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Edited by

Dr. Carol Dahir


Co-Edited by
Mehmet Kilic & Galymzhan Kirbassov

PEACEBUILDING THROUGH EDUCATION


Edited by
Dr. Carol Dahir
Co-Edited by
Mehmet Kilic
Galymzhan Kirbassov

Copyright 2014 Peace Islands Institute


All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in
any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,
recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the Publisher.
Published by Peace Island Institute
ISBN: 978-1-939592-03-3
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Lotus Media, New Jersey, USA
(201) 729.1720
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Co-Sponsors:

New York Institute of Technology | Baruch College | Yale University | Quinnipiac University | Alliance for Shared Values

CONTENTS
BIOGRAPHIES ................................................................................................ VI

Editors ............................................................................................................................. VI
Contributors ................................................................................................................... VII

PREFACE ....................................................................................................... XII


FORWARD ..................................................................................................... XV
INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... XVII
CHAPTER 1:
Peace building through Education: Perspectives from Governments

On Peace building and Violence on Children ................................................................... pg1


Armin Altamirano Luistro
A Focus on Character: From Pre K through Higher Education in New Jersey .................. pg6
Rochelle Hendricks
Perspectives from Tanzania ............................................................................................ pg12
Shukuru Jumanne Kawambwa

CHAPTER 2:
Mobilizing Civil Society for Peacebuilding

Building an Ethical and Shared Future Through Education in a Global Perspective ....... pg18
Johnston McMaster
The Concept of the Committed Core in Promoting Peace through Education ................. pg24
Alp Aslandogan
Peace Education: Curriculum Interventions .................................................................... pg30
Michael Samuel

CHAPTER 3:
Principles and Methodologies in Peace Education

A Steady Digital Dialogue: Youth Building Peace in a Dark Time ................................. pg46
Thomas Gage
Making Peace with Pictures: Research Evidence ............................................................ pg52
David D. Perlmutter
Transformational Peace Education in the 21st Century .................................................. pg58
Hilary Cremin

CHAPTER 4:
Peace as a Shared Ideal

Education-for-Peacebuilding Programming in UNICEF ................................................. pg66


Friedrick W. Affolter
Learning to Live Together .............................................................................................. pg72
Agneta Ucko
Peacebuilding through Education: A Perspective on the Hizmet Movement ................... pg78
Ihsan Yilmaz

CHAPTER 5:
Exemplary Peacebuilding Practices

The FilipinoTurkish Tolerance School (FTTS) ............................................................. pg86


Zamboanga, The Philippines
PLURAL+ By United Nations Alliance of Civilizations ................................................. pg88
Jordi Torrent
Search for a common ground .......................................................................................... pg90
John Marks
Acknowledgements ......................................................................................................... pg91
Peace in a Frame Photography Competition ................................................................ pg92

BIOGRAPHIES
EDITORS

Carol Dahir

Dr. Dahir Ed.D., is professor and chair of the School Counselor Department at the

New York Institute of Technology. She works extensively with state departments of

education, school systems, school counselor associations, and national organizations


on developing, implementing, and evaluating comprehensive

school counseling

programs. She served as the project director for both the American School Counselor

Associations National Standards development and Planning for Life and continues

to focus her writing, research, and presentations on excellence, accountability, and


continuous improvement for school counselors. She is a past president of New

York State School Counselor Association and served on the governing boards for

the American School Counselor Association and the National Career Development
Association.

Mehmet Kilic

Mr. Kilic is the Director of the Center for Global Affairs at the Peace Islands Institute.
He organizes programs on global issues by engaging diplomats accredited to the United

Nations with the private sector, the media, academics, representatives of civil society
organizations, and youth at local, national, and global levels. In 2007, he founded an

Early Childhood Education Center and worked as an ESL curriculum coordinator at


Brooklyn Amity School. Home Reporter and Brooklyn Spectator awarded Mehmet
Kilic with the 2012 Rising Star Award for his commitment and dedication to community
service in New York.

Galymzhan Kirbassov

Mr. Kirbassov is a Ph.D candidate in the Department of Political Science in


Binghamton University (SUNY). His research is on signaling models in international

conflicts and how competition among political parties affects strength of threats to use

military force. Mr. Kirbassov has been involved in the intergovernmental negotiations
on the United Nations Post-2015 development agenda, with particular attention to the

effects of peace on sustainable development and vice versa. He has organized several
discussion panels to highlight the implications of scholarly studies on the issue with
professors and experts from the United Nations.

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Peacebuilding Through Education

CONTRIBUTORS
Armin Altamirano Luistro

Mr. Luistro, born December 24, 1961 in Lipa, Batangas, Philippines, is a Filipino

Lasallian Brother, who serves as secretary of the Department of Education of the


Philippines. Luistro entered De La Salle Scholasticate (the center for academic
training of De La Salle Brothers) in Manila on April 1979 while he was studying in De

La Salle University (DLSU). He started teaching as a religion teacher at De La Salle

Lipa in 1983. He was made provincial of the De La Salle Brothers Philippine District
on April 1997, a post he held until 2003. On August 26, 2000, Luistro co-founded

the De La Salle Catholic University of Manado, currently known as De La Salle


University, in Indonesia with Josef Suwatan, Roman Catholic Bishop of Manado. On

April 2004, he succeeded Andrew Gonzalez as the president of De La Salle University


System, consequently making him the president of eight De La Salle institutions. He

was appointed as the Secretary of Education of the Philippines since June 30, 2010,

becoming the second De La Salle brother to hold the postthe other was Gonzalez
who was in office from 1998 to 2001. Luistro is a major proponent of the K+12 Basic
Education Program in the Philippines. The program seeks to add two years to the
current 10-year basic education curriculum.
Rochelle Hendricks

New Jerseys first secretary of higher education, Rochelle Hendricks, has more than

20 years of experience working on education issues in the Garden State. Appointed to

the Cabinet-level post by Governor Chris Christie in May, Secretary Hendricks had

served previously as acting commissioner of New Jerseys Department of Education,


having been named to that post in August 2010. Prior to that assignment, Secretary
Hendricks had served in the Department of Education as assistant commissioner for

the Division of School Effectiveness and Choice, overseeing key reform initiatives
and areas, including the Offices of Board Development, Small Learning Communities

and School Culture, District Schools, Turnaround Partnerships, Inter-District Choice


and Opportunity Scholarships, Charter Schools, Career and Technical Education, and
Online Education. She had also served in the Department of Education in various other

capacities, working as director of the Professional Development Office, manager of the


Office of Policy and Planning in the Administration Division, assistant to the deputy

education commissioner, and director of the Office of Vocational-Technical, Career

and Innovative Programs. Prior to joining the staff of the Department of Education,
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she worked for over 15 years at Princeton University in numerous capacities, including

assistant dean of students, director of the Educational Opportunities Program, and


interim director of the Womens Program.
Shukuru Jumanne Kawambwa

Dr. Kawambwa is the current Minister for Education and Vocational Training in the
Government of the United Republic of Tanzania. He has previously served as Minister
for Infrastructure Development, Minister for Communication, Science and Technol-

ogy, Minister for Water, and Minister for Livestock Development. He was elected to

parliament in December 2005 and again October 2010. He is a Member of Parliament


representing Bagamoyo constituency in Tanzania. Dr. Kawambwa was awarded a PhD

in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Surrey, UK in 1993. He is a member


of the Institution of Engineers Tanzania. Before joining active politics in 2005, Dr.

Kawambwa served the University of Dar es salaam in Tanzania as academic member


of staff for 24 years, involved in teaching, research and consultancy in the field of
Mechanical and Energy Engineering.
Johnston McMaster

Dr. McMaster is lecturer and Coordinator of the Education for Reconciliation


Programme, Irish School of Ecumenics, Belfast. His doctorate is from GarrettEvangelical Theological Seminary, Evanston, USA on Methodist Stewardship in

Irish Politics. The research was interdisciplinary including history, theology and

politics and critically examined the period from the first Home Rule Bill of 1886 to
the Anglo-Irish Agreement of 1985. Dr. McMaster has co-authored Communities of

Reconciliation: Living Faith in the Public Place and Churches Working Together: A
Practical Resource. A co-authored chapter is included in an ISE Festschrift, Towards

a Life-Giving Ethic: Engaging Biblical Texts of Violence in the Violent Context of


Northern Ireland. He is the author of Churches on the Edge: Responding Creatively to
a Changing Time and has contributed chapters to publications and journals on Ethical

Remembering: Commemoration in a New Context, Living Towards the Vision: A


Theological Praxis of Conflict Resolution, The Role of Religion in Making Peace and
Reconciliation in Northern Ireland, An Inter-Religious Cartography of Peace. His most
recent publication was A Passion for Justice: Social Ethics in the Celtic Tradition.
Alp Aslandogan

Dr. Aslandogan is President of Alliance for Shared Values (AFSV.org) which is a

not-for-profit umbrella organization that brings together interfaith and intercultural

dialogue organizations for the purpose of advancing human understanding of living


in peace and harmony in diversity. Prior to his current position Dr. Aslandogan served

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Peacebuilding Through Education

as the board president of the Institute of Interfaith Dialog in Houston, Texas where he

oversaw the organization of academic as well as grassroots activities of the institute


around topics such as shared values of humanity, social cognition and conflicts, the

art of living together, foundations and methodology of interfaith and intercultural


dialog, and the role of faithful citizens in democracy. Dr. Aslandogan recently co-

edited a book entitled Muslim Citizens of the Globalized World: Contributions of the
Gulen Movement, published by the Institute of Interfaith Dialog. Dr. Aslandogan is
an author and an editor of the Fountain magazine, a board member of the Journal of

Interreligious Dialogue, and is the co-author of an upcoming book on the history of


democracy in Turkey.

Michael Anthony Samuel

Dr. Samuel began his tertiary education career as a lecturer in Curriculum Studies at
the then University of Durban-Westville (UDW) in 1989 and went on to become its

first Director of the School of Education. He was part of the Ministerial Committee on
Teacher Education responsible for constructing a national policy framework for post-

apartheid teacher education. He has served as Deputy Dean: Initial Teacher Education
and as Dean in the merged institute,the University of KwaZulu-Natal (2004) bringing
together former historically separated racialized higher education institutions.
Tom Gage

Dr. Gage is Emeritus in English at Humboldt State University, originated crosscultural fluency (CCF). Presently, he is chair of the Youth Platform of Houstons

Glen Institute, which recognizes and awards international contest winners in


writing. His CCF work earned his team at Humboldt a California grant for curriculum

development, invitations to address State and National Conventions of the National

Council of Teachers of English, and he will be featured to report in October at a


forthcoming regional assembly in Syracuse of the Two Year College, a conference
entitled From the World Desk: Situating Our Practice within a Global Context. He has

been awarded a Fulbright, his universitys certificate of recognition for dedication to

international programs, and the California Association of Teachers of Englishs accord

for excellence in classroom teaching. In the last three years, Gage has delivered papers
on four continents.
David Perlmutter

Dr. Perlmutter is dean of and a professor in the College of Media and Communication

at Texas Tech University. He received his BA (85) and MA (91) from the University
of Pennsylvania and his Ph.D. (96) from the University of Minnesota. Perlmutter is
the author or editor of ten books on political communication and persuasion. He has

written several dozen research articles for academic journals as well as more than
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250 essays for U.S. and international newspapers and magazines. He writes a regular

column, Career Confidential, for the Chronicle of Higher Education and blogs for

CHEs The Conversation. In 2010 he was elected to the Association for Education
in Journalism & Mass Communication Standing Committee on Research and is now

chair. In August 2011, he began a three-year term on the AEJMC Finance Committee.
Perlmutter has been interviewed by most major news networks and newspapers,
from the New York Timesto CNN, ABC, and The Daily Show. He regularly speaks
at industry, academic, and government meetings and runs workshops on personal and
institutional branding via social media and on promotion and tenure in academia.
Hilary Cremin

Dr. Cremin is a Senior Lecturer who researches and teaches in the areas of youth
participation and democracy, Citizenship Education, and conflict resolution in schools
and communities. She has worked in the public, private and voluntary sector as a school

teacher, educational consultant, project coordinator and academic. She is currently


manager of faculty doctoral programs, external Director of Studies at Fitzwilliam
College and convenes the Education Tripos Paper II Diversity and Inclusion. She is

also a tutor on the MPhil / MEd program, and runs a Restorative Approaches in Schools
PPD course each year. Before moving to Cambridge University in October 2008 she

worked at Leicester University School of Education. In the 12 years before going


into the higher education sector, Hilary set up and ran Catalyst Conflict and Change

Limited, a company which specialized in the promotion of social and emotional wellbeing in schools, and conflict resolution training for adults and children. Through

Catalyst, Dr. Cremin worked with various adult and community groups and in hundreds
of primary and secondary schools throughout the UK. She has worked as a community
mediator, mediating both neighbor and family disputes. Dr. Cremin has carried out

research projects funded by the Society for Educational Studies, the ESRC, the British

Academy and the EPSRC. She worked with colleagues from Leicester University, and
Community Service Volunteers (CSV) to investigate the civic action and learning of

young people from Socio-economically disadvantaged communities (visit engagED.


educ.cam.ac.uk), and with colleagues from Nottingham University and Edinburgh

University on a seminar series exploring Restorative Approaches to conflict in schools.


Friedrich Affolter

Mr. Affolter is the manager of the Peacebuilding, Education and Advocacy Programme
(PBEA) implemented by UNICEF and funded by the Government of the Netherlands.

Currently implemented in 14 countries, the PBEA aims to strengthen resilience, social


cohesion and human security. Mr. Affolter holds an Education Doctorate from the
Centre for International Education of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst and

Peacebuilding Through Education

has worked on UN Assignments in Afghanistan, Angola, South Africa and Sudan prior
to moving to New York in August 2012.
Agneta Ucko

Ms. Ucko was born in Sweden and has lived in Switzerland for 20 years. Having
pursued her Masters in Theology at the University of Lund, Sweden, she proceeded
with postgraduate diplomas in International Relations and Development Studies from

the University of Uppsala, Sweden and in Psycho-social Dynamics and Organizational

Development. Agneta Ucko has been instrumental in developing a model for the

Swedish Red Cross in working with refugees and immigrants and has been teaching
ethics for social workers for several years. Agneta Ucko took up her current position
at Arigatou International in 2003. She has been responsible for the development of

the educational manual Learning to Live Together in collaboration with UNICEF and
UNESCO. She served as President of the NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights
of the Child 2005 2007.
Ihsan Yilmaz

Dr. Yilmaz is an Associate Professor of Political Science at Fatih University, Istanbul,

Turkey where he is also the Director of the PhD Program in Political Science and

International Relations at the universitys Institute of Social Sciences. He received

his BA in Political Science and International Relations from the Bosporus University
in 1994 and completed his PhD at the Faculty of Law and Social Sciences, School of
Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London in 1999. He then worked

at the University of Oxford as a Fellow between 1999 and 2001 and taught Turkish
government and politics, legal sociology, comparative law and Islamic law at SOAS,

University of London between 2001 and 2008. He was the Deputy Chair of the Centre
for Ethnic Minority Studies at SOAS (2003-2008) and the Director of the London
Centre for Social Studies (2003-2008).
Narinder Kakar

Mr. Kakar is currently serving as the Permanent Observer to the United Nations of the
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). He has also until recently

served as the Permanent Observer of the UN-mandated University for Peace. Mr.
Kakar has had extensive experience working for the United Nations, serving the UN
Development Programme (UNDP) for over 30 years. During his long and distinguished

career with UNDP, he served in countries like Yemen, Guyana, Turkey, China and the

Maldives with progressively increasing responsibilities, culminating in the position


of UN Resident Coordinator/UNDP Resident Representative, in addition to serving in
senior positions at UNDP Headquarters. Mr. Kakar has served on a number of boards

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including as Chairperson of the UN Joint Appeals Board. He currently serves on the

Board of Governors of the Canadian Foundation for International Training, and on


the editorial board of the Law Review Journal of the University for Peace. He is a

member of the Board of Trustees of the Elizabeth Haub Foundation (USA). He lectures
extensively on issues related to peace and security, and on sustainable development

and Post-2015 Development Agenda. He has taught at the UN-mandated University

for Peace located in Costa Rica and at Pace University in New York on the subject the
United Nations. He is Adjunct Professor at Pace University School of Law, teaching a
course on Environmental Diplomacy.

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PREFACE
The Preamble to the Constitution of UNESCO declares that since wars
begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defenses of
peace must be constructed. In order that a unanimous, lasting and genuine
peace may be secured, the Preamble declares that the States Party to the
Constitution believed in full and equal opportunities for education for all,
in the unrestricted pursuit of objective truth and in the free exchange of ideas
and knowledge. It is further emphasized that the purpose is to promote
collaboration among nations through, inter alia, education.
Education for peace leads to the disarmament of the mind and to lasting
peace. It is therefore important that human beings intellect be directed
towards peace building. It involves marshalling of human beings intellectual
faculties, to enable them to become instruments for peace. Education serves as
the most effective means of transforming human beings. Through education,
we can inculcate in the minds and hearts of men and women the thoughts
and habits of peace. Education is thus a key for both durable peace and for
sustainable development.
Education for Peacebuilding is now beginning to receive attention as
an important tool or instrument in pursuit of building lasting peace. It is
synonymous with global ideas for peace and development. It was after all not
too long ago that the study of environment and development was not a very
popular subject. Peacebuilding through education should now take its place
alongside environment and development as an important building block.
The International Conference on PEACEBUILDING through EDUCATION
organized by the Peace Islands Institute provided a platform for highlighting
the importance of education, as an effective and sustainable method to
prevent and solve conflicts, serving as a tool for conflict resolution. Equally
importantly, it stressed the role of education in promoting understanding
among people, which contributes to and can result in conflict prevention.
The Conference deliberations benefitted from the contributions made
by a number of prominent educators, intellectuals and policy-makers. It is
recognized that peace education must be a part of the school curricula in
private and public schools, especially in conflict zones, where neutral space
is provided for people involved in conflict to come together and socialize on
humanistic issues through education. Educating children from an early stage
at the primary and secondary school levels lays the foundation for making
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them peace-makers and social mediators. Informal education for peace in


the society, among people of different religious, ethnic, cultural and socialeconomic backgrounds is vital for peace. The role of civil society in carrying
out education for peace at the community level can also be very effective.
In the same vein, girls education and empowerment of women should
become integral parts of the process for creating awareness for the need for
peacebuilding among people.
Education enables us to analyze and address the root causes of violence and
conflict, and build societies and ultimately a world based on principles and
values of active non-violence, justice, human rights, inter-cultural respect and
reconciliation, ecological sustainability and inner peace. There is a growing
recognition of the vital role of education in promoting universally shared
values to promote tolerance, non-violence, inter-cultural understanding and
dialogue among cultures and civilizations.
Peace Islands Institute deserves commendation for taking initiatives
like the International Conference on Peacebuilding through Education, thus
contributing to the noble cause of developing understanding and collaboration
among people of different backgrounds through dialogue and discussion.

