,

In the case of excellent persons not

in the

order of the plenitude of their merits.

Let him play with dice
Also
[

:

47
48

him not play at all. Serpents and so forth let him ^lay,]

Or

let

32

'Expositions'
for f:ikti

synonym
see

The word 'p.\ha would soem to be 2i mjanapakti, lokcpihti Her.ching the people' r
:

Shatapatha-Brahmana

XL

5. 7. 1,
s

Those entras are perhaps again nn insertion Introduction and ad IE. 8,111. 9.

33—7
39

MC-

Or

"zK)

mercy (adaya).

(

is

)

49

High IMljinans,

perfected by various mantras

and rich
50

in knowledge, let

him honour.
him welcome
as
if

Brahnians of other countries, A>/^ a? rz//^^Sprinces,
they

feudatories, and so forth let

^ere

liimielf

51

A

with viands, clothing, and so forth. refugee, though qualified by all crimes,

let

him

protect,

52
53
54 55

Let him check the bad

;

And

protect the learned.
o})press a village
:

Let him not
:

56
57

58 59 60
61

Or a city Or temples. Lot him make use of fennentetl Not in excess, how^ever,
Also
flesh food,
life

liquors

;

.

.

must be shown The Bauddha w^ay and so forth not.
Compassion to
:

62

63

64
jfojanai?.

Nor Gay The

as regards imperceptiljle
ladies are to be used.

(

creatures

).

earth

has a measure of

fifty

krores of

65

66
67
61
in

And it has seven continents. And is girt w ith seven seas,
Karma, Bhoga^ Atibhogay Divya^ Shringdra^
Tlio Buddhists

Mid Jiins

espcciLilly denouTico killing

s?vcrifij0.
6-2

'linpjrceptiblo'

r.ppr.rontly a reference

to the

Jaim

precautions agrinst killing small crer.tures.

G7

These

n;'imes,
.

I'.s

r.pplied to the seven
is

dvip

:s^

do net

SGcra to occur elsewhere
||io

but Bhc.rata Vl n-ha
2-.

liarmL-hhwmi \u

Vi shun- 2)11 n\na^

IL

&.

(

19

)

Siddha and Kaimhia are the
continents.

designations of

the.

6S 69

The midiuDst

i^*

the

Lui

I

of A'jtion

(Karma).
the

What
tree,

is

in the

middle thereof, as far as
INIeni.
is is

Jamba
70
71

belongs to

Therein to the north

Himvat.
hind of nine

On

the south of that

thousand

(yojanas).

72
73

Therein to the south

There the

fruits

Bharta Khanda. of righteousness and unrightis

eousness have their visible

effi ct.

74
75

In relation
It

therto

is

the

administration of

punishment.
is

to be studied

h
-

l>ast,

future,

and

by the people of Bharata, present and by men of the four

castes.

76
is

By

administration of punishment the holy

Sun

I

king:
77

78 79

And Wind and all the And mortal creatures.
From
Badarika to
[

gods

:

llama s

]

Bridge

is

a

distance of one thousand i/ojanas.

80
70

From Dvarkd
:

as far as

Purushottama and the

'On the north' This cannot mean on the north of Meru or of Jambudvipa, which would be contrary to the ordinary view
of India.
:

it

must, therefore, mer.n 'starting

wit-li

the

nortlP

71

'Nino

thousr,nd'

:

The usual

estimate, as

in

the

Vw/jnw-Pwrana II. 3. 2. 79 'One thousand' The same estimate
:

is

given by the

_

Faj/n-Pwrana see Wilson's note in Vuhmi-P, (ed Hciil,II.p.l27), 80 The Purushottama-Jmhetra is in Orissa, and the
:

(

20

)

Shalasrrlma

is

a distance of seven hundred yqfanas.

81

In this area also are the seven Great Mountains,

Kai>ataka, Vindhya, Sahya,
vata, Pariyatra.

