FHWA Hydraulic Toolbox

Version 4.1


Reference Guide Version 4.

The FHWA Hydraulic Toolbox and Desktop Reference Guide was developed as a collaboration between the
Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA) Resource Center (RC) and Federal Lands Highway (FLH) offices.
The methods and techniques included in the software draws heavily from materials and documents
published by the FHWA.
This software was developed for the FHWA by Aquaveo, Inc.. Work continues by Aquaveo to develop
improved versions and furnish program updates.

For More Information Please Contact:
Bart S. Bergendahl, P.E.

FHWA Central Federal Lands

Senior Hydraulics Engineer

Lakewood, Colorado 80228

12300 West Dakota Avenue, Suite 210

Phone: (720) 963-3754

gov 12300 West Dakota Avenue.E. FHWA Resource Center Principal Hydraulics Engineer Lakewood.go . Ph.bergendahl@dot. P..D. Arneson.E-Mail: bart. Colorado 80228 Resource Center Hydraulics TST Manager Phone: (720) 963-3200 E-Mail: larry. Suite 340 Larry A.arneson@dot.


PAGE C h a n n e l A n a ly si s C a lc u l a t o r C h a n n ii i .

e l Li n i n g D e si g n C a lc u l a t o r R o c k Li n .

PAGE i n g D e si g n V e g e t a ti v e Li n i n g D e si g n ii i .

R E C P Li n i n g D e si g n G a b i o n Li n i n g D e .

PAGE si g n W e ir A n a ly si s C a lc u l a t o r C u r b & G ii i .

u tt e r C a lc u l a t o r M e d i a n / D it c h D r o .

PAGE p l n l e t C a lc u l a t o r R a ti o n a l M e t h ii i .

o d C a lc u l a t o r 1 3 .

PAGE 3 6 9 ii i .

9 1 5 1 8 1 .

PAGE 9 21 22 2 3 2 6 2 9 D e t e n ti o n B a si n C ii i .

al c ul a t o r Ri p r a p D e si g n C al c ul a t .

PAGE o r C h a n n el R e v e t m e n t B ri d g e Pi ii i .

e rs Brid ge Abut ment s or .

PAGE Guid e Bank s Chan nel Spur Emb ank ment Over topp ing Culv ert ii i .

Outl et Ope n Bott om Culv ert Wav e Atta ck Ripr ap Filte .

PAGE r Desi gn Desi gn Wav e Calc ulato r Rock Sedi ment Grad ii i .

ation Anal ysis Calc ulato r C ul v e rt A s s e s s m e .

PAGE n t A n al y si s C al c ul a t o ii i .

r 3 7 4 2 .

PAGE 4 5 4 7 ii i .

47 5 0 5 2 5 4 .

PAGE 5 6 5 9 6 3 6 ii i .

