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INTRODUCTION

In mechanical engineering department the junior year students have some basic knowledge from
the previously completed courses. In ME113 and ME114, mechanical engineering students got some
theoretical and practical knowledge about engineering drawing, and also in ME202 (Manufacturing
Technologies) they have learned theoretical data and practical applications of some. However the
students have been told only a small part of these applications, especially in ME202 course.

In mechanical engineering the manufacturing technologies have an important


role. In order to improve the manufacturing technology knowledge, the junior year
students must attend a summer practice program for mechanical engineering.
In the summer practice program the students put their theoretical values learned
in previous courses into practice by the help of engineers and technicians who are
responsible from the processes in the organization. Especially for the production
techniques the summer practice program is much more useful. In this program the
student can inspect the processes like milling, drilling, turning, grinding, etc. and learn
some of the details about the working principles of the machines, which are used in the
company. Also the student gets some information about the speed, mechanism, capacity
and the fields of use of these machines. There is one to one correspondence between
these increments band also the working principles of the machines. During the summer
practice the students can easily get answers to their problems and questions about the
details of the processes. Moreover, in the company not only the students get some more
detailed information but also they see some industrial applications.
In this report you will see the detailed information that were mentioned above.

DESCRIPTION OF THE COMPANY


Company name: Aselsan Military Electronics Industries Inc.
Company location: PA BOX 30 Etlik, 06011 ANKARA
Organization structure of the company: The organization structure of the
company is given in APPENDIX Chart.

Number and duties of engineers employed: In Akyurt facilities of Aelsan 175


engineers are employed. 90 of them work in Research and Development (R&D), 65 of
them in production, 10 of them in planning, and 10 of them in maintenance.
In Production Engineering Department there are 12 enginners 3 of whom are
mechanical engineer and the others are electrical engineers. 2 of the mechanical
engineers are work in R&D and production, the other engineer is interested in planning.
(Also see APPENDIX)
Main area of business:There are three main divisions in Aselsan. The detailed
information about the area of business of each are mentioned below.
Communications Division (CD)
The Communications Division is engaged in research-development-design,
marketing-sales and production in the fields of military and civilian communications
equipment and systems, electronic fuses, power electronics and systems operations.
In its facilities located in Macunky and in its Branch offices in stanbul and zmir, the division
employs a total of 1162 personnel of whom 250 are engineers. Within the borders of Turkey, there are 54
provinces and 23 towns in which over 500 outlets are in service, 80 of them being main offices. In addition
to this, Aselsan offices and representatives spread out in various countries provide a more effective
marketing, sales and service abroad.
The CD is aware that the only way of reaching its targets is through customer satisfaction and
that this can only be achieved by fully meeting customers demands, which are changing in parallel with
the rapid progress of technology and by developing new products in a short time. Due to this awareness,
in 1997, the CD enriched its capacity and capabilities in the fields of research-development-design,
production and service. It also entered into new areas, developed new products successfully and
improved its quality in all areas. In order to develop a product in the least possible time with the least
possible cost, the CD has benefited from all kinds of external sources, used ready hardware and software
blocks and cooperated with other firms, universities and institutions specialized in their respective fields.
The result of such an approach and all the hard work put into it has lead to a higher increase in sales than
expected without causing any delivery delays.
The leading products sold in 1997 are; the VHF/FM Fixed Frequency and the Frequency Hopping
Military Radio Families, the VHF/UHF-FM Synthesized Radio Family, Trunked Radio Systems, Have
Quick Air to Ground Radios, Mobile Phones, Squad Radio, Personnel Locator Systems, Encryption
Equipment, HF Receiver and HF SARP Equipment, Field Telephones, Data Terminals, Broadcasting
Systems, AC Driving Systems, Heating and Temperature Control Systems for Wagon Cars, Bank Alarm
Systems, TV Transmitter/Receiver and Proximity Fuses.
One of the most important events throughout 1997 was the marketing of the first Turkish Mobile
Phone, which is designed and produced by Aselsan.

Tactical Area Communications Systems-TASMUS project is one of the biggest projects. By the
implementations of this project, the TAF will become one of the first armies in the world using such a prior
system and Aselsan will become one of the world leading firms in this field.
The PRC-4512 Short Range Soldier Radios which were originally developed for the
communications requirements of the Turkish Armed Forces squad members may also be used in
shopping and business centers, hotels and factories.
A contract has been signed in which Aselsan will be producing the Have Quick Avionics Radios for
the Cougar AS 532 helicopters which are to be produced in our country.
In order to fulfil the Turkish Armed Forces need, the MEBS Integrated Command Control System
(MEKA) was developed and demonstrated for the first time at the EFES97 Military Exercise. Aselsan has
started taking orders for further productions.
The development in the substructure for power electronics is continuing. As a result of the cooperation with Tlomsa, Aselsan has started designing and producing the electric-electronic systems of
locomotives. In 1997, the AC Driving Systems and Heat Controlled carriage systems were developed,
designed and all deliveries completed. Having a 5% share in Tlomsas capital will increase the teamwork
between two firms in the future years.
In the year 1997, all the efforts made have brought about positive results within the Turkish
Republics in central Asia. The sales of various products have reached a significant amount and sum in
Azerbaijan. Aselsan has started its preparation for its new company which is to be constructed in Baku
and aims at increasing sales, operating radio systems and making investment in the areas of production
maintenance and repair. A contract has been signed with Uzbekistan for the sale of the 4000 series
vehicular radio and base station. Another contract made with Kyrghyzstan aims at improving the
communications system of the police force in Kyrghyzstan by establishing an operational and secure radio
system containing hand held, vehicular radio and base station system with digital encryption.
The CD meets the requirements of the other departments of Aselsan and gives service to external
customers by using the available facilities in the electronical, mechanical, printed board and moulding
areas with the use of computer aided design (CAD) and manufacturing (CAM) capabilities.
Within the electronics production sections, there are all kinds of boards, modules, cables, coils
and transformers being produced to be used for civilian and military products. In addition to this,
electromechanical mounting and testing procedures are being kept up to international standards. With the
investment of the new reflow soldering machine the available SMD production line has been developed
and testing 0ability and capacity have been increased due to the investments made on new, functional
testing devices.
In the mechanical production and plating/painting workshops, mechanical parts are produced with
the use of precision CNC machine tools. In addition to this, the plating and painting processes are made
according to the military standards and conductive painting processes are carried out on plastic using
silver and nickel for electromagnetic protection. In 1997, a variety of approximately 1500 parts were
produced in these workshops in which the investment made on the C and Y-axis numerically controlled
precision turn-mill center, the video measuring system and the temperature and humidity controlled
measuring room gave way to an increase in automation, flexibility and precision as well as an
improvement in quality.
Double-sided, multi-layer and flexible printed circuit boards are produced at the printed circuit
board production workshops which work according to the MIL-PRF-55110 an IPC-6012 standards. The
printed circuit boards are produced with the selective solder plating and chemical nickel-gold plating
processes in which all types of surface mount components are used. With the investment on the vacuum
press in 1997,Aselsan has started the production of printed circuit boards of up to 16 layers.

