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n nh ca ct vt trong khung thp nh tin ch

PGS.TS Nguyn Quang Vin


Khoa Xy dng Dn dng v Cng nghip
Trng i hc Xy dng

Tm tt:
- Nghin cu s on ngang ca ct trong khung thp nh tin ch vi cc
gi ta khc nhau. Xc nh lc ti hn ca ct dng vt trong khung mt tng,
mt nhp khi thay i hnh dng x ngang.
- Trn c s cc kt qu nghin cu, kin ngh phng php kim tra n
nh tng th ca ct vt theo quy nh ca tiu chun thit k hin hnh nc
ta TCXDVN 338:2005.
Summary:
- Study the buckling problem of column in prefabricated frame with various
supports. Determine a critical force of tapered column in symmetrical
prefabricated frame in a change of beams shape.
- Recommend a method of checking global buckling of tapered column
based on the results and on the regulations of the Vietnamese design Standard
TCXDVN 338:2005.

Nh tin ch l loi nh c xy dng theo cng ngh mi, c s dng t lu kh


nhiu nc trn th gii. Ph bin nht l loi m kt cu chu lc chnh ca nh l cc khung
ngang mt nhp, c chiu cao tit din thay i tuyn tnh dc chiu di cu kin thnh dng
vt. Theo chiu di, ct thng c vt mt ln, dm c th vt mt hoc vi ba ln. S thay
i lin tc chiu cao tit din l gii php hu hiu c kt cu hp l; ch c ni lc ln th
s dng tit din ln, ch c ni lc b th thu nh chiu cao tit din li. Trng lng thp kt
cu c th gim thiu ti 20%, ko theo cn gim c lao ng ch to, chuyn ch v lp
dng.
nc ta trong khong vi chc nm gn y nh tin ch c p dng xy
dng nhiu cng trnh cng nghip v cho c mt s nh dn dng. Tuy nhin cc cng trnh
ny u c thit k theo tiu chun ca nc ngoi. L do chnh l vic kim tra n nh cho
cu kin dng vt cha c cp n mt cch chi tit trong Tiu chun thit k Kt cu
thp hin hnh nc ta.
Khi kim tra n nh ca ct vt, quy nh k thut v kt cu nh thp (1989) ca Vin
Kt cu Hoa K da trn tng c bn l lc ti hn ca ct vt c chiu di L cho bng lc
ti hn ca ct khng vt c tit din bng u nh, coi cng ca x ngang l khng i
(chp nhn gi tr trung bnh nu x ngang cng vt) ri thng qua vt ca ct v ngm
ca chn ct vi mng tra bng ra 1 h s chiu di tnh ton K cho ct.

54

Tp ch khoa hc cng ngh xy dng

S 01 - 9/2007

Tiu chun thit k hin hnh ca nc ta TCXDVN 338-2005 th trn c s vt, chiu
di tnh ton ca ct c hiu chnh bng cch nhn thm vo h s iu chnh 1 nhm tng
gi tr chiu di tnh ton ca ct vt so vi ct khng vt.
C hai cch tnh ny u chp nhn s gn ng cng ca x ngang; khng c li
gii cho trng hp x ngang vt mt s ln; v do vy kt qu cng ch l gn ng v khng
phn nh c bn cht ca bi ton n nh. Phng php s gii thiu sau y nhm gii
quyt cc kh khn ny.
1. Cc gi thit, s tnh ton
Xt khung mt tng, mt nhp i xng, x ngang gy (mi dc), ct c tit din thay i
(ct vt) hoc khng i; lin kt chn ct vi mng l khp hoc lin kt ngm (ch vi ct tit
din khng i), lin kt ct vi x ngang l cng. Vic xc nh lc ti hn cho ct khung chp
nhn cc gi thit sau:
- Vt liu thp lm vic trong gii hn n hi.
- Nt khung coi nh nt cng, chuyn v ca cc u thanh quy t vo nt l nh nhau.
- Bin dng dc trc v bin dng trt l khng ng k so vi bin dng un. Trc v
sau khi bin dng, chiu di theo phng ban u ca cc thanh khng i.
- Ti trng tc dng trn khung ch t cc nt. Khi h cha mt n nh, nhng ti
trng ny ch gy ra hin tng ko hoc nn m khng gy ra hin tng un ngang trong cc
thanh ca khung.
- Hai ct c kch thc nh nhau. Khi mt n nh, c hai ct mt n nh ng thi (hnh
1.2).
- Coi trc ct l thng ng. Nu ct l ct vt, b qua nghing ca trc ct thc so
vi trc thng ng.
T cc gi thit trn, ta c s tnh ton n nh ca ct trong khung thp mt tng,
mt nhp nh th hin trn hnh 1.1, 1.2.

