# Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol.

312 (2013) pp 148-152
Online available since 2013/Feb/27 at www.scientific.net
© (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland
doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.312.148

Effect of Regular transverse wave on ship turning maneuverability
Linjia YANG1, a, Yihan TAO2,b
1

Navigation College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning,116026, China

2

Graduate school of Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning,116026, China
a

yanglinjia@126.com, btiter_1@163.com,

Keywords: Turning Maneuverability, Regular Transverse Wave, MMG, Rudder Controller

Abstract. Obtaining the effect of regular transverse wave is very significant for it is dangerous for
ships to turn in transvers waves. To study ship’s motion law in regular transverse waves, computer
simulation method was used. The simulation were based on ship mathematical model，called
MMG(Maneuvering Model Group)， and a waveforce mathematical model. In the simulation, the
ship sailed in regular waves and calm sea with 0°and 20°rudder angle and the tracks were
recorded. Hence, a ship trail was made to verify the truthfulness of simulation result. After analysing
the simulation result, there is a diccussion to design a rudder controller, which can reduce the effect of
waves. In conclusion, the effect of regular transverse wave on ship turning maneuverablity is
obtained and it is feasible to design a rudder controller to reduce the effect.
Introduction
In recent years, the research of ship controller has greatly developed. Many autopilots can be used to
reduce the effect of the waves while the ship is going straight. But when it comes to turning,
especially with a large rudder angel, the autopilot is not so effective any more. Hence, the research
about the effect of waves on ship’s turning maneuverability and the control of ship’s turning is very
significant. Ship’s tuning maneuverability in regular transvers wave is a typical example.
Computer simulation is a very important research method in the area of ship design and ship
research. It is faster, cheaper, and more flexible than many other methods, such as real ship test and
ship model experiment. The establishment of mathematical model is one of the most important parts
of the computer simulation. Generally, the methods to establish mathematical model can be divided
into two groups. One is Europe and the United States group which is widely used by the research
institution equipped with advanced equipment. The other one is Japan group MMG, which is not
widely used but can give a very accurate result with little investment. The research about how to
establish MMG mathematical ship model is of great significance.
Turning Maneuverability
The ability that a ship enters turning movement, by steering a rudder angle and keeping it when the
ship is sailing straight at a constant speed, is called turning maneuverability. It is extremely important
to a ship. Turning movement can be divided into three states, according to the change of external
forces and the difference of movement states.
The first state is called sidesway and introversion section. After steering, the ship still keeps its
forward speed, and sails almost along the origin course, with the stern moving outside. Besides, the
ship will introvert for the acting point of rudder force is lower than gravity center.
The second state is called transition section. The ship’s sidesway speed and drift angle gradually
increases. In the beginning, the ship’s angular acceleration is large. With continuous improvement of
ship angular velocity, angular acceleration is gradually reduced. Accompanied by the disappearance
movement.
The third state is called steady turning section. The ship’s angular acceleration reduces to zero.
The camber angle, sidesway speed, drift angle and the line speed of the ship all tend to be steady.
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Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. 1 Coordinate system In the research ship’s turning maneuverability.. traverse speed v. Assume that the shape of the ship is a regular . The additional mass of the ship can be calculated with multiple regression formula proposed by Zhaoming Zhou [2]. The viscous hydrodynamic force and moment on the hull can be calculated with approximate estimation model proposed by Kijima [3].X8 . Fig. Y7 and N7 are thrust forces and moment by propeller. The axis Oy points to starboard. In calculation of disturbance wave force.1 shows. For the body-fitted coordinate system oxyz. Y3 and N3 are viscous hydrodynamic force and moment on the hull. The wave coordinate system ζηz is introduced. − ! = "# + "\$ + "% + "& + ' + () !− = *# + *\$ + *% + *& +. we come up with a simplified method to solve the problem. The axis ζ points the direction that regular waves come from. in order to establish the mathematical model of wave forces. and the position of gravity center is zero in axis Oy which means I = I = 0. Considering the mass of the ship distributes symmetrically to plan xz. The wave force can be divided into two kinds: First-order disturbance wave force and second-order drift wave force. As Fig. Because the origin point of the ship locates at the gravity center. Hence. heaving. 312 149 Mathematical model There are two kinds of common coordinate system used for ship maneuvering motion analysis: inertial coordinate system and body-fitted coordinate. and ψ is the encounter angle. we choose ship’s center of gravity as the point of origin.u and v are ship’s speed along axis Ox and axis Oy in body-fitted coordinate system.m and m are additional mass caused by inertia of hull. The rudder force and moment can be calculated with a conventional rudder force calculation model [5]. We discuss the effect of the regular wave on ship maneuverability. Because ship discussed in this article uses a controllable pitch propeller. we can conclude that the moment of inertia about axis Ox and axis Oy is zero. = -# + -\$ + -% + -& (1) (2) (3) In the above formula: m is the mass of the ship. Y8 and N8 are rudder forces and moment. The axis Ox points to bow. in order to simplify the equations.r is turning angular velocity. axis O y pointing due east. So the ship motion equation is simplified to a well-known format. it is very complicated to use the well-known Froude-krylov assumption. the position of the gravity center is zero in axis Ox which means x = 0. rolling and pitching motions can be ignored which means w = p = q = 0.X7 . The heading angle is ψ. and turning angular velocity r.X9 . taken as the baseline reference system. under the premise of ensuring a certain precision. Talking about ship planer motion. the main motion variables are forward speed u. The wave force and moment calculation which is the focus of this article will be detailed below. Set axis O x pointing due north. and y = 0. The axis Oz points to the keel. o x y z are inertial coordinate system fixed on the surface of the Earth. and axis O z pointing the center of the earth. Y9 and N9 are wave force and moment acting on the hull [1]. X3 . the thrust force and moment are calculated with method proposed by DMU (Dalian Maritime University) [4].