Knmam, Malaya,

Shripar-

the Great Rivers, Gangii, Sarasvati, KalGhritamdld. indt, Godavari, Kdveri, Tainrapavivi, 83 And eighteen countries. 8t Eighteen arc the maritime kings

82

And

:

85

And
The
(

eighteen the
creivtion of

hill

kings.
consists of one

86

Kama

hundred

and

forty

pojauas

?
;

as the Sah> a twelve

) on the south and north, as far that of Yishvamitra eleven.
four.
:

87

Nepal one hundred and

88

From

the shore of the eastern sea Varuna to the sea is a space of eight yojanm.
is

On

tfh^lagrnma'l'sh,

supposed to

Loon

the river Guiidr4k

:

see

Wilson's Vishnu-P, (index).

82

Kjreat^Eivers'

:

The word

liiki'twih

dees not seem
chief
rivers see

to occur elsewhere.

On

the vaiious

lists of

the

Wilson's r^ot&^\Yishnu-P,ll pp. 131>2. The (r/in'tomaZa is,doubtless,

Wilson's KritamzlA,

86
creation

'The Creation
:

of

Rama'
of

and Hhe Creatioa of
at a rival

Vishvamitra'
L"

The Epic story

V ishvfjuitrr/s attempt
the phrase

well

known
quite

but

Vkhvskmitra'srishti

does not seem to occur in the literciture. In the tradition of the

pandits the idea
(like

is

f amilic^r,

Vi^hvmiitra being credited

Ahriman among the
The

Iranii^ns)

with the authorship of

all

fAulty or misshapen and misbegotten things, such as the miragOo
application of the

numbers in
breadth'
?

this

sutra

is

obscure,

Is'as far as the Sahya'

= 4n
the

88
he knawn.

The

site

of

Varmia-firtha does not appear to

(

21

)

89

Each one hundred
Kashi and
;

ai;d live are

norlhein Lata,

And

eastern Lata.

90
ei^'hty

the Pancala country are tojrether

91

92
re.l
;

Kekaya and Sriniavaare sixty The Matsya and Magadha country one hund;

93

94 95
96
97 98 99

Malaya and SIi d^nnta eiiLhty Kosala and Ayanti sixty Saihya and Vidarl)ha to-^ether tNyo hundred Videha and the Kuru country one hundred Kainboia and Dish arna eighty.
;

*

;

-

;

;

These are the graat countries. These indeed are four-cornered.

100

The

Arcitta

and Bahlika country are from
Ired,

south to north one hun

from cast to westt\yelye.
cor.ntry are
four-

101

The Shaka and Surashtra
Anga, Vangc

cornered and of forty.

102

,

and Kalinga are of one hund-

red and fouv-cornercd.

Kashmir, the Iluna and Ai-ilmshtha countries, and Sindh are of one hundred and four-cornered. 104 The Kirata, Sauyira, Cola, and Pandya conn103
tries,

situated on north and south are of one

hundred

increased

by
sqq.

sixty.

For other lists of countries find peoples seo Mahahhs,ratay Bhishma-parvan^ lV.3l7-37y. Vishnu-Pur?»na,ll,S,
89
Varalia's Brihit'SamhitcM^ XlY^Garga-samhita (Jinaimda-iyxiha),

93
or people.

Shakuntn,

is

not elsewhere

known rename

of a c*ountry

103

The Hunas

fire,

doubtless, those of

Hundosh.

(

'-^'^

)

105
huiidrtii

Tho Ya lava CTantry and

Kaiici

are

of one

and forty. 103 Thos3 are minor
107

coiuitrics,
lU'e

The seven Tv;nkans
the.,.

of one

lumdrcd and

four,

and

108

TIkv

e are

on the water.
four
hill

109 110 111
112

113 114 115 116

On mount Sahaya are On Shriparvata two; On llaivataka one On the Vindhya five On Kumara one On Mahendra three; On Pariyatra three.
; ;

countries

;

;

All are equal, from south
to

to

north of

fifty,

from east
117 118
cities,

west of

five j/ojanas.

In the ]\Ileccha rmgion are Yavana countries,

mountainous.

The

countries

are

adorned with

villages,

gardens, and so forth, and

with holy domains

and

so forth.

119

Eight are the Yaishnava domains

;

120
121

Badarika, Shalgrama, Purrshottama, Dvaraka,

Bilvacala,

Ananta, Simha, Shriranga. Eight the Shaiva
;

122
105 107
(ed.

Avimuktaka,

Ganga-dvara,

Shiva-kshetra,

Yadavas: Perhaps those of Devagiri.

