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**source and its application to calculate operation frequency of a programmable TiO2
**

memristor-capacitor relaxation oscillator

Reşat MUTLU

**Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Namık Kemal University,
**

Corlu Enginering Faculty, Corlu, Tekirdağ, TURKEY

e-mail: rmutlu@nku.edu.tr

Abstract

Memristor is a new-found circuit element and its applications in programmable

circuits are also under study. Analysis of most of its combinations with other circuit

elements such as resistor, capacitor and inductor does not exist. In this work, TiO2

Memristor model with linear dopant drift speed is used and the solution of TiO2

Memristor and capacitor series circuit driven by a constant voltage source is given. Then,

it is used to analyze a novel M-C oscillator circuit. In previous programmable oscillator

studies, the memristance of the oscillator was assumed to be constant. However, in this

study, the analysis of the M-C oscillator is done considering time-varying memristance

and using the solution of TiO2 Memristor and capacitor series circuit supplied by a

constant voltage. In this work, a formula for calculation of the exact value of the M-C

oscillator frequency is given. Minimum and maximum operation frequencies of the

oscillator are also calculated.

1

Circuit Theory. some properties of memristor have been explained. M-C Series Circuit. and its charge. Adjustable or programmable gain applications of memristors are inspected in [4-8]. Solutions of its combinations with other circuit components are not always readily available. For a long time. A memristor is similar to a nonlinear resistor but it has a memory. In 2008. which is its voltage integration with respect to time. which has been theoretically predicted and claimed to be the fourth circuit element in 1971 [1]. memristor has been regarded as a theoretical work or a mathematical curiosity since no memristor was found. its voltage to current ratio is dependent on the charge which past through it. It has a relationship between its flux. Series TiO2 memristor-capacitor circuit without a power supply has also 2 . It is called memristance and has the same unit as resistance [1]. Analog applications of memristors are also under study [4-12]. In [12].Keywords. which a nonlinear resistor does not have. Introduction Memristor is a newly discovered circuit element. which is its current integration with respect to time. a HP research team has declared that they have found a memristor in nanoscale made of TiO2 sandwiched between Pt contacts [2] and memristor has become a new active research area. Programmable Oscillator. 1. New kind of memories can also be done using memristors. Programmable oscillators and programmable Schmitt-trigger circuits. Therefore. and programmable threshold comparators using memristors are also considered in [5]. A review paper on memristor can be found in [3]. Memristor is a new circuit component.TiO2 Memristor.

In the fourth section. The memristor model given by the HP research team is linearly dependent on memristor charge [2] and their memristance formula is µ R M(q) = ROFF 1 − V 2ON q (t ) . However. In the third section. D is the total length of the memristor. series memristor-capacitor circuit with a dc supply is analyzed. series TiO2 memristor -capacitor circuit with a constant voltage supply is not analyzed in the literature yet. TiO2 memristor model is given. its solution is found and used to analyze a relaxation oscillator with TiO2 memristor. In this work. In this work.been analyzed in [12]. 3 . the solution is used to analyze a relaxation oscillator with a memristor. µV is the mobility of oxygen atoms in the memristor. D (1) Where ROFF is the resistance if the memristor region were fully undoped. 2. RON is the resistance if the memristor region were fully doped. In the second section. the charge dependent model of TiO2 memristor with linear dopant drift speed is used. The results are summarized in the conclusion section. Charge-dependent TiO2 memristor A memristor can be modeled as either charge or flux dependent [1]. The paper is arranged as follows.

K is the memristance charge coefficient. M-C series circuit with a constant voltage Analysis of the memristor-capacitor series circuit driven by a constant voltage source is done in this section. (4) Memristance charge is the integration of its current with respect to time and it is equal to t q (t ) = ∫ idt + q(0) . (5) 0 Where q(0) is the initial charge of the memristor. its memristance is equal to M sat = M(q sat ) = M 0 . q is the memristance instantaneous charge.The memristor memristance can also be written as M(q) = M 0 .Kq (2) Where M(q) is the memristor’s memristance. M 0 ≥ M(q) ≥ M sat . If the memristor is saturated. 3. 4 .Kq sat (3) Where q sat is the saturation memristance charge. If the memristor is not saturated. M 0 is the maximum memristance or the zero charge memristance.