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February 2014
Narinder Kakar

FORWARD

FILLING IN FOR MISSING PIECES


A few issues back this year, we featured in The Fountain magazine an
article titled The Missing Piece, authored by a dear friend. The Missing
Piece was a pawn that had gone missing on a stunning 12th century chess set
exhibited at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art. The author comments
on this missing piece as follows:
Looking at this chessboard, one cannot help but reflect on the still-charged
game of misunderstandings which pits East and West on opposing sides.
Perhaps this missing foot soldier can presage the beginning of a new game,
one where we are all on the same side of the chessboard; a game without
confronting pieces and with reconciliation as the victor.
One little piece missing is a big enough deficiency to start a game.
Is this life a game? And are we in it to beat an opponent? There are different
views as to how we should define our worldly life; but there is a growing
consensus that the major piece missing today is a comprehensive education
an education that deals with the human as a whole. It is not just a pawn we are
trying to make up for if life is a chess game, education is the king, and when
the king is gone the game is over before it can ever start.
Education is not an issue within school hours only, and it does not end
when one graduates from the school: we have learned from late Steve Jobs
that a college degree is not sometimes an indispensable need. And thanks to
people like him, out of a hundred thousand words each human is exposed to
every day, only less than one percent comes from schools.
Deeply inspired from Fethullah Glen, a man who has devoted his entire life
to education, dialogue, and tolerance, we at The Fountain and Peace Islands
Institute believe education is a lifelong ladder to climb until our last day.
Among the entire creation, the humans are born with greatest of all potentials,
yet a great majority of which are dormant: no ready-to-use prior knowledge
and ability for survival, and with the greatest dependence on others. All of
those seeds planted in our make-up for so many of the fantastic qualities we
possess wait impatiently to manifest themselves, and this is only possible with
a thorough education education that helps us come to an agreement with this
complicated phenomenon we call life; life that we strive so hard to bring some
sense out of it: education for a meaningful life.
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John Nashs Game Theory idealizes a win-win result. He says a lose-lose


situation is also a possibility if everybody focuses more on his opponent losing
than on himself winning. In this game of life, we at The Fountain believe we
all are on the same side; if we are to find an opponent or a challenge, we dont
need to go too far, or search for it in the horizons. We have a very powerful one
right here in our soul, and through a thorough education only can it become
a rocket ramp for us to rise and our fragility becomes our greatest strength.
How elaborately the great statesman Daniel Webster (d. 1852) phrased this
strength when he said, If we work on marble it will perish. If we work on
brass, time will efface it. If we raise temples, they will crumble to dust. But
if we work on mens immortal minds, if we imbue them with high principles,
with just fear of God and love of their fellow-men, we engrave on those tablets
something which time cannot efface, and which will brighten and brighten to
all eternity.
Hakan Yesilova
Editor, The Fountain Magazine

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INTRODUCTION
PEACEBUILDING THROUGH EDUCATION
We must begin to inoculate our children against militarism by educating
them...I would rather teach peace than war, love rather than
hate. -- Albert Einstein
A little more than a decade into the 21st century, humanity has achieved
an unprecedented level of technological advancement and wealth, which
one could not have even imagined barely a quarter a century ago. Social
media and accessibility to the internet provides individuals with the ability
to communicate ideas and images with the millions around the world with
the click of a mouse. Every aspect of our lives has been changing constantly,
exponentially, and ever more rapidly as the time passes. With this in mind,
how do we bring together the importance of global competitiveness and
student academic success with the equally important values of mutual respect,
global understanding, and developing world citizens of good character?
In September, 2013, The Fountain Magazine and Peace Islands Institute
of New York, gathered world renowned notable thinkers and experts on
the topic of Peacebuilding through Education for an international forum
that highlighted the importance of all educating children, especially at the
primary, intermediate and secondary school levels, in effective and sustainable
methods to prevent and solve the conflicts at all levels. The premise of these
conversations was that no matter what the nature or the scale of the conflict is,
the core of the issues lies with the individual. The individual makes the decision
between hating and not hating; and the individual prevents the millions of
others from enjoying their birthright freedoms. Thus, is it possible to eliminate
the ongoing conflicts in nations around the world and to prevent the potential
ones by educating individuals, the children in our schools, in mutual respect,
global understanding, and becoming world citizens of good character? Given
that the terrorists, criminals, and trouble-makers of today were the children of
some twenty years ago, could the education of the children be an effective tool
to prevent conflicts and build sustainable peace? Unfortunately, the presence,
pervasiveness, and destructiveness of the conflicts is brought into our homes
as violent eruptions and violations of human rights unfold before our eyes
through the media.

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For a full day, educators, civic leaders, humanists, and government officials
engaged in dialogue and conversations about taking the necessary steps to think
globally about the kind of world we want our children and the generations that
follow to live in. What follows in this journal publication of the proceedings
are the papers developed by the experts who served on the panels. It is our
collective hope that their words and ideas will inspire you to also take action
and instill these suggestions and recommendations across the globe and build
a world in which our children can thrive.
Panel I. Peacebuilding through Education: Perspectives from Governments
includes 3 papers on the following topics:
On Peacebuilding and Violence on Children, contributor, Hon. Armin Luistro,
Minister of Education, The Philippines; A Focus on Character: From Pre
K through Higher Education in New Jersey, contributor, Hon. Rochelle
Hendrick, New Jersey Secretary for Higher Education; and Peace Building
Through Education: Perspectives from Tanzania, contributor, Hon. Shukuru
Jumanne Kawambwa, Minister of Education, Tanzania.
Panel II is focused on Mobilizing Civil Society for Peacebuilding and offers
the following three papers:
Building an Ethical and Shared Future Through Education in a Global
Perspective, contributor, Dr. Johnston McMaster, Irish School of Ecumenics,
Belfast, Ireland; The Concept of the Committed Core in Promoting Peace
through Education , contributor, Dr. Alp Aslandogan, Alliance for Shared
Values, President; and, Peace Education: Curriculum Interventions,
contributor, Dr. Michael Samuel, University of KwaZul u-Natal, Durban,
South Africa
Panel III contributors provide Principles and Methodologies for Peace
Education in the following papers:
A Steady Digital Dialogue: Youth Building Peace in a Dark Time, contributor,
Dr. Thomas Gage, Humboldt State University; Making Peace with Pictures:
Research Evidence, contributor, Dr. David Perlmutter, University of Iowa;
and Transformational Peace Education in the 21st Century, contributor, Dr.
Hillary Cremin, Cambridge University, England

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Panel IV deliberated on Peace as a Shared Ideal and offers the following


perspectives:
Education-for-Peacebuilding Programming in UNICEF, contributor, Friedrick
Affolter UNICEF; Learning to Live Together, contributor, Dr. Agneta Ucko,
Arigatou International; and Peace as a Shared Ideal, contributor, Dr. lhsan
Yilmaz Fatih University, Turkey.
The final section, Exemplary Peacebuilding Practices, are represented by:
The Filipino-Turkish Tolerance School (Ftts), Zamboanga, The Philippines;
Search For A Common Ground, representing 26 countries in Africa, Asia,
Europe and the Middle East; and, Plural+ By United Nations Alliance of
Civilizations, a project from the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations and
the International Organization for Migration which has received since 2009
over 400 entries from 63 nations.
Editor
Carol Dahir, Ed.D.
Professor, School Counseling, New York Institute of Technology

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CHAPTER 1
PEACEBUILDING THROUGH EDUCATION:
PERSPECTIVES FROM GOVERNMENTS

ON PEACEBUILDING AND VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN


Armin Altamirano Luistro
In the words of the former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan,
I offer this quote: Education is quite simply peace building by another name.
It is the most effective form of defense spending there is as all of us hope that
there will be more budget allocated to education more than in armaments.
If we believe that education holds the key to attaining a more peaceful and
harmonious global community, staunch proponents must find ways to work
together to turn this opportunity into concrete reality and overcome the
obstacles that prevent us from realizing this goal.
There is a disturbing reality of violence in our schools and more specifically
violence against children. The individual child remains at the center of our
attention; no matter what the scale of conflict is at the core of it lies the
individual. It is the individual that makes the decision between hating and
not hating. It is also the individual that prevents millions of others from
enjoying their birth right freedoms and it will be an individual that will make
the decision to either cause or prevent a nuclear disaster. The individual lies
at the core of every conflict.
Are we equipping the young with the right morals and skill sets that will
prepare them to face a world that is sadly broken and wounded? The integration
of morals and ethics and peace building should be part of the daily content of
our lessons and activities. Equally important are the pedagogical techniques
bringing relevance to the unique needs of this generation. As we encourage
competition, cooperation, achievement and accomplishment, how do we also
instill the values necessary to collaboration and cooperation?
Taking the inevitable consideration of the childs context, his home, family,
school, peers and community, it is necessary to create and sustain the proper
environment that fosters creativity, self-acceptance, cooperation and purpose.
The system may be strong or flawed but regardless, we are these relationships
that weave through the students delicate connections, to himself, herself and
the community.
If we intend to establish peace among nations and among societies, we first
need to ask ourselves how effective we are in promoting peace in our classrooms
and in our school grounds and campuses? Violence in schools can take the
form of an overt shooting, as well as the more subtle forms of violence in our

Peacebuilding Through Education

institutions. Bullying, verbal abuse, peer pressure and other psychological


abuses inflicted upon a young child all contribute to the developing psyche
of the individual. This same individual grows up to possibly become a peace
loving and leader or a power hungry and ruthless parent whether in the context
of politics, religion, business or simply the family and home.
A study conducted by the National Centers for Injury Prevention and
Control and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention entitled Adverse
childhood Experiences (2006), reported that although the consequences of
violence for children may vary according to its nature and severity, the short
and long term repercussions are very often grave and damaging. Violence
may result in greater susceptibility to life long social, emotional and cognitive
impairments and to engage in risky behaviors. Related mental health and
social problems include anxiety and depressive disorders, hallucinations,
impaired work performance, memory disturbances, in addition to aggressive
behavior. Violence against children is a ruthless cycle which pervades our
societies. The world is a giant playground; as we watch what happens in our
school grounds and it is a microcosm of what is occurring at a much larger
scale in the global arena.
As the Minister of Education to Philippines over the past 2 years, I have
been confronted by the many sad and shocking cases in schools of violence
against children not only by adults but more appallingly by their fellow youth.
For instance, not too long ago in the Central Philippines, a first grade pupil
7 years old was brutally killed by a 5th grader. It was reported that the first
grader took a marble from the 9 year old during a game. The older boy chased
little boy and upon capturing him, repeatedly beat the bleeding head of the
victim using a rock behind one of the comfort rooms in the school premises.
In another more recent incident in my own hometown in Batangas, a fight
occurred between two high school students in the classroom with the teacher
present. The victim was hit on his head and he subsequently died in the
hospital. These are horrifying and actual cases of two students, one in the
primary, and the other in the secondary level in the Philippines.
What is the most appropriate response in each case? There are two victims
here; one who lost his life and one whose life is ruined. In many incidents
of violence between children, the young perpetrators are not surprisingly
victims of violence themselves. The ruthless cycle perpetuates. The degree
to which violence has been inflicted varies, according to the findings of the

Peacebuilding Through Education

UN Secretary-General study on violence in children. The study suggests


that the majority of violent acts experienced by children are perpetrated by
people who are part of their lives, parents, schoolmates, teachers, employers,
boyfriends or girlfriends, spouses, and partners. Violence against children in
the family may frequently take place in the context of discipline and takes the
form of physical, cruel or humiliating punishment, harsh treatment and in both
industrialized and developing countries. The effects on the children speak for
themselves, highlighted by the physical and psychological hurt they suffer as
a result of these forms of treatment.
How we deal with these perpetrators, how we deliver punishment likewise
becomes both and opportunity and a challenge for us to reeducate the victims
and acquire skills to heal. This is no easy task, as we look to the context
of education and ask ourselves, how do we transform our playground, our
school grounds into ways of fund and recreation, safety and security? Schools
also regretfully contribute to the violence done to children through physical
or emotional violence perpetrated by teachers and other school staff with or
without the overt or tacit approval of education ministries. This can take the
form of cruel and humiliating forms of psychological punishment, which
may be sexual or gender based violence, bullying, and corporal punishment,
including beating and caning which is still a practice in several of the Filipino
schools.
Playground fighting and bullying of students is commonplace. Bullying is
frequently associated with discrimination against students from poor families,
ethnically or marginalized groups or with particular characteristics, or physical
or mental disability. It could be verbal or physical and it affects the wider
community for example in gang culture and gang related criminal activity,
particularly related to drugs. Sexual and gender based violence occurs very
much in educational settings. Much is directed against girls, by male teachers
and classmates. Violence also directed against lesbian, gay, bisexual and
transgender young people. Governments can fail despite enacting laws that
explicitly protect these individuals. The same study reminds us that across the
globe, children spend more time in the care of adults in educational settings
than with those in their home. This further exacerbates the problem as the
urgent responsibility to improve conditions in our schools lies in our hands.
If the world is a giant playground, when we transform the playground, we
transform the world.
Attaining this progress in our educational institutions will be a significant
giant step in building peace in the world. Some children see a disconnect
between what we teach in school and what they learn from the world. There is
Peacebuilding Through Education

the school of hard knocks and the school of reality. In the classroom we teach
the child to share but she returns home and the refusal of her older sister to
share a cookie negate what she has learned. In the classroom we tell children
to love their enemies but upon surfing the internet or watching television our
same students witness revenge and bloodshed, victory to the soul survivor,
and survival of the fittest. Which is the wisdom that they accept? Which is
their reality?
The effectiveness of our lessons lies in making the connection lesson to
the realities of the world. We have a responsibility to propagate methods
which are relevant. In the Philippines, the pre-colonial heritage is one that is
naturally cooperative, community centered and not at all competitive. We have
in the Philippines for example a spirit which we call Bayanihan or the Spirit of
Community Effort. We can only move mountains if we work together, but this
is somewhat contrary to the western style of education we have adopted which
is competitive in the name of achievement and success. There is nothing
inherently wrong with competitiveness; it may not be aligned with the deeper
movement of the Filipino peoples soul or in other nations also.
Developmental and educational psychology may influence us to return
to our more traditional Asian values and to translate these principles into
curriculum and pedagogy. In education and in sports, we focus on competition
and winning and we train our students to do exactly the same when they are
in the real world. We may need to move towards another paradigm of coop petition rather than competition. The same activities can be equally fun
where winning continues to be possible especially when it encourages genuine
teamwork and good sportsmanship. These are just a few suggestions to seek
new solutions need to be explored to minimize the violence that we see in the
playground, in our schools, in our communities around the world.
Children, despite what is inflicted on them can rise to succeed. Last
week, I heard a story about one of Filipino youth, Kesz Valdez, who won
an International Childrens Peace Prize in the Netherlands. When he was 5
years old, Kesz, a street child used to scavenge from the huge pile of garbage
nearby where he lived to earn money. One particular day while the garbage
trucks were unloading, a group of kids sprinted to be the first to get the best
scavenger treasures to be found. A boy pushed Kesz and he accidentally fell
into a burning tire sustaining serious burns. When his parents found out about
the incident they put Kesz away into an orphanage with the belief that he is
an unlucky child.

Peacebuilding Through Education

Despite the terrible accident and his parents turning their back on him, Kesz
had an unyielding desire to help kids like him. Last year during the typhoons
in the Philippines, Kesz, now 13 years old set up an organization Championing
Community Children. His purpose is to give children hope and show them
that they can take their future into their own hands. He gives them hope
gifts which are packages containing slippers, clothing, soap, toothbrushes
and toys. At the age of 13, he began to speak to audiences. He launched
Championing Community Children in 2005, distributed 5000 hope gifts and
helped more than 10,000 Filipino. Kesz is a victim of violence but he was
able to through his resiliency and desire to help, change the cycle of violence
The story continues as Kesz was adopted by a Filipino CNN hero Efren
Peaflorida who himself was a street child. Efren founded Dynamic Teen
Company and in 2009 the group would go to locations such as slums, trash
dumps and cemeteries where lot of our children live, and distribute carts of
books, milk, beds, crayons and pens, and bringing the classroom to where they
are. Two stories of two Filipinos, both experienced street violence but kept
hope alive within the human heart. We dare not lose the hope that we find in
the heart of Kesz and in the heart of Efren Peaflorida. Children need not be
only recipients of our peace initiatives; they can be in fact the initiators of the
peace that we want to see. Landon Pearson, Director of the Pearson Resource
Centre reminds us: .nations will not prosper if their children do not heal.
To suffer violence in childhood is to be wounded in the soul and if not healed
to inflict pain on others as well. No child should be a victim of violence.
All children should have the right to protection and the time to fulfilled their
rights is now.

Peacebuilding Through Education

A FOCUS ON CHARACTER: FROM PRE K THROUGH


HIGHER EDUCATION IN NEW JERSEY
Rochelle Hendricks
We are at a critical inflection point in history. As technological and scientific
advances have altered our relationship to time and space, our distinctions of
race, religion, tribe, ethnicity, and class have been simultaneously intensified
and minimized. At this time of dramatic and rapid change in the world,
with pivotal challenges as well as opportunities, we have never been more
wholly interdependent and interconnected. Quality education offers us a way
forward for peacebuilding, both proactively and reactively, for individuals,
communities, states and nations.
While many see peacemakers or peacebuilders as Pollyannas, too nave and
innocent, chasing an elusive impossibility, I know that we all see peacebuilders
as wise pragmatists. After all, skeptics and cynics, what is the alternative?
The only sane, rational choice is the way of peace. It is, perhaps, the most
sane, rational choice that we will ever make the choice to be persistent
agents for peacebuilding in every aspect of our lives.
As a veteran educator, I am proud that the State of New Jersey has embraced
the transformative potential of education for peacebuilding. Over the course of
time, New Jersey has demonstrated a commitment to educational excellence,
equity and ethics. While the interface of the three has not always been
consistent, there is a history of implementing these essential elements into New
Jerseys PreK-12 and higher education institutions to promote cross-cultural
understanding and knowledge, compassion and caring, and reconciliation and
mediation. These efforts are informed by research, evaluation and the sharing
of best practices to stimulate improvement, expansion or replication.
There are several programs which I will briefly describe to provide
concrete examples of New Jerseys efforts and commitment. I begin with
the contributions made by Peace Islands. Introduced four years ago,
the Diversity Art and Essay Contest for secondary students in New Jersey
provides an important opportunity for students to demonstrate their talent
while addressing such a vitally important issue. Over the years, I have been
consistently impressed with the creativity and sensitivity expressed by the
students in their essays and works of art.
Thanks to Peace Islands, our students are encouraged to think about
diversity issues, to foster tolerance and acceptance, to combat bullying and
discrimination, and to promote peace in our richly diverse State and nation.
These efforts contribute to our ideals and help students prepare to be good
citizens.
Peacebuilding Through Education

I applaud the Peace Islands Institute for its generosity in supporting this
contest, and for the commitment to helping to make the world a better place
for everyone by helping to prepare the future generation for leadership in a
wonderfully diverse and connected world.
The Peace Islands effort is a wonderful example of the role NGOs can
serve in advancing peacebuilding through education. This collaboration
helped to promote this important work in addition to key legislation, policy,
and programs that facilitate peacebuilding through education in the Garden
State.
A Governors Executive Order introducing Holocaust Education in 1982
was a major step in making the State a leader in the field. The core mission of
The Commission on Holocaust Education is to design, encourage and promote
the implementation of Holocaust and genocide education and awareness in
the public and private schools of New Jersey. The programs and curriculum
include a network of 24 Holocaust Centers and have trained thousands of
educators and conducted numerous programs directly for students. The
curriculum and related activities are inclusive of the human experience,
promoting tolerance, understanding and peace.
In 2002, the Amistad legislation was introduced in New Jersey, setting forth
a bold vision and ambitious goal for New Jersey to lead the way in creating a
Social Studies curriculum designed to celebrate the rich, diverse, and complex
history of America. The charge of the Amistad Commission to infuse the
history of African Americans into the K-12 Social Studies curriculum, fully
aligned to the Content Standards, has been realized in the exceptional webbased curriculum, teaching resources, seminars, workshops and a myriad of
high quality programs and activities.
I am very pleased that New Jersey is a leader in establishing strong
statutory, regulatory, policy and program frameworks to support prevention,
remediation and reporting of harassment, intimidation and bullying. The
States role helps schools and colleges to adopt effective programs and to be
pro-active in peacebuilding with the force of law and regulations to support
those efforts.
New Jersey has additional efforts that reinforce the central role of education
in preparing and instilling the skills and attitudes necessary to defuse and
recognize potential conflicts and to actively promote a culture of peace and
non-violence.
The national award-winning Center for Character Education was established
at Rutgers University to provide leadership to advance the States character
education programs in elementary, middle and high schools. Among the faculty
at Rutgers are some of the worlds leading experts in character education and
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Peacebuilding Through Education

social-emotional learning, and they are on the forefront of research in this area
and its application to school settings. The Center helps to deepen and expand
the scale of the critical work of developing students with sound character and
the ability to contribute to the social and economic well- being of the State,
nation and world.
Service Learning combines community service and volunteerism with
academic course work. The learning is as important as the service, with each
enhancing and complementing the other. The programs occur at all levels
of education. Most recently, New Jersey became part of a national network,
Campus Compact. Campus Compact promotes civic engagement and public
service, and integration of both into the curriculum, as well as faculty
professional development among member colleges. By reinforcing the value
of learning and serving, by connecting education to the community, service
learning contributes to improving the community and school while equipping
students to be the change they want to see in the world.
New Jerseys Promise Communities initiative is a breakthrough in how
government can help transform struggling, high poverty communities.
Modeled after the highly successful Harlem Childrens Zone, the initiative
seeks solutions through empowering community-based organizations
with a track record of service to partner with public and private entities to
meet needs in targeted neighborhoods. State agencies are encouraged to
breakdown the silos of government to provide consistent, coordinated support
and collaboration with the lead community organization. The potential to
ameliorate the devastating impact of poverty, including violence and failing
education systems, may become a most effective tool for peacebuilding,
family by family, neighborhood by neighborhood, community by community.
Our colleges and universities enjoy a great deal of autonomy, making it
particularly impressive and meaningful, that every sector -- public and private,
four-year and two-yearare engaged in peacebuilding programs. There are
a number of programs in each sector that further illustrate higher educations
peacebuilding efforts which I would like to highlight:

Peacebuilding Through Education

The State University



Rutgers Universitys Center for the Study of Genocide, Conflict
Resolution and Human Rights (CGCHR) seeks to enhance the understanding
of genocide, political violence, and protracted conflict and mechanisms for
their prevention and resolution. With an interdisciplinary faculty of over 40
distinguished scholars from all three Rutgers campuses, and support from an
internationally renowned advisory board and network of affiliated scholars
and professionals, the center has a broad base of partnerships across the
United States and the globe.
Public Four-Year Institutions

Montclair State University offers a Master of Arts in Law and
Governance, Conflict Management and Peace Studies Concentration and
established The Center for Non-Violence and Peace Initiatives in the summer
of 2005 with the vision to create a campus community that is free from all
forms of violence. The Center for Non-Violence and Peace Initiatives serves
as a vehicle to create a safe learning, working, and living environment based
on equality and respect.