For the ^seven' Konkans, see Wilson ^s Vishnu purMia
n. 14).
?

Hallii„p. 178,

119—127
120

Again an insertion
:

Bilvacala... ...Siniha

Perhaps tho

Bilvadri

and

SimhacAla of which m?JiTktmyas

exist.

:

(

-^'>

)

llame-Yaunina

(?),

Slnva-.sarasvati

Mavya,

SLaidiila,

and Gaja kshetras.
12:3

124
125
126
127

The Shaktaarc Oghghina Jala,

also eight

;

PCirna,

Kama,

Kolla, Shri-

shaihi, Kaiici, Maheiidra.

These arc the great domains

;

An
On

I

Ciijc'tive

of

all
[ (fr

attainment

;

Also ineffective

to be worshipped

1.

128
129

the Vindhya dwells perpetually
;

Duiga,

and Bhadrakaii
130
131

On Kumara Kumara On Sahya Ganapati
;

dwells i)erpctually

;

Oil Riivataka the Teacher

;

132 133 134
gods are

On On

Mahenclra Garuda

;

PariyatraKshetrapala.
is

In the Land of Action, wich

Bharata, the

many

times as numeioiis as the men.

135

Gods, Demons, Yakshas, luikshasas, Bhiitas,
those with distorted

Pretas, Vinayakas, Kt^shmandas,
features

136 minate
137
they,
:

What

they carry and their dress are deter-

Friendly or Terrifvino-

Ytxiini^

and
in

Nin/as',

assuming forms at

will,

contort

counties.^

numbers with mankind.
138 139
122

And

by men they may be protected.
herl)S.

In that [Bharata connhyjare ambnjsial
Aviniuktaka
Oghghin.x
: :

Benare.4.
?

124
]31

Ujji^in
:

The

Teftclier

Brihi.9p..tl.

133

KshetrapAla

:

Shiva,

(

24

)

140

At

this point the

nuinber of the ages, the

Kritd^ Treta. Dcdpara, and Tishya,

141

In the Krita
;

[

the creatures are

]

possessed of

knowledge
142 ment; 143
policy
:

And

versed in the administration of punish-

In the Tretii they are active and skilled in

144

In the

Dcdpava

they

are

followers

of

Tdntrikas and of strong

tastes;
:

145

And

versed in policy
Tishi/a

146

In the

quarter

men

are strong in

knowledge and action, and versed
of punishment
:

in the administration

147
colour,

After that they are of

diverse

rightfulness,

and

dress,

and

void of

the administration of

punishment.
148
speaking.

And

the peoples

behold,

intent

upon

false

Thus

says the Preceptor.

So in the Brihaspati Sfdra the third chapter.

140
fcurth age

The

Mah?i.hh?i,rata also nr.mes

tlio

Tisbya

as

the

:

)

I
t3

3

Omens and Counsel At the Brahma hour the rising from Let him consider right and interest, The cry of the cock is auspicious
(
:

IV

sleep.

4
5

Also the sight of an elephant and so forth; Also the sound of elephants, the chanting of
;

auspicious praises, and Veda-recitation

6
7

Also holy talk of divinities

;

Also recollection of nobles
Also eye-colly rium
:

;

8
9

Also looking in a mirror.

10
II

Let him adorn [ himself \ Also chewing of betel
Also camphor, sandal, incense of agallochum:
Conchs, Kdhalas,
horns,
:

12
13

cut

reeds, guitai^

harps, drums, kettle-drmms

14 15
16
rel
(?)
:

And

noises of trumpets

-,

Also seeing of divine women : Also the interrupted first note of
Also the^sound of the
'

the minst.

17

/4/^

melody

(

or 'the cry

of birth
18

)

:

White

flowers in liquid butter.

19

Fire satisfied with

inaMrds

becomes

of one

hundred flames, and attended with smoke having the
sing ef Vishnu,

20
1

Then the
The Bn,hma,

spectacle of oxen
rnithurta is

is

inauspicious

:

the eiirly morning: see

Weber

and Aitareija Brahmana IL 15. 4 Tho Greek writers^mcntion the early morning salutation of p.n Indiana king by an elephant (Aelia«i,XIII. c. 22). 12 Or 'license ot ci^mphor, sajndal, and Agallochum'.
Indische Ski^eod-,
x. p. -§96,

(

20

)

21
2'2

Also the speetaele of vultures
Also a
t'^vilij^Tit

l,bize

:

2o
.