Figure 1: Memristor-capacitor series circuit with a constant voltage source. B = q (0) − q C (0) .Kq ) dq(t) + qc (t ) = Vdc . q (t ) = q C (t) + B . VM (t) + Vc (t ) = Vdc .Kq ) dq(t) + q − B = Vdc .Kq )i M (t) + C dVc (t ) = Vdc . the following relationship can be written between the unsaturated memristor and capacitor charges. (6) (M o . (8) dt dt C The memristor current is equal to the capacitor current. = dt dt (9) Therefore. (7) (M o . (12) Using B. (10) Where B is the integration constant which can be found from the initial conditions. If a constant voltage is applied to memristor-capacitor series circuit. (11) (M o . (8) turns into dt C 5 . i(t) = dq (t ) dq C (t ) .

KCVdc +A=∫ o dq + Kq .KCVdc = + K dq .B .KB .Pulling out the current.q(0) ) . = (M o . dt M o .KB . A = −(M o .Kq ) Vdc − (13) Rearranging the differential equation. tsat.KCVdc )ln CVdc − q + B (21) Therefore. C CVdc − q + B (17) t + A = −(M o .KB . = C CVdc − q + B dt (M o + K(-q + CVdc + B .KCVdc )ln(CVdc − q + B ) + Kq .KB . C (18) The integration constant A is found at t=0. dt (M o . dq(t) = dt q c (t ) − B CVdc − q + B C = (M o . which is equal to 6 . This is an implicit function with respect to time.Kq )dq . C CVdc − q + B (15) (16) Taking integration of both sides of (16).KB . Memristor gets saturated at the time. t M .KB . t = C (M o .CVdc )dq = C CVdc − q + B (14) . (19) CVdc − q (0) + B t + K (q .Kq ) C (M o .q(0) ) .KCVdc )ln(CVdc − q (0) + B ) + Kq(0) .KCVdc )ln C CVdc − q + B (20) CVdc − q (0) + B + KC (q .

the memristor charge. (24) The memristor current or the capacitor current is dq C (t ) (− Vc (t sat ) + V dc )e − (t −t sat ) / τ i= = . its solution is an implicit function. t sat = C (M o . the capacitor voltage is equal to Vc (t ) = (V c (t sat ) − V dc )e − (t − t sat ) / τ + V dc . memristor behaves as a resistor. The nonlinear function can be evaluated numerically.KCVdc )ln CVdc − qsat + B (22) It should be remembered that during saturation memristor charge is constant and equal to qsat. the capacitor charge. 7 . The circuit current. During saturation.q(0) ) . If the memristor is under saturation. the circuit is simulated. dt R (25) The memristor voltage is V C = M ( q )i = M sat (− V c (t sat ) + V dc )e − (t − t sat ) / τ . and the memristor voltage are shown in Figures 2 through 5. (23) The capacitor charge is found as qC (t ) = CV c (t ) = C (Vc (t sat ) − V dc )e − (t −tsat ) / τ + CV dc . R (26) Even though the differential equation is solved. CVdc − q (0) + B + KC (q sat . For the circuit parameters given in Table 1.KB .

5 2 2.5556e-008 F VC (0) 0V q (0) 0C Vdc 10 V -3 6 -7 x 10 8 7 The Capacitor Charge(C) 5 The Memristor Current(A) x 10 4 3 2 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 0 0 0.5 Figure 2: Circuit current.5 1 1. Parameter Value K 900000000 Ohms/C MO 1500 Ohms q sat 1.5 5 -4 x 10 Figure 3: Capacitor charge.5 Time(s) 3 3. 4 4. 8 .5 2 2.5 Time(s) 3 3.5 5 -4 x 10 0 0 0.Table 1: Circuit parameters.5 µC C 5.5 4 4.5 1 1.