tc. (Note the number particles measured inthe the transect precipitation water conditions. Also.The These available methodologies components are:Abutment Scour Contraction Scour DegradationPier Special Scour bend. 22. ft. ft.Note thatAssessment the armoring potential is checked for live-bed condition by comparing Inflow and Outflow Hydrographs between them is done in the field once the required size of photo is determined.The MethodThe equation for computing abutment scour via theor HIRE method suggested cohesive sediments with a D50 Gradation greater than equal to 20 isThe mm and Channels and Floodplains.The basin rehabilitation. /sec and the red line shows the routed hydrograph to have (See HEC-15. Design Velocity. When available. inside Calculator computes thethe amount ofis flow the be discharge using this travel time. Similar toNote: the Curb and must estimatebutton for clear-water conditions.lt. “Highway Hydrology.fhwa.5) -/(0r2. or RTF flow defines the The discharge will remain at cubic feet per second until the sediment. Stein.CircularChannel Analysis . ft.Embankment toChannel flow methods based shapePier and length. The gradation for each h . the above operations and requirements are common to alland eight beneath the bridge superstructure is also and is riprap computed where the a gradation Results (D5inputting . a new window opens and the user enters the acre-ft. The calculator is primarily intended to produce gradation plots for riprap Revetment The blue line in the Inflow and Outflow Hydrographs figure shows the inflow hydrograph on the findings Rational material. will begradation used Curve to to embankment Flow.P-l-1/8 in sagDetention Basin The curves block’ desired downstream of the inlet. or Vertical lining Wall type. 50File. 3 length of embankment. HEC-23 DG17 Figure 17.Centerline width of Abutment Scour 78 FaceWidth of Spread r Gutter Longitudinal slope of Centerline locateIDF Input Variable l|0tional Method — IDF Computatio Rational Method Analysis— included range requires different Input Parameters. Spitz.55 a )62 HydrographCompute.8.5.fhwa. the user must first completed in the final contraction scouradistance estimate for another. ft. year.00[acres]Rainfall 6 hr2. Choose calculatiGn(s) + l. The 5application scour .|Pprocessing soft.000ftArea3.J. riser. the CombinationTypical computed results for on-grade opened. end of opening the calculator the user is asked elevation.1Latitude (in ofMaximum concentration scour depth =adequate s = athe VI program will immediately (V des ) 3tabular the flow. n(s) curves for a define Discharge Storage scour:Discharge hydrographs and in the contracted storage-discharge section. These are: Pier Coarse Materials Pier include:Wind Speed.GabionChannel Lining Design Analysis -from screen.The followingCulvert Input Parameters the Design Wave Calculator are transferred to the Wave Attack Protection Calculator riprap upon size for are required for the Froehlich method:Abutment type (Spill Thru. and releasing.The user is next asked to specify the grate type and dimensions. y . ifi/6 desired. HEC-22. R. plots.L. Eqn.The program through anany Storage Curve Generator.O VIDF tc: + (Toe 2. andcomputed length. Storage 5-yr. ft. If the “Known area” option is along selected.3) Pattern (See with (See HEC-18. FHWA-HIFcontrol. If2-year an this window. The or edited results in the Design Calculator are transferred digital images that will be used. ft. S for 0. analysis. ft.4 < -< I3Define Minimum l. where.08minOK V Storage Ca| 1 Q 50 = Add bite u it ■■ -(1. R. Axis. (The use of the Weir y D Design Guidance. No data computed hG.2.6)depth 7.9 = length. P. G.0020ft/ftManning's Roughness Value for Roadway0.Unit floodplain. Inletais Compute Intensity Culvert Condition (clicking) an 0. and/or roadway overtopping.nws. (mm) unit Investigators Site open a = with Buried concentration: 0.. section prior to scour. R. of + 3c that yiqi (10/7 30= y K S f S 1 V T User equation: Supplied DataDefine 5yfor V V for -^ number VV 100-yr. HEC-20..00 (min) size). for live-bed conditions withcounts bridge Median/Ditch Inlet Calculato For on-grade applications. orbe area ofsaved the basin.noaa... Method P2. and Fifth Edition”. /seccapacity for agenerated reduction of 12 ft. user must select thefollowing ‘Setup’ button contraction scour without pressure conditions..)k = dimensionless function of land cover (see HDS-2. (m) /size qjc _hr2. a hydrograph can the Rational Calculator generates IDF P l Important: Filters either are a the necessary Channel Calculator or Curb and repeated each being used to define the gradation. attack. Laursen’s live-bed and clearcaptured andScour by-passed by a typical bend. If Edition”.) F.025 (ft/ft) 0.Embankment After length to floodplain width Contraction Scour 82 (in)| Inlet on grade d 1 Percent clogging: |J J 00 J Inlet Types 1%) I Water Surface components are fairly straight forward but the channel flow component is solved replacement appears in the ‘Select Channel’ window or inputting new hydrologic and channel superstructure.00 (* yet Upon selecting climbStorage Discharge CurveThe Detention Basin Culvert Calculator can produce a velocity of depth-to-armoring and depth-toequilibrium slope for the dominate discharge. http://www. October 2002. ft. roadside.*Ctx IMMR~.Upon opening Storage (acre-ft) Parameter| ValueI Units INameKnown Discharge 1Num Points11Discharge CurveDefine.. 6/1Acrobat and 100 year intervals. curves.gov/oh/hdsc/currentpf. or similar ditch. However. bottom elevation.In addition to the Results reported for April 2012. Time Of Concentration—Sheet Flow which analyses will be used to create use.Time hr4. P.You will be to be exported and If on-grade with a block or a sag location OK culvert the relationship between the storage volume in the basin. then entered into theroadways designated input field in the lower left./sec. Gravel)VegetationRolled Erosionusing File and name: the precipitation values have been entered. FHWA Publication No. the user is presented with the next window for specifying the number of needed:Vertical size of bridge opening before scour. (C)0. if the user would like to the walk through each of the filtering “Time”. and ft.Wave Period. the “Design perimeter of Bridge and guess of this value is create a report you click on Outflow Discharges” button and either entering a known discharge or adding a is compute selected and Gutter Calculator. are calculated grade. /secUpstream bottom width conversion constant equal toInlet 10 in SIInlet and 332010./hr./sec. Once all data is 61) the project’s location and any asmade. I Storage Travel : determination of1973. ft. 35: pp. (See m Embankment Gradation HEC-18.00 ftResultsMinimum = Rational Inlet Perimeter. must select the clear-water transport conditions defined prevail below (see Contraction as part of Scour section below). ft. Velocity Riprap type uses ‘all particles less than 3ofinches’ as the smallest size erosion interval.RECPCance Arneson.The Report elevation. the C. channel window. order to exclude portions the calculator. The tool will compare those abutment. equations used to compute the inlet perimeter and spacing are derived iterative computational summarizing the hydraulic geometry is known. and drop them (click again) on reference Contraction and Definition for Geometric ParametersThe is steep.V = velocity.5) 0.. 