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Probability Concepts

Marie Diener-West, PhD

Johns Hopkins University

Section A

Definitions and Examples

What Is Probability?

**Probability provides a measure of the uncertainty (or
**

certainty) associated with the occurrence of events or

outcomes

Probability is useful in exploring and quantifying relationships

4

**What Do We Mean by “Probability of 1 in 14 Million”?
**

**Winning the Maryland Lottery
**

Heads every time in 24 tosses of a coin

350 people in the world with a characteristic

17 people in the United States with a characteristic

5

Useful Set Notation and Definitions A set is a collection of objects The objects in a set are called the elements of the set The joint occurrence of two sets (the intersection) contains the common elements Two sets are mutually exclusive if the sets have no common elements 6 .

A and B. A ∩ B 7 . is another set which consists of the common elements of both A and B (all elements belonging to both A and B) The intersection is the joint occurrence of A and B Notation: A and B.Intersection of Sets The intersection of two sets.

Example of an Intersection of Events 40 women (characteristic A) 30 individuals aged 30 or older (characteristic B) Suppose we are told that there are 20 women aged 30 years or older The intersection of sets A and B is the set of 20 women aged 30 or older (A and B) − The intersection is the joint occurrence of individuals who are women and of age 30 years or older 8 .

A and B.Example of Mutually Exclusive Events 60 women aged 60 or older (characteristic A) 20 women aged less than 60 (characteristic B) The intersection of the two sets. the two age groups are mutually exclusive) because individuals cannot belong to both age groups at the same time 9 .g.. is empty because a woman cannot belong to both age groups Sets A and B are mutually exclusive (e.

A and B. A ∪ B 10 . is another set which consists of all elements belonging to set A or to set B (or some may belong to both sets) Notation: A or B.Union of Sets The union of two sets.

Example of a Union of Events 40 women (characteristic A) 30 individuals aged 30 or older (characteristic B) The intersection of sets A and B is the set of 20 women aged 30 or over (A and B) Sets A and B total to 70 − But 20 individuals are common to both sets The union of sets A and B is the set of all individuals who are women or aged 30 The union of the these two sets (A or B) consists of the 50 unique individuals who have one or both characteristics (A alone or B alone or both A and B) 11 .

Intersections and Unions If you have a group of 40 women (set A) c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c And you have a group of 30 individuals aged 30 or over (set B) c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c b b b b b b b b b b 12 .

Intersections and Unions The intersection of sets A and B are the 20 women who are aged 30 or over c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c b b b b b b b b b b 13 .

Intersections and Unions If you have a group of 40 women (set A) c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c And you have a group of 30 individuals aged 30 or over (set B) c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c b b b b b b b b b b 14 .

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c b b b b b b b b b b Set A = 40 + Set B = 30 Total = 70 15 .Intersections and Unions The union of sets A and B is determined by adding up the total numbers of each set . . .

. . And then subtracting out the individuals common to both sets c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c b b b b b b b b b b Set A = 40 + Set B = 30 Total = 70 .Intersections and Unions .Common = 20 Union: 50 unique individuals 16 .

Classical Interpretation of Probability An event occurs in N mutually exclusive and equally likely ways If m events possess a characteristic. then the probability of the occurrence of E is equal to m/N P(E) = m/N 17 . E.

25 P(E1 ) = P(E2 ) = P(E3 ) = P(E 4 ) = 0.25 18 . E 4 = TT The probability of each outcome is 1/4 or 0. E2 = HT.Example of the Classical Interpretation of Probability Flipping two fair coins (equal chances of obtaining a head or a tail) results in N=4 equally likely and mutually exclusive outcomes E1 = HH. E 3 = TH.

Relative Frequency Interpretation of Probability Some process or experiment is repeated for a large number of times. then the relative frequency of occurrence of E. n If m events possess the characteristic. m/n will be approximately equal to the probability of E 19 . E.

Example 1: Flip Two Coins 100 Times Possible Outcomes Frequency E1 = HH 22 E2 = HT 28 E3 = TH 23 E4 = TT 27 Total 100 P(E1 ) = P(2 heads) is 0.25 using the classical interpretation of probability P(E1 ) is approximately 22/100 = 0.22 using the relative frequency interpretation of probability 20 .