M-C oscillator with TiO2 memristor Relaxation oscillators are commonly used in electronics.5 1 1.5 1 0. a programmable relaxation oscillator with a memristor has been given. 0 0 0. In [5]. Although (21) is an implicit function.5 5 -4 x 10 Figure 5: Memristor voltage.5 1 1.-7 x 10 10 4.5 4 4.5 Time(s) 3 3. Replacing one of the resistors in Figure 6 would produce a memristor oscillator whose frequency can be adjusted by the value of the initial memristor charge.5 2 1. 9 .5 2 2. In this paper. a different relaxation oscillator is made by placing the memristor in series with its capacitor as shown in Figure 8. An oscillator can be made with a memristor as R-C oscillator. it helps us to find the exact solution of the frequency of the M-C oscillator given in Figure 8.5 5 -4 x 10 Figure 4: Memristor charge.5 9 4 8 The Memristor Voltage(V) The Memristor Charge(C) 5 3. The oscillator of [5] is shown in Figure 7.5 2 2. Now.5 0 0 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0.5 4 4.5 3 2. the solution of the M-C series circuit can be used to analyze the relaxation oscillator. 4.5 Time(s) 3 3.

Figure 6: R-C oscillator circuit.q C (0) ) . However. Eq. t = C (M o .KCVdc )ln CVdc − qC (27) The equation in (25) is a nonlinear function with respect to time. at t=Te/2. At the end of first alternance. Figure 8: The new programmable frequency M-C relaxation oscillator. (21) can be written also as a function of capacitor charge. The M-C oscillator shown in Figure 8 would switch its output from positive saturation voltage to negative saturation voltage at t=Te/2. the oscillator frequency can still be calculated. CVdc − qC (0) + KC (q C . Figure 7: Programmable frequency M-C relaxation oscillator given in [5]. 10 .KB .

KB . fe = 1 . fe = 1 . = Te (2C (M o . the capacitor charge. ∆q .3/2KC V )2ln (3) + 2KC V 2 o .KC.KCVdc )ln 2 CVdc − qC (Te / 2) (28) Also at t=Te/2. (32) 2 dc dc Therefore.KB .KB . When K=0. the oscillator frequency is found as a function of memristor parameters. the frequency becomes fe = 1 1 . The change in memristor charge during oscillation is ∆q = q (Te / 2) − q (0) = CVdc .q(0) . = C (M o . CVdc − qC ( 0) Te + KC (qC (Te / 2) .e.KCVdc )ln (3) + 2KC (CVdc )) (30) Using the initial memristor charge or (10). assuming that the memristor is not saturated. the oscillator frequency. i. the memristor turns into a resistor with a value of Mo. 2 (29) Then.KCVdc )ln (3) + K C (CVdc ) . 2C (M o .q C (0)) .K(q(0) . Using this. (28) can also be written as Te = C (M o . (33) can be found in all books on operational amplifiers. 2M oC ln(3) (33) Eq. capacitance. and memristor initial charge.KCVdc )ln (3) + 2KC (CVdc ) (31) Or fe = 1 (M C . capacitor voltage. qc(Te/2)=-qc(0)=CVdc/2. (34) 11 ..q C (0) ) .

KC (q o sat 1 − CVdc ) ) . the minimum oscillator frequency. In this case. The memristor of the oscillator is prevented from going into saturation. qsat. Then. Since the memristor’s memristance value can only take values between Mo and Msat. Numeric methods must be employed for the solution of operation frequency. Also. f min = (M C . (32) can also be written as fe = 1 . (38) Eq.K. 2 dc dc If the memristor is not saturated. the minimum oscillator frequency is obtained by making the initial memristor charge equal to the maximum memristor charge.3/2KC 2 Vdc 2ln (3) + 2 KC 2 Vdc ) . 2 M eff C ln(3) (39) The effective memristance depends not only on the memristor parameters and the initial memristor charge but also on the capacitance and the saturation voltage of the opamp. When the memristor is saturated at q=qsat. f max = 1 (M C . if we describe an effective memristance (or resistance) to make (32) similar to (33).3/2KCV dc )ln (3) + KC Vdc / ln(3) . the maximum oscillator frequency is obtained by making the initial memristor charge equal to zero. q (Te / 2) = q sat and (36) q ( 0) = q sat − CVdc . Oscillator frequency is drawn for the given circuit parameters in Tables 1 and 2 as shown in Figure 9. the maximum oscillator frequency. (37) Therefore.If the memristor is not saturated. the formulas are not valid anymore.3/2KC V )2ln (3) + 2KC V 2 o (35) . the frequency can only take values between the minimum and maximum operation 12 . M eff = (M o .q(0) . Then.