45 Degree Tilt Bar 3-1/4”. from Define Parameters. thewindow known diHorizontal Grade Calculator computes the minimum inlet the user selects the “Compute button above bottom and the volume of the described earlier insediment this Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. Inflow bank full discharge Hydrographs isChannelr commonly figure used shows as aresults reasonable an inflow hw yet Granular dFilter 3Method Finer Layer: Granular Filter □ Filter Suitability: Filter Suitable tP. P. Significant MethodThe Wave equation Height for andcomputing Wave Period) abutment required scour for designing via theequation for *06516. user selects “Edit Transect” button. kisCalculator. parameters Froehlich (i. The resulting contraction can top window.. f(See HEC-18. identifies conditions are clear-water bed material is characterized byftHIRE Height. Alternately.Unit discharge Long Term Degradation Curb opening JGrateChannel Types| Manning p -1 -7>adGrate width: 10. Warner. a The equation computing flow depth rock. The calculator subtracts the volume offor water that can generated for be stored design discharge.The following Results are generated for required for replacement Parameters are required to determine coarse-bed pier scour: Pier field gradations to control gradations by viewing them together on standard.ArmoringThe Toolbox uses the Shield’s criterion for incipient motion toThere T BasinUnitsNameRational Method AnalysisRunoff Coefficient Intensity: 0. Plot.’ (i./sec. Hydro-35 for the Eastern United States. 200 side data are allowed.5d D»n »high U» R» w yyc yi computing Initial 10 ac-ft Q thickness = larger of Input orir d 0 a38 s peak H (tan 0) ^[Basin (Ko» 7gy individual 2x thickness on slope S7 _________________ Design water v2. B. (m) Granular Filter 2 outflow 210 Performance item indetention the and routed hydrograph while the Storage Curve figure shows the estimate. increases with distance downstream when the grate is operating under either weir or orifice the case of user and channel data. for the 2 3water Automated Image-Based Grain Sizing to Standard Pebble-Count Methods.. the “Edit Channel Data” button isand (typically concentration are the top elevation. section.inft.Once the hydraulic depth in the of contracted section after for pressure flow conditions is sions of the individual particles. Eqn. For more information onsave these Methods refer to HEC-22.dot. = Qi2of □ replacement. Add SUrdjrd toadMsnWot Ale Gr«d»Bon Cix>«^rr«w Detention Analysis 1 2 Discharge of the selected lining C10-min mv* A G T (Vyi _ a des 2 n rr -asm T A A y - X 50 10 .Important: must be taken when photographing theminimum rock. The Rational Method Calculator will then make a second estimate of as well as the parameters are provided. depth or discharge against aofasked user variable selected nine available options. W./sec.The And Channel primary Flow y (S -1) J=eVMaM K Method 17.The volume of storage must be estimated Channel Analy sis Calculator. ft. If the data is entered.4) D 2 W The following GradationMinim applications:Velocity Head of Approach Flow Depth (second view list).” ASCE from “Calculators” pull down menu or in the basin from the volume of entering the basin based on the inflow the channel are reported in the upper Channel opened./ft.49 gutter CU units) analysis = slope. Once cropping is completed. the file is width of drainage against curb (ft. input of precipitation information from a Culvert BanksChannel OvertoppingCulvert OutletsOpen-bottom CulvertsWave cohesive material is known. and the discharge for aiHEC-23 pier widths). which is aft. open. 3. ‘Computation Method’ 0 5theChannel can be added using the notes feature. At this point. Bottom Elevation. 50 Storage. ft. InformatioOnce image(s) has been imported. Energy Block HeightThe Rational Vdefined 10-009.The unique Input flow Parameters.dot. Upon selecting the ‘Define Image NHI-09-111 & 112. storm the computed “Minimum Block Height” is the greater of weir or orifice characteristic data locally provides an option to view the results of all methodologies simultaneously for a particular analysis. This view allows the image to beto cropped inhydrograph./sec. ft.C.D Adapted from HEC-22 Figure the contraction scour estimate for live-bed conditions with the contraction scour 30 andnext step is September 2010.. degrees FahrenheitUnit weight of water. variations. HIRE Method 79 flow:(*concentrated Width of spread:Compute Depression:Area ofalong Channel types.IDF Combined Gradation” button at the bottom of the window.6In addition the be input shown required andto(Add to determine whether live-bedsuch orUpon Rounded) FlowVelocitySplash-over Velocity(limited to grate Western States. *cstorage: = = y Y(Sg 2..OKCancel y —l V s tanh W HEC-23 igy + includeRiprap ™ \Grate data hundreds for /3 lKnown 1. Definition for Wave Calculations outflow structure will determine the outflow hydrograph and the basin size. ft. discharge atuses Input upstream Parameters.0Elevation for given NOAA in< —L orof the Curb and Gutter Calculator.2) 7. Is/l )Cancel 2Assessment Minimum freeboard Ambient 2 bed It HEC-18.The following Results are window.. the user Q Storage Discharge Curves generate final clear-water conditions is:-] 3/7K. the finaldisplayed. al.) Note that an 3 Kilgore. IDFRECP 24 CurvesCompute. discharge to achieve this goal. 2006. L (ft. 461473.to 45rejectFroude Kvolume gravity ofshould sedimentDensimetric particle numberScour 2 Specific Therefore.gov/engineering/hydraulics/library 2 /3 Sketch 2AssignmenThe port” from the drop down menu.Flow you select depthflow..F. The Storage Curve figure shows the assessments Results are for coarse-bed pier scour: Correction factors K and calculator contains five types:Grate approximate. the following Input arc.. “Precipitation-Frequency Atlas of the Western Unit50 Minimum riprap block:|ÖÖ(ft)Compute |Grate TypesVelocity: 13. and Results for each riprap application. scour. Upon concrete characteristics input for the sheet flow component of time of concentrated are the top ed States. Theare length of the orCare ‘near-zero’ longitudinal slope. with FHWA’s scour countermeasures:Channel RevetmentBridge PiersBridge Abutments / Guide cohesive and the critical velocity required to initiate erosion of the including contraction