Also the cry of quaiTe]lin<^ jackals.

'24^

Or tho

soiuid of carl^ivorous^ leasts is Iieaiti at
city.
is

the gate of village or
2i}

Where
:

also

sweating of images of gods
to

per-

ceived, there departure

anothor place

is

the only

appeasement

there

is

no remedy.
acts.

26 27
28

Unavoidablv to be observed are these Victory is rooted in counsel

Men are

of three kinds, best^ ^vorst and middle,
[ is

HO

In counsel also

the same triplicity

].

30

That action

is l)est

which

is

undertaken in
friends,,

company with
01
guru.

a)nnection.s,

kinsmen,

the

I(mrned, the tho'.jghtfiiL

And, when
.He
is

right

is

doubtful^

devotion

to

a

32

best

who

sets

to after faking counsel

with

men

intent on advantage.
after thinking out

33.
sets to

If,

good and bad
T>y

results,

he
the

through

being'

overcome

folly,

he

is

worst.
3-1
iisly,

That counsel is best which h taken unanimounder the guidance of \x)licy, by wise councillors,

3.7

Where, at

first

of divers
is

opinions, they are

afterwards unanimous, that
2-3

the middle.
p.

'Swcatingof images'
^/

:

Cf. Harsha-carita^ trans

,

147,

also

VergM's
.1

mapsfum ill:;cnmaf temflh ehur aewagme mdaiit
seems to sweat
w(s>niefe] ."seat*.

(G.ef>rg.

V

480), and Milton's

'And tho

chill inarblo

'Wlalo each pecialiar power foygoes lib

(

-'7

)

3G

Where

there

is

broiling

and

reproach^ one

being for right, one for interest, along with
children,

women,

and the aged, tears on the one part, anger on the other, that is the woi^tf rj7 First the measure is introduced by the master.
38

Then with

voice^ action,

mind, salutation, and
be madv}

rigid prostration let

them

in order ot dignity

to salute the master,

39

Let him salute him whcse food Vaishmvana

or Vacaspati

when

old refuses

nA

to eat.

40
41

For the

rest the opinion of eiwh in

order

is to

be heard.

The maasurc
Having

is

to b(^ considered after placating

the master.

42

first

extolled the master's strong [joints,

and then veighed

his

masters weak points^ the

weak

points of the adversary,
netural, let

and the weak
lay stress

points of the

him

agiiii

upon the

masters

strong points.

43

Havinsj a^rain described the measures and the
is

means, and having placated the master, he
sider the measure.

to

con-

44

With

careless,

assailed,

imfortunate persons

warlike enterprises do not succeed.
38
'Rigid
prosti-c^tion'
:

The
i^

word
stick'

d:indapranc.ma
occurs
in

*prostratioti

with thy body
:

str..ig]it a.)

the

Dashahumara-Girita

see the St. potorslnrg lexicon.
I'-nd Vr«cr.spi-^ti r.re

39

Vi-.isravuna

apparently

n.aned as

types of king and Brahmi-n. Note the neg^.tivo verb ahhrnjattj,

42

Guna and

donhx are hoio untochuiciJ

:

cf.

11. I.

(

28

)

45

Against a not

careless,

right-knowing person,
against
is

a master of his senses, a conqueror, one angry

the powerful, and hanl to assail warlike enterprise

not to be undertaken.

One knov/ing the SMMras, how undei^tand measures? " so let him not say.
46
'*

does he not

Those who conquer the strongest enemies^ pleasure and so forth, they conquer all foes. 48 Let him not make the first advance in render-

47

ing services

:

49
50

Also

let

him

certainly render service.

As
it

regards an

unavoidable

disaster,

havirg

discerned
disaster.

in advance, let

him provide remedy for the

51

So says the Guru,
in the

So

Brihaqmti Sutra the Fourth Chapter.

46
ground

1, e. let

him not claim

practical

infallibility

en the

of learning.