In order to produce the parts according to the quality and precision required by military standards,
small and medium type plastic injection molds, metal cutting and shaping dies, investment casting wax
moulds, aluminium profile extrusion dies, aluminium injection moulds, jigs and fixtures are designed and
produced in the mechanical design directorate workshops.
1997 was a year in which the CD has increased its performance, effectiveness and speed in the
areas of sales, services, design and production and made valuable accumulations for coming years.
Microwave and System Technologies Division (MST)
The Microwave and System Technologies (MST) division, located at Macunky facilities of
Aselsan, provides total system solutions in the functional areas given below:
Electronic warfare and intelligence

Fire support
Forward area air defense
Maneuver control

Within the framework of these functional areas, MST division designs, develops, manufactures
and integrates sensor, command and control, communications, and counter measures sub-systems and
equipment for ground, navy air platforms. MST division also provides military grade integrated logistic
support services to its products throughout the life cycle of the equipment. Examples of MST product
spectrum are as follows:
Electric support measures (ESM) systems

Electric counter measures (ECM) systems


Ground surveillance and artillery fire control radars
Artillery muzzle velocity radars
Artillery fire control systems and fire support automation systems
Field artillery meteorology systems
Pedestal mounted Stinger systems
Command and control consoles and terminals
Command and control information systems
Sensor fusion command and control systems

The MST division applies its experience and technological knowledge, accumulated through
military programs, in civil professional applications, such as Motorway Emergency Communications and
Control Systems, Automatic Toll Collection Systems, Motorway Observation Systems and Traffic Control
Systems. The national frequency spectrum monitoring system project is another important application of
MST divisions capabilities in a civil professional area. In 1997, MST entered into a challenging field where
it is able to apply its existing experience and technologies: Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) Systems, for
which the MST division, with other divisions of Aselsan, shall provide command and control stations, datalinks and mission payloads.
The key elements of MST divisions technological infrastructure can be summarized as follows:
A high technology, computer aided, new product development environment

A capable engineering work force specialized in critical technologies


Manufacturing, systems integration and test capabilities in military standards
Systems engineering and project management experience in related fields

These elements are managed through a computer aided information system based on computer
networks and Intranet services to lead the division to the state of the art original products. Independent
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technology development programs, various international data access channels, Internet, in company
training programs can also be expressed as the examples of the important elements used to keep the
division on the leading edge of technology.
Within its infrastructure and capabilities, MST division successfully applies key technologies in its
products. In addition to system level analysis and design capabilities, basic design and development
experience of the MST division is accumulated in the given fields:
Microwave and RF circuits

Antennas and transmission


Analogue, digital and mixed circuits including the design of Application Specific Integrated
Circuits (ASICs)
Electro-mechanical design including structural design and servo control design
Software design for real time applications
Electro warfare algorithms design
Communications algorithms design
Digital signal processing applications
Computer and communications network applications
Information management applications

Engineering specialty areas such as reliability engineering, electromagnetic compatibility


engineering, etc. are also integrated to design and development activities through the system engineering
process. Concurrent engineering, which has become a part of product development culture is now in a
transmission process to the integrated product and process development approach.
All processes of the MST division are continuously improved in a total quality management
program implemented teams. The MST division also actively updates its capability maturity goals and
milestones for all its processes to provide the best products and services to its customers.
With these characteristics and capabilities, the MST division is a reliable partner and a high quality
product and service supplier for its domestic and international customers.
Microelectronics, Guidance and Electro-optics Division (MGEO)
In 1999,the MGEO division is proud to continue supplying the Turkish Armed Forces
technologically advanced products with a total staff of 577, including 175 engineers and 41 specialists. In
this context, various projects in areas of Thermal Imaging (IR), Passive Night Vision, Inertial Navigation,
Guidance, Laser and Hybrid Microelectronics have continued.
In 1997, following products are successfully delivered against contractual schedules;
I. generation Thermal Surveillance Systems

II. generation Thermal Gunner Sights


II. generation Airdefence Thermal Sighting Systems
II. generation Image Intensifier Night Vision Equipment
Uncooled Thermal Weapon Sights
Laser Range Finders
Laser Pointers
Ring Laser Gyroscope Inertial Navigation Systems (RLG/INU)
Electronic Guidance Section of Stinger Missile
Hybrid Microelectronics Circuits

