Brain signals acquired from the use of a modular

encephalograph for digital processing and BCI
application
Evelyn Diana Terán Mejía

Edwin Christian Bolívar Vilca

Facultad Nacional de Ingeniería
Universidad Técnica de Oruro
Oruro, Bolivia

Facultad de Producción y Servicios
Universidad Nacional de San Agustín
Arequipa, Peru

Abstract— The instruments BCI (brain-computer interface),
are currently breaking into the vast horizon of bioengineering,
helping people with brain deficiencies, most of the time the only
way they have to communicate. The main objective is to acquire
brain signals to achieve an interface capable of receiving a
response from the computer; and to control a robotic arm. This
paper provides a description of brain signals: beta, alpha, theta
and delta, also implements a modular electroencephalograph:
analog and digital. With this type of construction the electrodes
captures correctly the EEG signals (electroencephalograph),
with an amplification between 1V-3V. Signals are sent to the
computer for processing, and perform a storage system,
identifying standards.If we receive alpha signal, with this
program the signal is identified, procesed and compared, if it
reaches more than 50% similarity dispatched response. This is
where autoregressive parameters for best signal processing is
used.

Brain signals
To obtain the signals produced by the brain we need to
stablish the nature and the magnitudes as corresponding
frequencies.
The action potential (also known as "push", "pin" or
"spike") is a burst of electrical activity created by a
depolarizing current and indicates that an event occurs when
the neuron transmits information down the axon away from the
cell body.

Index Terms— Acquisition, analysis, BCI, EEG, electrodes,
interface.

I. INTRODUCTION
Fig 1. Brain signal acquisition

This work is born from the dream of being able to
communicate only with thoughts.
First of all we need to acquire these brain signals. With
reference from papers we added the analysis of signals using
Matlab for study, analysis and future employment applications
noninvasive BCI systems.
For better understanding for the operation of the EEG,
should clarify some concepts [1].
Brain
The human brain is a very powerful machine that contains
100 billion neurons. They are active at night; while the rest of
the body slows down reaching minimum times during sleep;
the brain increases its activity even more than when man is
awake. The activity in times of watch and dream takes place in
different brain areas.

If the neuron does not reach this critical threshold, the
action potential will occur, it should be noted that when the
threshold is reached, always a potential standard action, for
every neuron given the action potential is always the same
occurs. This is caused by ion exchange.
When they get signals from the sensors are low frequency
and inherently non-stationary, noises, which are usually higher
frequency signals or pathological signs such as epileptic foci.
EEG activity contains a variety of different rhythms identified
by their frequency, location, electrical potentials and other
aspects of brain function.
Electroencephalogram
An electroencephalogram (EEG) helps detect abnormalities
in brain activity by measuring electrical signals produced by
the brain. The procedure involves placing electrodes with thin
wires that attach to the scalp. The electrodes detect small
electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells.

The frequencies of these waves depend on the degree of activity of the cerebral cortex. the . Theta Signals: great amplitude and low frequency between 3. these electrodes in combination with instrumentation amplifiers. In section 4 the experimental results are shown. which emit signals oscillations.8uV/nivel. but it is normal if seen in adults and young children. Most of the time the brain waves are irregular. are presented in the parietal and frontal region.The acquired signals are amplified and displayed as a graph on a computer screen which can then be read and interpreted by a physician. The input impedance of the device must be high and signal capture 5) Gain: Is chosen for the amplification step value 6) Bandwidth: Usually takes continuous 150 Hz. Placing a series of electrodes distributed on the head we can get an idea what areas of the brain greater activity occurs. The most widely used system for monitoring EEG signals is 10-20 system of the International Federation which indicates that the required number of channels is 8.5 and 13 Hz alpha waves are produced when a person is conscious. the frequency and amplitude of these waves change between periods of watch and dream. The coordinated activity of many neurons produce potential differences on the scalp using electrodes that are registered.5 Hz This signal is abnormal if it occurs in adults is alert. But it could be better acquired in the frontal and parietal regions of the skull. using a block diagram. and the respective filter can capture these small signals. and that these signals then recorded in units with solid conductors. Delta Signals: They have the longest range and frequency is less than 3. There are generally 4 types of signals [2]. plus a second test in a child while sleeping. The value of the sensitivity is 0. The amplitude of these waves is larger and significant in the occipital region. Reference section 3 each of the stages of the system architecture. Block diagram of the modules Electrodes [4]: The bioelectric signals from the brain activity is transmitted via ion in aqueous solutions. II. Beta Signals: normally between the frequency range of 1430Hz and at times of intense activity reach 50 Hz These waves occur when people are alert or anxious with open eyes. Fig 3. Fig 2. 2) High sensitivity: The minimum signal amplitude that can be registrada. but in this case it took 250 Hz To get full information 7) Power supply: The main source of noise is obtained from the power lines. are the conclusions to which they came. Alpha signals: They occur at a frequency between 7. Section 5. the content development is explained. fail to observe certain patterns that characterize abnormalities such as epilepsy (it is estimated that 4% of the world population ever in your life suffered a seizure). Brain signal This paper is organized as follows. Alphas signals end when the person opens his eyes. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTENTS PREPARATION OF THE TECHNICAL WORK According to the technical specifications of some EEG equipment is determined [3]: 1) Number of channels: The number of input signals. As an example. in the preparation of technical work and a test signal recording on 2 system users. To have different signals and thereby obtain their respective characteristics. The Theta waves occur in the parietal and temporal regions. Such waves typically occur in the cortex regardless of activity on the lower region of the brain. they can be preferably doctors or electrodes may also be manufactured. But under certain circumstances. mentioning future work. relaxed with closed eyes. REGISTRATION TEST SIGNAL Registration of signals we gave due importance and evidence acquisition signals we conducted in an adult during sleep and while awake. such as the INA 114 chip. In section 2. this level should be amplified 3) Maximum Gain: The ratio between the activity picked up by the electrodes and the values acquired by the EEG.5-7.5 Hz is normal for children under 1 year and adults in deep sleep. 4) Input impedance: Its value indicates the connection between the electrodes and the scalp.Tomando note that the maximum amplitude of the signals is 200 uV peak to peak and the ADC is 256 levels.