V
1

(

rpay as

)

Four mean 8.
Also three
:

^

2
3

4
5

Also pretended oversight aiul s-laying. In dealing with the bold conciliation

;

6
division

With With
;

the timid conciliation and division the

;

greedy

conciliation,

largesse,

and

7
esse,

With the

vexatious conciliation, division, larg-

pretended oversight, and slaying.
8
Conciliation
is

to be set to

9

The purpose
Relatives are

of

work first the mind and also the
at the

:

friendly

action of the voice.

10

pleased

misfortune

®f

relatives.

11

Relatives, in their secret hearts malignant,take
relative.
all

advantage of a
12

Among:

dangers the dans^er of

relatives is

to be dreaded.

13
certain
]

In cows milk and in
;

a

Brahman anger

[

are

14
15

In

women
is

friendship

like

kinsmen remoteness a drop of water upon a leaf.
tickleness, in

;

The friendly speech of ciders, also inspired by SMstras, whoso heed not, are inspired by destiny :theni, therefore, let him carefully avoiding dwell afar.
16

What

is

at variance with convention

let

him

not practise.
I

The

four

ufmyas

a,re,

ot

course,

war, dissensiu,

conciliatioD,

and bribery.

(

30

)

Kinsmen, crocodiles among the lotuses of secrets of mantras and sciences not to act without good omeiis -and disasters (?).
17
;

18

It must be told with avoidance of the bad
is

:

though

posseted of knowledge, he
19

like a snake in the house.

An

adherent from the enemy's side one should
let

not

trust.

20
s

Aecoixiing to merit

him entertain

(people)

in his service.

21

Let him

test

by their sentiments.

22
23

A hero
He may

is

not quickly

known by
his gestures
:

the

weak

:

intelligence let

him promptly
be

test in

an unkijuwu matter.

known by

24
2iy

A composed
And
Upon

person not.

One whose mind is without a j>prehension is calm.
without anger
learning the
:

26 27

for

even

chikh*en and so

forth conceal that.
fall

of

his

family a

w ise

man under
28

these circumstances
side, if

would have recourse
effects of ]

even to an enemy's

possessed of wisdom.
[

Unfailingly in the heart the
evil arise
;

for-

mer good and
on
all

[

so ] the bad

man would not

occasions act as such.

29

The

fickle are

not to be highly honoured.

30

So says the Preceptor Brihaspati.
in the Brihaspati

So

SMra

the Fifth Chapter.

17 The text is here corrupt, some proverbial expression apparently being involved. The import seems to be that counsel, study, and secrets, also misfortunes, should not be inciuitiously

spoken of, 19 Accusative after n-57wa6, as in I. oi9. <:' 22 'Re&Aing viro'^ sh9,raih sahas?L na jnayate. 26 ' Conceal' :^-'yn may, it appears, sometimes have thissense. 27 Reading nayayuUam. The mo^iung is, however, not clear.

VI
1

He

should get to

Nana ) know the
(

axjtion
:

suitable to

place
:^

and time,

also policy

and

imjx)licy

3

Not what is con traryto Veda,manliness,and pride. Let him observe friendly acts.
Policy
is

4

caiTied out after examination

by cou-

ncillors.

5

Let him examine what

is

to be

done or

net to

be done in conjunction with councillors living by their
intellect.

6

Whoso
to be

can design even an unwelcome measure,

he

is

employed in counsel.
wealth,

7

Let him acquier wealth.

8

Whoso

has store of

has friends and

righteousness and know^ledge and merit and

prowess
be acqui-

^

and

intelligence.

9
red, as

By one without
In riches
is

riches riches cannot

an elephant by one without elephant.
rooted the world.
all

10
11

And

therein are

things.
is

12

A man

without richen

a dead

man and a
the root

CkDuldla,

Vo

Likewise

let

him acquire knowledge,
rooted the world.

of rii^hteousness.

14
L")

In knowledge

is

Knowledge

a^xain is all.

So says the Guru. So in the Brihaqmii Svtra the Sixth Chaptei-.
16
Reading cpi kriry-Am in place of vikaram. The sense would seem to be tli^t one who would employ his intelligence in measures which ho pcrsonr.Jiv c'isliked would bo a trustworthy
6
councillor.

F.

W.

TnoMAsi.

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