604 Total 10.000 Times Possible Outcomes Frequency E1 = HH 2.24 using the relative frequency interpretation of probability 21 .410/10.404 E4 = TT 2.410 E2 = HT 2.000 = 0.25 using the classical interpretation of probability P(E1) is approximately 2.582 E3 = TH 2.Example 2: Flip Two Coins 10.000 P(E1) = P(2 heads) is 0.

the probability of any event is nonnegative − P(Event i) ≥ 0 The sum of the probabilities of all mutually exclusive events equals 1 − P(Event 1) + P(Event 2) +…+P(Event n) = 1 If Event i and Event j are mutually exclusive events.Rules of Probability with Mutually Exclusive Events When there are n mutually exclusive events (cannot occur together). then the probability of either Event i or Event j is the sum of the two probabilities − P(Event i or Event j ) = P(Event i) + P(Event j) 22 .

A and B.Addition Rule of Probability General rule: if two events. then the probability that event A or event B occurs is: − P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B) − P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B) Special case: when two events. are mutually exclusive. A and B. then the probability that event A or event B occurs is: − P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) − P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) since P(A and B) = 0 for mutually exclusive events 23 . are not mutually exclusive.

then P(A and B) = 0 24 .Joint Probability The joint probability of an event A and an event B is P(A ∩B) = P(A and B) When events A and B are mutually exclusive.

Conditional Probability The conditional probability of an event A given an event B is present is: P(A I B) P(A | B) = where P (B) ≠ 0 P(B) 25 .

then: P(A |B) = P(A) j ) jB A P(AIB) = P(A)⋅ P(B) 26 .Multiplication Rule of Probability General rule: the multiplication rule specifies the joint probability as: P(A I B) = P(B)P(A | B) Special case: When events A and B are independent.

Example: Relationship between Gender and Age Patients with Disease X Age Gender Young Older Total Male 30 20 50 Female 40 110 150 Total 70 130 200 27 .

25 − P(Female) = 150/200 = 0.35 − P(Older) = 130/200 = 0.75 − P(Young) = 70/200 = 0.65 28 .Marginal Probabilities Associated with the Example Marginal probabilities can be calculated: − P(Male) = 50/200 = 0.

55 29 .Probability of Selecting an Older Female? Patients with Disease X Age Gender Young Older Total Male 30 20 50 Female 40 110 150 Total 70 130 200 Joint probability − = P(Female and Older )= P( Female ∩ Older) − = 110/200 − = 0.

85 30 .Probability of Selecting a Female or Older Individual? Patients with Disease X Age Gender Young Older Total Male 30 20 50 Female 40 110 150 Total 70 130 200 By inspecting the table. we can see that the probability of the union: − P( Female or Older) = P(Female ∪ Older) − = (40+110+20)/200 = 0.

85 31 .Probability of Selecting a Female or Older Individual? Patients with Disease X Age Gender Young Older Total Male 30 20 50 Female 40 110 150 Total 70 130 200 Using the addition rule of probability: − P( Female or Older) − = P( Female) + P(Older) – P(Female and Older) − = 150/200 + 130/200 – 110/200 = 170/200=0.

15 32 .Probability of Selecting a Younger Male? Patients with Disease X Age Gender Young Older Total Male 30 20 50 Female 40 110 150 Total 70 130 200 Joint Probability − = P( Male and Younger ) = 30/200 = 0.

we can see that the probability of the union: − P( Male or Younger) = (30+20+40)/200 = 0.45 33 .Probability of Selecting a Male or a Younger Individual? Patients with Disease X Age Gender Young Older Total Male 30 20 50 Female 40 110 150 Total 70 130 200 By inspecting the table.

45 34 .Probability of Selecting a Male or a Younger Individual? Patients with Disease X Age Gender Young Older Total Male 30 20 50 Female 40 110 150 Total 70 130 200 Using the addition rule of probability: − P( Male or Younger) − = P( Male) + P(Younger) – P(Male and Younger) − = 50/200 + 70/200 – 30/200 = 90/200=0.

Sex and Age.Are Two Characteristics. Independent? Is sex independent of age in this group of patients? If sex and age are independent: − Then the probability of being in a particular age group should be the same for both sexes X In other words. the conditional probabilities should be equal Assess whether: − P(Older given Male) = P(Older given Female) = P(Older) − P(Older | Male) = P(Older |Female) = P(Older) 35 .

Conditional Probability for Males Patients with Disease X Age Gender Young Older Total Male 30 20 50 Female 40 110 150 Total 70 130 200 P(Older given Male) = P(Older | Male) =20/50 = 0.40 36 .

73 37 .Conditional Probability for Females Patients with Disease X Age Gender Young Older Total Male 30 20 50 Female 40 110 150 Total 70 130 200 P(Older given Female) = P(Older | Female) =110/150= 0.

Overall (Marginal Probability) Patients with Disease X Age Gender Young Older Total Male 30 20 50 Female 40 110 150 Total 70 130 200 P(Older) = 130/200= 0.65 38 .