scour forfor live-bed conditions iThe NCHRP equation for procedure) is recommended final rock acceptance testing.K. with (equation flow duration is sufficiently long)The following Input selecting the ‘Add Gradation’ button and highlighting “Gradation #” in the top window. the detention basin approximately 0. The variations occur in the Embankment Overtopping and Wave Attack 50 using following equationAlso. imparted by governing equation for computing riprap size for Channel Spurs all input is: data. Reticuline)Curb OpeningSlotted l Flow Depth. The contracted section.000ft 2Depth atprovided Center P H * determine the adequacy d “Replacement Matrix 25 vided. HEC-15.corresponding 951-956.Depth in contracted section prior to scour. the current technology not to bebe used manufactured compute the equation for permissible or Trapezoidal)Loca Degree Tilt Bar 2-1/4”. The results computing from Froehlich method is(See HEC-1B. the desired ft. = velocity.Computed Results 2 (See flow.5 43 granular filter Yi )m images D = can be D view by selecting the “Plot Time All Of Concentration—Pipe Gradation” button.Time Of Concentration—Shallow September. photographed./ft. the Channel Calculator is scour methodology will be described below by scour component category. give it a name and specify future isThe specified.and corner of the capture runoff from or bridge decks with curbing a ‘zero’ the calculator reports the following results:Intercepted FlowBypass Flow Approach Velocity initial Manning’s n-value Channels. an initial estimate of Q must be parameters and calculator output will only be transferred to the appropriate Input Parameter fields if the can be contracted in both the horizontal and vertical directions.cfm?pub is important input since the height the block required toalong capture 100 % of the flow variables or the in inputting new hydrologic entered. the user is required input the following Calculated Channel Analysis Result Select the “Plot” button toabring up a basin plot ofsize.H. bottom elevation. The length perimeter and maximum allowable spacing between inlets required to calculator will report the analysis results. dated for computing depth in the section after scour for live-bed Calculator. Export Matrix Storm table..05J.34) 60-min 6. the program will immediately output the scour depth.E.0Elevation1 for granular IDF curvesVariables (Q)OptimizeCompute 26. ft. R.. the inflow hydrograph and the outflow following unique previously input data.16) 7. ofarc. “Hydraulic Design of Energy Dissipators for(less Culverts and A window will open where information basin. the ft. Gradation plots for the Channel Lining C C C Tracey.Dimensionless MaterialsContraction Pressure include:Coefficient Scour of DragFriction Velocity. (min) 0.fhwa. anscour) 50 50 maximum scour depth iy 1Data. Curb DischargeC 4.000(i I < incipient □KI p Ys V 1 Flowrate e TopThe y layer 2 Perf. 2009. “Stream Stability at Highway Structures.’) Upon selecting the ‘Add Transect’ button and highlighting “Transect the85 where the an ratioFlow depth including contraction selecting scour.The following Results aredischarge generated pier while the Stream Bed gradation the smallest particle measured as the smallest size 78 road:Cross-slope of pavement: W Define cross-slope of gutter:M compute the ft. width: (m/m) [zö (ft)Grate length:|ZG(ft)Compute forward Inlet Data into this entry field. governing equation.2)a = unit Simply click the ends of this tool.)Define Particle Count ButtonThe user can now view the individual transect plot95 Depending on can be ScourSpecial ConditionsAs will be described below.66The Riprap (Natural or Only P-1-7/8-4.2 Cancel |vg C C yet OK OKEqn.gov/engineering/hydraulics/library without pressure flow conditions. LengthDimensionless Wave Height10% Wave Height. and the D of the bed material. the April look of 2012. L. Chang.ware. Upon entering all required input data. (See (See HEC-18.. hydrograph.. Average FHWA-NHI-05-114. the bottom elevation. new selecting a methodology is most appropriate for a given application. computed by either selecting a OÌÓ0 previously defined Channel Calculator fileBendWidth that ConditionsWhen theto water-surface makes contact with the bridge or portion (The field count data can be entered via one or several named dependent on to flow.. the time of concentration. Screen Orifice)Efficiency Capacity basin tdischarge.)Manning’s roughness value roadway surface. (0. m/s (ft.015(cfs)(ft)(in]’ (ft 2) to various directly. provided for the channel. (A)86. the program will immediately equations presented above and actual discharge passing through appear. theidentified.This the field count data.dot..Upon downstream end selecting ofto the the grate ‘Add to Image the block Gradation’ “base. = storage a = Rainfall configuration.8) 18. HEC 21. user ‘click’ on “Results” at the bottom of the listed views located atrehabilitation. The overland/sheet flow(ft/ft) and shallow concentrated flow (ftyft)0. maximum Io Caned applied t|' size. Double clicking on the plot graph brings up a new window that will allow the user to hydraulic parameters are the report. Unit weight of sediment.22 The Rich yr.■■■ the Channel Analysis . Erosion Plot 8. 25 (21 year.Note that the 89 Pier Scour AngleProtection the hydraulic radius. Velocity http://www. via the NCHRP Type max conducted in maximum storage for(P-1-7/8. Riprap Format File variables required to compute discharge rate byBridges.Complex Pier Method 92 outside Inle The Median/Ditch Drop-lnlet channel..554ftComputed opening height: [0. ft.gov/programs/techDevelopment/hydraulics/culvertImage Gradations yield thecomputations most accurate results when the photos of ‘clean. the graph. “A contains a listFactor reported for live-bed contraction scour:Shear velocity. FHWA-NHI0. ft. degreesCenterline type requires length different embankment.The governing equation. concentration. ft. choose No data computed cInformation employed to get final gradation results.W.cfm McCuen. Morris. expected to limit procedure) pier scour depths.1) The Analysi To the computing flow depth including maximum abutment scour.M. locating theisscaling reference points and measuring the distance maximum spacing measured from inlet center to inlet center. ft.. You may save the report as onThe gradedaPercent |j Li. HEC-23. ft.Velocity at toeparameters ofInput are repair.2. be plotted. hrs.Pier Scour inNCHRP Cohesive Bed for MaterialsWhen bed material method isa A yc y Degree max =questionable. the user the has the option to and reported given water for clear-water elevation. yfeet.2K 2for a (\(cfs) (• NOAA Atlas Data IWestern KyT □ Filter Suitability: Filter Suitable (I)3.For comparison and when appropriate. Method Calculator canbe used to enter the number=22&id=140Kilgore.Unit in forflow ..Shear scaling diagonal will vary with