Ramapo Colleges Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies recently
hosted a group of more than 80 teachers from across NJ who participated in
the Emil Gumpert Teachers Workshop designed to hone participants skills in
using reading and writing to teach about the Holocaust and genocide.

The Richard Stockton College has been designated by the United
Nations as a member of the UN Academic Impact, a global initiative that aligns
the College with the organizations guiding principles. The principles are in
the areas of human rights, literacy, sustainability and conflict resolutions.

William Patterson University has The Gandhian Forum for Peace and
Justice which seeks to promote dialog and education on some of the greatest
challenges that confront the human race in the 21st century: resolving conflicts,
eliminating war, and advancing the cause of social justice. Its purpose is to
help make the campus a place where such conversations flourish, and a catalyst
for encouraging engagement with these concerns in the wider community.
Private Four-Year Institutions

Fairleigh Dickenson Universitys United Nations Pathways Program
is designed with the conviction that well-prepared young leaders will not
make decisions that riddle their future with wars or destroy the prosperity
that provides sustainable growth, lifestyles, educational opportunities and
simple happiness for human communities everywhere. Through the Pathways
Program, students participate in United Nations events and conferences
focused on global peace, offering them direct interaction with world specialists
9

Peacebuilding Through Education

in global peace and the opportunity to network with NGOs active in the field
of peace action. The UN Pathways Program provides initiatives that promote
an environment of peace learning, thinking, acting and living.

Princeton University has a Davis United World College Scholars
Program. Princeton students are eligible to apply for funding through The
Davis Projects for Peace program which invited undergraduates at American
colleges and universities to design their own grassroots projects for peace
that they themselves implemented during this past summer (2012). Through a
competition on over 90 campuses, the most promising and achievable projects
were selected for funding.
Public Two-Year Institutions

Bergen Community College has an Awareness and Advocacy
Initiative of the Center for Peace, Justice and Reconciliation which focuses on
education in the area of conflict resolution and genocide history.

Union County College offers International Studies designed to provide
students with an understanding of the causes of war and the efforts made
to produce alternative methods of conflict resolution, including collective
security through the United Nations.
These New Jersey programs are examples of how we can combat ignorance,
bigotry, violence, poverty, and disease and promote understanding, respect
and unity. The focus on shared, universal principles and values is essential
to building bridges, fostering shared aspirations and desired outcomes. The
programs demonstrate that we can simultaneously value and respect our
differences and act from a mutual deep interest in a just and genuine peace,
making the world safe for diversity. Our common link is that we co-exist on
this earth and cherish the same hopes and dreams for our childrens future.
I trust that our efforts through education will help others to envision a
peaceful existence for all time, to find hope from it, and to move irresistibly
toward it. Together, each of us doing our part can help to build a world of
peace where the weak are safe and the strong are just. Let us be emboldened
by the reality that peace is the only option for a future and thus, continue to
build the pathway to peace through education.

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10

PERSPECTIVES FROM TANZANIA


Shukuru Jumanne Kawambwa
The United Republic of Tanzania is the union of two former countries, the
Republic of Tanganyika, and the Peoples Republic of Zanzibar which is an
island. The union came into effect on the 26th of April, in 1964, borders a
number of countries including Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, DR Congo,
Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique so it has many more neighboring countries
or bordering countries. To understand our vision, it is important to understand
the complexities of our geography and our people. The country has a total
area of some 945,000 square kilometers, and by year 2002 it had a population
of 34.4 million people. The current predictable population though is over
40 million people. Christianity and Islam are the main religions practiced by
most people, but there are also people, who dont believe in -- who dont have
any religious belief, or they have their traditional beliefs. It was a British
protectorate for 42 years that is from year 1918 to 1960 before it became
independent in 1961. Its a multi-party state and enjoys strong friendships
and co-operation with its neighbors mainly through a membership to the East
African community, and the Southern Africa development community.
The education system in Tanzania is comprised of both formal and nonformal education structure The formal structure and training system is
comprised of two years of pre-primary education , seven years of primary
education, four years of secondary standard level education, and two years of
secondary advanced level education, and finally three or more years of higher
education /university education. Students attend school from 5 to 6 year old
for the pre-primary levels,7 to 13 years of age for primary, 14 to 17 years of
age for all secondary levels, and 18 to 19 years of age for A level secondary,
and 20 to 24 years of age for tertiary education.
Tanzania is one of the countries that gained its independence in a rather
peaceful manner; no physical fighting, no bullets fired, only peaceful
negotiations. That is why there is a strong correlation between the relationship
of peace building and education. Our first President Mwalimu Julius Nyerere
attended the United Nations conference, and asked for peace and independence
for his country.
We are aware that peace building is an ongoing process making sure that
the country and its society creates conditions for sustainable peace in which
citizens can coexist and prosper. As a united country we have taken on the
responsibility of creating these conditions in order to prevent conflicts.
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12

In order to promote awareness of our beliefs we have tried to create the most
appropriate conditions for education. Education is a vessel for thoughts and
ideas. Education produces new understanding of the human experiences. The
educational system in Tanzania was designed with the intention to promote
a peaceful coexistence of its people. In 1967 President Julius Kambarage
Nyerere, the first President of Tanzania, proposed an alternative educational
model that was built on the premise that education leads to self-reliance. The
model was designed to reorient the goals, values, and structure of education
system originally inherited from the colonial government.
In 1967 the vision was to obtain an education that would promote common
good and foster social goals of living, and working together peacefully.
In1970, shortly after the 1967 reform, there was a push for adult education.
The government felt that it would be unwise to concentrate all efforts on
education, on educating children, leaving behind adults who are the parents
and guardians of our children in a state illiteracy for this would imply delaying
the countrys development for generations. The adult education movement
was based on the premise that the adult family members of the children
attending school needed educated parents and guardians. Thus, this would
increase the liberated forces which would advocate for change, and provide a
strong foundation for future generation.
Today, the Tanzanian government still perceives adult education as an
avenue for instilling the need for change, love for all citizens and peace. Our
children are not raised in isolation and are exposed to the ever changing ways
of the world. They live and grow up interacting with their parents, family
members and other adults that are community members from their society.
These adults are influencing and molding our children and therefore, must
be equipped with peace building skills and appreciate the value of peace and
instill these same skills in the future generation of leaders.
Education provides the basic literacy skills needed for one to live in
harmony in a society. No doubt, lack of education propagates a fanatic society,
and limits economic opportunities as correctly stated by UNESCO. Education
ensures development, peace and democracy. Civic education is taught as a
compulsory subject among the various subjects at primary and secondary
school levels, The emphasis is being on love, unity, decency and respect for
others without segregation. When children are educated on the elements of
peaceful coexistence at a tender age they are likely to grow up as responsible
adults, respecting others, and cherishing peace. Theres a strong relationship
between education and peace.

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Peacebuilding Through Education

Although, Tanzania is a secular state its citizens have different religious


beliefs. Religion is also taught as a compulsory subject in primary as well
as in secondary schools to instill in the children a sense of love, respect,
and acceptance for differences in beliefs. The use of Kiswahili as a national
language spoken by all citizens in the country is another factor facilitating the
promotion of peace in the country.
Although Tanzania has about 120 ethnic tribes and all of them speak different
languages which really are not comprehensive to another tribe. Kiswahili is
the medium of communication and unification for all and also the language
of instruction in the majority of primary schools across the country. This has
facilitated to galvanize the unity of all citizens. The national language has
been an important unifying factor for the nation. The language has facilitated
the process of nation building, peace, and stability in the country.
The government is also aware that in emerging knowledge-based global
economy, learning and skills of this group is important so as to shape the
economic growth of the country, and to combat poverty. Technical education
and vocational training is offered by both government and non-government
agencies. Enrollment in these programs has increased over the years.
Experience from other countries show that conflicts, tensions, and riots may
be caused by unemployment, economic instability, and hatred based on tribal
groupings and religious beliefs. Recognizing this, the government of the
United Republic of Tanzania has taken necessary measures to curb youth
unemployment especially through training programs.
The Tanzanian government through its liberalization policies has invited
the private sector, communities, and non-government organizations to invest
in education and complement government efforts. For example, there is a
Turkish community Ishik Medical and Educational Foundation operating
in Tanzania in providing of both primary as well as secondary education to
the children. These schools (called FEZA schools) are guided by the same
vision and mission to develop a new golden generation instilled with openmindedness, curiosity, creativity, dignity, respect, integrity of character, value
driven attitudes, innovative minds, and synergetic coexistence. To cultivate
multicultural understanding, tolerance and respect in an atmosphere of
mutual support and positive adult student relationships, the mission of these
FEZA schools do not discriminate against any member of the community on
the basis of sex, race, religion, national origin, ancestry, creed, or marital or
parental status.

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14

All other non-government schools in the country do the same, hence


contributing to a peaceful coexistence in the country. Peace and education
are two sides of one coin. In Tanzania, we have successfully managed to
maintain peace because people had been made aware of the value of peace
through education. Peace building is not static; rather it is a continuous
process that needs nurturing from the earliest age possible. Children need
to grow in an environment where they appreciate the value of peace because
with peace they can freely make progress and move forward. Children learn
as they grow and interact with parents and other community members. This
means that education has to be a holistic and continuous process. It should not
only start and end within the four walls of the school of our school buildings
as it must be a lifelong process. It is only through this approach that peace
building through education will be sustainable.

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Peacebuilding Through Education

CHAPTER 2
MOBILIZING CIVIL SOCIETY FOR PEACEBUILDING

BUILDING AN ETHICAL AND SHARED FUTURE THROUGH


EDUCATION IN A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE
Johnston McMaster
Peace Building Through Education
In June of this year Aung San Sui Kyi visited Europe. She is a woman who
has suffered greatly, remains committed to non-violence and is a champion
for democracy in her own Burma. She reminds us that peace building is about
building democracy, which is essential to sustainable peace.
Just over two decades ago many of us sat glued to the television screen.
The image is indelible, that of Nelson Mandela finally emerging from his
Robyn Island prison compound. He walked to freedom to lead, with others,
the transformation of apartheid South Africa into a Rainbow Nation. Its still a
work in progress. Mandela has reminded us that peace building is the creation
of a pluralist, participative democracy. Peace building is pro-democracy
and it is about actively creating rainbow nations and societies, pluralist,
participative democracies at least! Education has a crucial role to play in
all of this.
Education for Pluralist Democracy
Democracy continues to develop. There is no finished product and there is
no one model to be imposed universally irrespective of contexts and cultures.
It is not a flawless system either. Winston Churchill once said that democracy
is the worst of political systems, except for all the others. Democracy is
about freedom. What the promise of freedom and potential for democracy
does induce is an almost universal abhorrence of tyranny. Dictatorships,
totalitarian regimes and fascist states do not last and do not satisfy the deepest
longings and needs for freedom and participative belonging. Whatever past
history, newly liberated nations usually move towards democracy. In 1918
when Czechoslovakia was born, its President said, our whole history inclines
us towards the democratic powers. That was repeated in 1989-91 by leaders
of all the countries of the ex-Soviet bloc.
Education for pluralist democracy, as part of peace building, needs to
engage history. Democracy has a lineage, a family tree and young people and
adults should be aware of it.
The Greeks invented politics and it began with our city states. The polis
needed governance and there was a recognition of a public good, a shared
public interest and common concerns, and over these issues there could be

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18

argument, debate, discussion, decision and policy making. The assembly


of citizens was known as the ecclesia, though it was far from being fully
participative. It was only for wealthy males, people of power, excluded women
and certainly had no place for slaves and lower classes. Athenian democracy
lasted for 185 years. It had limited participation and Plato even thought that
democracy meant the rule of the incompetent. Democracy was forgotten for
a millennium.
European democracy owes more perhaps to the democratic practices of the
Viking world. Popular assemblies enter European history in the 9th century
in Sweden and Denmark. Icelands national assembly came into being in 930
CE. Long before England had such a democratic assembly, it existed in the
Manx assembly, the Isle of Man, a small island between Britain and Ireland
with a Viking history. The Manx Tynwald or assembly is also 9th century.
Wherever the Vikings went, Nordic democracy went with them.
In the modern era the two great shapers of democracy were the French
Revolution and the American Revolution. The history of the 18th-19th
century Europe was a series of wars and conflict, and absolutist monarchies
and imperial powers. The first political revolution of a new time in European
history happened outside of Europe and it led to the dissolution of the first
British Empire. It began in 1773 with the Boston Tea Party and a decade
later at a Paris Peace Conference American Independence was recognised.
Now the people of North America could work out their problems virtually
untroubled by foreign intervention, a blessing to much that was to follow.
Popular sovereignty was embodied in the opening words of the Constitution,
We the People. All governments derive their just powers from the assent
of the governed. The American Revolution was a landmark in world history.
Then followed the French Revolution and by 1789, notwithstanding the
Terror, great reforms were achieved.


The formal abolition of feudalism, legal privilege and theocratic absolutism, and the

organisation of society on individualist and secular foundations were the heart of the

principles of 89 distilled in a Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen... legal

equality and legal protection of individual rights, the separation of Church and State

and religious toleration were their institutional expression. The derivation of

authority from popular sovereignty acting through a unified National Assembly,

before whose legislation no privilege of locality or group could stand.


(Roberts, J.M., 1997, p,353)

Modern democracy is born and by 1900 the principle of democracy was an


idea, albeit still resented in some parts of Europe, whose time had come. We
may have little consensus about its essence and it remains flawed in practice.
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Peacebuilding Through Education

We the People may even be impossible, strictly speaking, in practice. But


democracy as a theory of governance and the ordering of the public good has
promoted all the virtues, from freedom, justice and equality to the rule of
law, the respect for human rights, and the promotion of political pluralism and
of civil society (Davies, N. 1997)
Democracy is not amoral. It implies a need to be underpinned by a value
system. Values and ethics are the foundation of democracy at work. Education, not only in the history of democracy is important, so too is education
and values and ethics. Peace building is an ethical task; it needs democracy and the values and ethics that underpin democracy. Democracy involves
pluralism and freedom; it also requires tolerance or respect. The education
process needs to draw the distinction between passive tolerance and active tolerance. The former is the tolerance of indifference. The latter is The attitude
of one who positively co-lives with the other because one respects the other
and accepts the multi-faceted richness of reality. ( Winter, J. 2006, p. 169).
At the heart of any education for democracy is justice, especially justice as
distributive and restorative. Democracy is for human, social flourishing and,
distributive and restorative justice are core to peace building.
Education for Global Citizenship
Yale historian, Jay Winter, believes that a new kind of vision emerged at
the end of the dark 20th century after the momentous events of the late 1980s
and early 90s. It is a vision set in the framework of globalisation which aims
to create a new kind of politics called the politics of global citizenship. It
has also been described as globalisation from below. Global citizens
are emerging out of an array of transnational social forces animated by
environmental concerns, human rights, hostility to patriarchy, and the vision
of humane community based on the unity of diverse cultures seeking an end
to poverty, oppression, humiliation, and collective violence (Falk, R, 2006)
A new kind of political consciousness is developing which is transnational
and is flowing across national borders. It is a glocal movement holding
together the local and global. Global citizenship is a political project helping
people to imagine a different kind of world. Citizenship is not tied to the
state, it is participation in a transnational set of struggles for dignity and
justice (Winter, J, 2006 p. 169).The nation state is no longer primary. We are
no longer just Irish, American, Turkish or Indian citizens but global citizens,
in a different and larger solidarity on environmental rights, womens rights
and human rights. Transnational citizenship is about all of these glocal justice
issues none of which is limited by national boundaries. Community now is in
the local and the global.
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Perhaps this began for many of us as children when we put our name and
address on the inside page of a school text book. Name, street, town/city,
Ireland, Europe, The World, The Universe! It is now the reality in a globalised
world. Transnationalism and global citizenship may still have an unmapped
future, but like modern democracy at the beginning of the 20th century this
new local global reality is and will shape who we are in the 21st century.
It will be a peace building project stretching us well beyond any introverted
narrative. Citizenship education now needs to be global for all ages, and
it is not only an alternative to introverted narratives, but also to economic
globalisation as the sole determinative factor for human and environmental
life on the planet.
Undertaking a Glocal Case Study
Ethical and Shared Remembering is a project underway which responds
to the centenaries of events that occurred in Ireland between 1912 -1922 and
shaped the rest of the 20th century for the people in Ireland. It was a decade
of enormous political change ending with the partition of Ireland, and it was
also a decade of brutal violence.
There are multiple Irish narratives from this decade. Not only will this
initiative try to recover them, especially the alternative, repressed or forgotten
narratives, but the events of 100 years ago will be carefully set in the larger
global, at least European context of that time. The memory of the Irish
narrative(s) has often been introverted, but this community education initiative
seeks to provide a larger and more critical perspective on a century ago by
placing the events in a more global context. Early 20th century imperialism
and the catastrophe of the Great War, provide a larger and rather different
perspective.
This framework for an educational exploration not only includes global
contextualization but also narrative hospitality. This is about generosity of
spirit and openness to engage with multiple narratives, especially those of
ones sectarian tradition or narrative perspective. Narrative hospitality will
also include narrative pluralism and narrative flexibility.
Another educational framework is integrative complexity. This is also
getting beyond mono-narrative or mono-truth, simplism or fundamentalist
politics or religion. Integrative complexity (IC) is a way of seeing history,
culture, politics, faith, the world in all their diversity and complexity and
integrating or weaving together the complexities of personal, communal and
historical existence, and to see this complexity in the other.