Comparing Conditional Probabilities For males: − P(Older | Male) = 0.65 In this group of patients. age and sex are not independent because the probability of being in the older age group depends on gender! − P(Older|Male) ≠P(Older | Female) ≠ P(Older) 39 .40 For females: − P(Older | Female) = 0.73 For all patients: − P(Older) = 0.

conditional Future applications of probability (e. joint.g. screening tests) 40 .Summary Probabilities can describe certainty associated with an event or characteristic Types of events: − Mutually exclusive events − Independent events Addition and multiple rules of probability Types of probabilities: − Marginal.

Section B Using Probability in an Epidemiology Word Problem .

Probability Word Problem In a certain population of women: − 4% have had breast cancer − 20% are smokers − 3% are smokers who have had breast cancer From this problem. three probability statements may be stated A 2x2 table of cell counts and marginal totals can be constructed 42 .

04 Women with Breast Cancer Smoker Yes No Total 4 96 100 Yes No Total 43 .Probability Statement 1 4% have had breast cancer P (breast cancer) = 0.

Probability Statement 2 20% are smokers P (smoker) = 0.20 Women with Breast Cancer Smoker Yes No Total Yes 20 No 80 Total 4 96 100 44 .

Probability Statement 3 Three percent are smokers who have had breast cancer P (breast cancer and smoker) = 3/100 = 0.03 Women with Breast Cancer Smoker Yes Yes No 3 20 No Total Total 80 4 96 100 45 .

Completing the 2 x 2 Table for Word Problem Women with Breast Cancer Smoker Yes No Total Yes 3 17 20 No 1 79 80 Total 4 96 100 46 .

96 P (smoker) = 0.04 P (no breast cancer) = 0.20 P (non-smoker) = 0.Marginal Probabilities P (breast cancer) = 0.80 Women with Breast Cancer Smoker Yes No Total Yes 3 17 20 No 1 79 80 Total 4 96 100 47 .

21 Women with Breast Cancer Smoker Yes No Total Yes 3 17 20 No 1 79 80 Total 4 96 100 48 .Question: Breast Cancer or Smoking? Method 1 What is the probability that a woman selected at random from this population has had breast cancer or smokes? Method 1: one can see from the table that: − P(Breast Cancer or Smoker) − = P(Breast Cancer ∪ Smoker) − = (3+1+17)/100 = 0.

Question: Breast Cancer or Smoking? Method 2 What is the probability that a woman selected at random from this population has had breast cancer or smokes? Method 2: using the addition rule: − P(Breast Cancer or Smoker) − = P(Breast Cancer) + P(Smoker) – P(Breast Cancer and Smoker) − = 0.20 – 0.21 = 21% Women with Breast Cancer Smoker Yes No Total Yes 3 17 20 No 1 79 80 Total 4 96 100 49 .04 + 0.03 = 0.

21 or 21% This probability may be derived from either: − Inspection of the 2 x 2 table − The probability statement 50 .Answer: Breast Cancer or Smoking? The probability that a woman has had breast cancer or smokes is 0.

Question: Is Breast Cancer Independent of Smoking? Is breast cancer independent of smoking in this population? − In other words. is the probability of breast cancer the same for both smokers and non-smokers? Compare the separate (conditional) probabilities of breast cancer for the two smoking groups Women with Breast Cancer Smoker Yes No Total Yes 3 17 20 No 1 79 80 Total 4 96 100 51 .

01 For all women: P(Breast Cancer) = 4/100 = 0.Comparing Conditional Probabilities of Breast Cancer For smokers: P(Breast Cancer | Smoker) = 3/20=0.04 Women with Breast Cancer Smoker Yes No Total Yes 3 17 20 No 1 79 80 Total 4 96 100 52 .15 For non-smokers: P(Breast Cancer | Non-Smoker) = 1/80=0.

there appears to be an association The probability of breast cancer is increased in smokers P(Breast Cancer|Smoker) ≠P(Breast Cancer | Non-Smoker) ≠ P(Breast Cancer) 53 .Answer: Breast Cancer Is Not Independent of Smoking In this group of patients. breast cancer and smoking are not independent because the probability of having breast cancer differs by smoking group Semantics—it’s the same to say: − “Breast cancer and smoking are not independent” − “Breast cancer and smoking are dependent” (for example.

Other Questions? What is the probability of having breast cancer? (marginal probability) What is the probability of being a smoker for a woman without breast cancer? (conditional probability) What is the joint probability of not smoking and not having breast cancer? (intersection) What is the probability of being a smoker or not being a smoker? (union) What is the joint probability of being both a smoker and a non-smoker? (intersection) 54 .

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