5 V R 20 kOhms 4 2 x 10 Oscillator Frequency(Hz) 1.8 1. initial charge. Vdc 13.6 0 1 2 3 4 5 Initial Charge(C) 6 7 8 -7 x 10 Figure 9: The frequency of relaxation oscillator vs. Its waveforms are shown in Figures 10-17. 13 .4 1. The oscillator is simulated for q(0)=0 and the parameters given in Tables 1 and 2. The domain of the oscillator operation frequency is (40) f min ≤ f e ≤ f max .8 0. The curve shown in Figure 9 is not available outside below the minimum frequency and above the maximum frequency.6 1.frequencies. Table 2: Circuit parameters.2 1 0.

005 -0.025 0 1 2 -4 Figure 12: The memristor charge vs. time. 3 4 Time(s) x 10 5 -4 x 10 Figure 13: The memristor current vs. -7 x 10 15 7 6 The coefficient B.q-qc The Output Voltage(V) 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 0 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 Time(s) 4 5 -4 x 10 Figure 14: The Output voltage vs.8 2000 The Memristor Memristance(Ohms) The Capacitor Voltage(V) 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 0 1 2 3 4 Time(s) 1500 1000 500 0 0 5 1 2 Figure 10: The capacitor voltage vs.015 -0. time. time. 3 4 Time(s) -4 x 10 5 -4 x 10 Figure 11: The memristor’s memristance voltage vs. 0 0 1 2 3 Time(s) 4 5 -4 x 10 Figure 15: The coefficient B. time. time.015 0.02 1 2 3 4 Time(s) 5 -0. which is the difference between the memristor charge and the capacitor charge vs. -7 8 x 10 0. 14 .01 -0.01 The Memristor Current(A) The Memristor Charge(C) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 0. time.005 0 -0.

30 Qc q 6 20 4 The memristor voltage (V) The capacitor charge and the memristor charge -7 x 10 2 0 -2 -4 10 0 -10 -20 -6 0 1 2 3 4 Time(s) 5 -4 x 10 -30 -0. memristor current.005 0 0.02 -0.025 -0.015 -0. it is shown here that the solution can be used to analyze an M-C relaxation oscillator. R-L-C etc already exist. The implicit function is evaluated numerically to find currents and voltages of the circuit elements and the memristor charge.01 0.015 Figure 16: The memristor charge and the Figure 17: The memristor voltage vs. L-C. can be used at full extent. M-C. time. 5. For a nonlinear element like a memristor. Memristor combinations with the linear circuit elements.005 The memristor current (A) 0. M-R. Also. An implicit function is found for memristor charge or capacitor charge versus time. Conclusion M-C series circuit with TiO2 memristor driven by a constant voltage source is analyzed. M-L etc for different type of sources and connections should also be analyzed in detail so that memristor. the capacitor charge vs. The M-C series circuit solution may also find usage to analyze different types of nonlinear oscillator circuits having M-C series circuits in the future. RL.01 -0. 15 . it is important to have exact solutions as those solutions of combinations of the linear circuit elements such as R-C. the new circuit element. A more detailed analysis of the M-C oscillator should also be done in future.

Memristor-Based Fine Resolution Programmable Resistance and Its Applications.8.” IEEE Trans. pp.Circuit Theory.The Missing Circuit Element. [5] Pershin. Di Ventra. O.. no. modelling and electromagnetic theory of the memristor. Kyungmin Kim. ”Proc. 2010. 2009. 1971. Williams.. K. Aug. T. A 466. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers. 507-519. Y. Eshraghian. A. S. Soc. Y. When more data on TiO2 memristor becomes available.D. S.. B. Al-Sarawi and D. Practical Approach to Programmable Analog Circuits With Memristors. 453. pp. Iqbal. S. M. 2010 8th IEEE International. R. vol. [3] O. Abbott. 2175-2202. ICCCAS 2009.1857-1864. Communications. no. vol. July 23-25. Kim. 80-83. vol.A.49-52.”Memristor . Kavehei. 2008. [6] Sangho Shin.57. ”The missing memristor found. S. International Conference on. 2009 16 .. R. Snider. Chua. 2010. pp. Stewart. F. Circuits and Systems. no. pp. their effect on the oscillator performance can also be inspected using the M-C oscillator analysis given here. pp. NEWCAS Conference (NEWCAS). “An automatic gain control circuit with TiO2 memristor variable gain amplifier”.There is not much information about the effects of process and temperature variations on TiO2 memristor available in literature [13-20]. References [1] L. vol.. Sung-Mo Kang.948-951. June 20-23. D. “The fourth element: characteristics. vol. W... [4] Wey. pp.” Nature (London). G. 2010.. [2] D. Strukov. Jemison. 18.V. and R.

