Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols.

128-129 (2012) pp 1168-1172
Online available since 2011/Oct/24 at www.scientific.net
© (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland
doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.128-129.1168

Modeling and Simulation of diesel propulsion system
in maneuvering navigation condition
Haiyan Wang1,a, Huiyan Tang2,b
1

Merchant Marine College, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai, China, 201306

2

Automation Engineering Division, Shanghai Marine Diesel Engine Research Institute, Shanghai,
China, 201108
a

wanghaiyan@shmtu.edu.cn, btanhuiyan@163.com

Keywords: ship; maneuvering navigation; marine diesel engine; propulsion system; simulation.

Abstract. All-regime performance simulation of marine diesel propulsion system is an important
support for design of control system. An all-regime model for diesel propulsion system is established,
including starting, braking, reversing, etc. The dynamic simulation models of propeller running across
four quadrants and ship longitudinal motion are given too. A 76000DWT bulk carrier is selected as
plant. The simulation results show that steady data of diesel are in good accordance with test-bed data,
and dynamic data match to ship sea trial data in crash stop condition. The model is accurate and
effective.
Introduction
Main propulsion system of large merchant vessel is usually a fixed pitch propeller driven by a
large-scale low-speed two-stroke direct reversing marine diesel engine. In various ship motion
conditions, working condition of diesel engine varies, including starting, speed regulating, reversing,
braking, reversely starting, etc. Main engine remote control system (ERCS) can control the working
condition and its changing over. But, because propeller characteristic varies in different ship motion
condition, diesel engine works in complicated load conditions, especially in ship maneuvering.
In general, the interaction between engine and propeller is considered in simulating of diesel
propulsion system. Yet, some researches emphasis on modeling of diesel engine [1, 2] and others
involves propeller model across four quadrants but not involve special condition including starting,
braking, etc [3]. On the other hand, researches in ship motion field usually simplify the engine model,
in which only the engine speed is concerned and other parameters such as scavenging air pressure,
exhaust temperature are ignored [4]. However, performance parameters of diesel engine are sensitive
to ship navigational status. If not all conditions are taken into account, designed ERCS may cause
diesel running in adverse conditions, for example, overload. In order to evaluate whole performance
of diesel propulsion system, a combination model of ship motion and diesel propulsion system has to
be built.
All-regime model of diesel engine
Mean value model of diesel engine is comprehensively used in non-linear control and states
observation [5]. Because of its calculating speed, the model can be used in high speed engine as well
as low speed engine. But the model has to be modified to adapt to all-regime running condition,
because it doesn’t concern some working condition such as starting, braking and reversing.
Friction torque. In reversing working condition, engine speed has to cross zero. Under the
circumstance, static friction torque which is usually ignored in normal should be considered.
Friction model can be divided into two groups: one is dynamic, the other is steady. Due to the low
precision demand, a steady friction model is used to simulating diesel friction torque. There three
parts in the model: static friction, Coulomb friction, viscous friction, as shown in Eq.1.
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Ts is maximum static friction torque. starting air mass flow can be calculated as:  πD 2 R  π  ne msa = psa N cyl Vε + RTsa . According to state equation of ideal gas. backward velocity/negative rotation. turbocharger. So. Starting and braking. that will result in wrong simulating results. inter cooler. forward velocity/negative rotation. There are two description methods of propeller characteristic . starting air torque and propeller resistance torque for diesel. λ is ratio of crank to connecting rod. Vε is clearance volume. N cyl is number of cylinder. psa is starting air pressure. 128-129 T fn ( ne ) * sgn( ne )  Tf =  Te  T * sgn(T ) s e  1169 ne ≥ ns ne < ns & Te < Ts . etc. T fn is viscous friction torque. The difference between staring and braking is whether the direction of air distributor cam is the same with the direction of engine speed. others (1) Where. 1 + sin  × 4  6  60  (4) Where. and can be replaced by pressure of compressed air bottle. ηi is indicated heat efficiency. backward velocity/positive rotation. cam is direction of air distributor cam. When engine speed is below the minimum steady speed. R is gas constant of air. D is diameter of cylinder. are the same as conventional mean value model. propeller has four quadrant working condition: forward velocity/positive rotation. R is length of crank.2. Theoretically.Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. Tsa is temperature of compressed air. ne min is minimum steady speed. (2) ne < ne min Where. which can be taken as ambient temperature for simplifying calculation. 8 4   2 λ  (3) Where. Indicated torque. T f is friction torque. as used in literature [6]. diesel engine cannot run steady and it’s indicated torque can be considered as 0.  30 ηi H u m f  Ti =  π ne 0  ne ≥ ne min . H u is fuel low heat value. ns is speed dead zone for changing friction torque direction. According to force analysis about crank connecting rod mechanism. ps is intake manifold pressure. m f is fuel quantity per cylinder per cycle. Starting and braking is usually fulfilled by supplying compressed air into cylinders. mean value torque of compressed air for a multi-cylinder diesel can be show as: Tsa = sgn(cam) D 2 ( psa − ps )RN cyl  3 1  3 2   + 1 − 1 − λ  . including indicated torque. because friction torque will frequently cross zero when engine speed is near zero. Te is driven torque. Compressed air enters the cylinder when starting air valve opens at top dead center. So. including intake manifold. ne is diesel engine speed. ns is zero. Others components. ns is assigned to 10-5rpm. exhaust manifold. However. The staring process ends when starting air valve closes at 120°CA. the indicated torque can be shown as Eq. Modeling of propeller Matching the ship motion.