L
L

H1

H1

pth

1-1

pth

2-2
1

2Lcos
2Lcos

Hnh 1.1

Tp ch khoa hc cng ngh xy dng

Hnh 1.2

S 01 - 9/2007

55

2. Thay th cng ca x ngang - Xc nh h s n hi


hi tng i

, h s n

'

tm lc ti hn trong ct, tch ring ct ra nh hnh 1.3. nh hng ca cng x


ngang c thay th bng lin kt ngm n hi trt c h s n hi . chnh l gc
xoay ca ngm n hi trt khi mmen bng n v gy ra. Tng ng vi tng trng hp cu
to ca x, h s n hi c xc nh nh sau:
p th

ej

M=

3EJ
L

Hnh

Hnh

2.1 Khi x ngang c tit din khng i:


1

L
3EJ

M
2.2. Khi x ngang c tit din ch I, chiu cao tit din thay i theo lut bc nht
(l cu kin vt 1 ln)

L
1
=
EJ3 h4
( 1)3
h3

h
1
4 2ln( 4 )

h4
h3
h3
( )

h3

2
E J4

E Jz

E J3

O
2

L -z

hb3

h3

h4

1 -1
bc

2 -2
b

hb4

Hnh

56

Tp ch khoa hc cng ngh xy dng

S 01 - 9/2007

thun tin s dng, ta t i =

E J3
h
, v lp bng tra i theo t s 4 :
L
h3

h4/h3

1.10

1.20

1.30

1.40

1.50

1.60

E J3
)
L
1.70
1.80

0.289

0.253

0.224

0.200

0.179

0.162

0.147

0.135

0.123

0.114

h4/h3

2.10

2.20

2.30

2.40

2.50

2.60

2.70

2.80

2.90

3.00

0.105

0.098

0.091

0.085

0.079

0.074

0.070

0.066

0.062

0.059

h4/h3

3.10

3.20

3.30

3.40

3.50

3.60

3.70

3.80

3.90

4.00

0.056

0.053

0.050

0.048

0.045

0.043

0.041

0.039

0.038

0.036

h4/h3

4.10

4.20

4.30

4.40

4.50

4.60

4.70

4.80

4.90

5.00

0.035

0.033

0.032

0.031

0.030

0.029

0.027

0.027

0.026

0.025

Bng 2.1 Bng xc nh gi tr i (vi: i =

1.90

2.0

2.3. Khi x ngang c tit din ch I, t hp t nhiu on vi cc vt khc nhau:


xc nh h s n hi thay th tng ng vi tng on; h s n hi cui cng bng tng
cc h s n hi thnh phn (tng tt c cc gi tr tnh c t cc on khng vt hoc ch
vt mt ln):
L n=L
L i+ 1
Li

L -L i

L i-1
L1
=

E Jiz

i-1

i+ 1

y (z )

L -z

L
y

Hnh 1.6
+ on x ngang c tit din khng i:
Li
L i-1

EJ

L i-z
L -z
L

Hnh 1.7

Tp ch khoa hc cng ngh xy dng

S 01 - 9/2007

57

1
L
z
( )(1 )3
EJ 3
L

z = Li
z = Li 1

L
3EJ

Li 1 3
Li 3

(1 L ) (1 L )