the image size needed to clearly identify a large number of required to capture flow approaching the inlet from three directions.. depth... ft. and 1. this option is provided in the flow.Flow Analysis velocity upstream of to depth ratioFroude NumberScour depth.fhwa.The elevation limit of long-term outflow degradation structure is reached atis given then channel the discharge location curve typically will the lesser = 2-year.The above procedure must be hydrograph required storage are in tabular format.P-l-1/8C&G . Vertical Wall. if necessary. the user which Scour inscour Cohesive Materials downstream of drop-inlet placed inwithin the bottom ofto required discharge matches the previous estimate acceptable tolerance. or closing the Design Wave window.000 Curves for 2Riprap year. multiple methods are available for -bridge Pier Scour in Course Bed estimating Contraction aredepth. t c. L. 15.g.2 = = L 1.42 the in selected Specified tctc: 10. Detailed of all the above material:Pier shapePier width and length./ft. Average flow depth in contracted section after scour. provide and routed the following outflow results: hydrographs Minimum can inlet also perimeter.. HEC-18.dot. Laursen’s addition to the Channel Calculator. Flow. HEC-14. Shear required tocenterline.) Ifthe a Channel Calculator option isassessment chosen.314 zl Gutter and The Bridge Scour Analysis Calculator provides analysis methods for evaluating 5 scour Florida DOT Method 90 (straight provided so that the program can make an initial determination of R and the channel rating criteria. ft. or less)EfficiencyTypical computed Channel Crossas NOAA Atlasavailable 14 (various regions of the United States).15) 7. Control Rich RTF. mension within the image should be a long line that spans the image diagonally.9360735./ft.W.Initial rate. 24-hour rainfall inaentered.gov/engineering/hydraulics/library . compute gradation from pebbles counts in the field (in (Spill Vertical Wall. types the lbs. ft. Piers The yet 2computed Analysis ¡B1IÌÌÉÉ| Inlet onV grade 3Edit Channel Data. FHWA-NHI-G2-GG1. ft./s (m/s) Revetment Rational Method./sec. abutment scour estimate for live-bed provided.A Channel Analysiscan . water Upon flow depth velocity at variations.gov/engineering/hydraulics/pubs/06086/ M.01ftMaximum Runoff Detention Inlet Spacing. The Detention Calculator and enter new data or review Factor elevation. The routed outflow :mechanisms Lining Design Calculator offers four channel lining types to from for designing http://www.) culator the Input Parameter fields.95 wave approach. and Cotton. given type is enter curve compulation Cacceptability Hydro provided.The year storms and satisfied with the configuration of the riprapSide Slopedetention presented with ft.80 source is following Results are generated the associated theTransect” NCHRP data method:Length input is ofactual embankment normal NCHRP Method of to a point of -interest.cfm?pub the window these parameters to the impact on thecorner other.101[In/hr]Compute 61Intensity2.Remember: Precipitation input Making multiple layers for the granular filter design. user is P. Project is: Slope Explorer Analysis Window..000(in)Local depression: is Manning described earlier inisthis document.UUU(ft) Curb Grate0. If user is bar. -holding AnalysisChannel Lining Design Analysis -Minimum RRChannel Lining Design Analysis .D .832cfsBypass located and armoring potential isthe checked for normal-depth anythe live-bed hydraulic condition by comparing the contraction HEC-18 Method 89 Location the determination of Q is the desired outcome./ft.Riprap —reported in addition to theStorage above output for in-sag 1± ‘Set Cropping Extents’ from the list of ‘views’ located at the top left.108[cfs]Optimize variables decimals)0.One ofofthe inputs to the techniques. sheet shallow and channel flow a single flow path types of linings required for the specific riprap design must be provided.00 window curve compulation _ Hydro identify the sediment that will be transported (critical sediment and thealso clogging: [%} Enter of the following: (• Design flow: [9.gov/OLPFiles/FHWA/G13248. Ragan.gov/engineering/hydraulics/pubs/05114/index. The values of these basic parametersAssessment can be changed Channel Vertical Wall w/wing walls)Angle of approach embankment to Flow. Eqn. window.C.” NOAA Atlas 2.Upon selecting aoption scour component and methodology Hint: It’s useful to select a and channel inspecific the upper left. open-channel (m/m) failure Gutter isEqn.E. ft. year. Calculators./sec. nstable = |Inlet roughness coefficient (see Table 2.Flow obstructed by embankment. R.A.K.Hint: The type.010 another window prompting them tofor “Add data. and Perimeter0. precipitausing 12-004. T .Riprap Shape The RationalSpursEmbankment Method Calculator allows thematerial. DG17. “Culvert Decision Making FHWA-CFL/TD-10-005.0Longitude Geotextile Year10 (in or yearFlowrate 0 2 □ Finer Layer: DSDesign Granular depth: Filter 10. or the approach cross section.2 X — 0.1) 8.A. and from theof roadway The resulting clogging)Depth at ofproject grateTop atCalculator. degreesCenterline length of estimate embankment..e. Culvert greatly Cross flow the increased. you can select the trials may be needed toathe determine most cost effective detention and can further specify whether ‘channel recommendatio Inflow HydrograpThe Detention Basin Calculator can plotthe the inflow and outflow additional Input Parameters are¡¡prequired to compute clear-water contraction um Riprap sthat do not represent atto Block (Greater of Weir vs. Zerges.Flow depth upstream of pier. ‘Active’ flow length. the 24-hour preKflow 2and .DesignSeries Select Channel:Inlet Location11 Channel b Text Product (RECP)Gabion (Mattress) The of alist.The Channel Intensity Computation Time of Format: the Input Parameters report..Fall velocity. National Weather repair. and following equation can be used to pier scourThe following (photographs) of any surface composed of discrete particles. E associated to use the Notes dialog to describe of Rock window. The Filter Calculator will design both granular or geotextile filters. nbasin Allowable top cancan be Method entered by clicking on the “Define Inflow hydrograph”.0 K K K h. are separation thickness. andassumes user defined precipitation values from other sources and Decisionapplications. Itan is left. ft. publication S. The lesser offrom these two estimatesis to Drop-lnlet For on-grade 50 Rock Sizedistinguishable rock.OOC(ft]Curb opening height: project is Equation factorMaximum flow depth including lining type. of storage below its durations.. Schall. or standpipe. contraction red line defines scour:Size of storage smallest curve non-transportable the blue line 4.000(ft)Length of inlet: |j is accordingly. FHWA-SA-92-010. the Toolbox that were made for a given runoff rate in a developed area at or below the predevelopment rate. tthe and plot the click Top Elevation.5 the in perimeter SI units and of 0.Third The “Plot” and “Compute Curves” options are the same for all types. ft. S.Angle of attack. Third component ofchannel time of concentration.m24 hr3. HEC-15. 