Always having Research & Development (R&D) in precedence, developing new equipment and
systems applying advanced technologies and tracing developing technologies are Aselsans objectives.
With this vision, R&D has reached a level to compete with other companies in international arena.
The prototype for the Target Acquisition System to be integrated to the Bayku Thermal Camera
System in the Turkish Armed Forces inventory has been completed and prepared for the serial production
stage. The engineering and design effort for the Ground Laser Target Designator/Ranger, a requirement
by the Turkish Air Forces to be used together with the Laser-Guided Bombs has continued.
A fast prototyping workshop is established and integrated in to the CAD/CAM network. Full
automation in design and manufacture of parts for investment casting and plastic injection processes are
achieved.
By using Chip & Wire technology, the design and production capabilities for hybrid microcircuits
devices in metal and ceramic packaged forms have been achieved for a semi-conductor packaging and
Multi-Chip Modules (MCM) technologies.
In order to fulfil the avionic equipment requirements by the Turkish Armed Forces, 1997 was a
year in which Aselsan obtained the expected results of the efforts spent in this area. These avionics
equipment can be installed on almost all kinds of aircrafts, including UAVs. Not only does Aselsan fulfil the
strategic requirements of the Turkish Armed Forces, but also has a high potential for exporting the above
mentioned equipment. The project work carried out on the ASELFLIR-200 Gyro-Stabilized II. Generation
Airborne Thermal Imaging System and the LN100G GPS embedded Ring Laser Gyroscope Inertial
Navigation System had been completed in 1996. 1997 started with the production and the engineering
investments of these equipment and continued into 1998 in a status ready for production. A contract
signed with the Undersecretariet for Defense Industries in 1997 is based on the procurement of the
ASELFLIR-200 and LN100G equipment used for the Cougar helicopters needed for the Turkish Land and
Air Forces.
The Phase-I delivery of LN-93 Ring Laser Inertial Navigation Systems produced for Peace Onyx-II
F-16 Program had been completed and deliveries for Phase-II started. In addition to this, a contract was
signed for the exportation of 20 LN-93 model RLG/INS devices to the USA. Aselsans application made to
the US Government for a qualified source in LN-93 project resulted with receiving a Qualified Source
Certificate.
Furthermore, Aselsan has entered into the field of manufacturing sophisticated Multi Function
Display Equipment embedded with moving map feature. A future advancement to this capability is total
avionic integration. It is of great importance that the high-tech equipment and systems produced maintain
their reliability and precision and be in contrast use throughout their lifetime. In order to meet this
objective, Logistic Support Plans were made to support the maintenance and repair of products and
comprehensive training provided to the customers. Visits were made to the sites with customer
representatives where the equipment were used where equipment failures were evaluated at site and
preventative measures initiated. The Gendarme General Command has acquired the ability for third and
fourth level maintenance and repair of equipment regarding the Bayku Thermal Camera and its
accessories. A similar contract has been signed with Turkish Land Forces Command for the Bayku and
Night Vision equipment.
Aselsan participated in the working group of the Union of Chambers & Commodity Exchanges of
Turkey (TOBB) regarding CALS which is one of the methods for the exchange of electronic information for
logistical purposes.
Intensive on-the-job seminars and skill training programs are being conducted according to the
international and military standards to refresh the skills and recertify the employees in the MGEO Division.
In addition, end users and customer training are carried out for maintenance and repair of the delivered
systems. Hence, efficient and effective utilization of such equipment is ensured.

Brief history of the company

Aselsan was founded by Turkish Armed Forces Foundation at the end of 1975 to
produce tactical military radios and defense systems for Turkish Army.
The first decisions taken at the foundation stage were:
-Aselsan will be a facility, which is more developed than the other European factories.
-The board of directors and auditors will be the young university graduated persons .
-Construction

will be started immediately and the facility will be functional in two years.

-The first production will be started with foreign licensed.


-In order to improve the design of the new equipment a powerful Research and
Development division will be established.
-Every year our facilities will be improved, at the end a powerful Defensive Electronic
Industry will be established and Aselsan have a part in NATO projects.
-Turkey will become an exporting country rather than an importing country in the
Defensive Electronics.
In 1978 Aselsan signed a contract with Turkish Armed Forces for tactical radio
family.
In early 1979 following an investment and infrastructure establishment period,
Aselsan started its production, at Macunkoy Ankara facilities.
In 1980 the production of VHF/FM fixed frequency and frequency hopping tactical
radio family. At the beginning Aselsan made some sales contracts with DSI, PETKIM,
ERDEMIR and Karayollar Genel Mudurlugu.
In 1981 Aselsan designed its first hand-hold radios and bank alarm systems.
1983 was the year of the first exportation, Iran was the first customer. Aselsan exports
amount reaches approximately to 22% of its total sales. By the end of 1983, Aselsan
had 1434 personnel including 186 engineers. Between 1983-19858 Aselsan enlarged its

product spectrum. TBX exchange systems, field telephones and laser range finders
were among the new products.
Aselsan contributed to the defense power of the Turkish Armed Forces by its
Electronic Warfare and Data Terminals in 1986. The production of Stinger missiles and
F-16 aircraft first appeared in Turkey at the end of 1986. The production of INS (Inertial
navigation system) which one of the most important parts of F-16 aircrafts and the thick
film hybrid circuits of Stinger missiles were undertook by Aselsan. In 1988, Aselsan
produced the first avionic equipment; INS for F-16 aircraft. Aselsan quality system was
certified in accordance with AQAP-4 standards. Electronic Proximity Fuze contract
signed with mod in this year.
In 1989 Aselsan realized the first technology transfer to Pakistan. In this year
combat area tactical radios production started in NRTC facilities in Pakistan under
Aselsans license.
In 1990 Aselsan became 47th of the European Defense Electronics Companies.
Field artillery battery fire control systems and TV transmitter productions started.
Aselsan had 2000 personnel including 330 engineers.
In 1991 Aselsan was reorganized under 3 divisions as Communication Division,
Microwave and System Technologies Division and Electro-Optics Division.
Aselsan was chosen as the 127 th of the world defense companies by the
International Defense Magazine. Aselsan, by its treatment facilities, won the prize of the
best company, which cares for its environment.
In 1992 the Radar Systems were added to the product spectrum of Aselsan. TQM
implementations have accelerated since 1992.

In 1993 Aselsan made a big achievement by establishing the Electro Optics


Technology Center at Akyurt Facilities. Aselsan quality systems were certified in
accordance with ISO-9001 standards. Moreover in 1994 the AQAP-4 certificate at
Aselsan quality system was revised as AQAP-1 standards. Have quick radio production
started.
In 1995 in order to improve the customer services Aselsan established regional
directorates. The first abroad company was established as Aselsan-Baku in Azerbaijan
in 1998. In 1995 Aselsan engineers completed design activities of Aselsans first
consumer product, the mobile phone. Aselsan increased its exports to 19 countries. The
railway transport system project in Power Electronics area started.
In 1996 Aselsan quality system was revised as AQAP-110 standards. TASMUS
contract was signed.
In 1997 with its mobile phone-1919 which is completely designed by Aselsans
engineers. Turkey has taken its position among the first nine countries, which designed
its own mobile phone.
Today, together with its more than 2600 employees, including 700 qualified
engineers, Aselsan has become the leading electronics company of Turkey, sustaining
its competitiveness in the new international markets.

PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES IN THE FACTORY


FORMING OPERATIONS
Bending: Bending is the plastic deformation of the metals about a linear axis with
little or no change in the surface area by stressing the metal above its yield strength but
not larger than its ultimate tensile stress. When multiple bends are made simultaneously
with the use of a die, the process is sometimes called forming. For a given sheet
thickness h, tensile and compressive strains increase with decreasing forming radius
Rb. Thus, plastic, irreversible bending differs from elastic, reversible bending in that the
bend radius must be small enough to bring much of the sheet cross section into the
state of plastic flow. The various bend axes can be at angles to each other, but each axis

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must be linear and independent of the others for the process to be classified as a true
bending operation and be treatable by simple bending theory. If the axes of deformation
are not linear or are not independent, the process becomes one of drawing and/or
stretching, not bending. Characteristic of this process is stretching (tensile elongation)
imposed on the outer surface and compression on the inner surface. Since the yield
strength of metals in compression is somewhat higher than the yield strength in tension,
the metal on the outer side yields first, and the neutral axis is displaced from the center
of the two surfaces. In fact, the neutral axis is generally located between one third and
one half of the way from the inner surface, the precise location depending upon the
bend radius and the material. Because of the preferred tensile deformation, the metal is
thinned somewhat at the bend, the thinning being more pronounced in the center of the
sheet where the material cannot freely pull in along the axis of the bend.
Concerning the inner side of the bend, it is possible for the compressive forces to
introduce upsetting, which would cause the material to become longer in the direction
parallel to the bend axis. This effect can become quite pronounced in the bending of
thick, narrow pieces.
Still another consequence of the condition of combined tension and compression
is the tendency of the metal to unbend somewhat after forming, a phenomenon known
as springback. To form a desired angle, metals must be overbent in such a way that
upon springback, the material assumes the desired shape of the product.
Angle bending: A bar folder can be used to make angle bends up to 150 in
sheet metal under in. thick. The sheet of metal is inserted under the folding leaf and
moved to proper position. Raising the handle then actuates a cam, causing the leaf to
clamp the sheet. Further motion of the handle then bends the metal to the desired angle.
Bar folders are manually operated and are usually less than 12 feet (4 meters) long.
Bends in heavier sheet or more complex bends in thin material are generally
made on press brakes. These are mechanically or hydraulically driven presses with a

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long, narrow bed and relatively slow, short, adjustable strokes. The metal is bent
between interchangeable dies that are attached to the bed and the ram. Different dies
can be used to produce many types of bends. The metal can be fed inward between
successive strokes to produce various repeated bends, such as corrugation. Seaming,
embossing, punching, and other operations can also be performed by inserting suitable
dies into press brakes, but these operations can usually be done more efficiently on
other types of equipment when the volume is sufficient to justify their use.
Shearing: Shearing is the mechanical cutting of materials without the formation
of chips by placing the sheet between two edges of the shearing tools. When the blades
are straight, the process is called shearing. When the blade geometry is curved, as in
the edges of punches and dies, the process have special names, such as blanking,
piercing, notching and trimming. All of these are essentially shearing operations,
however.
A simple type of shearing process is that the punch descends against the
workpiece then the metal is first deformed plastically into the die. Because the clearance
between the two tools is only 5% to 10% of the thickness of the metal being cut, the
deformation is highly localized. The punch penetrates into the metal, the material flows
into the die, and the opposite surface bulges slightly. When penetration reaches about
15% to 60% of thickness of the metal, the amount depending upon the material ductility
and strength, the applied stress exceeds the shear stress and the metal suddenly
shears or ruptures through the remainder of its thickness.
Because of the normal nonhomogeneities in a metal and the possibility of nonuniform clearance between the shear blades, the final shearing does not occur
uniformly. Fracture and tearing start at the weakest points and proceed progressively
and intermittently to the next stronger locations. The result is a rough and ragged
sheared edge.

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If the punch and die have proper clearance and are maintained in good condition,
sheared edges may be produced that are sufficiently smooth to use without further
finishing. The quality of the sheared edge can be further improved if the strip stock is
clamped firmly against the die from above, the punch and die are maintained with proper
clearance and alignment, and the movement of the piece through the die is restrained by
an opposing plunger or rubber die cushion applying pressure from below the workpiece.
These measures cause the shearing to take place uniformly around the edge rather than
randomly at the weakest points. The major processing parameters in shearing are the
shape and materials for the punch and die, the speed of punching, lubrication and the
clearance between the punch and die.

MACHINING OPERATIONS

Turning: This process consists of machining an external cylindrical surface with a


single-point tool while the workpiece is rotating and with the tool moving parallel to the axis
of the workpiece at a prescribed depth and speed, to remove the outer surface of the
workpiece. It is usually performed on a lathe. If the tool is fed at an angle to the axis of
rotation, an external conical surface results. This is called taper turning.

Turning constitutes the majority of lathe work. The cutting forces, resulting from
feeding the tool from right to left, should be directed toward the headstock to force the
workpiece against the workholder and thus provide better work support.
If food finish and accurate size are desired, one or more roughing cuts usually are
followed by one or more finishing cuts. Roughing cuts may be as heavy as proper chip
thickness, tool life, lathe horsepower and the workpiece permit. Large depths of cut and

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smaller feeds are preferred to the reserve procedure, because fewer cuts are required and
less time is lost in reserving the carriage and resetting the tool for the following cut.
Boring: Boring always involves the enlarging of an existing hole, which may have
been made by a drill or may be the result of a core in a casting. An equally important, and
concurrent, purpose of boring may be to make the hole concentric with the axis of rotation
of the workpiece and thus correct any eccentricity that may have resulted from the drills
having drifted off the center line. Concentricity is an important attribute of bored holes.
Boring can be made on horizontal, vertical or angular machines as long as the
machine design provides the inherent rigidity and accuracy to produce the tolerances
required. Considerable boring is done on the various types of lathes and also performed
on some drilling machines. Applications of boring can be divided into heavy cutting and
precision operations. Heavy boring is generally done on large horizontal and vertical
boring machines. Precision boring is performed on machines specially designed for this
purpose. These machines generally take relatively light cuts, maintain close tolerances
and often capable of high production rates. Operations often performed with precision
boring in the same cycle include facing, turning and grooving. Machines are sometimes
arranged for accurate milling operations.
When boring is done in a lathe, the work usually is held in a chuck or on a face
plate. Holes may be bored straight, tapered, or to irregular contours. Boring is essentially
internal turning while feeding the tool parallel to the rotation axis of the workpiece.
Facing: Facing is the producing of a flat surface as the result of a tools being fed
across the end of the rotating workpiece. Unless the work is held on a mandrel, if both end
of the work are to be faced, it must be turned end for end after the first end is completed
and the facing operation repeated.