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Essential to the educational exploration of the past is future visioning.


This is not just about a 2030 vision for Ireland. It is about transcending local
nationalist politics of whatever shade and visioning a common good. It is
about global citizenship, a transnational vision that requires the imaginative
creation of a larger identity myth, beyond introversion, and glocal in
perspective and complexity. This is an initiative which we hope will make
a positive contribution through education to peace building as a glocal task.
Notes

Boff, L. 2011. Virtues: For Another Possible World. Oregon: Cascade Books
Davies, N. 1997. Europe: A History. London: Pimlico.
Roberts, J.M. 1997. The Penguin History of Europe. London: Penguin Books
Winter, J. 2006. Dreams of Peace and Freedom: Utopian Moments in the 20th
Century. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

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THE CONCEPT OF THE COMMITTED CORE IN PROMOTING


PEACE THROUGH EDUCATION
Alp Aslandogan
Imagine yourself in a town where there is a school and there is a problem
of violence or drugs or bullying or other forms of troubles. The schooladministration and teachers are all well meaning people; the parents want the best
for their children. However, the problems continue and are not addressed or
resolved until something terrible happens.
Most of us have experienced situations like this and wonder why solutions
are not implemented sooner. Another example might be in a place where there
is ethnic minority or religious minority and the children who need an education fall prey to violent terrorist organizations. Children need an education to
give them the knowledge and skills so that they will not fall prey to such an
organization. The terrorist organization threatens and although people want
to do something no one individual can make a change. You can imagine other
situations like this one; and hopefully there are lessons learned as to how to
implement solutions. Here I want to talk about a concept which I call the
committed core that illustrates one way of overcoming such problems. But
before that let me provide an introduction to the activities of a civil society
movement called Hizmet.
The Alliance for a Shared Values, where I serve as the president, is a new
organization and an umbrella for dialog and cultural organizations, established
by individuals inspired by Mr. Fethullah Gulen, a prominent Turkish Muslim
scholar preacher and social advocate. The organizations fundamental common goal is to help build a culture of living together in peace and harmony
despite differences. The idea is to identify the values, issues, and visions
and concerns that bring us together, even if we cannot fully agree on every
issue. Mr. Gulen has been recognized as the most influential scholar and
preacher and social advocate in Turkey. He was known for his stands against
violence of any form, he condemned the 9/11 attacks shortly after the attacks
and he called Bin Laden a monster as a matter of fact in interview to a major
newspaper. He supported democratization of Turkey and Turkeys potential
prospective membership in European Union. The themes in his discourse are
roughly the themes about the Hizmet movement projects and this include education, community service, social justice, community peace and developing
a virtuous individual for the purpose of virtuous society.

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The Hizmet Movement, which means service or serving in Turkish,


started as a community of pious mission around preacher Mr. Fethullah
Gulen. Later on it became much more than a community and evolved into a
social movement that includes non-Turks, and some non-Muslims to varying
degrees. Within the last two decades the Hizmet movement participants have
moved into over a hundred countries.
The Hizmet movement is focused on five main areas of activity and the
primary one is education, including various forms of institutional efforts as
well as individual initiatives. Healthcare is also a priority that is put into
practice in the form of hospitals, clinics and also doctors and nurses doing
pro bono service, a Turkish version of doctors without borders. The other
priorities are disaster relief and economic assistance, socially responsible
media, and also interfaith and intra-faith dialogue. There are also hundreds,
perhaps thousands of professionals, in business and other professions that
promote development in their field and contributing to charitable projects.
Through a doctors association in Istanbul, a physician can provide
medical services in Africa. A hospital recently build in southeast of Turkey,
the City of Sanliurfa, serves Southeast Turkey as well as Northern Iraq and
other countries in the region. There are also the projects of the Kimse Yok
Mu foundation which can be translated as isnt there anybody listening.
It is a disaster relief and economic assistance organization and they serve
disaster victims everywhere in the world from Peru to Japan to Haiti. Doctors
provide pro bono free cataract surgery to thousands of patients in Africa. A
very meaningful project in Sudan in Darfur region is rebuilding a village that
was devastated. The project includes a medical clinic, a school and all of
the other institutions that the people of that township need in Darfur. Kimse
Yok Mu relief foundation established the concept of the sister-family so that
economic assistance to the families is provided over a longer term.
Mr. Gulens pioneering efforts in interfaith dialogue was recognized
by the religious minority leaders in Turkey namely the Christian, Armenian
and Greek orthodox and the Turkish Jewish community leaders. They have
credited him for giving voice to religious minorities and also preparing the
public opinion which makes it possible for the government to take certain
steps to remedy some of the sufferings experienced by these religious minority
groups in Turkey.
Also important is the dialogue among the members of the society who are
technically nominally Muslim but who subscribe to different ideologies and
political views. An organization called the Writers and Journalist Foundation
established a platform, a meeting called Abant Platform named after a small
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lake in Turkey. Annually, this foundation hosts a meeting in Turkey where you
can see the authors and the lecturers, and journalists who hold varied political
views and ideologies. The Left, the Right, the Nationalist, the Religious
Radical, the Alevi and the Sunni, the Kurd and the Turk, all come together
for this meeting which happens in a different place each year. These efforts
have been recognized at the local, at the presidential and prime minister and
minister levels in Turkey as well as by prominent figures around the world.
But education remains the priority to combat terrorism and build peace.
Eastern Turkey does not produce many students who can enter the top high
schools, colleges and universities as the educational opportunities are limited.
Free tutoring services were established in east and southeast Turkey which
serve predominantly Kurdish students. Their families cannot afford paid
tutoring services so these centers in impoverished neighborhoods serve tens of
thousands of children giving them opportunity to enter top ranking colleges,
high quality high schools in the region and elsewhere in Turkey.
Another important priority is in the education of the girls, especially in
southeast and eastern Turkey, where many of the parents are very conservative,
and they have reservations about the learning environment in certain public
institutions. Hizmet inspired institutions promise them an environment where
their daughters can get training and education in a safe environment which
respects their family values.
I would like the illustrate the concept of the Committed Core with an
example from Romania, where a private school was established by Hizmet
volunteers, individuals inspired by Mr. Gulen. It is known typically as a
Turkish school as the participants who started the school they come from
Turkey, but the school students predominantly are Romanian children. So
there was one particular student who had some disciplinary problems and
the administration after taking a number of other steps decided to expell the
student. Their reasoning was that that the student is setting a bad example
and the administration thought that they did everything that could be done to
help solve the problem. But the moment they decided to expel the student,
his father started a campaign to stop the administration from doing that. He
called the parliamentarians, he called the mayor, he called the governor, he
called the President. The school administrators began getting calls from all
these prominent people. Finally, the parent was invited to the school and to
talk about a solution. The administrators told the parent with all of these
disciplinary problems we cannot keep your son in the school as he is setting a
bad example and we would be seen as not doing something about this problem.
So we have to do something. The alternative we can offer you is to actually
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26

let him study in another campus in another city. The father was happy and
he immediately rented an apartment in this other city and sent his son to that
other city and everything was fine.
The administrators finally asked the father what was the reason behind
your being so vigorous in trying to keep your son in the school because there
are other good schools in the city. Why dont you send your son to these other
schools? The father said, I know that my son has a tendency to do drugs. I
studied all those other schools that you mentioned, but nobody is as careful in
keeping drugs away from the school environment as you are. If you expel my
son I lose my son. This is a striking example because historically Romanians
we were not really friendly to Turks and vice-versa. Despite the fact that
the Romanian parents there know this is a school established by Turkish
individuals, they choose to keep their children in the school and they are
happy with it. This is a striking example of shared values such as preventing
our youth from self-destructing, self-destroying habits. Its an illustration that
people from very different backgrounds, from different ethnic, religious, and
cultural backgrounds can come together around shared values, shared goals.
So what happened there also happened in other places such as in
southeast Turkey where the Kurdish population recognizes that their children
need education otherwise they might fall prey to PKK (Kurdistan Workers
Party) which is a terrorist organization. When there is an effort to establish an
educational institution the PKK organization threatens them, threatens their
lives, and attacks the school. Establishing that school, teaching in that school,
and being an administrator in that school can be a matter of life and death.
In addition to K-12 schools, in southeast Turkey, free tutoring centers were
established that are serving these children and helping to prevent them from
falling prey to the terrorist organization.
There are many other examples of this Concept of the Committed Core,
a group of individuals who have a solid sense of solidarity around a higher
calling. In the first example the sense of solidarity is to provide a safe
environment to these children away from drugs, away from bullying, away
from violence, away from other harmful phenomena. There is solidarity
because I am not alone, you are not alone, that administrator or a teacher
or principal is not alone. If that person is alone then she/he is just a hero.
Heroes sometime succeed, sometimes they die without finishing the mission,
but with a group there is a higher chance, higher commitment to actually
accomplishing something. So what happens when there is a Committed Core
in a place where there is a need, where there is a social need? What is the
effect of a committed core on others?
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Peacebuilding Through Education

Imagine an experiment you might have done as a students, a fairly common


example of absorption of sugar and crystallization of sugar. You put water in
a container that can be heated and then you begin to add sugar and you heat
the container. As it gets warmer and warmer you put more sugar and it can
absorb more sugar. After you saturate it with sugar you let it cool down. As
it cools down you insert just a little bit of sugar crystal into that water. As
it continues to cool down a very large sugar crystal forms around this little
one. The little crystal helps crystallize the sugar that is already in the water.
This is how the Committed Core grows. When you have this group of teachers
and administrators in the school in southeast Turkey, their higher calling is
we are going to provide high quality education to the Kurdish or otherwise
impoverished kids in this community and we are willing to sacrifice everything
for this mission. There are other teachers, perhaps in that school or in the
area who were not willing to do so, but when they see that the commitment
of others, they also get onboard. So the effect of the Committed Core is to
actually encourage and support everyone else who are well meaning but not
necessarily willing to take the first step, not necessarily willing to be the hero,
to actually take action. So all those principals and administrators and teachers
who are well meaning come onboard and build that school or maintain that
school. This is the effect of the Committed Core on others.
The Hizmet Movement is one example that shows how a few individuals
commitment can renew hope and vision with your partners and friends, and
build solidarity around a higher calling to accomplish a major goal. This
notion and this collaboration can solve many of the social problems in poor
and underserved communities and build a lasting peace because of a strong
commitment.

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28

PEACE EDUCATION: CURRICULUM INTERVENTIONS


Michael Samuel
The paper is structured in three parts: first, to examine the notion
of deliberative action of peace education as part of an individual and
communal journey of becoming; second, to focus on notions of the
curriculum for educational organizations and how notions of quality peace
education could be incorporated; and third, it will share examples of how such
conceptions of quality peace education have been operationalized in practice.
These examples draw from the context of preparation for the birth of a new
democracy in the South African context; the context of a school teacher of a
non-racial secondary school; the context of teacher education preparing the
next generation of leaders for a new socially responsible education system;
and from the social reconstitutive agenda against the backdrop of a low level
civil war in post-apartheid South Africa.
The battlefields of conflict are in our hearts and minds.

Journeys of Becoming
There is a distinction between the monastic and the missionary orders
of religious priesthood. The first category of contemplative monastic orders
of priests in the Christian worldview are those who seek to generate deep
understandings of God through meditative reflection in prayers and study of
the holy scriptures, seeking its meanings and directions for life. The second
order is a more worldly order of priests which seek the goals of evangelical
missions to make Gods presence known amongst the un-initiated. They are
usually those who traverse into foreign contexts preaching and celebrating
communal worship with lay people (i.e. the non-priest general public).
While both might appear oppositional categories of action they serve the
same purpose. Peace education is such a form of deliberative action which
concerns itself not simply on the outward manifestations of action, of practice,
of habitual routines. Peace education is about an individual journeying to find
an inner sense of purpose for ones existence. It is about realizing the call
to duty and vocation of ones existence. Peace education is about finding
a deep sense of ones humanity. Peace education therefore is providing the
opportunities for individuals to realize their inner calling, inner purpose,
and inner valuing. Peace education is however, also a call to service. Peace
education is not simply a contemplative, meditative silence in, of and for
itself: it is about recognition of a directive and targeted action to commune
with others. Peace making and building is a deliberative action.
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30

A second clarification of the goals of peace education can be drawn from


the African philosophy of Ubuntu which argues that I am because of you.
This philosophy suggests that one cannot understand personal accomplishments
without understanding the impact of others who contribute and shape ones
own sense of being. Being and becoming is not an individual act, but an act of
reciprocal interaction with, in, through and for others. We are simultaneously
shaped and are shaping those with whom we interact. Peace education, too
is about the realization of our deep interconnectedness with others; our deep
recognition of the values and contribution of others. Ubuntu is not a passivist
movement, but a conscious movement of civil action (Msengana, 2006). Peace
education too is not about simply promoting the absence of conflict; it is about
consciously building the directions towards recognition of the values of all of
those who live in ones environment, realizing their potential and character to
be and become to serve the collective good. Peace education is thus a journey
of an individual pathway as well as a communal campaign of collectivity.
Curriculum Interventions
Oftentimes the word curriculum is misunderstood to refer to the
formal taught syllabus which constitutes the topics or content of the official
prescriptions of the educational interventions. Most policymakers are keen
to ensure that the specific content of what students must learn is declared
upfront. Teaching and assessment practices are geared toward ensuring
mastery of this content and the success or failure of a schooling system is often
measured against the attainment of learner performance scores with respect to
this prescribed content. This might sometimes be broadened to specify not
only content but objectives, outcomes or competences to be achieved.
These competences are usually framed with knowledge, skills and values
dimensions. Resources (such as human, material and financial resources) are
directed towards achievement of the expressed learning outcomes, the targeted
knowledge outcomes and the desired value competences.
Increasingly in context of accountability of investment of State resources
in the formal schooling system, and the desire to hold school systems liable
for the expenditure of taxpayers resource, school managers become drivers of
the output factors of the system and drive the school routines to achieve these
outputs at all costs. So for example, schools become strategic in how they
manage the outputs of their tests scores, their final examination results, the
organization of the learning environment to achieve these declared outcomes,
or objectives.

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How could peace education be incorporated into the schooling system?


Peace education constitutes elements of formal knowledge (content), attitudes
(values) as well as actions (skills).
One form of intervention could be to incorporate Peace Education
to reflect a formal part of the official curriculum. Some examples of these
include dedicated modules, lessons in the school timetable devoted to an
explicit teaching of the competencies (knowledge, skills and values) of
Peace Education. Some schooling systems design formal defined curriculum
interventions in the form of a Civic Education: teaching one what it
means to be part of a formal social system, as a member of community or
national system. Others choose to label and enact this within the classroom of
Religious Studies.
In the South African context, the introduction of Life Orientation aims
to infuse into primary and secondary school curriculum a conscious connective
inter-relationship between personal, moral and physical well-being and injects
into the schooling system a sense of psychological, sociological and political
consciousness towards living and working in a transforming society. The
integrated curriculum is taught by teachers who draw on their own personal
knowledge strengths of their past separate disciplines of career counseling,
physical education and moral education. Many teachers have not been formally
trained to enact the new curriculum; teachers are often assigned these classes
in the school curriculum as a way of filing up a normative workload. Life
Orientation does not contribute to any credit-point value towards the schoolleaving exit scores which determine the admission and selection into postsecondary schooling. Consequently its curriculum becomes a fragmented
incoherent discourse not valued much by either teacher or learner. Isolating
a Peace Education course could potentially run the risk of becoming an
essentialised form of indoctrination. It might be undertaken (if voluntarily)
by those who already share its worldviews; it may not have the impact of
drawing on a broader dialogue of new values into the system. Peace Education
could become an exotic other sitting on the fringes of the hegemony of the
dominant discourses of an educational institution. Students/learners too might
also tend to pigeon-hole the formal intervention as a time to be at peace.
Students (creatively) learn how to feign compliance of its expectations, but do
not fully imbibe its core values to any depth.

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32

My preference is thus not for an overly prescribed or formalized curriculum


intervention. Instead I would suggest that the design of peace education as a
valuing system, as a philosophy which should infuse not just into the formal
official, or declared curriculum. Peace education must be embedded into the
everyday small actions and discourses of the espoused valuing system of a
school/educational institution. Peace education should be a lived and enacted
experience for learners and teachers, and such valuing should infuse all levels
of the educational institution: in its habits and habitus (Robinson, 2007).
The educational institution should live, breathe, smell of peace education as
embedded deeply into a quality of the lived philosophy of the school. It should
be demonstrated in its architecture, its textual forms of paintings, its notice
boards, its activities, its ethos. This includes infusing into the ethos of the
school a deep respect and dialogues about difference, diversity, and otherness,
included in the personnel, the textbooks and the learning materials it chooses
not only for the separate Peace Education course/ modules, but throughout
the school curriculum. We are implicated in systems of othering not only by
how we talk ABOUT others, but how we THINK, FEEL and ENGAGE WITH
others. Peace education is about a deep commitment to non-othering, towards
fully and deeply recognizing the dignity of all. When we see the dignity of all
in all then we will become builders of not only outward, but inner peace. This
is a holistic deliberative peace education best practice.
Curriculum educational interventions for peace education cannot be a
simple superficial action, but a deep commitment to change and
transformation, towards inclusion and equity at multiple levels.
Some Exemplary Educational Interventions
In 1987 a school was set up in the province of KwaZulu-Natal to challenge
deliberatively the apartheid authorities. The Uthongathi New Eras School Trust
(NEST) consciously admitted learners of different race and class backgrounds
in an orchestrated assemblage to promote dialogue and collaboration in the
project of learning from each other. The school property was donated by
the large sugar-cane Huletts Company of the region; the newly constructed
buildings were sponsored by the Anglo-American multi-national company; and
the bursaries for students were partially offered by large mining and business
corporations, including the Richards Bay Minerals, a provincial powerhouse.
This partnership across the educational, academic and the business world set
the school apart from other kinds of private school formations. The school
took as its underpinning motto the goal to foster respect across all members of
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Peacebuilding Through Education

the school community, to consciously work against an elitist education system


and to promote notions of a school serving the community. This respect,
tolerance and dialogue with its society were translated into even its very core
of architectural design. The school buildings, the living and working quarters
of staff and students were modern representations of communal patterns of
a traditional isiZulu kraal. The school classrooms were shaped in conical
pitched roofs to symbolize the link to an African beehive hut. The main school
hall was called The Boma which is the name assigned to the communal
gathering place of a traditional African community. The school master plan
revolved around a central courtyard which surrounded a commemorative
tree planted in honor of the fallen heroes of the 1976 Soweto Uprising. The
medium of instruction of the school was officially English, but each student
had to become fluent in three languages: English, isiZulu and Afrikaans, three
language groups of the province of KwaZulu-Natal.
The routine upkeep of the physical well-being of the school was
maintained by learners themselves who cleared, tidied the classrooms and
their living quarters. In rotational teams, the resident learners were responsible
for the layout, service and cleaning up (washing dishes, tidying up) of the
dining hall facilities. The formal school taught curriculum was followed after
2pm by a range of Community Service endeavors, including activities in
which students volunteered for at least twice weekly: working to support a
local school in Mathematics teaching and learning; teaching English to the
administrative support staff who cooked their meals; reading in a local old
age home; visiting the sick in the local hospital; cleaning the local beach shore
close to the school. Annually the school would temporarily suspend the formal
curriculum of the school to encourage an inter-grade Project Fortnight
in which students designed and conducted projects to activate a communal
endeavor. These activities directed towards developing partnerships and
collaborative planning and monitoring included: stripping down a car engine
to its nuts and bolts and then reassembling it; converting the dining hall into
a two-week restaurant under the management auspices of the learners; setting
up a radio-station on the campus.
The effects of this totality of school curriculum experiences were that
the learners thoroughly enjoyed being members of a co-operative community.
Many of them had not previously engaged with a close working across racial
and class backgrounds. We knew that the students really learnt to live in
harmony when they themselves chose to self-regulate the behavior of their
fellow learners, or when they were saddened at the end of each term to return to
their homes for holidays. Interestingly many learners shared their homes with
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34

their new found colleagues during the holidays. This is the essence of peace
education: engendering a deep sense of respect and valuing of collaborative
and co-operative ventures. It teaches the values of education being not only
about self-advancement in academic spheres, but also in communal and
collective responsibilities.
I still meet today many Uthongathi students who share this worldview in
the way in which they interact with their colleagues in business, in academia,
in their everyday family lives. Sadly the school was not able to sustain itself
financially when the business companies chose to withdraw sponsorship of
bursaries for the less fortunate scholars. The principal is remembered for
having remarked upon closure of the school that Uthongathi had achieved
its purpose because it proved that an alternate to apartheid education was
possible.
University of Kwazulu-Natal Student Formations
The University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Education, has two voluntary
organizations set up by students themselves to challenge the rampant careerism
and overly political opportunism of many youth student formations in a higher
education environment and a second student initiative which aims to promote
sustainable growth and development in community action.
Community Development Association (CDA)
The CDA is a voluntary organization set up to provide prospective student
teachers with a discourse of service rather than a discourse of being served.
It promotes self-respect for the cultural values of the members in the form of
debates, speech making, and interactive seminars around the conceptions of
healthy living, faith, diversity and community engagement. The CDA organizes
their action in the form of service to young people in the formal school system
in the form of career planning and after-school education support. The CDA
organizes a week-long winter vacation program to expose grade 11 learners
to potential role models and career-decision-making processes and planning.
Learners from across different schooling systems in the province are exposed
to exemplary role models drawn from within the university sector (tutors,
lecturers, leaders) and in the business community and provide alternate
exemplars to the young people to choose careers that will be of service to
the community. The aim of the organization is to develop a committed and
competent individual who have the care of the community at heart.