+ on x vt vi u nh nm xa gc O
Li
L i-1

li

E J4i

h3i

E J3i

h4i

E Jz

ai

L i -z

L -z
L
y

Hnh 1.8

l
1
h4 i 1 + 2 L Li ( h4 i 1) 1 ln h4 i L Li ( h4 i 1) 1 1 1
=
2
h

h3 i
h3 i
EJ3 i L h4 i
li
h3 i li
h4 i
(
1)3 3 i

h3 i
h3 i

3
i

+ on x vt vi u nh nm gn gc O:
Li
li

L i-1

EJ4i

h4i

h3i

EJ3i
i

EJz

ai
z

L-z
L

Hinh 1.9

l
1
h4 i 1 2 L Li 1 ( h4 i 1) + 1 ln h4 i L Li 1 ( h4 i 1) + 1 1 1
=
h

h3 i
h3 i
EJ3 i L2 h4 i
li
h3 i li
h4 i
(
1)3 3 i

h3 i
h3 i

3
i

3. Xc nh lc ti hn ca ct
Lc ti hn ca ct khung Pth c xc nh theo trnh t sau:
3.1 Theo gi thit phn 1, coi nt khung l cng, gc xoay tng i gia u trn ca
ct v x ngang bng 0, ngha l h s n hi ca nt lin kt u trn ct c xc nh
nh x ngang , tng ng vi tng trng hp xc nh phn 2 trn y.

58

Tp ch khoa hc cng ngh xy dng

S 01 - 9/2007

3.2. Tnh h s n hi tng i ca ct ' , theo cng thc: =

EJ1
l

Vi: l - chiu di hnh hc ca ct ; (l =H)


J1 - mmen qun tnh ca tit din u nh ca ct vt hoc l mmen qun tnh ca tit
din khng i.
3.3. Khi ct c tit din khng i, x ngang khng vt hoc c dng vt, lc nn ti hn
Pth xc nh theo:
+ Trng hp ct lin kt khp vi mng: Pth = K13

EJ
; h s K13 xc nh theo bng 3.1.
l2

+ Trng hp ct lin kt ngm vi mng: Pth = K14

EJ
h s K14 xc nh theo bng 3.2.
l2

Bng 3.1 H s K13 cho ct khung mt tng mt nhp, ct tit din khng i,
lin kt khp vi mng

'

oo

69.11

50.69

38.73

30.53

24.67

20.33

17.03

14.46

12.42

K13

0.014

0.020

0.026

0.032

0.04

0.048

0.058

0.068

0.078

'

10.78

9.43

8.31

7.38

6.59

5.913

5.332

4.828

4.388

4.002

K13

0.09

0.102

0.116

0.130

0.144

0.16

0.176

0.194

0.212

0.230

'

3.661

3.359

3.089

2.848

2.632

2.436

2.259

2.099

1.952

1.819

K13

0.25

0.270

0.292

0.314

0.336

0.36

0.384

0.410

0.436

0.462

'

1.696

1.584

1.480

1.384

1.296

1.214

1.138

1.067

1.001

0.939

K13

0.49

0.518

0.548

0.578

0.608

0.64

0.672

0.706

0.740

0.774

'

0.882

0.828

0.777

0.729

0.684

0.642

0.602

0.564

0.529

0.495

K13

0.81

0.846

0.884

0.922

0.960

1.0

1.040

1.082

1.124

1.166

'

0.463

0.432

0.403

0.375

0.349

0.324

0.300

0.277

0.255

0.234

K13

1.21

1.254

1.300

1.346

1.392

1.44

1.488

1.538

1.588

1.638

'

0.214

0.194

0.175

0.157

0.140

0.123

0.107

0.091

0.076

0.062

K13

1.690

1.742

1.796

1.850

1.904

1.96

2.016

2.074

2.132

2.190

'

0.047

0.033

0.020

0.007

K13

2.25

2.310

2.372

2.434

2/4

Tp ch khoa hc cng ngh xy dng

S 01 - 9/2007

59

Bng 3.2. H s K14 cho ct khung mt tng mt nhp, ct tit din khng i,
lin kt ngm vi mng

'

0.048

0.055

0.062

0.070

0.077

0.085

0.093

0.101

0.110

0.118

K14

9.000

8.880

8.762

8.644

8.526

8.410

8.294

8.180

8.066

7.952

'

0.127

0.136

0.145

0.155

0.165

0.175

0.186

0.196

0.208

0.219

K14

7.840

7.728

7.618

7.508

7.398

7.290

7.182

7.076

6.970

6.864

'