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The cutting speed should be determined from the largest diameter of the surface to
be faced. Facing may be done either from outside inward or from the center outward. In
either case, the point of the tool must be set exactly at the height of the center of rotation.
In facing, the tool feeds perpendicular to the axis of rotating workpiece. Because the
rpm is constant, the speed is continually decreasing as the axis is approached.
Knurling: Knurling produces a regularly shaped, roughened surface on a
workpiece. Although knurling also can be done on other machine tools, even on flat
surfaces, in mot cases it is done on external cylindrical surfaces using lathes. Knurling is a
chipless, cold-forming process. The two hardened rolls are pressed against the rotating
workpiece with sufficient force to cause a slight outward and lateral displacement of the
metal so as to form the knurling in a raised, diamond pattern.
Tapping: Internal threads in workpieces can be produced by tapping. A tap is a
basically a threading tool with multiple cutting teeth. Taps are generally available with three
or four flutes. Chip removal can be a significant problem during tapping because of the
small clearances involved. If chips are not removed properly, the resulting excessive
forces can break the tap.
Drilling: It is basically the production or enlarging of holes by the relative motion of
a cutting tool and the workpiece which produce chips. The cutting tool, the workpiece or
both may rotate with the tool generally being fed. Several methods of drilling exist,
including conventional, deep-hole and small hole drilling. While drilling is fast and
economical, its cutting action is difficult and inefficient. Cutting speed varies from a
maximum at the periphery of the tool to zero at the center of the tool, thus varying the load
on the cutting edges. Both chip rejection and flow of the cutting fluid are restricted in
drilling. In addition, the production of small, deep holes can create problems with respect
to the necessary rigidity of the tools.
Cutting tools for drilling are rotary end cutting tools having one or more cutting lips
and one or more helical or straight flutes for the passage of the chips and the admission of

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the cutting fluid. The most common are helical fluted twist drills with various shanks and tip
geometries. Other types include half-round, coolant-hole, spade and indexable insert drills.
Gundrills, pressure-coolant drills and trepanning tools are used extensively for precision
and deep hole operations. So-called pivot drills are used for small holes. Drilling is a
complex three-dimensional cutting operation with conditions varying along the entire
cutting edge. While the outer edge of the drill produces chips by shearing, workpiece
material under the chisel edge of the tool is subject to more severe deformation, thus
requiring greater thrust forces. Chip thickness, which varies with the feed rate, also has a
major influence on the chip formation. Increasing the feed, in turn the chip thickness,
minimizes the possibility of the flute clogging from coiled chips. Maximum feed, however, is
limited by the structural strength of the drill and the capacity of the machine.
The accuracy of any hole produced by drilling depends upon many factors, like the
type of the drilling process, the workpiece, the tool and the machine used, operating
parameters and the rigidity of the setup. Accuracy is also dependent upon the sharpness
and the geometry of the drill point.
Drilling has little effect on the physical properties of the workpiece. There is a thin
layer of highly stressed material around the drilled hole, which is often removed, the
surfaces may be more susceptible to corrosion. Clamping of workpieces for drilling may
also result in distortion.
Milling: Milling is a basic machining process by which a surface is generated
progressively by the removal of chips from a workpiece fed into a rotating cutter in a
direction perpendicular to the axis of the cutter. It is indispensable for the manufacture of
parts of non-rotational symmetry. In nearly all cases, a multiple tooth cutter is used so that
the material removal rate is high. Often the desired surface is obtained in a single pass of
the cutter or work and, because very good surface finish can be obtained, milling is
particularly well suited to and widely used for mass-production work. Several types of
milling machines are used, ranging from relatively simple and versatile machines that are
used for general purpose machining in job shops and tool-and-die work to highly
specialized machines for mass production. Unquestionably, milling than any other

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machining process produces more flat surfaces. The cutting tool used in milling is known
as a milling cutter.
Milling operation can be classified into two broad categories called peripheral milling
and face milling.
In peripheral milling the surface is generated by teeth located on the periphery of
the cutter body. The surface is parallel with the axis of rotation of the cutter. Both flat and
formed surfaces can be produced by this method, the cross section of the resulting
surface corresponding to the axial contour of the cutter. This process is often called slap
milling and is usually performed on horizontal spindle machines.
In face milling and end milling, the generated surface is at right angles to the cutter
axis. Most of the cutting is done by the peripheral portions of the teeth, with the face
portions providing some finishing action. Face milling is done on both horizontal-spindle
and vertical-spindle machines.
In milling, surfaces can be generated by two distinctly different methods; up milling
and down milling. up milling is the traditional way to mill and is called conventional milling.
The cutter rotates against the direction of the workpiece. In climb or down milling, the
rotation is in the same direction as the feed. The method of chip formation is completely
different in the two cases. In up milling the chip is very thin at the beginning, and increases
in thickness becoming a maximum where the tooth leaves the work.
In down milling, maximum chip thickness occurs close to the point at which the
tooth contacts the work. Because the relative motion tends to pull the workpiece into the
cutter, any possibility of looseness in the table feed screw must be eliminated if down
milling is to be used. It should never be attempted on machines that are not designed for
this type of milling.