the other is shown in Fig. 2 Where. t is thrust-deduction fraction.2 -0. (8) Where.4 -0. Ship longitudinal motion When the ship sails in deep water. the wet area can be calculated by Eq.3 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 -1 -0.1 -0.6 0. 0. vs is ship velocity.8 -0.2 (b). About merchant ship with one single propeller. where k p (thrust coefficient) and k m (torque coefficient) are function of advanced angle [3. (5) Where. 2 3 L B   S = ∇  3. Torque of propeller is: [ ] (6) ] (7) T p = k m (1 − t ) ρD 3p (1 − w) v s2 + D p2 n 2p . .2 0 -0.4 -0.1170 Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation IV across four quadrants: one is shown in Fig.8 1 (a) Advanced angle (b) Bounded advanced ratio Fig. 2 Thrust of propeller is: [ Pp = k p (1 − t ) ρD p2 (1 − w) vs2 + D p2 n 2p . w is wake factor.8 0. ∇ is displacement of ship. owing to propeller direct connecting to the engine.1 Propeller characteristic across four quadrants The two methods are interconvertible. D p is diameter of propeller.1 0 -0.9.305 w + 0.1 (a).8 kp 10km 0. λ p is bounded advanced ratio.8. B d   (9) Where.2 0.6 -0.443 + 0. which is equal to that of engine.432 + 0.2 0 0. where k p and k m are function of bounded advanced ratio [7]. Ct is total friction coefficient. d is draft of ship. n p is rotational speed of propeller. 4]. the second is selected. ρ is density of sea water.6 0.643Cb  .4 0. But the first need to calculate arc-tangent function and is difficult to realize curve-fitting. So.3 0.6 -0. resistance can be calculated by Eq.4 0.4 kp 10km 0. B is breadth of ship.2 0. Bounded advanced ratio can be defined as: λ p = (1 − w)vs / (1 − w) 2 vs2 + D p2 n 2p . Cb is block coefficient. The second is comparative easier to implement. S is wet area of ship. Lw is length of water line.2 -0. R f = −Ct ρSvs2 .