Students in Free Enterprise (SIFE)
This outside of the formal curriculum formation of students activities is
aligned with a regional, national and international organization which pro

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Peacebuilding Through Education

motes sustainable living through recognition of the interrelated dependence


between people, planet and profit. The international organization spans
about 16000 campuses in 39 countries. The locally-based formations are expected to enact a deliberative intervention of planned economic activity with a
locally-based community. This has taken on many shapes and forms: organizing itself sustaining food gardening; educating rural women in the production
and sale of clothing items; the development of a self-generating soup production unit linked to local retail outlets.
The organization meets on a regular weekly basis to plan, reflect and organize their activities, including fund-raising for the locally-based projects. It
teaches the prospective future teachers joined up thinking and the skills of
valuing of the environment, of promoting equity and sustaining self-perpetuating economic and social activity. The dignity of self-reliance is an underpinning mantra of the organization. Both of these organizations are voluntary formations which do not carry the weight of an official formal curriculum. These
too face the vagaries of being interpreted as exotic others to the dominant
discourse of the careerism and materialism offered by other more formalized
structures in the student leadership circles. The fact that it is not incorporated
into the formal curriculum of the teacher education system itself also renders
it relatively toothless: it has a bark without a bite. The majority of students
in the teacher education program are not involved in such voluntary activity
and therefore it is likely that only the participants of the student formation of
CDA and SIFE are likely to benefit from the program goals. The programs
themselves are also dependent on the charisma and drive of the personalities
of the student organizers and its long-term sustainably in infusing alternate
conceptions of service, collaborating and inter-dependence is therefore potentially threatened.
International Mandela Day
The third example of a wide-scale educational intervention towards shared
collaboration is part of what has now become an international phenomenon.
The Nelson Mandela Foundation was set up to protect and promote the legacy
of the iconic first democratic former President of South Africa. In making a
choice for the kind of continued contribution of his values, Mandela suggested
that the future is in your hands. As part of the declaration in 2011 by the
United Nations of the birthday of Mandela being an International Mandela
Day, the Foundation choose to set up a campaign to encourage citizens,
not just of South Africa to engage in a series of activities to promote world
peace, to promote the respect and support of the dignity of human beings.
The campaign revolves around encouraging individuals, NGOs, business
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36

organizations, corporations and governments around the world to dedicate


67 minutes to a humanitarian activity. The choice of 67 minutes was in
recognition of the 67 years of service that Mandela himself had given to active
struggle for realizing the liberation and freedom of South Africa (See website:
http://www.mandeladay.com).
A range of activities were suggested which outlined action to think of
others; help out for good health; become an educator; help those living in
poverty; treasure the elderly; look after the environment. These constitute
small acts of kindness, generosity and self-service to others. It promotes a
dialogue not about only to change the recipients, but also changing the givers
or doers of the deeds of compassion. The website is now replete with many
individuals, organizations and governmental bodies choosing to conduct
service activities at many different levels ranging from scholars, teachers,
statesmen, athletes, and even motor bikers. Their actions are seen as a
continuation of the Mandela legacy of service to humanity, to world peace and
liberation. The list of formally recognized activities on the website records the
growing interest of service.
Concluding Thoughts
These exemplars of action related to individuals taking charge of a social
responsibility and recognition of the value and dignity of all human beings is
my definition of what peace education entails. Peace education is not a set
of big actions, but of big consequences. It is a set of activities which assist
individuals to recognize in a non-formal way the quality of value in all whom
we meet. It is an education that touches not just the mind, but the hearts and
hands of those who engage in its philosophical values. Peace education is
not about heroes who wish to draw attention to themselves, but to those who
wish to offer a service to humanity. Peace education is about any educational
expansion which assists individuals to recognize that they are not alone in
their strife, not alone in their possibilities of realizing better quality of lives
for all in a wider local, regional, national or international setting. Our small
actions accumulate towards raising the change you want the world to adopt.
In his book about the monastic world, For the sake of silence, Michael
Green (2008) explores the life of the Abbot Francis Planner who established in
the nineteenth century the largest Trappist monastery outside of the European
context. Pfanner had to engage in critique of the world he lived in, to offer
a contestation towards the establishment of a justice and peace agenda. His
monastic quest for greater justice and peace became a missionary goal. For me
too peace education interventions are not about monastic inward reflections
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alone; they are also deliberative missionary commitments to positive action.


We must be both monastic and missionary in this commitment to realizing the
good for all.
The exemplars offered in the above cases point to an alternate discourse
amongst present day South Africans. Nineteen years in to a new democracy
many are becoming increasingly disillusioned by the levels of inhumane
violence, the levels of rampant materialism, the levels of civic disquiet arising
from the inequality between the haves and have nots, and about a get rich
careerism and individualism. Thankfully the Mandela message offered by
his Foundation is a beacon of alternate discourse in this climate of low level
civil war- a nation at war with itself. The civil war is a war of values; a war
of contested conceptions of what underpins the quality of society. This is
equally true not for South Africans alone, but indeed the whole international
community. We run the risk of being our own destructors if we do not pay
attention to our shared humanity.
Inner peace radiates into the world when we recognize the dignity of all
whom we meet. Peace education cannot be an event, a formalized or overcodified intervention. Peace education is about commitment to valuing the
dignity of all human life. Peace education is about living in harmony with
ones environment, ones social system, and ones cultural and religious
diversities. When individuals engage in this kind of deep-seated conceptions
of shared responsibility they will become quality peace makers and builders.
Ultimately this is the goal of quality education: not about self-advancement,
but about quality inner peace.

The oceans of peace are in our hearts and minds.


Notes

Green, M. 2008. For the Sake of Silence. Umuzi: Houghton.


Msengana, N. W. 2006. The Significance of the Concept of Ubuntu for Educational
Management and Leadership During Democratic Transformation in South Africa.
Unpublished PhD, University of Stellenbosch.
Nelson Mandela Day. http://www.mandeladay.com Retrieved on 09August 2012.
Robinson, K. 2011. Out of Our Minds: Learning To Be Creative. Chichester,
West Sussex: Capstone Publishing.

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Think of others
Make a new friend. Get to know someone from a different cultural
background. Only through mutual understanding can we rid our
communities of intolerance and xenophobia.

Read to someone who cant. Visit a local home for the blind and

open up a new world for someone else.

Fix the potholes in your street or neighbourhood.

Help out at the local animal shelter. Dogs without homes still need a

walk and a bit of love.

Find out from your local library if it has a story hour and offer to

read during it.

Offer to take an elderly neighbour who cant drive to do their
shopping/chores.

Organize a litter cleanup day in your area.

Get a group of people to each knit a square and make a blanket for

someone in need.

Volunteer at your police station or local faith-based organization.

Donate your skills!

If youre a builder, help build or improve someones home.

Help someone to get his/her business off the ground.

Build a website for someone who needs one, or for a cause you

think needs the support.

Help someone get a job. Put together and print a CV for them, or

help them with their interview skills.

If youre a lawyer, do some pro bono work for a

worth while cause or person.

Write to your area councilor about a problem in the area that

requires attention, which you, in your personal capacity,

are unable to attend to.

Sponsor a group of learners to go to the theatre/zoo.

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Help out for good health



Get in touch with your local HIV organizations and find

out how you can help.

Help out at your local hospice, as staff members often need as much

support as the patients.

Many terminally ill people have no one to speak to. Take a little

time to have a chat and bring some sunshine into their lives.

Talk to your friends and family about HIV.

Get tested for HIV and encourage your partner to do so too.

Take a bag full of toys to a local hospital that has a childrens ward.

Take younger members of your family for a walk in the park.

Donate some medical supplies to a local community clinic.

Take someone you know, who cant afford it, to get their eyes tested

or their teeth checked.

Bake something for a support group of your choice.

Start a community garden to encourage healthy eating in your
community.

Donate a wheelchair or guide dog, to someone in need.

Create a food parcel and give it to someone in need.
Become an educator

Offer to help out at your local school.

Mentor a school leaver or student in your field of expertise.

Coach one of the extramural activities the school offers. You can

also volunteer to coach an extramural activity the school

doesnt offer.

Offer to provide tutoring in a school subject you are good at.

Donate your old computer.

Help maintain the sports fields.

Fix up a classroom by replacing broken windows,

doors and light bulbs.

Donate a bag of art supplies.

Teach an adult literacy class.

Paint classrooms and school buildings.

Donate your old textbooks, or any other good books,

to a school library.

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Help those living in poverty



Buy a few blankets, or grab the ones you no longer need from home

and give them to someone in need.

Clean out your cupboard and donate the clothes you no longer wear

to someone who needs them.

Put together food parcels for a needy family.

Organize a bake sale, car wash or garage sale for charity and donate

the proceeds.

To the poorest of the poor, shoes can be a luxury. Dont hoard them

if you dont wear them. Pass them on!

Volunteer at your local soup kitchen.
Care for the youth

Help at a local childrens home or orphanage.

Help the kids with their studies.

Organize a friendly game of soccer, or sponsor the kids to watch a

game at the local stadium.

Coach a sports team and make new friends.

Donate sporting equipment to a childrens shelter.

Donate educational toys and books to a childrens home.

Paint, or repair, infrastructure at an orphanage or youth centre.

Mentor someone. Make time to listen to what the kids have to

say and give them good advice.
Treasure the elderly

If you play an instrument, visit your local old-age home

and spend an hour playing for the residents and staff.

Learn the story of someone older than you. Too often people

forget that the elderly have a wealth of experience and wisdom and,

more often than not, an interesting story to tell.

Take an elderly person grocery shopping; they will appreciate your

company and assistance.

Take someones dog for a walk if they are too frail to do so
themselves.

Mow someones lawn and help them to fix things

around their house.

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Look after your environment



If there are no recycling centers in your area, petition your area

councilor to provide one.

Donate indigenous trees to beautify neighborhoods in poorer areas.

Collect old newspapers from a school/community center/hospital

and take them to a recycling center.

Identify open manhole covers or drains in your area and report them

to the local authorities.

Organize the company/school/organization that you work with to

switch off all unnecessary lights and power supplies at

night and on weekends.

Engage with people who litter and see if you can convince them of

the value of clean surroundings.

Organize to clean up your local park, river, beach, street, town

square or sports grounds with a few friends. Our children deserve to

grow up in a clean and healthy environment.

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CHAPTER 3
PRINCIPLES AND METHODOLOGIES IN PEACE EDUCATION

A STEADY DIGITAL DIALOGUE:


YOUTH BUILDING PEACE IN A DARK TIME
Thomas Gage
Our time seems to be A steady digital dialogue, echoing Theodore
Roethke. The Michigan poet wrote in his poem In a Dark Time: A steady
storm of correspondences! /a night flowing with birds, a ragged moon,
/ And in broad day midnight come again. (Ostroff, 1964) How unaware
was Roethke in 1963 after the Cuban missile crisis of todays technological
explosion and graver weaponry that has condensed Earths global village in
this dark time. (Baines, 2012)
Foreboding words, upon which Fethullah Glen sheds the light of
optimism: The Humanity in Oneself is revealed through learning, teaching
and enlightening others. (Glen, 4 Nov. 2004) This observation resonates
back in time to Thomas Jeffersons words: He who receives an idea from me,
receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper
at mine, receives light without darkening me. These words convey a promise
of I/Thou attuning that has brought people together in the past to achieve
peace. In the Internet Age of celerity and potential reach across vast spaces,
opportunities for education promise enlightenment. The intent of this paper is
to describe models to achieve attuning communities. In 2006, Humboldt State
Universitys mainframe computer hosted a website devoted to cross-cultural
fluency (CCF), upon which teachers in California and teachers across the
world teamed their students to fulfill shared exercises. At one time, more than
thirty schools participated, including Morocco, China, France, Nigeria, and
Bali.
Vectors of Discourse
I will cite other examples of projects involving secondary students
engaged in international education, each of which approximates vectors of
stances that approach and fulfill I/Thou attunement. But first an explanation
is necessary of Vectors of Rhetoric and Audience, with allusions to theory
and research. Digital dialogues include three stances: The first vector is
performing to; the second is performing for, and the third is performing
with. (Moffett, 1962)
In the vector performing to, I speak to you and you speak me both of
us heighten our awareness of the other, whether we SKYPE, e-mail, or meet
on the street. Each of us establishes our individuality and culture. We attend to
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the Others individuality, were curious about tastes in dress, music, food, and
a number of other nonverbal symbol systems that communicate culture (Hall,
1956). Initial meeting must begin as an I/It objectification. (Buber, 1970)
The second vector, performing for, represents a continuum between
an I/It meeting and an I/Thou attuning. When President Obama addresses
the American people, he is speaking to, but he is also performing for, for an
international audience observing his interaction with those who participated
in his election. When students in the classroom, perform to other students
across the world on a password-protected blog, they are also performing
for two supervising teachers. Peacebuilding can best be achieved after and
beyond performing to and for, when all are performing with each other
harmoniously, in concert to achieve an end, whose result is peacebuilding.
In other words, between the I/It performing to and the I/Thou performing
with attunement, a spectrum extends, across which different models can be
arranged in terms of progress toward efficaciously achieving attunement. The
span marks how the teacher, critic, or supervisor can foster, guide, help craft,
and achieve fulfilled objectives, which in the case of CCF include shared
assignment, video casts, and peace projects.
Influences and Research
The theory and research undergirding many of these projects include
Fethullah Glen, the rhetorical theory of James Moffett (1962, 1968); the
sociology of Martin Buber (1970), andthe 8-year longitudinal study of the
London Schools Council Study, The Development of Writing Abilities, which
assessed student writing from grade seven to first year college in 42 schools
in England and Wales (Britton, 1975; also see Applebee, 1981). In addition,
Humboldts CCF has been independently reported on by Koshnick at the
University of California at Santa Barbara and by Hoppers PacTin Evaluation,
Humboldt State University and the University of California, Davis.
The results of some of these projects have been the subjects of
presentations at the 2011 national convention of the National Counsel of
Teachers of English and the California Association of English Teachers of
English, and at conferences at the University of Erasmus, Rotterdam; Fatih
University, Istanbul; Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana,
and the University of Texas at Austin. (Gage, 2008; Gage, 2011)By 2006,
it became evident that emerging Internet genres patterned approximately to
Moffetts rhetorical orders of knowledge. Genres from Tweeter to Wiki validate
the generalizations of Moffetts curriculum. (Gage, 2008). Moffetts orders
include rhetorical modes and shifts that equate with Tweeters 140-words
about What is Happening; Blogs, which report What Happened; Wikies,
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which generalize about What Happens; and multimedia casts that advance
What Should/Should Not Happen. As a student of rhetoric will recognize,
these approximate the rhetorical modes of description, narration, exposition,
and argumentation. But that tradition vaults us back to the Roman forum of
Cicero not the post-modern world of Facebook, about which students are in
tune with to a greater extent than most teachers.
The goal is I/Thou attuning that best achieves world peace through
education. But it requires development, for is not likely to occur in the earliest
stages of performing to and even performing for. Only after teacher modulating
will both the student here and the Other abroad shed their Us versus Them
intuitions and progress toward unity, or community, as I/Thou attuning occurs
when performing with others in a common venture.
A number of projects exemplify the continuum across I/It and I/Thou
divide. In 2009, an English teacher at Eureka High School setup CCF linking
of his students with those in Qurna Secondary school in Luxor, Egypt. The
two teachers only progressed a little beyond a semester; therefore, the students
teams were hardly at the state performing to other students; there had not
been enough time and experience for the American and Egyptian teachers to
craft assignments leading further. Four other but longer running projects have
been implement at Fortuna High School, California, at Salem Public Schools
in Massachusetts, at St. Bernards High School, Eureka, and Baechtel Grove
Middle School in Mendocino County California. The first is an open forum,
a class in Global Awareness, which invites students abroad to contribute to
discussion of current issues; the second is a pen-pan linking over the Internet
of students on the east coast of the US writing to students in Latin America;
in the third, students discourse with an audience at the American Language
Center in Tangiers, Morocco; and the last was a middle school in Willits,
California, exchanging projects with students in Bali.
An interesting midpoint is exemplified by the work of Robert Jeffers.
With teaching experience in warring Sri Lanka, this teacher in an LA inner
city school with limitations in computer access, attempted a CCF project with
a school in Sierra Leone. He had set forth on a trip to Sierra Leone to develop
a curriculum on food and health issues. Though the greater limitations at
Freetown made his implementation of CCF impossible, he carried on at Dorsey
High School in Los Angeles to achieve I/Thou attuning among his students.
His classes refined their mission focusing on Food: Gathering, Processing,
and Consuming, and published From the Couch to the Kitchen: A Book to
Indulge in, with a forward by Alice Waters.