17

Sawing: Sawing is a cutting operation in which the cutting tool is a blade having a
series of small teeth, with each tooth removing a small amount of material. This process is
used for all metallic and nonmetallic materials that are machinable by other cutting
processes and is capable of producing various shapes. Because sections of considerable
size can be severed from the workpiece with the removal of only small amount of the
material in the form of chips, sawing is probably the most economical of the basic
machining processes with respect to the waste of material and power consumption, and in
many cases with respect to labor.
Filing: Basically, the metal-removing action in filing is the same as in sawing, in that
chips are removed by cutting teeth that are arranged in succession along the same plane
on the surface of a tool, called a file. There are two differences; (1) the chips are very
small and therefore the cutting action is slow and easily controlled, and (2) the cutting
teeth are much wider. Consequently, fine and accurate work can be done.
JOINING OPERATIONS
Gas Metal Arc Welding: Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), formerly known as MIG
welding (for metal inert-gas), was a logical outgrowth of gas tungsten arc welding. The
process is similar, but the arc is now maintained between the workpiece and an
automatically fed, consumable wire electrode.
Argon, helium, and mixtures of the two can be used for welding virtually any metal,
they are used primarily with the nonferrous metals. In welding steel, some O 2 or CO2 is
usually added to improve the arc stability and reduce weld spatter. The cheaper CO 2 can
be used alone in welding steel, provided that a deoxidizing electrode wire is employed.
The specific shielding gases can have considerable effect on the nature of metal
transfer from the electrode to the work and also affect the heat transfer behavior,
penetration, and tendency for undercutting (weld pool extending laterally beneath the
surface of the base metal). Several types of electronic controls can be used to alter the

18

waveform of the current. This makes it possible to control the mechanism of metal transfer,
from drops, to spray, to short-circuiting drops. Some of these variations include pulsed arc
welding (GMAW-P), short-circuiting arc welding (GMAW-S), and spray transfer welding
(GMAW-ST). Buried arc welding (GMAW-B) is another variation in which carbon dioxiderich gas is used and the arc is buried in its own crater.
Gas metal arc welding is fast and economical because there is no frequent
changing of electrodes, as with stick-type electrodes. In addition, there is no slag formed
over the weld, the process can be readily automated, and, if done manually, the welding
head is relatively light and compact. A reverse-polarity DC arc is generally used because
of its deep penetrated, spray transfer, and smooth welds with good profile. Process
variables include type of current, current magnitude, shielding gas, type of metal transfer,
electrode diameter, electrode composition, electrode stickout (extension beyond the gun),
welding speed, welding voltage, and arc length.
A number of industrial robots are now available to perform gas metal arc welding.
To function properly, however, the computer electronics of these robots must be shielded
from the high-frequency interference of the welding process.
Spot Welding: Spot welding is making spots between two pieces of metal without
requiring access to both sides of the joint. The duration of arcing is automatically timed so
that the two workpieces are heated sufficiently to form an acceptable spot weld. The depth
and size of the weld nugget are controlled by the amperage, time, and type of shielding
gas

FINISHING OPERATIONS

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Sand Blasting: In sand blasting, the abrasive is carried by an air stream or water
stream and strikes the surface at a high velocity. It removes scale, burrs-light fins and rust.
The abrasive is propelled by paddles which throw the grit onto the work either by
centrifugal action or by a blast of air which picks up the abrasive and carries it through the
pipe or hose on through a nozzle. This process economically cleans castings and welded
steel parts.
Hand (Manual) Deburring: It is an operation in which a handled deburring tool is
used or in which a handled part is placed against a fixtured tool. Hand deburring is still
used extensively eventhough it is slow, labor intensive and costly and often provides less
consistent results than desired. Advantages of hand deburring include the versatility of the
process and minimal capital investment.
Grinding: Grinding is a chip removal process and the cutting tool is an individual
abrasive grain. The major differences between grain and single-point cutting tool actions
are that individual grains have irregular shapes and are spaced randomly along the
periphery of the whell. The average rake angle of the grains is highly negative. Each
abrasive grain removes a small chip. These chips are much smaller than those obtained in
metal cutting operations in general. Furthermore, because of deformation, the actual chip
will be shorter and thicker than the calculated values. Because of small dimensions
involved, forces in grinding are much smaller than those in cutting operations. Grinding
forces should be kept low in order to avoid distortion and to maintain dimensional accuracy
of the workpiece.

MACHINES IN THE MACHINESHOP

20

(The technical information of the machines are given at Appendix)


Baykal Guillotine: This is a very simple cutting machine. It is very simple to use
and control. In the machineshop, it is used for cutting small and thin sheet materials. It has
a hand-operated arm.
Baykal Bending Brake: This bending brake is usually used to form sheet
materials. Unlike the other bending brakes, it can be used for quite large size sheets. It
has immediate and very simple control. This bending brake can carry out forming and
straightening. Also it is very rigid, accurate and rapid. Moreover it has a fixed bottom
beam, a return tonnage, a long stroke and a great distance between top-beam and
bottom-beam.
Aciera ET3 Precision Tapping Machine: This is a precision tapping machine that
is suitable for sensitive, small tapping work and has a sensitive clutch that enables the
machine to be used in micro mechanics. The spindle, driven via a two-step pulley, is
running in bronze bearings. The machine has an adjustable tapping depth and the tapping
device operates by means of friction cone couplings. These couplings can be adjusted
flexibly so that it can also be used for making precision components and clock making.
The top of the machine can be swiveled between column and motor, in this way the base
can be used as a second table. The driving motor can be moved on the based to tighten
the belt. The additional technical data is given in Appendix B.
Aciera 13 T1E Sensitive Drilling Machine: This machine is a small high speed
machine consists of an upright standard, a horizontal table and a vertical spindle for
holding and rotating the drill. The machine is usually hand-fed, by means of a rack and
pinion drive on the sleeve holding the rotating spindle. The machine is driven by vibration
free polyflex belts. It is ideal for precision drilling and tapping of light works.
Sahin Upright Drilling Machine: This machine is a precision drilling and tapping
machine that is designed to be used in heavier work with respect to the sensitive drilling

21

Machine. It is driven by an adjustably V-belt variator and reduction gearbox. The depth
stop can be adjusted. Six automatic drilling feeds for this type enables quick change of the
tools.
Tezsan MAS 165 S Lathe: This machine is used to generate forms by removing
material with one single-point cutting tool. It can make several different operations like
drilling, reaming, boring, tapping and grinding by using some accessories and
attachments. The cutting tool both transverses the axis of the workpiece revolution and an
angle to that axis.
Knuth Trolcut 430 C6243A CNC Lathe: This kind of machines are applied in the
industry because of their capabilities for increasing productivity, reducing the cost of the
machined parts and providing more production flexibility. They enable faster setups,
reduced tool changing requirements and increased utilization, in turn higher productivity.
Higher horse power, spindle speeds and feed rates cause faster metal removal rates. The
availability of more tools minimizes tool changing requirements and often reduces or
eliminates the need for preliminary or secondary operations. Greater accuracy,
repeatability and reliability of the machine has improved the quality of the parts produced.
Bridgeport Vertical Milling Machine: This milling machine has three movements
afforded by the knee, saddle and table. Also the table can be swiveled with respect to the
saddle. The versatility of the machine allows the milling head to be moved into any position
relative to the table and workpiece. A second head mounted on the opposite end of the
ram could be used by rotating the turret through 180, it can machine an area larger than
the table. Maximum strength and rigidity under cut is ensured by the construction of the
major castings and the extra wide slideways. The independent motor drive enables the
head to be fitted to other conventional milling machines and special purpose machine
tools. It has also a Heidenhain 2-axes digital read-out system.