21. is used to HIRE.JK Channel Lining Design Analysi Alternatively. 30 accordance Design Calculator offers eight applications for designing rock riprap armor protection /is depth. Up toleft. Once the hydrograph has been generated it ) saved VegChannel Lining Design Design Analysis . /sec . conditions. Swill where.Unit weight of sediment and water.Froude NumberScour depth.1) 10.fhwa. Orifice Control)Specific ra ra information:Runoff the particles to be graded.692(Vdes) this number discharge of useful isimage unknown.cfm inMedian/Ditch Appendix Young. Miller.” Hydraulic Design Series 23. D 50 85. unique Input and Results each 3 check 3 number=19&id=152Strom. depth. applications with channel block.StillScour Waterin Depth.Weir AnalysisC&G . the user will be prompted for additional Calculator is described earlier in this document. (accounting for clogging)Effective Stream Bed from window)Particle Count (‘Define Particle Count’ button)(The data source that Through. pressure flow conditions beginratioAmplification to develop and#” theinbridge ‘transects.. moving them as required rainfall intensity (typically 10-yr event).. yr. Chapter 8.Flow duration. ft. Cobble. lining type must be R Toe Johnson.Dimensionless Wave PeriodSignificant Wave Height. geometry.OKCancel shear Compound stress Menu in S ft. the following results must also provided. resulting gradations should beinlet considered Eqn.Once Distribution channel window without re-opening the Method of Sampling Coarse Bed Material.Average flowMaterialsWhen depth. is function of three potential from various input screen will open. important tion information when the grate narrower than the channel bottom and the channel slope (The use of drop-down window.L. ft. ft. http://www. J./ft. in turn. moveofD10 50 sediment. S.Notes describing a project Basin Calculator uses the basin storage.UUU Inlet TypespòI GrateJlGrate Types| P -1 -7/S mHydraulic Grate width: 10. When the entering volume ofcontracted water exceeds the storage Revetment left.Clear-water it is not possible to vary Deck Hydraulic Circular No. inlocated CU units points within the image that define aData” known dimension. draining to curb (ft.ft. and velocity for calculator is lbs.shear 6Image V -V 1..cflhd. This iterative process automatically carried out the criteria must provided.. the upstream discharge must be modified and/or channel controls) block height’ can be box viewed isProject checked.3 because of the potential of shadows andfollowing colorfor Curb and Gutter Calculato TheMethodThe inlet 3 impacts Calculator—Abutment Scour NCHRP equations design:Channel a discharge of 19 ft. The Rock Sediment Analysis Calculator is aatool following Input Parameters are required for the HIRE method:Abutment type following unique culvert gradationinformation coefficient greater than or equalconducted to 1.dot. 1-7/8 3 ft. the .23./sec. length. The Setup button open the image withParameters. degrees D50 and D 84of bed gradation plots.The following Results areofthe Figure number=17&id=151Brown. The resulting perimeter is that Splash-over Velocity EfficiencyFor in-sag applications.)The ‘Define Particle Count’ button isainunknownGutter then selected. in the image. it is automatically carried Ambient Riprap bed mound elevation height --= Ripra| R. Hint: islining no need to (min)Compute Intensity |No.dot. the user enters the the precipitation Channel Analysis Coefficient Transactions.length semi-log the HIRE method:Length ofwidth embankment normal to flow. 7.6 elevation m) Design high water C Jq'0.G. with other useful sumptions orchannel special considerations One ofthe thetransport fundamental objectives of storm water is to maintain the peak 2.is User/Trap. surface in acres. willwidth depend on the size of the particles being station.35).000ftEffective 1 2 3 nL US Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) armoring equation to estimate the depth-tofrom the Channel Calculator d P US) IDF Computation Windo Input (Contraction scour)(See Hudson (HEC-23.RCP Cracking Storm NONE Data. data on bed at live-bed scour down-station.” CU units. C5-minute design number of methods determine the hydrograph such as the Triangular Hydrograph channel geometry and water surface elevation.dot. “Comparison of The notes can be accessed basin peak discharge. L. change P. armoring can be that will Thru.493[minutes]Recurrence decimals)0..5 Hydrograph. transporting ft. r the r reduced 1 and v Outflow Parameters. the associated data ft.. Vertical Wall. G..A. a Riprap Filter Design Calculator is estimate available for each ofpier thescour above riprap inlets include:Area of FlowIntercepted FlowBypass following equation can be used maximum image (Add Image Gradation) or to awill control gradation Standard Riprap Gradation). Table 2. Kuhns. the Input Parameters unique to the selected riprap using thescreen same live-bed and clear-water contraction must be entered atcomputed the Conditions bottom of the in orderLong-Term to get a complete input tablescour tofor 95 data is available. Zevenbergn. (when thenecessary “optimize” button isparameters selected inMaterials the opening screen) untilof the resulting governing output the riprap rock size for the given channel hydraulics. travel time. ft.97c DG5 Analysis of Figure filtei A 5.. Selection. document.8000[Dimensionless]Area 1|o. the calculator applications. which brings up the 10. Eqn. through conditions material testing.cfm?pub scour component.0 min discharge has been determined. Once atop channel selection is basin characteristics needed for the shallow flow of of defined intime equation for critical velocity follows:v =concentrated KNo. depth inThe contracted section after scour.050ft-OK 10. the top left.The center grateFlow Type (Weir or determined by the Time Of Concentration 2 center report. Once Time of concentration Calculator After all required data is input.2100 Text Intensity File yr. I feature Riprap Analysis (ft. a32. Lucas.Angle ofProcedures. the excess water is discharged throughsection the user defined structure.Once the macro bar. /for Ä “Urban Drainage The characteristics for the Channel Flow Channels with Flexible Linings Hydraulic Engineering Circular No.5% Wave Height.. P-1-1/8.” will The is computed view labels and observe the resulting changes to the image. ft.Bed /secArea of obstructed Calculator is a conditions.J.65ft.Pier “Plot Gradation” button orBed press ‘OK’ and back out to to thedecide previous screen97 the sourceapproaches. the calculator Manning’s “n.Q y2 =(See HEC-18.cfm?pub any of the 8 tabs around the perimeter the image. Noisdata computed W armoring critical sediment ■fgD Shield’s criterion motion U. or as aIDF hydraulic Adobe radius.8100 Hint: Ifis Frederick. For on-grade applications without a channel block. Font. a digital flow depth including contraction scour using D for clear-water is .D.Width of floodplain normal screen will flow.18.Each With Wing lining Walls)Angle of approach Bridge Analysis Calculator 76 Average selectScour the state and thepublication NOAA for Atlas 2 clogging)Depth region for the area where yourapplications project is methods Area (accounting at Curb methods arecorrect contained in FHWA HEC 23.1) ( results V pclogging: V Ì reported 2 grate = Manning’s roughness coefficient = report. 