m is mass of ship.4 [r/min] Sim. which can obtained through the Lap-Keller map. Simulation and Analysis A 76000DWT bulk carrier is taken as plant. 182. Because of difference between residuary resistance simulated and real residuary resistance. The simulating results are in good agreement with sea trial data. which can be calculated by Schoenherr’s formula. 8350 11085 11845 105 105 100 98 8833 8662 176. 84 162 202 Revolution of Test 9400 11200 12200 turbocharger [r/min] Sim. as shown in Table 3. Curves of ship motion and diesel parameters are .4 101. (11) Where. 128-129 1171 Total friction coefficient can be divided into three parts. which is related to ship length.3 95. C r is residuary resistance coefficient.26 Full draft [m] 14.8 175. 49 73 88 Power [kW] Test 4417 6625 7950 Sim. (10) Where.6 175.1 175.5 Pressure of intake Test 110 162 208 manifold [kPa] Sim. there are relatively large errors at 120s and 489s.6 Sim.2m) [m3] 72846 Type of M. The initial condition of diesel is full ahead (105rpm). Ct = C f + C r + ∆C AR .8 177. Water deep is about 60m at sea trial. Besides.8 176. steady state simulating is conducted at first. Fore draft of ship is 3.15m) [m3] 86048 Design draft [m] 12.6m and mean draft is 5.2m/s. distance of ship is smaller than sea trial data. 83. But the errors are in a reasonable range. control handle are set to full astern (-75rpm). as shown in Eq. So. ∆C AR is roughness compensate coefficient.4 Displacement (d=12. the ship velocity can be calculated by vs = ( Pp − R f ) /( m + mλ ) . Table 1 Parameters of a 76000DWT bulk carrier Length [m] 255 Breadth [m] 32.4 Load [%] Test 50 75 90 Sim. it’s taken to validate accuracy of the diesel-propeller-ship model. 4288 6458 7750 Fuel consume [g/kWh] Test 181.4 101. mλ is mass of entrained water.4 274 247 13500 13060 Because crash stopping is typical operating in maneuvering navigation and an important item at sea trial.9 240 227 12700 12470 108 108 110 107 9716 9456 182. It’s evident that the simulating results are in good accordance with experimental data.2 Displacement(d=14. which parameters are shown in Table 1.8m,aft draft is 7.3 95. The reason is ship drifting motion and propeller transverse force are not considered. C f is friction resistance coefficient. when the velocity of ship is 14.Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols.7m.E 5S60MC Rated Revolution [r/min] 105 Diameter of propeller[mm] 6520 Number of blades 4 For validating the effectiveness of diesel engine model. Table 2 Steady simulating result of diesel engine Revolution of diesel Test 83.8 173. The results are shown in Table 2. At zero time.10.

5 0. Simulation of the Propulsion System Behaviour During Ship Standard Manoeuvres. Baokun Su: Electric Machines and control.8 1. M. It includes all working conditions. In Chinese. etc. p. References [1] D.657-663. [7] Dianpu Li.T.0% 0 0 12.8 0.18(1998).2 14. p.T.0% 1383 1334 7.6% 1970 1928 1.0% 4.1% 1.53. Combination simulating of diesel propulsion system and ship motion is conducted.465.4% 782 757 9.2 500 0 100 200 300 time[s] 400 0 500 -100 50 0 -50 -50 0 Tem[K] 0 1000 pim[kpa] 5 50 ne[r/min] dis. Vol. Lian He.5% 2. p.0% 2049 2013 1.1172 Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation IV shown in Fig. [4] G.6 1. In a word. Error Trail Sim.0% 1101 1063 8. 15 3000 10 2000 0. Zongyi Wang.2 12.5 8.60. braking.935. Figaria.[m] vs[m/s] 100 ne[r/min] Time [s] 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 489 Table 3 Simulating results of ship motion in crash stopping Ship velocity [m/s] Distance [m] Trail Sim. China.4 0. Lamaris. [3] Jianbo Sun.T. pp. Chen Guo.8(2004).8 2. 14. including starting. [2] V.0% 1848 1784 3. 2001.0% 3. It shows that curves are continuous and changes are in accordance with the practice. Vol.7 4.2 0.14(2002).740.7 0. Guzzella.8% 1000 150 100 0. . Xu Zhang.8% 1. A bounded propeller model across four quadrants and ship longitudinal motion model are built also. Haihong Chi: Journal of System Simulation. Vol. Hongliang Yu: Journal of System Simulation.9% 2057 2021 0 0 100 200 300 time[s] 400 0 500 -100 Fig. A.2% 3.20(2000). p.2 Curves of diesel parameters and ship motion in crash stopping Conclusions An all-regime mean value diesel engine model is built. D.2.51 (2010). Benvenutoa.5% 3.4 9.4 150 Error 0. the model is effectiveness for diesel performance evaluation when the ship is in maneuvering conditions. [6] Yi Wang.3% 1627 1579 5. [5] L. Vol.6 5.9 3. Amstutz: IEEE control magazine.8% 427 409 11. In Chinese. Hountalas: Applied thermal engineering. Vol. Hountalas: Energy Conversion and Management. 1753.2% 3. S.5% 3.7 1.3 -0.4 10. Simulating results of steady state and dynamic state also show the accuracy and effectiveness of the model.Vol.7 7. p. In Chinese.Brizzolaraa.19(2007). reversing. p.7 5. In: Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Practical Design of Ships and Other Floating Structures.

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