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Along the continuum of I/It performing to and I/Thou performing with


falls each of these models of inventive interactions by instructors for whom
students performed.
Two other models fulfill I/Thou attuning for peace, as in one case duration
of more than fourteen semesters with refining instructional intervention
advanced peace efforts, and in the other students spontaneity resulted in
promise of peace building in the near and distant future.
For more than seven years the flagship CCF project at Six Rivers High
School has involved four teachers whose classrooms engaged in several
teamings abroad, some at Lysee Regnault High School in Tangiers; another at
the American Language Center, also in Morocco; and several classes at Middle
School. No. 25 in Hebei, China. Reciprocal projects with video preparation
of food of the Others culture, joint compositions in response to poetry, and
Ms. Lorenzini-Boyers Moroccan students PowerPoint celebrations of US art,
music, and literature of the Others culture. Another example is a Six River
assignment of sharing something deeply treasured with their team abroad. The
two teachers first primed the pump by performing for the students after which
the students emulated their teachers lead by sharing with fellow students.
Mr. Hertz figuratively shared his guitar with Morocco, and Cecil Bauchet in
Tangiers narrated the guitars three days adventuring around Tangiers; while
Ms. Bauchet figuratively shared her necklace for a tour of Humboldt County,
narrated by Mr. Hertz. The exchanging of precious gifts led to students first
writing narratives and then summative expositions about culture differences
and hospitality. (Pahl and Rowsell, 2010)
A second example of I/Thou attuning, though unrelated to the CCF, is
the Youth Platform of the Glen Institute of Houston, Texas, initiated by Dr.
Ali Candir and now Dr. Dogan Koc. Last years Youth Platform conducted an
international writing contest for secondary students and an award ceremony
in the US Congress. Representing the best writing from sixty-five nations,
thirty-seven student authors, with adult chaperones, visited Washington DC
and toured the capital. (Glen Institute, 2012). Since 2010, these winners
at the Rayburn Building of Congress have engaged in sharing their writing
strategies and at the Awards Ceremony received from Congresspersons and
from ambassadorial representatives certificates of merit and cash awards.
The website of the Glen Institute orchestrates this contest, and students
through Facebook become old friends even before they meet upon their
arrival in Washington DC. One follow-up manifestation of peacebuilding
through education is the unsolicited project in which 2012 student winners
from Tanzania, Nigeria, the Philippines, Canada, Romania, India, and the US
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Peacebuilding Through Education

contributed a chapter each that addressed how education addresses peacebuilding


in his and her community, a book in manuscript now being edited and in search
of a publisher.
These few examples represent the possibilities of what can be achieved
when students are writing to students in the global community. In spite of the
horrors reported in the media about clashing cultures and the fear engendered by
many of the potential danger of the Internet, projects like these reported above
demonstrate how progression from I/It potential in a dark time can be advanced
by the light of education toward I/Thou attuning, as the poet hints at in his final
lines: I climb out of my fear./ The mind enters itself, and God the mind,/ And one
is One, free in the tearing wind. (Roethke in Ostroff, 1964, p. 24).
Notes

Applebee, A. 1981. Writing in the Secondary School: English and the Content
Areas. NCTE Research Report, No. 19. Urbana, ILL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Baines, L. 2012. A Future of Fewer Words? Five Trends Shaping the Future of Language.
2012 World Future Society. www.wfs.org
Britton, J., Burgess, T., Martin, N., McLeod, A., and Rosen, H. 1975.
Development of Writing Abilities. London, UK: Macmillan Publishing Co.
Buber, M. and Kaufmann, W. 1970. I and Thou. New York, NY: Scribners.
Gage, T. (2011) Cross-cultural Fluency as Dialogue with the Future: Fethullah Glen and
James Moffett. Flying with Two Wings: Interreligious Dialogue in the Age of Global
Terrorism. Eds. Virginia Burnett and Yetkin Yldrm. Newcastle,
UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Gage, T. 2008. Cross-Cultural Fluency: The Rhetoric of Dialogue. The Journal of the
Humanities. Vol. 6 www.humanties-journal.com. Common Ground.
Glen Institute. Youth Platform, Washington DC. http://www.guleninstitute.org/programs/
youth-platform/230-gulen-institute-youth-platform-2012
Glen, F. 2004. Real Life and Real Humanity. From http://en.fgulen.com/love-andtolerance/275-global-perspectives/1873-real-life-and-real-humanity
Hall, E. T. 1956. The Silent Language. New York, NY: Signet.
Moffett, J.1983. Teaching the Universe of Discourse. Plymouth, NH: Heinemann Inc.
Moffett, J. 1962. The Second Person. Image. London, UK.
Pahl, K. and Rowsell, J. 2010. Artifactual literacies: Every Object Tells a Story.
New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Roethke, T. 1964. In a Dark Time. The Contemporary Poet as Artist and Critic, ed. A.
Ostroff. Boston, MA: Little Brown & Co.

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MAKING PEACE WITH PICTURES: RESEARCH EVIDENCE


David D. Perlmutter
Long ago, I remember a professor showing a picture from the Vietnam
War and claiming that the image had a powerful effect on public opinion in
and the foreign policy of the United States. However, the teacher of a class
on social science research methodology I was taking that same semester
said that anytime anybody says something has a powerful effect you have
the right to ask how we know that. Has someone actually studied it? Very
few people in fact have investigated the effects of famous images; there are
rather unverified stories, tall tales, and plain assumptions prevalent not only
in society but among visual researchers. At the same time, in the fields of
mass communication, psychology, anthropology, sociology, history, and now
neuroscience many are concretely looking at image effects.
Most of what people know or think they know about the powerful effects
of pictures or what those powerful effects mean comes from stories, stories
that are passed on (Perlmutter, 1998). I call it the incredible disappearing
footnote. For example, you may read in a book published in 2011 that a
particular icon from the past had a powerful effect on the U.S. public during
the Vietnam War. There will be a footnote to a quote from an earlier book
saying, this picture had a powerful effect. And so on. 30 to 40 years back, no
actual research study was ever conducted. Perhaps the original first notation
will have been a personal essay in which one individual asserts, Boy, that
picture really affected me.
In response to these tall tales, I have urged my students and others to
look at the evidence of photo icon effects before we make these extraordinary
claims.
We do, however, have strong evidence that the very first humans have tried
to influence each other and themselves via visual media (Perlmutter, 1999).
Before there was the iPad and the iPhone, there was the cave wall, and the very
first medium that people used to picture the world were the cave paintings that
are found in what is now the region called the Franco-Cantabrian, where Spain
and France meet. These pictures are quite spectacular, although of course we
can never truly be sure why they were created. It is wonderful to speculate
about the meaning and purposes of prehistoric cave art because the artist cant
show up and tell you that you are wrong.
We can, however, ask a few question related to actual hard data. Is this
art a reflection of the world around the artists in which they tried to create a
documentary of the different kinds of animals that lived nearby? Scientists
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who study the cave peoples of that time conduct what is called a survey of the
archeofaunal record: they look at, for example, which animals actually existed
in the area at the time that the paintings were completed. Interestingly, they
have discovered a wild discordance, which sounds much like complaints today
about journalism and mass communications where the news often shows the
worst and the exceptional rather than the commonplace.
One can see some patterns in these pictures. For instance, the animals that
predominate are the large game animalsthe plump, delicious game animals
that were difficult and dangerous to hunt and kill and also provided a glorious
caloric package to whoever killed them. My argument is that the other items
that were eaten at that time were not considered important enough to picture.
There are very few paintings of salmon, and none of nuts and berries; in other
words no representations of what the people of the day were actually getting
most of their sustenance from. You can well imagine what was happening. The
cave hunter killed one mammoth and never stopped talking about it. When
he ran for office as leader of the tribe, he said to the group, I will put a
mammoth in every cave. The cave folks wildly overrepresented what was
important to them. Likewise, if anyone protests that the news or government
misrepresents or over-represents something or engages in propaganda you
could reply, Yes, but its a natural human function. When we make pictures
we often show what we want our world to be, the world we think should be
rather than the way it actually is.
From the Neolithic era, when people started getting organized into
larger tribes, we see the very first pictures of warfare. Almost immediately
the differentiations among groups appear. For example: You can show school
children who have absolutely no knowledge of the culture, the history of any
particular period, up to about the age of photography, a picture of war or a
battle, and ask them a very simple question: Who is the guy in charge?
Until very recently the guy in-charge, the general, was probably the person
who commissioned the art. The children will scan at a Mayan mural or North
African rock paintings and identify the commander because healways
heis physically differentiated through techniques ranging from differential
sizing to eye lines of attention.
Furthermore, the question of what happened arises when there was
catastrophic warfare, with many people killedwhat we today would call
genocide. What did pictures show people at that time? In our modern era no
one, not even the worst dictator, will trumpet pictures of mass slaughter to the
viewing public and say, Yes, I did this.

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Two kinds of visual response occurred in prehistoric and ancient times.


One of them we are familiar with: covering up, ignoring, or obscuring. There
are many cases, such as the Crow Creek massacre site ((c. 1300 AD, in what
is now South Dakota) where there are no associated images of the slaughter.
When you look at the images of warfare that were carved contemporaneously
you see what could be called Homeric warfarethat is, individual warriors
engaged in one to one battles.
More strange to our eyes is when the picture we most associate with
a protest against warthe actual image of mass slaughteris created, but
the people who created the genocide boast of triumph about their power and
prowess.
The most famous cases of horror as triumph are found on the bas reliefs
of the palaces of the Assyrians. It is not farfetched to argue that showing the
Assyrian army storming an enemy city and killing its inhabitants was not just
idle artistry. These pictures were purposive. Ambassadors from other nations
that the Assyrians were either fighting, planning to fight, or negotiating with
would come walking along and see relief after relief with a pretty clear message:
this is what happens if you mess with us, so surrender to the Assyrians right
now or your city is going to face doom. There doesnt seem to be any notation
within their iconography and ideology that this was terrible or unfortunate.
It is not really until the 16th century in Europe, during the 30 Years War
at the same time as the advent of the relatively new technology of machine
printing of books, sheets, and pamphletsthat we see the birth of what we
would recognize as atrocity images protesting actions in war. Almost always
these were used to cast the enemy as evil: e.g., slaughters by Catholics of
Protestants and the reverse. The new message: The enemy are bad people for
doing what is pictured.
Of course, the line between a picture for peace and a picture inciting war
was then, as now, a porous one. When you show a massacre, you could be
protesting a war, or calling for one to avenge the deaths, oras the modern
phrasing goesstop the killing.
Another popular assumption is that everyone will think of an image of
an atrocity of war or horrors of war in the same way. To the contrary, almost
a century of research in social psychology shows that, rather than seeing
is believing, believing is seeing. People look at images through the lens of
their own cultural and historical experience; two people can look at the same
picture and come to a very different conclusion of it. One of the best examples
is the very few sets of images we have from the German perpetration of the
Holocaust on European Jews and other groups. Almost all of the pictures
we have were created by the people who were doing the killing. One mans
atrocity photo was another persons souvenir snapshot.
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Coming full circle, the image that started me on this quest of trying to
understand what are the effects of visuals is the photo of General Nguyen
Ngoc Loan, a South Vietnamese military police officer, who executed someone
described and later confirmed to be a Vietcong officer on the streets of Saigon
in 1968 during the Tet offensive. This is probably one of the most famous
pictures ever taken in photojournalism. Almost always this photo appears with
a caption or some notation that this was the picture that changed Americas
mind about the war. But what evidence do we have of that?
As a researcher, I have collected about 100 statements about this picture,
including:
It shocked the world.
It was the turning point of the war.
Nothing did as much damage to the war effort as this picture.
But did it? In fact, many polls and surveys were conducted during the
Vietnam War; overwhelmingly they found that although by February 1968
about 40% to 45% of Americans had decided that they were against the war,
very few of them did so because they had sympathy with the Vietcong. In fact,
what they did have problems with were other issues related to the war, from its
cost to its length, uncertainty, and the deaths of Americans. It was unlikely that
the large majority of the American public would regret that a Vietcong suspect
was shot, especially when the Vietcong were killing American soldiers.
I have studied dozens of such famous cases. In each one the finding is
the same: Again, believing is seeing, and people take the message from a
picture that they want to take. Thus, research evidence supports that whatever
you try to do with pictures for peace, you must target changing the minds of
the people who are receiving the pictures. We must encourage them to think
about the enemy, or whoever is fighting, or who we dont necessarily want to
fight as human beings, and see it as more than a picture. We can use images to
help with peace building, but we must never assume that pictures alone will
do the work.

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Notes

Perlmutter, D. 1998. Photojournalism and Foreign Policy: Framing Icons of


Outrage in International Crises. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Perlmutter, D. 1999. Visions of War: Picturing Warfare from the Stone Age to the
Cyberage. New York: St. Martins.
Perlmutter, D. 2004. The Art of War in the Twentieth Century. At War, ed. A.
Monegal and F. Torres. Barcelona: Barcelona Center of Contemporary Culture.

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TRANSFORMATIONAL PEACE EDUCATION IN


THE 21ST CENTURY
Hilary Cremin
It was Kurt Lewin (1951) who said, There is nothing quite so practical
as a good theory. With this approach, its important to think about the theory
behind the practice and to explore a theoretical perspective on peace and
peace education.
Johan Galtung (1970), the father of peace studies, who was born in 1930
in Norway, came up with one of the most long-lasting theories of peace, which
consists of peacekeeping, peacemaking, and peacebuilding. In education,
peacemaking and peacebuilding are the most important enterprises that we
can engage with, but they are often neglected in favor of peacekeeping.
In personal conversation a few years ago, Kathy Bickmore from OISE in
Toronto, Canada, proposed this important question which has framed her life
as a researcher and which has remained with me ever since:

How do and can public schools which are prone to reinforcing inequalities

young people to handle social conflicts as engaged non-violent, justice

and to avoiding, dissenting and controversial viewpoints prepare diverse


oriented, democratic citizens?

It seems that few questions in education are more important. The reality is
that schools do reinforce social inequalities. According to numerous studies,
schools are actually more segregated then the rest of society, especially in
the US and the UK. The main thing that makes a difference in terms of your
outcome at age 18 continues to be the socioeconomic status of your parents.
There are those who argue that schools are actually sorting devices rather
than leveling devices (Apple, M., 1995). Its important to recognize that
schools may well be part of the problem, as well as being part of the solution.
There are three important areas of school life: curriculum and pedagogy;
relationships; and the way that schools are structured. Each of these elements
is important when thinking about peacemaking and peacebuilding. If we think
about using Kathy Bickmores framework and Galtungs theory to investigate
education, the key question that emerges is about how curriculum, pedagogy,
relationships, and structural organizations in educational settings constitute
effective peacekeeping, peacemaking and peacebuilding.

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Galtung talked about peacekeeping as negative peace; its about keeping


conflicting parties apart so that violence doesnt occur. Peacekeeping has an
important role in international arenas of conflict, but in schools peacekeeping
should be the last, not the first, resort. It is characterized by surveillance
cameras, metal detectors, home school contracts and zero-tolerance initiatives.
The militarization of schools, including encouraging ex-soldiers to become
teachers of minoritized youth, is increasing (Cremin, 2007). Authoritarian
behavior management accomplishes peacekeeping, but young people are left
without understanding about the consequences of their behavior on other
people. Behaviorist methods of discipline and control rely on techniques that
are used in training animals (rewards and punishments) to control behavior.
These methods are teacher-controlled, teacher-mandated and have nothing to
do with morality or the self-discipline of the individual. In Galtungs terms,
all that can be achieved is negative peace. We build self-discipline, not by
imposing it, but by giving young people opportunities to make mistakes and
to see wrong-doing as something that they can make amends for. Conflicts
should be seen as something which they themselves can solve as they develop
their capacities as moral human beings. We need young people to assume
greater responsibility for conflict resolution, not just in order to create more
peaceful schools, but in order to help them to develop values attitudes and
skills that they can bring into their lives outside of school.
Politicians and educators throughout the world are interested in ways of
educating young people as active and engaged moral citizens, but we have to
reflect on the hidden messages in our schools and communities. Young people
learn more from what we do than from what we say. With colleagues, I recently
carried out a research study to investigate the civic action and learning of
young people from socioeconomically disadvantaged communities . The study
told us a lot about how disadvantaged young people mange, despite the odds,
to contribute to their communities in dynamic, courageous and extraordinary
ways, but it also showed us how some marginalized youth are framed as failed
citizens in their schools and communities, and the impact that this has on their
feelings of civic engagement and therefore their civic education. A 14 yearold girl involved in the study shared with us how she felt when confronted by
a police officer in school who was wearing body armor:

Today at school police officers came in and they wanted to talk to me so I

you. He goes, why cant you talk to me? I go because you are police officer.

59

just said, talk to the hand. I just walked away. I go, sorry I cant talk to

I dont like talking to people who have got body armor on and that I aint
Peacebuilding Through Education

really happy with that. A man has just come up to me with body armor and I

got that on for, its not right.

aint got a gun. I aint going to shoot him. You know what I mean? Whats he

In the same study we found that in certain communities, young people are
only allowed into the local shop, one teenager at a time. An initiative to get
more police officers into the local community, resulted in young people being
issued with slips for antisocial behavior, for misdemeanors like running
whilst wearing a hoodie, congregating with people who are known to be in
trouble with the law, walking around as part of a large group. One young man
told us that he was given an antisocial behavior slip for sitting on his dads
wall, waiting for him to come home. Now my children can forget their key,
but in my community, nobody gets an antisocial behavior slip for being locked
out. Likewise in Cambridge, undergraduates celebrating at the end of the year
congregate in large groups in public spaces, drinking a few bottles of wine and
a sharing food over a barbecue. They certainly dont get told to move on. So
we are facing here an issue of criminalization of certain kinds of youth and not
others. These disadvantaged young people are not actively engaged civically,
but its hardly surprising because the everyday messages that they get from
their school and from their community tell them that they are failed citizens,
in need of protection from each other and from the school. Education occurs
in civic spaces of all kinds, and it is too important to leave it to schools alone.
We all have civic responsibility for thinking about how we can build peace in
our communities through the care and education of young people.
When a conflict has occurred in a school setting, peacemaking is important
as a learning opportunity. There are many benefits of peer mediation,
restorative justice and anti-bullying initiatives. My research has shown that
peer mediation and restorative justice can have a positive effect on young
peoples experience of bullying in the playground . Restorative justice, as
revealed from large randomized controlled trials by criminologists, is a highly
effective way of diverting young people from crime . Being forced to meet
with your victim and face the consequences of your actions can be revelatory
for some young people. It is a sad fact that for some this is the first time that
they come to fully understand that their actions are important and have an
impact on the world. Programs such as Anger Management, Circle of Friends,
Counseling, and so on, can all have a positive effect on peacemaking and
peacebuilding.

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Peacebuilding in schools is the most challenging of Galtungs three


concepts, as it involves the removal of structural and cultural violence, and
the development of pro-social skills, values and attitudes through the social
and emotional aspects of learning. It involves taking a long hard look at how
cultures of schooling perpetuate direct and indirect violence and inequality,
and it also involves taking a long hard look at the curriculum, teaching and
learning. Peace Circles , for example, can be used to teach young people
communication skills, cooperation skills, how to work with the partner,
how to work as part of a small group, and how to work with part of a large
community. These are all values and skills that can be learnt in may areas
of the curriculum, but it is important to recognize them as valid in schools
that are increasingly driven by high stakes testing and cultures of audit and
control. The key markers of curriculum and pedagogy for peacebuilding
would be choice, freedom, support, community involvement, participation,
engagement, health, flexible groupings, and time for reflection.
Adults in our schools need to work together to model this practice, and
to strengthen links with the community. Some staff meetings, for example,
can be run as Peace Circles where adults talk about the challenges they face,
their emotional life, the conflicts that they are currently going through, and
ways that they can cooperate to support each other. Peacebuilding needs to be
grounded in active and cooperative learning . There also needs to be mentoring
and support for teachers, especially those working in difficult circumstances.
It can be very lonely being a teacher, and the wastage of people who leave the
profession after only two or three years is unacceptable. What is it about some
classrooms that makes some teachers so very disillusioned and unhappy? How
can we support them in the emotional practice of teaching so that they are able
to stay and inspire our young people? Politicians have been promising for
decades to reform education, but teachers and parents are still waiting for a
system that is fair and supportive. Education policy decisions, some of them
no doubt well-meaning, continue to place social justice and equality further
and further out of reach in many parts of the world.
As we move more firmly into the 21st century, we may need to dare to
dream differently about education. Part of this may involve uncoupling the
sacred and profound process of education from processes of schooling. What
might education look like if it were to be grounded in natural and engaging
processes of learning? One model might be to give every young person
a learning mentor at the age of 12 to help them navigate a whole range of
learning opportunities in schools, colleges, workplaces, libraries, museums,
laboratories and youth projects. The role of the teacher could become that of
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inspiring, challenging, facilitating and accrediting learning wherever it occurs.


Learning opportunities could be created by employers, elders, artists, university
professors, scientists, charity workers and so on. This could become a new
model, not only for peacebuilding in schools, but for a new way of thinking
about what it is to learn in the 21st century.
Notes

Apple, M.W. 1995. Education and Power. New York: Routledge.


