Developmental Psychology

Exam 3 Study Guide: Chapters 7-10
. Chapter 7 Physical & Cognitive Development in Early

1. What are the major trends of body growth during early childhood?
Influences on Physical Growth and Health? End of preschool year start to lose
primary teeth, exposure to tobacco smoke causes the immune system to be weak.
Between ages 2-6 the brain increases from 70% to 90%, preschoolers improve in
coordination ,perception ,attention, memory

2. Nutrition – what are best strategies for getting children to eat a variety of
healthy foods? What happens to appetite during this age? Repeated
,unpressured exposure to new foods is the best way to get a child to eat a vairety .the

child becomes a picky eater. The amount they eat varies ,but is compensated for in latter
Why do some children in U.S. not have immunizations? Parents that have
busy daily lifes tend to forget to schedule appointments, there is also the financial

4. What is the leading cause of childhood death in industrialized countries?
What can parents do to prevent? Unintentional injuries. Laws prevent many
injuries like child safety locks, childproof locks on medication. Communites help to
modify the surrounding environment

5. **Piaget – stage at this age? Benefits of make-believe? Egocentrism?
animistic thinking
And magical thinking. Conservation? role of language? Piaget’s : make –believe play
is representation in childhood, This substage is characterized by the child's inability to

understand all the properties of classes. The child has acquired the ability to represent
objects mentally and to identify them based on their membership in classes, however
this child now reacts to all similar objects as if they were identical. This understanding is
incomplete because they cannot yet distinguish between apparent identical members of
the same class. Transductive reasoning is another feature of the child's thinking in the
substage. Transductive reasoning is a faulty type of logic that involves making
inferences from one specific to another. It can lead to correct or accurate conclusions,
but it is not guaranteed to do so.

6. Vygotsky – private speech, scaffolding, zone of proximal development,
guided participation (broader than scaffolding) the child develops higher mental
functions: complex mental processes that are intentional, self-regulated, by language
and other sign systems. Examples of these higher mental functions include focused
attention, deliberate memory, and verbal thinking. According to Vygotsky, although all
human beings are capable of developing these functions, the particular structure and
content of higher mental functions depend on specific social interactions, as determined
by culture in general and by each person's unique social situation of development.

7. Preschool, Kindergarten, Childcare: What does research say about
drawbacks of formal (i.e. instruction-based, worksheets, sitting and

and motor skills. elaborating on children’s speech. and values that an individual believe defines who he/she is. more stimulation home environment. 3. computers). Advances in peer sociability: nonsocial. Difference between self-concept and self-esteem. Language development: fastmapping. higher graduation rates. Heavy viewing leads to detraction from school success and social experiences 11. attitudes. guilt. Self-concept: the set of attributes. Basic benefits/drawbacks of educational media (tv. strides in conscience development 2. They can connect new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief contact. Young children have a new sense of purposefulness. join in activity with peers. Review signs of developmentally appropriate childhood programs. Empathy does not lead to empathy. All English speaking children acquire certain language markers in a regular sequence.academic. 8. Empathy/Sympathy/anxiety . interaction with more skilled speakers 10. associative. prefer less challenging task.listening) academic training (as opposed to child-centered programs)? Benefits of Head-Start programs?Drawbacks: stress behavior.role of parents in development of empathy. less confident in their actions. With emotional self regulation and parenting effects empathy and sympathy. eager to tackle new tasks. starting with those that involve the simplest meanings and structures.esteem: the feelings we make about our own worth and the feelings we have about them.gains in early literacy and math skills and academic progress. Self. overregulation. Parents display the correct way to deal with emotion and they can correct the child when incorrect behavior is shown 5. Head start : greater year end gains. Restructure inaccurate speech into correct form. How can parents foster emergent literacy? provide indirect feedback about incorrect grammar. Erikson: characteristics of initiative vs. Conversational give and take. children orient toward a common goal First friends – what defines it? People that like you that you spend a copious amount of time with Is it normal to say “You are my friend/not my friend?”doesn’t have long last characteristic based on trust but it does predict cooperative play in the classroom . they sometimes overextend the rules to words that are exceptions Chapter 8: Emotional & Social Development in Early Childhood 1. What is normal in early childhood? children achieve a better understanding of their feeling and that of others emotional self-regulation improves What are benefits of parental acknowledgement and identification of emotions? They are better able to perceive others feelings at a later age 4. unoccupied. less advanced in language. more elaborate make-believe play .enable children to integrate themselves in the classroom both academically and socially . discover what they can do without the help of adults. children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on other’s behavior cooperative a more advance soliditary 6. onlooker behavior and play parallel child plays with others with similar material but does not try to influence their behavior. interaction. See chart on page190 9. abilities.