0.231

0.244

0.257

0.270

0.284

0.299

0.314

0.330

0.346

0.364

K14

6.760

6.656

6.554

6.452

6.350

6.250

6.150

6.052

5.954

5.856

'

0.382

0.401

0.421

0.441

0.463

0.487

0.511

0.537

0.564

0.594

K14

5.760

5.664

5.570

5.476

5.382

5.290

5.198

5.108

5.018

4.928

'

0.624

0.657

0.693

0.730

0.771

0.814

0.861

0.912

0.967

1.027

K14

4.840

4.752

4.666

4.580

4.494

4.410

4.326

4.244

4.162

4.080

'

1.093

1.165

1.244

1.332

1.430

1.541

1.665

1.807

1.970

2.159

K14

4.000

3.920

3.842

3.764

3.686

3.610

3.534

3.460

3.386

3.312

'

2.381

2.646

2.967

3.364

3.868

4.53

5.43

6.74

8.80

12.54

K14

3.240

3.168

3.098

3.028

2.958

2.890

2.822

2.756

2.690

2.624

'

21.40

25.90

32.75

44.42

oo

K14

2.560

2.544

2.528

2.512

2/4

3.4 Khi ct c dng vt, lin kt khp vi mng, lin kt cng vi x ngang, x ngang
khng vt hoc c dng vt, lc ti hn ca ct xc nh theo: Pth = K11

EJ1
l2

J1- mmen qun tnh ca tit din u nh ca ct vt.


K11- H s n nh ca ct vt, ph thuc t s chiu cao tit din ca 2 u ct v h s
n hi tng i , , xc nh theo bng 3.3 di y:

60

Tp ch khoa hc cng ngh xy dng

S 01 - 9/2007

Bng 3.3 H s K11 cho ct khung mt tng mt nhp, ct vt, lin kt khp vi mng

0.0
0.05
0.10
0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
1.75
2.00
2.25
2.50
3.00
4.00

1.25
3.389
2.975
2.637
2.359
2.129
1.937
1.775

1.50
4.407
3.739
3.218
2.810
2.486
2.225
2.011

1.75
5.525
4.518
3.774
3.219
2.797
2.467
2.205

2.00
6.732
5.299
4.295
3.584
3.063
2.670
2.363

2.25
8.033
6.073
4.779
3.907
3.292
2.839
2.493

1.636
1.517
1.4133
1.3225
1.2424
1.1712
1.1076
1.0504
0.9988
0.9519
0.9091
0.8700
0.8010
0.7421
0.6912
0.6467
0.6077
0.5730
0.5015
0.4457
0.4011
0.3647
0.3085
0.2358

1.834
1.684
1.5560
1.4458
1.3500
1.2659
1.1915
1.1253
1.0659
1.0125
0.9641
0.9201
0.8430
0.7778
0.7220
0.6735
0.6312
0.5938
0.5172
0.4581
0.4111
0.3728
0.3143
0.2392

1.992
1.815
1.6664
1.5401
1.4313
1.3368
1.2538
1.1804
1.1151
1.0566
1.0039
0.9562
0.8731
0.8032
0.7437
0.6923
0.6476
0.6083
0.5281
0.4666
0.4179
0.3784
0.3182
0.2414

2.118
1.919
1.7528
1.6131
1.4938
1.3908
1.3010
1.2220
1.1520
1.0896
1.0335
0.9829
0.8952
0.8219
0.7596
0.7061
0.6596
0.6188
0.5360
0.4727
0.4228
0.3824
0.3210
0.2500

2.221
2.001
1.8212
1.6704
1.5425
1.4327
1.3375
1.2540
1.1803
1.1148
1.0561
1.0033
0.9120
0.8359
0.7715
0.7164
0.6685
0.6267
0.5419
0.4773
0.4264
0.3906

H s K11 khi t s h2/h1


2.50
2.75
3.00
3.25
3.50
3.75
4.00
9.417 10.890 12.444 14.083 15.799 17.598 19.471
6.831 7.566 8.275 8.953 9.597 10.207 10.782
5.223 5.628 5.995 6.326 6.624 6.893 7.134
4.191 4.440 4.657 4.848 5.015 5.161
5.29
3.487 3.653 3.796 3.918 4.024 4.115 4.195
2.980 3.099 3.199 3.284 3.356 3.419 3.472
2.600 2.688 2.762 2.824 2.877 2.922 2.961
2.304
2.068
1.8759
1.7161
1.5812
1.4659
1.3662
1.2791
1.2025
1.2025
1.0737
1.0191
0.9250
0.8468
0.7808
0.7243
0.6754
0.6327
0.5625