According to English ship model test [7] Daidola regressed: u N u u y i mn< o = 0. b = k L/2 ∙ cos χ . "<=>? = −2AB *<=>? = −2AK CDE =∙CDE G H CDE G∙CDE H G -<=>? = AL MB N sin Q I J (4) I J H∙R C HSCDE H HT (5) − KN sin U G∙R C GSCDE G GT VW J (6) In the formulas，a = ρg'1 − eS\] )/k. Daidola [6] proposed following wave drift force and moment formulas. c = k B/2 ∙ sin χ. there is… "<=>? = 0 (7) *<=>? = −2AK sin U ∙ I J (8) -<=>? = 0 (9) When c = 0 (head sea or following sea). h is the wave height.51 tv w u N u (16) u y i mp< o = 0. The simplified formulas are as follows. .05 − 0.83 tv w − 15.46 + 6. Attention: When b = 0 (transvers wave).44 tv w u u N u y i mq< o = −0. j i i "<=>? = kKAN cos l mn< o (13) N j i i *<=>? = N kKAN sin l mp< o (14) j i i -<=>? = N kKN AN sin l mq< o (15) i i i In the formulas，mn< ，mp< ，mq< are test coefficient.75 tv w − 0.65 tv w + 8.150 Applied Research and Engineering Solutions in Industry hexahedron，draft d x and beam B x does not vary with x. using Matlab to establish ship mathematical model for planer motion. ζ t = h/2 cos ωh t .2 tv w + 0. s t = k h/2 sin ωh t .79 tv w + 0. there is… "<=>? = −2AB sin Q ∙ I J (10) *<=>? = 0 (11) -<=>? = 0 (12) In order to calculate the drift wave force. and make turning simulations in calm seas and regular transverse waves. and the cross-sectional area A x will also be a constant.68 tv w − 0.21 tv w (17) (18) Motion simulation We take the training ship YUKUN of Dalian Maritime University as test model.11 − 0. considering the effect of wave on ship maneuverability.