allows child to make decisions in accordance to readiness Authoritarian : cold rejecting towards child. withdrawal of privileges Important qualities that make them work? Consistency.makes few or no demands. Lets child make decisions before the child is ready . boys are more active . Support your daughter in pursuing her interests. may cause child to avoid the adult giving the punishment 8.makes few or no demands. Parenting Styles: Authoritative: warm. compliant violence hardens children to aggression.affirm her actions too! Be a great role model! . Parent and child joint decision making. wear make. predicts aggressive behavior in adulthood. attentive. Permissive: is warm but overindulgent or unnattentive. Encourage identification with men and women. not just her appearance! Let your daughter get dirty. and repairing skills. See that she learns some mechanical. Harsh punishment is most common among low ses ethnic minority parents than white middle class ses caucasion parents. uninvolved:emotionally withdrawn and detached. Don’t insist your daughter “look” a certain way. Video tape your child in active ways – sports. Does not Rarely listens to child care about child decision making or point of view 15. causes longterm negative effects. or always stay neat and pretty. and sensitive to the childs need. Have high expectations in the areas of math and science.makes demands using force and punishment. Makes decision for child. Encourage her to participate in sports. chronic sense of being personally threatened. – not just taking pictures when she is dressed up. and uses tools. using tools. What are typical attitudes about gender roles in early childhood? Children sort out what they mean through actions and emotions. Models aggression. Girls are more emotional. a warm parent-child relationship 9. Alternatives to harsh punishment? Time outs.withdraws lovw and intrudes on childs individuality. Dad’s messages about pretty are heard VERY loud . women are more verbally and relationally aggressive. Talk to her early about stereotypes and help her challenge them. Differences betweeen types of aggression in gender during preschool years?males are more physically aggressive than women. Males are moe likely to get harsh punishment because they are more erratic in behavior 11.makes reasonable demands for consistency and maturity. Boys play with action figures girls play with barbies . building. boys are more apt to devote time to violent media 12.assertive and aggressive.7. In Caucasian families physical punishment was due to antisocial behavior and adolescent behavior 10. Who is most likely to inflict physical child abuse? What age is at the greatest risk? 14. . Give your daughter compliments about specific actions instead of generic praise.up etc. Introduce her to strong female role models. What can you do to facilitate healthy identity among girls (buffer media images) – from“Princess & the Popstar” powerpoint (2nd to last slide) Watch that you affirm her character. fearful. Impact of family relational styles and tv viewing on aggression . Ethnic differences in consequences of physical punishment . parents who are accustomed to corporal punishment support it: the next generation will use same type of punishment. dependant.violent programming creates short term aggression in parent relations and peers. patient. etc. “side effects” of harsh punishment.