2.373
2.123
1.9204
1.7530
1.6123
1.4925
1.3891
1.2992
1.2201
1.1501
1.0877
1.0317
0.9363
0.8554
0.7880

2.429
2.168
1.9569
1.7832
1.6377
1.5141
1.4078
1.3154
1.2344
1.1627
1.0989

2.477
2.205
1.9872
1.8082
1.6586
1.5319
1.4231
1.3288
1.2656

2.517
2.237
2.0126
1.8291
1.6762
1.5625

2.551
2.264
2.0341
1.8906

2.581
2.287

4. Phng php kim tra n nh tng th ca ct vt


Sau khi xc nh c Pth theo cc cng thc phn 3 trn y; biu din Pth theo cch
quen thuc ca cng thc L.Euler, cho tit din i bt k ca ct vt:

Pth =

2 EJi

( i l )

(4.1)

Trong : Pth- lc ti hn ca ct vt c tnh ton theo phn 3.


Ji - mmen qun tnh ca tit din i ca ct vt (tit din ang xt).
l - chiu di thc ca ct vt, (chnh l chiu cao H ca ct khung)
I - h s chiu di tnh ton theo tit din i ca ct vt.
T cng thc (4.1) trn, xc nh c h s chiu di tnh ton i theo tit din i ca ct:

i =

2 EJi

(4.2)

Pth l 2

Tp ch khoa hc cng ngh xy dng

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61

Chiu di tnh ton ca ct vt theo tit din i, xc nh theo: loi = i.l


T , xc nh c mnh ca ct vt theo tit din i: i =
Vi ri - bn knh qun tnh ca tit din i: ri =

loi
ri

Ji
Ai

Ji ; Ai - mmen qun tnh, din tch ca tit din i.


Nh vy, ta a ct vt v ct gi nh c tit din khng i i, c chiu di khc
chiu di hnh hc ban u, nhng tng ng v mt n nh.
Vi lp lun nh trn, c th kim tra n nh ca ct vt ging nh kim tra n nh ca
ct tit din khng i theo cc quy nh ca Tiu chun thit k hin hnh TCXDVN 338-2005.
Vic kim tra tin hnh trn mt s tit din c trng. iu c bit l, tng ng vi mi tit
din c trng , ta c mt chiu di tnh ton khc, mc d chng u nm trn mt ct thc.
Thng thng th:
+ Vi ct vt chu nn ng tm, kim tra ti 2 tit din 2 u ct
+ Vi ct vt chu nn lch tm hoc nn un c mmen un khng i dc theo chiu
di ct, cn kim tra ti 2 tit din 2 u ct
+ i vi ct vt chu nn un, khi mmen un thay i theo chiu di ct, cn kim tra
ti mt s tit din c trng (v khng bit tit din no l nguy him nht), thng l tit din
chn ct, u ct, gia ct v ti tit din m ti c mmen un ln.
Cc v d bng s chng t rng, kt qu tnh ton theo phng php nu trn, so
vi cc trng hp tnh c theo phng php ca Tiu chun M AISC (khi ct c hoc
khng c vt), hoc so vi TCXDVN (khi ct khng vt) th sai s l kh b (<4,0%). V do vy,
nn thng qua mt s th nghim na kim chng v kp thi b sung li gii ca bi ton
ny vo phn cn thiu ca tiu chun thit k Kt cu thp hin hnh TCXDVN 338:2005,
kp thi phc v cho yu cu thc t xy dng nc ta.

Ti liu tham kho


1. PGS.TS Nguyn Quang Vin, ThS. Bi Hng Cng,n nh ca ct vt trong khung
thp, Bo co kt qu ti KHCN cp B, m s B2004-34-57.
2. PGS.TS Nguyn Quang Vin, Ths.Bi Hng Cng, n nh ca ct vt tit din ch I, Bo
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S 01 - 9/2007