If the ship is turning. If we get the . no current. we should apply a controlling force *H provided by rudder to balance the wave force [10].4/8.2 Turning towards waves Position of the center of gravity[m] -0. Ignoring the ship's rolling and pitching.561 Height of rudder[m] 5878.8 Fig. the rudder must provide a centripetal force *• . Hence.8 Fig. wave to the angle 090.3 Turning along waves Choose the simulation environment as follows.7kn. And steering towards waves is also very dangerous for ship to capsize. Because of the wave force. the error of the simulation result of ship’s mathematical model is very small. Discussion Comparing the dashed line and the points.2. Initial speed 16. if the GM is not very big [9].8 11. in the period. the turning maneuverability is greatly decreased in regular transverse waves. 312 151 Table 1. We can never steer along wave in regular transverse waves which is extremely dangerous. In conclusion. respectively. The simulation was a comparative test. wave height 2m. The magnitude of controlling force should be equal to the wave force. Rolling amplitude will extremely increase with large turning angular velocity. in calm seas and regular transverse wave with 0°rudder angle and 20°rudder angle. and the direction should be opposite to the wave force. and the ship’s stability is deeply decreased. In Fig.35 Design Speed[kn] 0. The track of the ship and the center of the turning circle have a sidesway along the waves. we did a circle-turning ship trail on MV/YUKUN.Applied Mechanics and Materials Vol. And the diameter of turning circle will decrease because of the falling of forward speed u. we can’t conduct test in real ship. In Fig. Besides. we can estimate if the mathematical model is precise enough to reflect the real motion law of the ship.51 Propeller diameter[m] 3. initial heading 000. we make conclusion by simulation results. and the diameter of the turning circle is also increased. engine speed 173r/min. The ship can easily capsize. which means *H = −*€•‚h . To control the ship. The rolling amplitude will increase. Because it is extremely dangerous to sail in transverse waves. Ship Parameters Length between perpendiculars[m] Molded breadth[m] Design draft / Depth[m] Block coefficient Displacement[m3] 105 number of Paddle 18m Propeller speed[r/min] 5. no wind. And it is almost impossible to control the ship.8 Rudder area[m2] 4 173 16. the turning angular velocity extremely declined. Comparing the simulation track with the real positions.3.2 and Fig.7 4. The ship’s mathematical model can reflect the true situation. The results of the simulation are shown in Fig. wavelength 120m. the forward speed u is increased.1. and recorded some positions of the ship [8]. the heading of the ship is changed extremely quickly. when steering along waves. So the rudder force *%• must be the resultant force of controlling force and centripetal force. Draw the tracks of the ship in different conditions. which means *%• = *• + *H . when steering towards waves. in order to ensure that the simulation data as authentic as possible. the ship will experience a long period of transverse waves. Because the ship follows wave in a long period. And the wave force can be calculated by the mathematical model of wave force with the data observed by sensors.

References [1] Guifeng Liu. [9] Wugang Huang. the work done by rudder force is usually smaller than the work done by wave force [11]. Regular transverse wave has a significant effect on ship turning maneuverability. [7] English J. Hirano M. The shape and size of ship turning circle changes irregularly. Shipbuilding Progress. On Maneuverability Prediction for Multipurpose Cargo Ship[J]. We can get the K value by making many actual tests. It is extremely dangerous for ships to turn in transverse waves. inertia. and ship experiences severe rolling. (28):207-223. Dalian: Dalian Maritime University Press. Kijima K. which can provide a transverse force to balance wave force. Int. Hydrodynamics Aspects of Dynamic Positioning. [4] Daoyi Lu. the controller can reduce the effect of the wave. of RINA. Dalian: Dalian Maritime University. Dalian: Dalian University of Technology. Shipbuilding of China. it is feasible to use simulation method based on MMG ship mathematical model. we can take *% to the rudder model to get the rudder angle by making the inverse solution. [5] Xinle Jia. Yansheng Yang. Jie Wu. so that the total work done by resultant force gradually converges to 0 and wave effect is gradually reduced. The effect of regular transverse wave can be reduced by a rudder controller. Simulation and Characteristics Analysis on the Coupling Motion of Heave and Pitch with Manoeuvring for a Ship in Regular Waves[J]. Ship Engineering. 1999. Ship Motion Mathematical Model[M]. Knowing the rudder force *% = K*%• = *• + *H . et al. and error of wave model. Ship Data Processing. [8] Guoqing Zhang. Ship Motion Simple Robust Control [M]. [6] Daidola J. 2010. Guangdong. (6). By adjusting the rudder angle. Stability Research and Risk Analysis When Ships Navigate in Waves[D]. [3] Inoue S. 2011. Design and Implementation of DMS-2010 CPP Main Engine Remote Control System[D]. Wushi Fen. Therefore the rudder force should be multiplied by a gain K. Modelling and Simulation System[J].152 Applied Research and Engineering Solutions in Industry data. 11(24):5863-5869. Ziyin Sheng. until be eliminated. . transportation Department of science and technology project funding(2011-02-061). including the wavelength. 1983. Junfeng Chen.W. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Ministry of transportation science and technology funds (2012-329-225-090). Considering the effect of steering delay. [2] Zhaoming Zhou. 2010. 2011. and Wise D. Conclusion To study ship motion law in waves. In regular transverse wave. 2012:17-26. 1975. the rudder force that we need can be calculated. Xianku Zhang. wave height and encounter angle. Proceedings of Eleventh ship Technology and Research (STAR) symposium. [10] Xianku Zhang. it takes a long time for ship to start turning. Science Technology and Engineering. A Practical Calculation Method of Ship Maneuvering Motion[J]. 1981. A Simulation Program for Ship’s Manoevring at Slow Speeds.A. 52(3):52-58. Trans. 1986. Beijing: Science Press.C.

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