Flexibility. 4. Cognitive and social skills for working with others. Pros and cons of youth schools. Transfers culturally valued ways of thinking to children . Agility more quick and accurate movements. Attention becomes more adaptable. Most common childhood illness? malnutrition 3. practice in vital social skills such as leadership .S. Gains in inhibition. What is sensitive period for bilingual language proficiency? when the first language development occurs. US Trends. jumping and hopping skills become more refined. schools still have recess implemented in school 11. What are the major trends of body growth during middle childhood? the average north American child is 45 pds and 3-1/2 feet tall.Chapter 9: Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood 1. 9. Bones of the body lengthen and broaden.s. Improved balance. 2. and cooperation. Benefits of school recess (academic and social) boost classroom learning. Organized child play and interaction. throw and kick objects further. Has diminished or disappeared in many u. 8. reasoning and problem solving. Difficulty with memory. Mastery of second language must be done in early childhood. 10. schools. and the mental health/social consequences of childhood obesity? High blood pressure. What are the health risks. increases in information processing speed and capacity. followership. Trends in U. How does stimulant medication treat ADHD? stimulates activity in the frontal lobes which allows for the mind to retain more information. What are some of the policies (e. ligaments are not yet firmly attached. tendency to buy high-fat low cost food. inhibit off task behavior 7. 6. Teachers have partnership with parents 12. respiratory abnormalities emotional and social problems. Teacher/student interactions – self-fulfilling prophesy. Qualities of attention in middle childhood. have a stronger desire for physical activity. sense of self-worth. governmental) for dealing with childhood obesity? Both the parent and child enroll in a weight loss program. Children do poorly on activities which need attention to be retained. 5. How does this impact bilingual programming in schools? Children do better on test in select attentiveness.g. What are the advances in motor development during middle childhood? Running. participate in class more actively. Socially isolated and achievement and development problems. causes. curriculum helps achieve academic standard and understanding of material. Primary teeth are lost between ages 6-20 and replaced with permanent ones. Only 15% of u. lack of knowledge of diet. and planful. Produced by parental roles in dietary substance.inhibition of aggression. What are the signs of high-quality education in elementary schools? Classroom size is no larger than 18 kids. Diet and lifestyle intervention. selective. more common in identical twins. more elastic in movement. health . gains in academic achievement. schools. teacher fosters each child’s progress. planning. Characteristics of ADHD?hereditary. space is divided into equally enriching activity centers. Force the ability to project . high cholerstrol.

social competence. Perform well in school and communicating What are the characteristics of kids who are victimized: passive behavior when active expected .inferiority. athletic/physical competence. 8. characteristics that can improve when facing new challenges. What are some common general conclusions about education of North American children? Children perform at the international average or sometimes below it.Sweden . Gender identity trends in middle childhood. Who are the most likelihood perpetrators and victims of childhood sexual abuse? The abuser is usually a parent or someone closely associated with the parent. joint custody 9. Factors related to school phobia. warm parental relationship. neglected: well adjusted . ? Sibling rivalry – trends in middle childhood: it tends to increase. contentedness. Attribute failure to factors that can be changed. Which countries have the highest divorce rate? United States has the highest 6. Who is most apt to develop it? I don’t know  . The girl tends to be sexually abused than a boy. Academic competence. New Zealand. parental comparisons are more common in children closer in age. Characteristics? Pride in accomplishment. What characterizes school-age friendships ? Children like each other personal qualities andrespond to one anothers desire and needs 5. physical appearance 3. realistic self concept.13. Moral responsibility. Overcritical teacher. Erikson: Stage during middle childhood?industry vs. School bully 10. and gender-discontented children. Hostile and disruptive but can also engage in social activity . Pressures from parents. Parents start to compare sibling accomplishments. including gender typicality. Germany How can divorced parents best facilitate positive adjustment in children following divorce? Divorce a range of negative emotion. Chapter 10: Social & Emotional Development in Middle Childhood 1. What factors foster resilience? childs personality. Great Britain . Canada. 4. with other children. cooperation with agemates 2. community resources .Australia. rejected-aggressive: high rates of conflict. Hyperactive impulsive behavior. divorce rate. What are four major contributions to self-esteem? Culture a strong emphasis on social comparison. Bullying: characteristics of rejected are disliked. controversial: display both positive and negative behavior. 7.not much interaction with other children. Child support. gender-atypical. What is a mastery-oriented approach to learning and how does it impact learning? crediting their ability to from successes. 11. an adult outside the immediate family who offers a support system. physical and relational aggression. popular kids: combine academic and social competence.