W.. A. X.376-379. International Conference on.N. pp. Wolf.J.2.A. [11] Wang. [9] Qin Yu.. no. 2009. no.. 661-675.59-65. Variable gain amplifier circuit using titanium dioxide memristors.9.. W. [15] Manem.. Oct.. Self-adaptive write circuit for low-power and variation-tolerant memristors.. July 30-31 2009. no. S. Circuits and Systems. pp..266-274. no. Information Science and Technology (ICIST). IEEE Transactions on. vol. pp. Zhao..1234-1237. [12] Joglekar. [10] Delgado. IEEE/ACM International Symposium on. Communications. NANOARCH '09. Liao. He. vol. no. vol.6. ICCCAS 2009. IET. H.. Wang.1.. 17 . Jemison. Y.. no.. Devices & Systems. Nanoscale Architectures... 2010.. pp. S.[7] Shin..S.M. Nanotechnology. Kim. [13] Yiran Chen. pp.D.. X. IEEE Transactions on. Transmission characteristics study of memristors based Op-amp circuits. vol. Design Considerations for Variation Tolerant Multilevel CMOS/Nano Memristor Memory. Sung-Mo Kang. European Journal of Physics 30 (2009). Juebang Yu.. Y. Zhiguang Qin. G. July 23-25 2009. Circuits. 2010. K. The elusive memristor: properties of basic electrical circuits. “Compact modeling and corner analysis of spintronic memristor”. Kang. “Memristor applications for programmable analog ICs. Nanotechnology Materials and Devices Conference (NMDC). Nov.10. The memristor as controller. vol. Xiaobin Wang. 2009. pp. [8] Wey. Dynamic performance analysis of PID controller with one memristor. 26-28. Chul-Moon Jung. pp. pp. GLSVLSI '10 Proceedings of the 20th symposium on VLSI. 2011 International Conference on.. January 2011.974-977. March 2011.675-678. vol. S. vol. 12-15. Yuming Mao.. 2010 IEEE. no. Kyeong-Sik Min. pp..7-12. March 2011. T.5.” Nanotechnology. Rose.. [14] Kwan-Hee Jo. Y.

.. H. H. D. VLSI Design (VLSI Design).. pp. Gao. 2-7. [17] Rajendran.. Y. 2011 24th International Conference on.. 2011. Bratkovsky. Design Automation Conference (DAC). vol. R. X.. G... Li... 2010. R.. arXiv:1110. Xu. A. Jan.. [19] Alibart. 18 . 25-30. C.. S. Y. B. pp. June 13-18. Pino. Chen. Williams.. vol. no. M. L. S.S.[16] Niu. Chen. Rose.E. Proceedings of the 16th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference.. A. Strukov.. pp. and Xie. D. Maenm. Karri.5514v1 [condmat..S. Molecular dynamics simulations of oxide memristors: thermal effects. [18] Hu. An Approach to Tolerate Process Related Variations in Memristor-Based Applications. Geometry variations analysis of TiO2 thin-film and spintronic memristors. 2011. R. High-Precision Tuning of State for Memristive Devices by Adaptable Variation-Tolerant Algorithm. M. Wang. F.. 2010. 2010 47th ACM/IEEE.. Alexandrov. Y. 2011. no.mtrl-sci]. [20] Savel'ev...mes-hall]. J.E. Impact of process variations on emerging memristor..1393v1 [cond-mat.877-882.. arXiv:1012.. Hoskins.18-23..

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