therefore I implement pass filter . filtering and amplification stages Fig. this was taken into account for the construction of the electrodes. and The first test was done in a healthy adult male of 26 years old during sleep and during the watching. In this work. which includes an 8bit ADC converter resolution and internal USB communications module.low third order with cutoff frequency Fc = 59Hz [7].electrodes are the interface between these two systems. 5 Front view Module 2: Digitization and communication The digitization and communication circuit is built based on the PIC18F2550 microcontroller [8]. because it has low output impedance and high input impedance. it is necessary to filter to eliminate noise signal. Filtering step: Once amplified signal electrodes. Fig. The filtering software can perform: . including ambient noise (such as 50Hz or 60Hz power activity lines) and biological noise (such as activity from the heart. this means that the circuit includes a OPAMP TL082 in follower configuration. skeletal muscles. this interface provides interactivity to the system. In certain circumstances it is better to keep the original signal without filtering to avoid losing information. in this case used as a reference electrode on the right leg. It is important that the electrodes make good contact with the skin. the communication with the microcontroller is made possible thanks to the drivers provided by Microchip. 6 Electrode location Module 1 [5]: refers to the brain receiving signals through sensors in the form of discs called electrodes that capture activity from different brain sources. The analog circuit signal is digitized by the ADC converter. then the logic programmed into the microcontroller is sending information through the USB port to a PC for better analysis. To view the data converted by the 18F4550 microcontroller in real time on a scheduled LabVIEW interface is used. It is important to choose a reference electrode and therefore the reference signal indicating the value of the comparison signal. III. this configuration is optimal. the results obtained were as follows in terms of alpha and beta signal. Amplification stage: For the correct acquisition of the EEG signal is required to construct a bio-amplifier that conditions the signal and amplify the signals while eliminating external interference. eyes). the frequency of the signals we are interested in purchasing is low. [9]. Positioning electrodes. 4 Side view of the electrodes prepared Fig 7. the electrodes were built with a small circuit with an approximate size of 2x2cm and are the active type. TESTS AND RESULTS Fig. which was made in some tests shown below.

By transforming the analog signal into digital signal. The most affecting these systems are: noise during acquisition stage. to detect it early and be treated by a specialist. They are the way to interact with the outside world through thought and that these interfaces allow transform into real action in our environment. The purpose of this study was to provide design and construction of a device at an economical cost to provide the opportunity to those with a brain problem. It should take into account these data when testing. However. We aim to improve this figure deepen what is the quantitative analysis of them. The EEG parameter in the specified time may change due to internal or external factors. The ultimate goal and work to which you want to reach is the control of electromechanical devices or prostheses such as arms control. are a technology that is based on the acquisition of brain waves and then be processed and interpreted by a computer using software. The EEG analysis is a tool required is approximately 75% of patients attending reviews of Neurology. robotic hands. V. This project can forge progress in ing. has a minimum at the entrance electrode impedance and high output impedance. It is necessary that the operational function as input buffers have a high CMRR to reduce noise as much as possible. the signal type theta occur in adults in deep sleep. the data can be considered as a number in binary format. This is an ongoing project is currently at a preliminary stage. For the signal processing can be applied as methods of analysis autoregressive parameters. robotic hands. Electrical activity is measured on the surface of the scalp (electroencephalography EEG) [11]. Time frequency analysis Brain signals require quantitative techniques that can be validly applied to time series showing ranges unsteady behavior. Projection controlled by BCI Future work to which you want to reach is to control or mind control electromechanical devices such as prosthetic arms. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors acknowledge the contributions for their support in reviewing this document to teachers and people in the area . to make contact with the skin and the electrode also artifacts. this time we look to Software likewise observed that the signal acquired by the LabVIEW program conforms to the characteristics of frequency and amplitude of a signal type Theta. which can be used by the computer for studies. The contribution is the construction of the electrodes based on a circuit with TL082 components such as low cost and affordable. They are best used in BCI technology and with less risk to the user than invasive methods because it is not necessary to make any surgical intervention. which were obtained by being those with rapid frequency bands. There are 2 types of devices according to the method of obtaining the signal. For this reason it is a random signal. to help people who lack a limb. a set of parameters that can somehow get to limit the performance of pattern recognition systems. in this case we want to get to the control of a 6DOF arm. Biomedical to aid doctors in diagnosing brain disorders. in this paper we use non-invasive devices: The sensor is positioned so that an intrusion on the human body are performed. EEG signals adult preserving the original signal After tests were done on the same subject in sleep state. and patient readiness. CONCLUSIONS Fig 8. in our current experiments we have a preview of the results of qualitative signals. IV. Brain Computer System Interfaces (BCI): The brain-computer interfaces.Fig 9. The acquisition and processing of brain signals for BCI systems. According to the results of the characteristics of the alpha and beta signals shown.

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