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Discussion

1) When we start a DC motor at first there is no back emf generated in the armature of the motor
because the speed is zero. Therefore the only opposition for the flow of current is the armature
resistance. As a result the maximum current will flow through the motor. This may be caused the
motor to be damaged. Therefore at the time of starting some arrangement is needed so that large
amount of current does not flow through the motor armature.so, a stating method of a DC motor is
mandatory. The three point starter is one of them.

By using above arrangement we can control the starting current and after motor has been started
up, the arrangement is no longer needed (because of back emf) and DC supply will directly go to
the motor. The other important advantage of this method is there is another arrangement for the
overload condition which prevents damages from overload currents.

2) Starting methods of a DC motor can be divided into two categories as manual starters and
automatic starters. Manual starters are of two types. They are three point starter and four point
starter. The major difference between these two starters is that the three point starter has three
terminals and the four point starter has four terminals. Sometimes three point starters use a brass
arc to make it more efficient.

In four point starters the holding coil is not connected to the field circuit of the motor. Instead an
extra terminal is provided with a high resistance which makes the system more reliable. A sketch
of a four point starter is as follows.

Finally, automatic starters are used in modern world and it uses power electronics techniques to
achieve the required purpose.

3) Depending on the types of DC motors, there are many speed control methods. Our practical was
conducted only for shunt motor speed control. We practiced speed control using field resistance
control and speed control using armature resistance control. Other methods for shunt motor speed
control are series-parallel control and Ward Leonard method of speed control. In series-parallel
method of speed control of DC shunt motor, two identical shunt motors are mechanically
connected to a common load. Here two speeds can be obtained. In one case the armatures are
connected in parallel and in the other case they are connected in series.

When series combination occur, the voltages across each armature windings is reduced to half and
when parallel combination occur each motor will be supplied full voltage. Therefore we can obtain
half speed or full speed.
In Ward Leonard method combined armature and field control of DC motor can be
performed. It provides a wide range of speed control. A three phase ac supply is provided to an ac
induction motor, it rotates along with the exciter and the dc generator. A sketch of this method is
as follows.

Although Ward Leonard method gives a wide variety of speed control, obviously it is a very costly
method.
In modern world power electronics techniques are used for any kind of dc motor
speed control.

4) There are three method of breaking of dc motors. They are plugging, dynamic, and regenerative.
Our practical was conducted on dynamic breaking. In plugging method the armature current is
reversed with respect to the current of the magnetic field circuit. The supply should be switched
off close to zero speed, otherwise the motor will start to run in the reverse direction.

Regenerative breaking is done by making the back emf greater than the supply voltage. The main
advantage of this method is that the energy produced by the armature is mostly returned to the
power supply system.

Reference: Electrical Machines, M.N.Bandyopadhyay.

OBSERVATION SHEET
NAME

: Dayarathna M.N.K.M

INDEX NO

: 110095D

TITLE

: Speed control of DC machines

DEPARTMENT

: Electrical

GROUP

: Group-4

DATE OF PERFORMANCE : 25/07/2013


INSTRUCTED BY

: Mr. Paranavithana S.J

Rf ()

N (rpm)

I(A)

V(v)

1120.4

0.59

208

60.6

1121.8

0.55

202

89.2

1153.6

0.5

196

104.8

1171.4

0.45

190

135.6

1206.2

0.4

180

164.6

1242.6

0.35

164

189.2

1274.2

0.3

150

0.25

130

0.2

110

0.15

88

Ra ()

N (rpm)

1120.4

66.5

988.5

87.7

866.4

114.4

746.3

140.8

637.1

169.2

533.2

193.0

456.3

218.0

381.1

248.0

301.6

Residual Voltage 8V

Dynamic
Breaking

Time(s)

On

10.68

Off

19.04

Terminal voltage Vs field current

200

Terminal voltage(V)

150

100

50

0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

Field current(A)

0.4

0.5

0.6

Speed(N) Vs field resistance


1300

Speed(rpm)

1250

1200

1150

1100

1050

20

40

60

80

100

Field resistance( )

120

140

160

180

Speed(N) Vs armature resistance


1400

1200

1000

Speed(rpm)

800

600

400

200

50

100

150

Armature resistance()

200

250

PRACTICAL 3

SPEED CONTROL OF DC MACHINES


EE 2183
BATCH 11

INSTRUCTED BY : Mr. Paranavithana S.J

NAME

: Dayarathna M.N.K.M

INDEX NO

: 110095D

DEPARTMENT

: Electrical

GROUP

: Group-4

DATE OF PERFORMANCE : 25/07/2013


DATE OF SUBMISSION

: 08/08/2013