Cremin, H. 2007. Peer Mediation: Citizenship and Social Rnclusion revisited.
Buckingham: Open University Press.
Galtung, J. 1970. Pluralism and the Future of Human Society: Challenges for the Future.
Proceedings from the Second International Futures Research Conference, Norway, 271-308.
Lewin, K. 1951. Field Theory in Social Science; Selected Theoretical Papers.
D. Cartwright (ed.). New York: Harper & Row.
Perry, E. and Francis, B. 2010. The Social Class Gap for Educational Achievement:
A review of the Literature. London: RSA.
Pranis, K. 2005. The Little Book of Circle Processes: New / Old Approaches to
Peacemaking. Intercourse: Good Books.
Sellman, E., Cremin, H., & McCluskey, G. 2014. Restorative Approaches to
Conflict in Schools: International Perspectives on Managing Relationships in the Classroom.
London, UK: Routledge.

Resources

For more on active and cooperative learning see http://www.co-operation.org


Sherman, L. http://www.crim.cam.ac.uk/people/academic_research/lawrence_sherman/
Funded by the Society for Educational Studies http://www.soc-for-ed-studies.org.uk See http://
engaged.educ.cam.ac.uk
See, for example, the work of Lawrence Sherman http://www.crim.cam.ac.uk/people/academic_
research/lawrence_sherman/

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CHAPTER 4
PEACE AS A SHARED IDEAL

EDUCATION-FOR-PEACEBUILDING PROGRAMMING IN UNICEF


Friedrich W. Affolter
It is a sad reality that countries in conflict (or emerging from conflict)
suffer from the destruction or deterioration of school facilities, displacement
and sometimes killing of teachers, displacement of families, socio-emotional
strain of community networks, and lack of adequate social services provisions,
including education (UNESCO, 2011). Children grow up in camps or host
communities for a decade or longer, without adequate education infrastructure
or quality services. Besides asking how education professionals must respond
to meet education needs in humanitarian contexts, it is also necessary to
reflect how education can contribute to conflict prevention, stabilization,
peacebuilding and social cohesion.
Peace can be defined as harmonious intrapsychic, interpersonal and
intergroup relationships between entities involved (Deutsch, 2006, p. 160).
Conflict is commonly defined as opposing desires, needs, interests, and goals
of individuals and groups, and can arise over material or psychological
issues. Conflicts that start over material issues usually become psychological
as well. As conflicts remain unresolved, they can become violent, persistent
and intractable, and sometimes lead to mass killing and genocide (Staub,
2011, p. 51).
Peacebuilding, according to the United Nations, means developing support
structures which strengthen solidified peace in order to avoid a relapse into
conflict ( Boutros-Ghali, 1992). Countries which have experienced conflict
often run the risk of relapsing back into conflict. UN Secretary-General Ban
Ki-moon argues that building peace is much more than ending war. It is
about putting in place the institutions and trust that will carry people forward
into a peaceful future. We often have a limited window of opportunity in which
to do this (Ki-moon, 2010, p.1).
United Nations peacebuilding interventions have historically focused on
safety and security, support to political processes, and support to restoring
core government functioning and economic revitalization. Provision of basic
social services was originally not considered to meaningfully mitigate conflict
drivers. More recently, however, it has been acknowledged that citizens in
post-conflict countries resent this lack of access to social services. Education,
in particular, is sought as a means to escape the trap of poverty. Education can
support peacebuilding and contribute to trustbuilding and stabilization simply
by providing equitable access to quality education for all (United Nations
Peacebuilding Support Office , 2012).
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Why is UNICEF interested in peacebuilding? The potential of children


and youth is wasted by conflict, yet children and youth have most to gain
from peace. Post-conflict countries are at constant risk of a relapse into
conflict, and conflict keeps conflict-affected countries lagging behind in their
achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (World Bank, 2011).
Official development assistance (ODA) investments made into post-conflict
societies come to naught when conflict re-emerges. As a prominent actor in
fragile contexts, UNICEF is keen to avoid interventions that could despite all
good intentions exacerbate conflict or ignite new tensions between opposed
groups. UNICEF also wishes to seize opportunities to transform relationships
and build trust between governments and citizens, as well as between groups.
How does peace education distinguish itself from education for
peacebuilding? Peace education is about the values and content communicated
through the educational system that supports transformative processes (Smith,
McCandless, Paulssen, & Wheaton, 2011) Peace education can potentially
prepare the ground for changes in collective memories in such a way that
groups conflicting views of the history of their relationships do not prevent
peace. Peace education can also change peoples attitudes toward a devalued
and hostile group; it can decrease negative emotions, and increase positive
emotions, acceptance and openness towards another groups narrative.
Peace education can also lead to more willingness and courage to say what
one thinks and believes (Straub, 2011).
This notwithstanding, peace education or peace-oriented curricula
alone are usually not sufficient to facilitate lasting behavior change, or to
prevent fragile countries from lapsing back into conflict. Education-forpeacebuilding on the other hand views education services as a means to
support transformative processes. Education interventions may contain peace
education elements, but interventions also focus on structural transformation.
This may include assisting governments in education sector planning to
make education service distribution more conflict-sensitive, transparent,
accountable, equitable and effective. Education-for-peacebuilding experts
recognize security, political, economic and social root causes driving conflicts
at the international, regional, national, subnational and local levels of human
societies and seek to identify education interventions that influence the
mitigation of these causes (United Nations Development Programme, 2003).
The West African country of Sierra Leone is a case in point for the
multitude of conflict drivers that facilitated its plunge into armed conflict
(1992-2001). Among them was massive regional and urban/rural inequalities in
the provision of social services, as well as a patrimonial system of governance
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where access to resources and power depended on personal connections


(connectocracy), which led to endemic corruption. Tribal and regional
sectarianism impeded socio-political cohesion at the national level. Political,
social, and economic exclusion left young people alienated. Exploitation of
natural resources for private gain further fuelled inequity, and eventually
dominant groups used Sierra Leones wealth to finance the war. In Sierra
Leones pre-war elitist system, education was a privilege, not a right. The
curriculum was academically irrelevant, catered to the ambitions of a small
elite, and void of country or culture-relevant civic education components.
Because illiterate Sierra Leoneans assumed or expected that education would
increase social mobility and provide a means to escape poverty, lack of access
to education services led to frustration and resentment. Eventually, schools
were used by rebel fighters to convey ideological messages and to politicize
teachers. As well, education was promised those who would join the guerrilla
war. Thousands of teachers and children were killed, maimed or displaced and
many others were either forcibly or voluntarily recruited into the ranks of the
different warring parties (Novelli, 2011).
If educators wish to contribute to peacebuilding, how can they do so,
all complexities notwithstanding? UNICEF has identified multiple areas of
interventions where education can contribute to social cohesion, or to the
transformation of intergroup relationships. These include the provision of
education services that facilitate reintegration, disarmament, demobilization,
the building of community safety, or the provision of human rights education,
to name just a few. The provision of education services that are employmentrelevant is important as many post-conflict countries have a youth population
that makes up almost 50% of the total population (UNICEF, 2012). Also,
by helping governments provide social services in a more accountable
and transparent manner, UNICEF can contribute to trustbuilding between
government and communities. By supporting reforms that make education
sector plans more conflict-sensitive, educators can contribute to the social
cohesion of fragile systems.
Prior to designing an education-for-peacebuilding workplan, UNICEF
usually conducts a thorough conflict analysis assessment. In a second phase,
workplans are designed which propose outputs that address or contribute
to the mitigation of the conflict drivers identified in the conflict analysis.
Interestingly, a conflict analysis conducted by UNICEFs Sierra Leone Country
Office in 2012, ten years after the end of the civil war illustrates that some of
the aforementioned conflict drivers continue to be active today. Inequalities
in the provision of services (especially education and health) continue to
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68

exist. Government systems are once again viewed as patrimonial. Tribal and
regional sectarianisms are exploited by political processes. Youth alienation
is rampant, with those holding secondary education degrees discovering that
their education does not afford them job opportunities in the countrys national
mining industries. A breakdown of social norms, increase in gender-based and
community violence, and harsh child-rearing practices indicate that violence
is thought to be a legitimate tool for achieving goals and objectives in dayto-day interactions. In summary, UNICEF advocates for education strategies
that contribute to peacebuilding, but not solely by working in the areas of
school curriculum or teacher training. Educational programming must address
inequalities, and promote the competent and accountable administration of
education and other social services deliveries. It wants to forge partnerships
for improving child-friendly education in marginalized areas, support
governments in strengthening parenting skills for child education and early
childhood development, while partnering with organizations who contribute
to womens overall social and economic empowerment. UNICEF can help
make education systems transparent and effective, and facilitate participatory
localized planning exercises. Since peacebuilding is multifaceted and
multidimensional, UNICEF will need to network across sectors and create
alliances with agencies holding complementary peacebuilding-relevant
mandates (such as food security, livelihoods, or youth employment and
vocational training). UNICEF is committed to generate evidence that
demonstrates the linkage between education and peacebuilding; and how
education and other social service sectors yield long-term benefits for peace,
in addition to disarmament, good governance, and economic revitalization.

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Notes

Boutros-Ghali, B. 1992. An Agenda for Peace. New York: United Nations. Retrieved
from http://www.un.org/en/sc/repertoire/89-92/Chapter%208/GENERAL%20ISSUES/
Item%2029_Agenda%20for%20peace_.pdf
Deutsch, M. 2006. Language, Peace and Conflict Resolution. The Handbook of Conflict
Resolution: Theory and Practice, 2nd Ed., ed. by M. Deutsch, P. T.
Coleman and E. C. Marcus. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Ki-Moon, B. 2010. The United Nations Peacebuilding Architecture.
Retrieved from http://www.un.org/en/peacebuilding/pbso/pdf/pbso_architecture_flyer.pdf
Novelli, M. 2011. The Role of Education in Peacebuilding. Case Study Sierra Leone.
New York: UNICEF, p. 7, pp. 26-29.
Smith, A., McCandless, P. J. and Wheaton, W. 2011. The Role of Education in
Peacebuilding; A Literature Review. New York: UNICEF.
Staub, E. 2011. Overcoming Evil: Genocide, Violent Conflict, and Terrorism.
New York: Oxford University Press.
United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. 2003. Conflict-Related
Development Analysis. New York: UNDP Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery.
United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office. 2012. Peace dividends and beyond:
contributions of Administrative and Social Services to Peacebuilding. New York: PBSO.
World Bank. 2011. Conflict, Security and Development. World Development Report 2011.
Washington, DC: The World Bank.
UNESCO. 2011. The Quantitative Impact of Conflict on Education.
Technical Paper No. 7. Montreal, Quebec: UNESCO Institute of Statistics.
UNICEF. 2012. Progress for Children: A Report Card for Adolescents. Number 10.
New York: UNICEF Division of Communication.
UNICEF Sierra Leone. 2012. Situation Analysis Peace and Education Report,
Sierra Leone, March-July 2012. Unpublished.

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LEARNING TO LIVE TOGETHER


Agneta Ucko
For Arigatou International, the full implementation of the UN Convention
on the Rights of the Child (CRC) is a critical goal and essential step on the
path to a world that is healthy and just for all children and youth. Arigatou
International recognizes the vital role that religious leaders and their
communities can play in fostering healthy values and supporting positive
behaviors in their societies. Religion plays today a central role in public life,
and has become a significant identity marker. In our increasingly pluralistic
societies, more inter-religious dialogue and cooperation are needed if conflict
fuelled by religion is to be constructively addressed.
Through the various aspects of communication and media it has become
obvious for all that our world is far from being a healthy place and in particular
not so for children. Their rights are jeopardized wherever we turn. And the
institutions that used to be the bedrocks of our society do not unequivocally
seem to be as obvious and irrefutable as they once were. Our time has had to
reckon with the presence of religion as a sometimes ambiguous and not always
constructive tool for peace. It plays, also in secularized societies, a role in
social, public and political life and has become a significant identity marker,
which is not always contributing to cohesion in society. Given the many
complex manifestations of religion in situations of conflict, we shouldnt be
surprised when people despair as to the possibilities of religion shouldering its
role as a beacon for hope and a tool for concrete action towards peace. People
in general are rather discouraged by the failures of society and religious
communities to come to terms with events and occurrences when religion
seems to be part of discord, strife and conflict. There is thus ground to recover
by religious communities to gain the trust needed to be the peacemakers that
could really contribute to a world fit for children.
Having said this and this should rather be my focus, there are good
initiatives, where individuals have taken on challenges and suggested
constructive ways ahead. There are examples of movements, where people
have joined together to make a change on issues from poverty to environment
or indigenous peoples. Alliances are formed, where a common commitment
overrides social or religious differences. Communities come to life nourished
by the conviction that unless we come together, it is as if we had accepted
the role of religions as a tool for conflict and not as instrument for peace and
justice.
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Arigatou International believes that religion has a capital role to play


in bringing into dialogue not only people or institutions of different religions
and convictions but also to bring about a conversation, where people of
faith together find common agendas with bodies such as intergovernmental
organizations and NGOs focusing on education and the wellbeing and security
of children. In order to address actively the different ways peace is threatened
in our world, Arigatou International insists that religious leaders and their
communities have a role to play in fostering sustainable values and supporting
constructive action in society. In our increasingly pluralistic societies, more
inter-religious dialogue and cooperation are needed also in education to point
to models of diversity challenging any attempt to use religion as a protection
against the other. A different education is necessary to prevent religion from
being used to fuel conflict.
In our attempt to find ways towards peace, we need to build coalitions and
partnerships. Arigatou International is a faith-based NGO, with its foundation
in the Buddhist Lotus Sutra as interpreted by a Japanese lay community,
Myochikai, one of the new religious Buddhist movements emerging after
WWII. It is worth noting that in the community of interfaith movements,
this is rather an exception: most of the interfaith initiatives today have their
origins in the West or have a Christian or Muslim background. This Buddhist
initiative has put its focus on children, childrens rights and childrens wellbeing and has here launched several initiatives among a network of people
working together for the rights of the child.
Arigatou International established an Interfaith Council on Ethics
Education for Children in 2002 to offer a possibility for religious leaders and
religious communities through the means of education to contribute towards
peace and understanding in bringing up children to become peace-makers
and agents for change. Although certainly part of the proper teaching of
most religious traditions, there needs to be an intentional inquiry as to the
preparedness of each religious tradition to live and work in a religious plural
world. Which are the teachings communicated? Some traditions have a strong
emphasis on truth. If we teach that we have the truth, what about the others?
The other side of the coin of such a message implies to young people that the
others dont have the truth. We need to constantly be aware of the saying, it
is one thing what you say, its another thing what you are heard saying.
In a world that is increasingly multicultural and multi-religious, children
need to be given space and opportunities to learn about other cultures and
beliefs, and to engage in dialogue with people who are different from them,
as well as to develop skills to be able to transform conflicts arising from the
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challenge of diversity. Education can no longer be reduced to develop only


cognitive skills; it needs to encompass the development of emotional abilities
and ethical values so as to equip children and young students to strengthen
their sense of responsibility, solidarity and empathy. Education needs today to
be sensitive to the requirements posed to all through the reality of multicultural
societies, providing equal opportunities for students to express their beliefs
and to develop their identity in a plural world.
Arigatou International wanted to offer to the international community,
locally and globally, a tool for living respectfully in a plural world. To develop
such a tool, it brought together educators, human rights advocates, activists,
academics, parents, social workers, all with interreligious and intercultural
experiences. A requirement was also that all in one way or the other were
working and living with children or involved in education or teaching of
children.
There are many good curricula or programs, but often developed from
within the worldview or perspective of one belief system, religious tradition
or educational setting. We conceived of a holistic approach, where non-formal
education is as important as the formal and informal ones; we wanted to
consider that the school message sometimes conflicts with what the children or
the students experience from home. This was a task, which from the beginning
required the contribution of all; our goal was to elaborate an ethics education
for children, which was at the same time intercultural and interfaith. Working
with a material aimed for a plural context and in a plural setting, where there
was no given religious or cultural priority, was a challenge. In discussing and
putting all of our knowledge, all of our attitudes, all of our skills on the table,
we enabled an approach of encounter and exposure to each other that became
a framework for the curriculum we had in mind.
One important decision was not to focus so much on moral as on ethics,
because moral teaching is rather more present in our faith communities: you
should do this, you shouldnt do this, think of this, thats fine, and its good.
We wanted to equip the children with ethics to prepare them to reflect and act
facing ethical dilemmas, being able to make an ethical grounded decision, and
to develop critical thinking skills. Aware of the sensitivity on these matters
in some religious traditions, we wanted to work towards an attitude, which
does not equate critical thinking with a dismissal of tradition or the teaching
we have inherited. We wanted to be mindful of how one can allow critical
thinking without feeling threatened or being intimidating.
When our son was six or seven years old, he suddenly said that he didnt
want to come with us to church any longer. He said, I have invented a new
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religion. We were curious to hear more about it. It is called a water religion
and its very easy, he said, its very easy, you can also be followers, you
can join my religion, and you just have to touch water five times a day. We
decided, if not to convert wholeheartedly, to do the requirements of this new
religion. For two days we all touched water five times a day and we said the
formula that his new religion demanded. We were keen to give him space to
express something that obviously was important for him in his coming to terms
with religion and /or spirituality. His religion lasted for two or three days but
he had been given religious latitude to develop spiritually. In a similar way the
ethics education program wants to provide space for the various expressions
of the innate potential for spirituality that children have and that they would
like to share with us.
The curriculum and the program of Arigatou International focuses on
ethical values and emphasizes four values conducive for living together, for
a peaceful life together and understanding. We decided respect to be one
such value, to set a target, which is higher than tolerance. How do you learn
respect? You learn it through the second value we chose - empathy, which
in some languages has a meaning that goes beyond compassion. How do
you learn empathy? By trying to put yourself in the shoes of the other to
better understand the life of the other. When you have empathy, you learn
how to better respect the other with a sensitivity to respond to the needs of
the other. With respect learned through empathy you become better equipped
to shoulder the third value, responsibility, both individual and collective. And
the fourth value we chose was reconciliation. Reconciliation is a common
word in religious traditions as well as in peace-education and peace building.
Reconciliation is not only a healing process after something has gone wrong;
we can also retrain ourselves to meet each other in reconciliation mode. I
come with my baggage, you come with your baggage; how can we be
reconciled with ourselves as well as with the other, lest we end up in conflict?
It is akin to prophylactic medicine, which is different than calling for an
ambulance, when the conflict is already a fact.
The methodology in this learning process is interactive, participatory,
going from motivation to interaction and encounter, dialogue, reflection and
action. The emphasis is on reflection and action. Internalize your experience
and allow your action to take the cue line from your assessment of what you
have learned. Action could lead you to taking concrete steps or to a change of
mind, a change of attitude. In providing space and time for in-depth encounters,
you will realize that you may have been prejudiced and easily taken in by
stereotypes. The one who used to be only a Muslim has multiple identities:
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you know his name and he is a good footballer and he is your friend.
The curriculum and the program developed in the manual Learning to Live
Together (http://www.ethicseducationforchildren.org/en/) took its name from
one of the four pillars of UNESCO and it also developed in close collaboration
with UNICEF and UNESCO, validating it with the permission to use the
respective logos. One concrete illustration of its use should be mentioned: The
Israeli branch of our network invites Jewish, Christian and Muslim students
and teenagers to travel together for one week and to visit places holy or sacred
to all of these traditions. They listen to each others narratives and for many
of them it is the first time they realize that there is another narrative to the
same sacred place than the one they know from their own tradition. Such a
discovery matters. Peace building is a matter of unlearning and relearning.
In Tanzania, a country of peace, young people using the curriculum, formed
peace clubs. Members are composed of Christian and Muslim children and
youth trained to become peace ambassadors and to promote a message of
peace and mutual understanding.
Some years ago, at the time of election in Zanzibar, when tensions between
the different communities arose, these students took the initiative to mobilize
to confront such a climate.
Learning to Live Together is a value-based program promoting
peacebuilding through interfaith and intercultural ethics education. It is not
about teaching values but rather about nurturing values conducive to mutual
understanding, respect and peaceful solutions. It involves children and youth
through its participatory methodologies. While we worked on the program,
we learned from what a 16-year old girl told us, you cant teach me values.
Values I learn, when I see how you behave, how you relate to me and how you
behave, when we work together. We need to listen to our youth and to be
honest.
In order to create and promote this learning environment, we are now
actively training in various countries and contexts teachers, educators
and youth leaders to work with the curriculum Learning to Live Together.
Looking ahead, we believe that we need to find ways to adapt our peacebuilding program to fit also younger children and not least to find an increased
relevance in the various religious communities in their religious instruction.