22

Knuth MFI CNC Milling Machine: This machine provides controls for two axes, X,
Y (Z axes manual). It can make drilling, tapping, milling. It has quite more accurate results
than the Bridgeport milling machines.
Uzay 330 Sawing Machine: It is used for cutting thick materials. It is easy to use
and control. It has wide range of use. This sawing machine can cut several types of
materials. The table including the the cutting speed of the machine is given at Appendix.
Uzay UM-2 Sawing Machine: It is much smaller than Uzay 330, but it is easy to
use and control. It is used for cutting small plates, bars and other small sectioned
materials.
Zero Sand Blasting Machine: This machine is one of the machines that make
finishing operations in the machineshop. Sand granules are used to clean the surface of
the workpiece. The surface finishing of all previously machined workpieces is made at that
machine. Finally these workpieces are send to the quality check.
Double Grinding Machine: This machine has two grinding wheels. One is used for
rough surfaces. The other is used for more thin surfaces.

SAMPLE WORKPIECES
Support Fixture

23

The support fixture is a test fixture to hold energy-meter used in Hekos project of
Aselsan.
The material used in production of fixture is aluminum. The first operation, cutting
was done in Uzay 330 sawing machine. Then in Bridgeport vertical milling machine the
external boundaries of the fixture was machined. After this process, the workpiece was
sent to the Knuth MFI CNC milling machine to machine the inner part of the work. Also
the fillet of the inner surface was done in Knuth CNC milling machine with R10mm
milling tool. Moreover, in Knuth CNC milling machine the outer chamfer and the corner
section of the workpiece were machined. Finally deburring and sand blasting in Zero
sand blasting machine were applied to the surface of the workpiece. At the end of all
processes the machined fixture was sent to the Quality Department to ensure that the
workpiece was correctly machined due to the dimensions. After quality check the
support fixture was put in production.
Holding Fixture
The holding fixture is again a test fixture used in Hekos fixture. It is used to hold
the targeting plate of the project.
The holding fixture is made from 3XX stainless steel. The part was again cut in
Uzay 330 sawing machine to get the needed section of the steel. The important
operation of this workpiece was applied in Knuth Trolcut 430 C6243A CNC lathe. In this
machine the external cylindrical surface was obtained. Then the workpiece was sent to
the Sahin upright drilling machine to machine the internal details. The hole was drilled in
that machine. After this operation the workpiece was sent to the Aciera ET3 precision
tapping machine. The tap drill was drilled in this machine and also the threads were
opened with M4 tap. Finally, deburring and sand blasting operations were applied to the
fixture. At the end of all these processes the holding fixture were sent to the Quality
Department. If department will approve the documents of the fixture, fixture will put in
use.

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Adapter Plate
The adapter plate is used in the project of II.generation Thermal Gunner Sights. It
is a general-purpose device.
The material used was Aluminum 6061. From a small block of aluminum, the
proper part was cut in Uzay 330 sawing machine. Then, the workpiece was sent to the
Bridgeport vertical milling machine to machine the external part of the fixture. Also in
Bridgeport vertical milling machine the surface was cleaned and the accurate external
dimensions were obtained. In Bridgeport milling machine the chamfers were made. After
the milling operation the fixture was sent to the Aciera 13 T1E sensitive drilling machine
to machine the holes. The R6mm hole was drilled in that machine. The next operation
was tapping and this operation was applied in Aciera ET3 precision tapping machine.
First, the tap drill was opened and then M10 thread was opened. Again the workpiece
was sent to the Zero sand blasting machine for cleaning the surface. Finally, the adapter
fixture was sent to the Quality Department.
Base Plate
The base plate is used to calibrate the CMM. The base plate holds the master
blocks to be measured by the CMM.
In the production of the base plate aluminum 6061 was used. The first operation
is cutting in Uzay 330 sawing machine. Then the workpiece was sent to the Bridgeport
vertical milling machine to obtain the correct thickness and the other external
dimensions. The next machine was Tezsan MAS 165 S lathe. In the Tezsan lathe the
cylindrical part was machined with a single point cutting tool. After this process
workpiece was again sent to Bridgeport Vertical milling machine for marking the centers
of the holes. After marking plate was sent to Sahin upright drilling machine to open the
R10mm drill to the cylindrical part. Then the R3.5mm and R2.5mm drills were opened in

25

Aciera 13 T1E drilling machine. The last operation was again deburring and sand
blasting in Zero sand blasting machine. Finally, as in all workpieces the base plate was
sent to the Quality Department.
Lens Holding Fixture
The lens holding fixture is used in again Hekos project of Aselsan's MGEO
division.
The Aluminum 6061 block is used in production. The aluminum block was first cut
in Uzay 330 sawing machine. Then it was sent to Bridgeport vertical milling machine to
machine the external surfaces and the radial details(with R8 drill). The workpiece was
mounted to the Tezsan MAS 165 S lathe. The outer cylindrical part was machined in that
lathe. Again in Bridgeport vertical milling machine the marking of the centers were
applied. The next machine is Sahin upright drilling machine. In this machine 20mm was
drilled. Then the fixture was sent to the Aciera 13 T1E sensitive drilling machine. The
6mm and M5 were drilled in this machine. Finally, the finishing operations, deburring and
sand blasting, were applied to the workpiece. Then the lens holding fixture was sent to
the Quality Department.