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PEACEBUILDING THROUGH EDUCATION:


A PERSPECTIVE ON THE HIZMET MOVEMENT
Ihsan Yilmaz
Habermass (1984, 1990, 1999) theory of communicative rationality
includes an argument called universal pragmatics, which human beings possess
the communicative competence to bring about mutual understanding.
Habermas, as a believer in dialogue, is an optimist who criticizes the Frankfurt
School and postmodernist thought for excessive pessimism. Fethullah Glens
thought and praxis represent a similar belief in mutual understanding, dialogue
and optimism, in contrast to the pessimism displayed by those who approach
religion and social engagement rather through conflict and political activism.
Glens optimism and belief in dialogue, coupled with his self-confidence
based on his status as a modern intellectual and traditional scholar, make
it easier for him to be a border transgressor. His pluralistic, inclusivist and
peacebuilding ideas have enabled the Hizmet Movement to successfully turn
its moral, spiritual, intellectual, financial and human resources into effective
social capital and utilized this social capital in establishing educational
institutions from primary school to university levels in more than 140
countries. The movements stance toward pluralism, diversity, tolerance,
acceptance, civil society, secularism and democracy shows that the movement
generates a bridging social capital, extremely helpful for peacebuilding and
establishing sustainable peace through education.
Everybody has been affected and influenced by nationalism in one way
or another, and the glorious Ottoman Empire was no exception. In the
Ottoman times, several different ethnic religious and lingual minorities lived
for centuries in peaceful coexistence despite some difficulties and of course
turbulent times and problems. But with the emergence of nationalism, the
Ottoman Empire started to shatter, and the Turks also became nationalist.
After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, they also started their own nationbuilding project (Yilmaz, 2005 & 2011; Zrcher, 2003).
During the Ottoman times, in the first Muslim Parliament that opened
in 1876, about 40% of the deputies were non-Muslims, and they were
democratically elected. They had their own languages and in their own
schools, and in their own educational systems they could teach and educate in
their own language. But with the Turkish nations project, unfortunately Turks
also were poisoned by nationalism. Some people call it negative nationalism,
however, is there actually much difference between positive nationalism and
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negative nationalism because the borders are so thin, and it is easy to penetrate
these borders in difficult and turbulent times at individual and societal levels?
While Turks decided to build the modern nation, they focused on Turks,
of course Sunnis and Muslims. The Kemalists believe that socio-political
pluralism is an existential threat to their country and the state. Thus, they have
been trying to homogenize society so that it is composed of ideal best citizens
who are identical to Kemalists. In other words, they have tried to assimilate
the others to their own identity, and until the others have been assimilated,
their identities have been made invisible in the public sphere or framed,
marginalized and stigmatized with negative stereotypes by the hegemons.
Being a lacist Turkish citizen is only one of the several requirements of being
the best citizen. The Kemalists best human can be encapsulated by what
this study calls, Homo LASTus. LAST stands for Lacist, Atatrkist, Sunni
Muslim, and Turk.
In its constitutive other side, you would find non- Muslims, and you would
find non-Sunni, such as Heterodox Alevis. You would find leftist, liberals all
sorts of people with different ideologies other than Laicist Ataturkist Sunni
Turks (LAST). All these others of the LAST had been tried to be assimilated
into the LAST, so in a way last even though it was exclusivist, but that doesnt
mean that it wasnt open to assimilation.
If you could assimilate into Turkishness as a Kurd, you would be
welcomed in the Turkish parliament. You could even be a President or a
Prime Minister, but when you said that you had also Kurdish identity or if
you had an accent and so on, then you would be discriminated against by the
establishment. In one of the cases of the Court of Cassations, which is one
of the Supreme courts in Turkey, non- Muslims are referred as the within
oxymoronic terminology alien citizens.
Non-Muslims had been living in Turkey for more than about 5000 years or
more well before the advanced of Turks to the Anatolia. However, the nation
building project created turbulence, polarization, and division in society. The
Glen Movements or the Hizmet Movements one of the decisive points is
working towards repairing these divisions and polarizations. The movement,
which originated in Turkey around the ideas of Fethullah Glen who is a
follower of tradition in Turkey. It also follows in the tradition of the great
Sufi philosopher Mawlana Jalaluddin Rumi similar to the Immanuel Kants
idea of cosmopolitism who would say that my foot, one of my feet is in the
center in my faith, in my country and so on. But my other foot travels around
72 nations. He would say that come whoever youre come. With this idea of
not only tolerance, but acceptance and accepting people as they are, Glen is
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simply trying to revive this Muslim tradition of inviting people to his ideas,
and trying to find the common ground and speaking softly. In one of the verses,
God asks Prophet Moses and his brother Aaron to go to the Pharaoh and talk
to him nicely, and softly.
So in a turbulent time between 1970s and 1980s, when leftist and rightist
people were killing each other, and during that turbulent bloody decade more
than 5000 youth lost their lives because of ideological divisions. Gulen would
say that victory over the civilized is by convincing them. So violence is not
an option and when you resort to violence and when you speak to people with
unpleasant words, you would simply create a negative reaction among them.
So even though the Kemalist state has used Althusserian (1971) and
Gramscian (1971) ideological apparatuses of the state such as the media, such
as education, and such as religion, even religion because its controlled by the
state in Turkey even though it poses itself as a secular state.
Glens answer to all these was to create a bridge by using its social
capital. So first of all the movement was revolving around the bonding capital,
so people would come together with their religious ideas and so on. If you
follow the works of Bourdieu (1977) or American politician Scientist Robert
Putnam (2000), you would know that without any bridging social capital or
linking social capital, bonding capital could create chaos and it could also
divide society.
In Glens worldview, the constitutive other is not non-Muslims and so
on, but some attributes such as ignorance, such as disunity, such as poverty.
So the Glenic answer was to establish institutions such as schools to fight
against ignorance.
Institutions such as Kimse Yok Mu would go and help to the needy and
work against the poverty and so on. The movement also would work towards
building bridges with others. So even in the 1970s, Gulen would advise his
listeners, his students and his sympathizers that you should go and talk to
these so called communists. When it was suggested that we should go and
beat up these communists because they would invite Soviet Union to invade
our country, Glen told them that this is not helpful. If you create chaos in
society it is a kind of terrorism and anarchy, and this is totally against Islam.
So instead going to the cities and helping the hegemonic powers who
would simply urge you to kill each other, you should go and talk to them
nicely, and politely. Another person simply came forward and said, oh my
brother, if you went to the streets, and tried to beat people up, I would be
among them yesterday. Yesterday I was with them, but because of one of
your friends convinced, today Im with you.
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So the movement worked towards this, and in early 1990s, well before
9/11, Glen started a new initiative in Turkey, which was first in the modern
history of Turkey. Glen said that our citizens, even though theyre nonMuslims, are our brothers. We should go and talk to them, and try to find the
common ground. In 1990, we visited the Pope in Vatican, and this was the
first in the modern Turkish history. Many people were shocked and surprised
including the Turkish secularists and Kemalists. Glen paved the way for the
establishment of Journalists and Writers Foundation and one of the platforms
is Abant platform and again for the first time in Turkey, leftist, nationalist,
communist, socialist, liberal, practicing Muslim intellectuals, journalists,
writers, and so on would come together and discuss sensitive issues such as
secularism.
With these ideas in mind, many people who were influenced by the ideas
of Gulen went abroad to establish educational institutions and as you might
already know in more than 140 countries different minorities, people from
different lingual, religious and ideological backgrounds would come together
and study in the same classroom. This is not only just dialog at a discursive
level, but it is a dialog in action. The students who graduated from these
schools are becoming teachers in the same schools, and trying to inculcate the
values that they learned from the Hizmet movement.
The Glen movement or the Hizmet movement is contributing towards
peace building, but not with only rhetoric, but with real action in the field.
Of course there are all sorts of similar projects and the Hizmet movement is
only one of them, but with these projects we can be hopeful about our future.

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Notes

Althusser, L. 1971. Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses. In Louis Althusser, Lenin
and Philosophy and Other Essays. Translated by Ben Brewster. London and New York:
Monthly Review Press. 127-186.
Bourdieu, P. 1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Translated by R. Nice. Volume 16.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gramsci, A. 1971. Selections from the Prison Notebooks. New York:
International Publishers.
Habermas, J. 1984. Theory of Communicative Action, trans. Thomas McCarthy.
Boston: Beacon Press.
Habermas, J. 1990. Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action.
Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Habermas, J. 1999. Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of
Law and Democracy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
Putnam, R. D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community.
New York: Simon & Schuster.
Yilmaz, I. 2005. State, Law, Civil Society and Islam in Contemporary Turkey.
The Muslim World 95(3): 386-390.
Yilmaz, I. 2011. Beyond Post-Islamism: Transformation of Turkish Islamism
Toward Civil Islam and Its Potential Influence in the Muslim World.
European Journal of Economic and Political Studies 4(1): 245-280.
Zrcher, Eric Jan. 2003. Turkey: A modern history. 3rd edition. London: I.B. Tauris.

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CHAPTER 5
EXEMPLARY PEACEBUILDING PRACTICES

THE FILIPINOTURKISH TOLERANCE SCHOOL (FTTS)


ZAMBOANGA, THE PHILIPPINES

Established in 1997, the FilipinoTurkish Tolerance School (FTTS) offers


elementary and secondary education in Zamboanga City, the Philippines,
under the umbrella of Integrative Center for Alternative Development
Foundation Incorporated (ICAD Foundation), a private, nonprofit, non-stock
organization, which also runs the Fountain International School in Manila.
The Tolerance School has contributed to the Philippines with academic
achievement at prestigious competitions, such as the 2011-2012 International
Australian Mathematics Competition (AMC), the Metro Bank MTAP Math
Challenge, the Philippine Math Olympiad (PMO), the Regional Taekwondo
Championship), and the Division School Press Conference.
The Tolerance School aims to reflect the ideals and philosophy of the
ICAD Foundation, which is built on the belief that peace and understanding
among individuals of different nationalities, religion, and diverse cultural
backgrounds can be achieved through quality and contemporary education.
The school has been founded with awareness that we now live in a global
society, thus tolerance is key to learning that we belong to the family of the
world, respecting and celebrating differences. This is important, especially in
a setting where conflict has been destroying Christian-Muslim relations for
decades in the region.
Harmony, tolerance stem from Turkish schools

Most children of the picturesque city of Zamboanga in the Philippines


troubled south are groomed to be cautious in making friends believing in a
different religions. Zamboanga Peninsula, the sixth most populous region and
the third geographically largest in the Philippines, is home to 70 per cent
Christians and 30% percent Buddhist and Muslim people.

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The peninsula has been in the headlines for Moro Islamic Liberation
Fronts militancy against security agencies. The Muslim outfit brands its
actions as freedom struggle which has taken heavy toll on civilian lives over
the past two decades. The Christian and Muslim communities have adapted to
live in a tense equilibrium, with fire fights and bomb blasts claiming precious
lives on one hand, and soaring number of unconstitutional disappearances on
the other. Wherever the two communities live side by side, traffic on the roads
dividing them becomes litmus test for peace or unrest in the vicinity.
Since 1997, Turkish educators are sowing the seeds of tolerance and
coexistence through the Filipino-Turkish Tolerance High School located at
the heart of the strife-torn region.
With humble beginning of 89 students, the institution today has boarding
and teaching facilities for over 1,000 students. The school gets equal attention
of Christian and Muslims parents and their offsprings.
It also has one of the best dormitories not only in Zamboanga, but in
Mindanao.The Filipino-Turkish Tolerance School, considered one of the
best in the region, has produced a number of students that topped in many
international competitions and were even cited for their excellent educational
skills, noted The Mindanao Examiner newspaper in one of its story in 2007.
Thomas Michel, Secretary General of Interfaith Dialogue Council in
Rome, Italy, visited the Turkish tolerance schools in 1995, in Zamboanga.
The Turkish and Filipino staffs proud claim was a stunning reality for
me as Muslims and Christian students were getting education with true
spirit of a culture of dialogue and tolerance, Michel shared these remarks
with gatherings around the world. He noted that children befriended their
classmates regardless of religious divides, thus their parents not only started
communicating with each other but also eventually cooperate for their
childrens and the communitys future.

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PLURAL+ BY UNITED NATIONS ALLIANCE OF CIVILIZATIONS


Jordi Torrent
PLURAL +, a platform for youth media, is a youth-produced video
festival which encourages young people to explore migration, diversity and
social inclusion, and to share their creative vision with the world. It is a
joint initiative between the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations and the
International Organization for Migration, with a network of over 50 partner
organizations, who support the creative efforts of young people and distribute
their videos worldwide. Since 2009 over 400 entries from 63 countries have
participated. Winning videos have been screened in dozens of festivals,
cinemas and broadcast on television networks throughout the world. With
your help, we hope to widen the impact of PLURAL+ even further.
PLURAL+ recognizes youth as powerful agents of social change, and
supports cooperative efforts to reduce tensions in a world often characterized
by conflict and division. In many parts of the world youth not only represent
the future, they are the majority. Recent events in the Arab Spring demonstrate
the power that young people have to bring about citizen participation and
social change. Creative media are such a powerful approach to this dialogue
because, fundamentally, they appeal to a sense of shared human experience
and common goals. The insight and creativity with which young people
have produced videos on tough issues, such as human trafficking, social
marginalization and racism, reflects the energy that youth bring to addressing
social problems in todays world. By working in partnership with organizations
such as UNESCO Associated Schools Network, CHINH India, RED UNIAL
and others, PLURAL+ provides greater opportunity for young people to
participate, and builds the capacity of organizations to deliver multimedia
training for years to come.
Youth-produced media is a main component of todays society. Young
people are constantly producing and sharing media; in a way it is their main
mode of self expression, or reassuring to themselves that they are in the world,
that they are alive. But creating and sharing media per se, as important as
it is, it is not truly as essential that young people producing media become
aware (ethically aware) of the role and significance that media has in our
communities. This awareness is the terrain of Media and Information Literacy.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child recognizes
the importance of the media in childrens and young people development.
The media is seen as playing a crucial role in shaping societal attitudes
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towards childrens rights, equipping children with information central to


their well-being in a child-friendly environment, and soliciting youth views
on matters that affect them. However through the production of their own
media, youth can be empowered to tell stories about the issues that they see as
most important, and to share these with the world. Producing media is a way
for youth to creatively engage with their society, their family, their friends,
themselves. It allows them to create their own media representations, and to
become aware of the ethical responsibilities of their media messages.
PLURAL+ is a platform developed for the distribution of youthproduced media that creatively addresses issues relevant to multiculturalism
and shared societies. It invites young people to creatively reflect on the world
that surrounds them, to propose ideas, to point out social injustices, to identity
cultural stereotypes. I keep mentioning creatively at the risk of sounding
flat by bouncing around nice sounding words but lacking depth. Creativity is
perhaps what we are risking to loose in our current educational systems. We
are encouraging reading, writing, numeracy, and the technical how-to; but
not reflection and critical thinking. We are becoming less and less interested
in humanistic education and more and more in the pragmatism of technology
education. By doing so we are facilitating the development of a society
lacking a better understanding of history (local and global) and of the cultural
literacy that can help humanity to become less polarized (and ultimately less
violent and more welcoming of differences). PLURAL+ is a platform for
the distribution of youth-produced media that has something to say, not only
something to show off (a media skill) through pure entertainment (how
funny this video is, how outrageous it is, how well produced it is). PLURAL+
empowers youth by multiplying their voices through a network of global
distribution facilitated by its partners across the world.
We believe that it is through this empowerment of young peoples voices
that ultimately change will come about, that less culturally biased conflicts
will emerge throughout the world. Media and Information Literacy is the
larger framework where this effervescent creativity develops.

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SEARCH FOR A COMMON GROUND


John Marks
Founded in 1982, Search for Common Ground works to transform the way
the world deals with conflict, away from adversarial approaches and towards
collaborative problem solving. We work with local partners to find culturally
appropriate means to strengthen societies capacity to deal with conflicts
constructively: to understand the differences and act on the commonalities.
Using innovative tools and working at different levels of society, we
engage in pragmatic long-term processes of conflict transformation. Our
toolbox includes media production - radio, TV, film and print - mediation
and facilitation, training, community organizing, sports, theater and music.
We promote both individual and institutional change and are committed to
measuring the results of our work and increase our effectiveness through
monitoring and evaluation. We currently work in 26 countries in Africa, Asia,
Europe and the Middle East.
The Common Ground Approach is a means of navigating through conflict
and identifying possibilities that are not apparent from an adversarial mind set.
It is a set of principles and practices that, when utilized, causes a fundamental
shift in peoples relationship with conflict away from adversarial approaches
toward cooperative solutions. The Common Ground Approach, whether
applied in a home in the suburbs of New York City, on the streets of inner city
Cincinnati, or between ethnic groups in the Balkans or Burundi, creates new
possibilities of peaceful coexistence.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First and foremost, we would like to thank to the Fountain Magazine and its
Editor in Chief, Hakan Yesilova for their main sponsorship for the conference entitled
Peacebuilding through Education and this book. I would like to thank to our
partner organizations such as the Alliance for Shared Values, NYIT, Baruch College,
Quinnipiac University and Yale University for this conference and for enabling us to
publish this book.
Successful organization of the conference and publication of the book could not
have been accomplished without the support of Dr. Dahir, editor of the book, Mr. Kilic,
spokes person and program manager, Mr. Kirbassov assistant editor of the book, Mr.
Tozan and Mr. Cagatay, managers for the photo exhibition, Mr. Aydogan, trip manager,
Mr. Celik, production manager, Mr. Turan, registration and reception coordinator, Mr.
Demirsoy contact person with the partner organizations, Mr. Senturk, the President
of Tughra Books and who works hard to make the Fountain Magazine as the main
sponsor.
Finally, I would like to give my deepest gratitude to our moderators Dr. Maryalice
Mazzara from Levin Institute, Dr. Mohammad Elahee from Quinnipiac University and
Dr. Kimberly Philips from Brooklyn College.
Last and not least: I would like to thank all those who have worked for the
conference and whose names I have failed to mention.
Mehmet M. Kaval
CEO of PEACE ISLANDS INSTITUTE

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Peace in a Frame
Photography Competition

Organized by

PEACE ISLANDS
I N S T I T U T E

www.peaceinaframe.com

Submissions from 50 Countries

FIRST PLACE
MONIR EL.SHAZLY - CAIRO / EGYPT

SECOND PLACE
BACH NGOC ANH - Dalat / VIETNAM

THIRD PLACE
SUDEEP MEHTA - MUMBAI / INDIA

HONORABLE MENTIONS
CHIN PUE LING - PENANG / MALAYSIA

HONORABLE MENTIONS
SUDIPTO DAS - KOLKATA / INDIA

HONORABLE MENTIONS
BA NHAN NGUYEN - DA LAT / VIETNAM

HONORABLE MENTIONS
TURGUN ENGIN ISTANBUL / TURKEY

HONORABLE MENTIONS
AFRA OZALP - NEW YORK / USA