COST ANALYSIS OF SAMPLE WORKPIECES

26

27

CONCLUSION
The summer practice program for mechanical engineering has a great
importance for third year students. The theoretical knowledge of the student is improved
with the practical applications of these learnt in previous lectures. Another advantage of
ME300 summer practice program is the relationships between the engineers,
technicians, workers and students. The students become more familiar to the working
ambiance and the working life of the company.
The first thing learned is the working principles of the company. Also the duties
and the responsibilities of the engineers in the Production Engineering Department. The
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procedures of design, production, documentation etc. are easily inspected during this
summer practice program in the company.
The machineshop of the factory is also useful for me. In this machineshop I saw
the working of some machines. Also I saw the machining of the workpieces in this
machines. I got detailed informations about the working principles of them. By the help
of the technicians I learned the critical parameters of the machines.
In addition to this, the production of a workpiece, from the selection of the material
to the necessary modifications done, from the selection of the machines and cutting tools
to the workers performance, from the routings prepared to the quality controls done and
from the transportation to the marketing.
Moreover, during this summer practice program I improved my MS Office
knowledge and also I learned a CAD program called AutoCAD R-14. It is the most widely
used one in the company. AutoCAD is used in almost all designs. It is an easy method to
create some complicated drawings.
The maintenance and production division is a new division for Aselsan. Because of
this the machines in machineshop are not so good but enough for small sized productions
in the company. The machines, also the CNC machines can be improved in order to
increase the production

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APPENDIX
LIST OF THE MACHINES

Name
machine
Baykal

of

theNumber

Name

of

theNumber

cutting 1

machine
Uzay 330 sawing 1

machine
Baykal
bending 1

machine
Bridgeport milling 3

machine
Aciera

machine
Zero

ET3 1

tapping machine

sand 1

blasting machine

30

Aciera

13TIE 1

Baykal

spot 1

drilling machine
Sahin
upright 1

welding machine
Uzay
UM-2 1

drilling machine
Tezsan
engine 1

sawing machine

lathe
Knuth

Trolcut 1

CNC lathe
Knuth MFI CNC 1
milling machine

TECHNICAL INFORMATION OF THE MACHINES


Aciera ET3 Precision Tapping Machine
Tapping depth.................................................................24mm
Diameter of spindle.........................................................12mm
Collet chuck(shank diameter)............................................6mm
Spindle speeds....(at 1400rpm motor)........................1250 rpm
(at 2800rpm motor)........................2500rpm
Motor performance....(at 1400rpm)...............................0.18kW
(at 2800rpm)..............................0.37kW
Net weight........................................................................28kgs

Aciera 13 T1E Sensitive Drilling Machine


Total travel........................................................100mm (3.94)

31

Drilling depth.................................................0-60mm (0-2.36)


Rapid approach stroke.........................25-80mm (0.98-3.15)
Working feed rate....................................................0-3.5m/min
Rapid approach rate......................................................5m/min
Maximum drilling capacity (45 ton steel)..........................13mm
Pressure on the drill..................................................30daN/bar
Minimum clearance between two drilling heads..........320mm
Motor.........................................................1400rpm and 0.6HP
2800rpm and 0.9HP
Six spindle speeds between.................................350-5000rpm
700-10000rpm
Self clamping drill chuck capacity................................1-13mm
Key tightening chuck capacity...................................0.5-13mm

Sahin Upright Drilling Machine

Drilling capacity in 600daN/mm......................................32mm


Tapping capacity in 600daN/mm.......................................M18
Quill stroke....................................................................200mm
Quill diameter..................................................................65mm
Drilling head travel.........................................................300mm
Motor (Three-phase)............................................1400rpm
Motor power.............................................................2.2kW
Spindle speeds with reduction gearbox....................40-560rpm
in direct drive...............................275-3600rpm
Usable table surface..............................................320*600mm
Weight ..........................................................740kg

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Knuth Trolcut 430 C6243A CNC Lathe


General Capacity

Swing over bad430mm


Swing over gap660mm
Swing over cross slide270mm
Distance between centers1000mm

Main Spindle

Type of spindle nose..D1-6 or A1-6


Main spindle bore...58mm
Taper of spindle bore...M.T.NO.6
Taper of center..M.T.NO.4
Spindle speeds.50-1800rpm 12 steps

Carriage

Cross slide travel..215mm


Compound rest travel...125mm
Maximum size cutting tool.25mm*25mm

Tailstock

Spindle diameter.58mm
Spindle travel 150mm
Taper of center...M.T.NO.4

Bed

Bed length1860mm

33

Bed width330mm
Bed height.300mm

Power

Main drive motor5.5kw


Coolant pump motor90w

Weight and overall dimensions

Floor dimension.2240*1000mm
Approximate weight1600kg
Packing measurement...(m)2.3*1.0*1.5

Bridgeport Vertical Milling Machine

Stroke around X-axis675mm(power feed)


.760mm(manual feed)
Stroke around Y-axis.305mm
Stroke around Z-axis.405mm
Maximum spindle speed.3750rpm
Table size1065mm*230mm

Tezsan MAS 165 S Lathe

Diameter admitted above bed500mm

above support 270mm(on the support)

Distance between the centers500mm

34

Spindle speed22-1800rpm
Number of revolution of feed rod.13
Net weight.250kg
Motor power..5.5kw
Uzay 330 Sawing Machine
Sawing capacity(circular)280mm
(rectangular)250*280mm
(square)260*260mm
Saw length.25*0.9*3660mm
Sawing speeds(5)21-84m/min
Main motor power.1.1kw
Hydraulic motor power0.18kw
Penetration motor power0.18kw
Cooling pump...0.12kw
Dimensions..1900*1350*1200mm
Weight500kg

Knuth MFI CNC Milling Machine


Table dimensions..1220*230mm
Motions x-/ y-axes820/305mm
Mill.SK/ISO 30
Feed Motion0-600mm/min
High speed motionmax. 2000m/min
Positioning tolerances.0.04mm

35

Motion length.170-476mm
Main motor power2.2kw
Dimensions (H*W*L).2088*1600*2000mm
Weight1000kg

Baykal Bending Machine


Work length.1200mm
Sheet thickness.1.5mm
Length..1380mm
Width.1000mm
Height..980mm
Weight..120kg

Baykal Guillotine
Maximum sheet thickness.1.5mm
Work length1040mm
Table dimensions..600*1300mm
Support..0-600mm
Height.1500mm
Width...1000mm
Length..1300mm

36

Weight..500kg

Double Grinding Machine


Motor (220v).250W
Disc150*20*25
UpM3000
Weight.10.5kg

37

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