5 year. if the input ‘Compute required viewed inwill tabular form.The following Results are generatedScour for thefor Froehlich in Cohesive Bedft.e. 8.. Figure 6. Slope isthe computed from the top elevation..00cfsApprox. Eqn.htm Lagasse.dot.D.65)Safety selected to open Channel Analysis describes type and of land cover.previously 100) for the Detailed selected. Fetchproject-level method:Length of embankment normalScour to flow. 2. m/m for each image. individual particles. For best the results.descriptions ft. in “ Service. V for Minimum tc: □ Time of concentration: 0. ft. J.yr.5 -K S20..When thecomputing calculator is DrainSweeper CombinationEqual Length Durationfor each lining ft. ft.The count input screen where the user inputswith (or edits) the measured intermediate dimenwhat type of scour estimate for live-bed conditions parameters required the contraction for scour estimate foraxis clearFlow0. defined Furthermore. flow willin occur at the inlet. JE determine legationsUse the Elev Discharge Structure will transfer results ofEqn.Depth in contracted section prior to scour.2) 5.grate.« »>015V« flMO10. cipitation depth is proy« containing athe ParameterValueUnit*Perimeter0. Upon closing the from the overland and sheet flow calculator (if used)./ft.3in /sec /ft. H. bottom FHWA-CFL/TDinput depending upon condition. assuming weirroutine. Color and Style. Therefore.0Pmin C"the the total time ofdepth. and the location to save the conversion constant area equal and to 5. one at a time. 30-min Eqn. L. tc.” (The button default and value highlighting of ‘0’ indicates “Image that the user to input appears in the ‘Select from theto two drop-down windows at the of the opening dialogue.Froehlich Method Radius of any PrecipitatioThe total time of concentration.Scour depth. Energy gradient at approach section. no vegetative growth or debris is present) and ‘no shadows’ assessment/index.discharge. Zevenbergen..M.. To to specify how outflow discharges the basin.Live-bed MethodThe equation shoreline protection includes a Design Wave Calculator rather than amanagement Channel Gradations’ button.. 2-yr. The “Compute Curves” button will plot Calculator to the input 3 “Create Report” icon located on the lhttp://www. HEC-14. In addition to the Input Parameters required to compute contraction applicable Channel’ window or screen appear The user must then fill all required data fields. 6. No data computed 2. the accordance with to the Wolman Count or from resolution digital embankment Flow.A.00in/hrTypically I before .000(in)Local Width at depression: Center of“Level Grate0.. 4. 6. Cropping is accomplished by clicking and coefficient for Rational Equation.l intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves.Depth at toe of abutment. The notes are with the volume.H.000 in/hrIDF C35Specified tcgradation Photos Notes image Hint: will be automatically Design for combined Wave an overall final part of and a Gutter can proper be Calculator viewed riprap which in can be selected from V e into e methods inlet spacing. ft.5) Eqn. orthereof. specific inlet configuration is selected B. Dthe Daverage associated transects can bethe 15.35 Basin ftDischarge0. ft. Fourth Edition. When you select an application.Thickness of number=23&id=142Lagassee. or Vertical Wall w/wing walls)Angle of approach input rehabilitation. it is necessary toThe Calculator will bedrop-down described in state more detail below. http://www. Therefore. Thisbe canused be D done by selecting “Define Intensity” right window. Manning C 0. TheinFilter Design Parameters are required for estimating pier scour cohesive the user is prompted to enter the following data:Gradation NameGradation Type (Riprap or results for inlets in sags include:Flow TypeEffective precipitation following Input Parameters arethe required description for the ofNCHRP each Therefore Method:Abutment type (Spill sectional values for NOAA Atlas 2Perimeter are and region specific../ft. (Their are derivation caneasily be found only an initial your project. lbs.000(iParameterValueUnit•*•Intercepted Flow2. or in a sag. (The use the Channel Calculator opening will begin acting like an orifice. live-bed Fractions. Roberts. as well as browsing and importing those imagesImage bridge superstructure. unique to the selected computation HydraulicReport type.Discharge transporting in section. of the (ft.. sec atnonEqn. 6/1 (See Frequency The appropriate equation 50 (Angular or variety of sources.Untitled .fhwa.5 (V1K Q fl/2/3 v—l jTypical a need Plot '■ to Windows be consulted.4. When ft.000(ft]Length of inlet: |l O. F./ft. from the notes icon onthe the macro through 100 .) Basin Maximum Analysis—Elevation . If gradation results areTilt a manual pebble count (e. ft. Rational — IDF enter a “percent clogged” for the grate.Hunt. onCalculator a single the user plot is by asked selecting to specify the “Plot the All distance Gradation fromCurves” the that will require file that publications HEC 18 and 20. *Plot. required. By selecting the “Define” button for the known min depth can be edited directly from theWolman. Select the analysis. i (in/hr)Width of roadway Method and the SCS Procedure.000(ft]Grate UpstreamBank through iterative process using the Equation.Scour function of discharge.Each of the above riprap degreesCritical velocity for initiation of erosion. September 2009. ftBridge Scour and stream bed sediments.M. Ifhigh these conditions are images met. The recurrence tc: 10. as well as the Filter Design and Design Wave Concentrated Flow Vprovided:Flow = a K.The required inputmethods parameters for the Design Wave Calculator Revetment is:2. which. DG18.0 tial or SI for curb units. B.) The Wave Attack application is for and proceed to the ‘Define Imageof Gradations’ button..)Cross slope of roadway draining to curb Urbanfor Drainage Manual. the(IDF) user chooses whether to enter fieldpreferably count information (Add Gradation). Third FHWA-NHI-06-086. Bergendahl. to permissible shear stress of the lining. can be provided that describes an basin analysis begins byinput selecting the “Define Storage” button and entering the the 5-min to 60Correction chosen channel. http://www. The general equation ZiAttack 35 Data (Eastern US) (*i= NOAA rjselected Compute required channel block |berm) heightDisfsnrp frnm interval to be analyzed is AC — Vp format is easily imported in word Export IDF Draining to Curb0. and the user is presented with curves. -4 1 )Time0.O (Long-term tofor degradation) Geotextile or Vunknown Toe down riprap to (Q)215. HEC-18.” American Geophysical Union. FHWA No.J. Intensity and A outflow =TW Area ParametersParameter structure type. http://www. if needed. (See (See 5-min Waves Free HEC-18. lbs. upreported:Effective Perimeter (accounts for clogging)Effective Area (accounts for Since the final is 2 n-value data file and also show up in the volume.Time interval.With a couple of bridge. Once specified..) ParameterValueUnitsNotesInput ParametersRational Runoff Coefficient. for the selected methodology. B of FHWA Walker.2 1 )eslope 2 gVA p... ft. the to transfer the results of the Weir Cal8/7 h Bridge Scour and Stream Instability Countermeasures—Experience. ft. curves the United user HEC-18.207fpsEfficiency0. Problems Define Define Inflow gy (S . soil Level 2 Action . qp. Typical Cross-Section for Abutment Riprap window that ft.05-minute Rainfall 10-yearWidth ofor Roadway Draining to Curb ftCross Slope of governing Roadway The permissible stress of is:Where:Q 1-1 V Pc d50format --------------------------window since theyselect are carried forward in/hr yet Information in the ‘Define Gradation’ window in graphical form by selecting can be complicated a installation. orthe all available gradation information (previously window open defined Channel methods used toDrop evaluate the above 5 scour components are contained inby FHWA channel. No either data computed (• Compute tc = 2.Once the scaling has been the user should select spacing areEngineering independent of one so conditions.. immediately the user is prompted at the downstream to enter a end “Image of the Gradation This Name” is an Jbelow. and reflect the effective discharge using the following equation \ KGravity e_V u button. n 0 repair. The program Storage Discharge Curves “Calculators” and select “Create Restructure such as a weir. The lesser lining these design two estimates must be isscour used to compute NCHRP components that are commonly applicable to bridge foundation design. S. “Inflow” points and entering the data.Once all the input data is provided.o Region PDF 3not 2one file. the lengths of 5 ft. Since 10. depth.Hint: The contracted value of top elevation isWave automatically carried forward desireThe 10-005.. 2D (6/7) desired toe down ay. FHWA-HIF-12-003. the discharge or a wizard that widths). FHWAGradation the basewill of#” the inappropriate block the top is located window. ft..2G7cfsVelocity3. Length. is used to create a report elevation and area of theProcedures. HEC-23. provided by either evaluating each of the above components.1% length to flow depth ratioAverage velocity.. and elevation of the the IDF curves specify whether the inlet is located on/ 4Fr \ 6/7 / \ ki 033 order to MethodThe equation for computing depth in the contracted section after scour for in.0160Allowable Results Top Width of already Drainage Against Vp 50-yr. ft. Clopper.. Detention P (ft.After selecting the desired application. size. calculator can also compute Design Manual. filter You is can the anfor already deplayed. Manning “n”. “Transfer Values From Channel Calculator” button of is selected. ofpairs the ft. To compute the scour the thickness the separation zone by selecting the.pdf Data (Eastern US) c typically determined by comparing the maximum applied shear stress. and lengthThe are fully Laursen’s critical velocity with the average approach velocity. Scour depth.. yet Coastal Engineering expert may = unit conversion not constant the fined poten equal channel (1.Fetch Length.. These parameters can be input dependent scour depth. they can on the individual “Route Hydrograph” button isthe selected perform computations. (Tc)14. (1954). are the Edition .V «tue c*w» 1 NomInp«l PwiiTKlmNamegr*d*oor< Cancel The Asavailable mentioned Abutment earlier. the hydraulic parameters anning's roughness:Gutter Width:Enter one of the following: C Design scour cohesive material:Maximum scour depth (Eq.gov/engineering/hydraulics/library arc. the dramatically change potential contraction scour depth since the flow transect. 1993. /secBottom The storagewidth in discharge contracted section (less arc.4) 14. 15-min 8. the Scour Design methodologies Wave Calculator are Froehlich. NOAA Atlas 2 for the Assessment AttackIn addition. July. The Embankment Overtopping application includes the Weir Calculator. 1 Jcurve. ftContraction Scour for Pressure Flow Flow:Eo (Gutter Flow to Total Flow): Depth at Curb:0.The -flow. Doherty. abutment the initial. Coefficient Lc 3. jPercent be by various and dish Intensity: 0.7) 6.The Method accurate. the Granular Filterh5oil aL2Crecurrence aFurther 25-yr. J. Upon entering 10-yr. and the specific energy of the approach Specific energy is an areto reduce the data. ft. the upper HEC-23 Figure 14.90 0 <C “n” <= values or slope in this :http://isddc.sediment. following arePublication appearDrainage”.F. ft.04 n0*0HOO HThe riprap Wave Attack Protection when those basic parameters are not known. will beVertical described below. Arneson.) Horizontal Grade Inlet If the a percentage both the a. September 2005. Q./ft. length.Embankment tool that Wave Flow ConditionsPier Coarse Bed flow HEC-23.35) 7.B. scour http://www.Thompson. the Results 2010.T. aYi y. lining contracted type. that Subsequent to this determination. where..L. No dataBridge computed : Once Compute tc(min) Define Information roadside channels:Rock (Small Riprap. /secBottom width transporting sediment in contracted piers of this diagonal is Edition”. Curved Vane.cfm?pub Thickness. “Evaluating There are Scour tabs At for General./s)S = slope. — Culvert inflow hydrographs.a3/sec /ft. "Design eliminating unwanted portions of the image. and 2-year 24-hour precipitation replacement will indicate whether live-bed or clear-water conditions prevail comparing applications. Also. Slope is computed from the topNotes elevation. August pp.5018969' □ (ft)end Filter of Suitability: grate to base Filter of channel is Suitable equation for (S \ soil y Atlas Data (Western C" US) (" User Supplied Data “Plot table.000 (ft)Grate length: 10. Hydraulic Engineering Circular No.gov/engineering/hydraulics/library arc. degreesCenterline Analysis The Toolbox contains for evaluating scour for three special manually. the user is presented with the summary table associated with the selected length: J0. the data 1/3 (Seecomponent HEC-18. descriptions of all median. et. ft.F. J.Upstream discharge transporting sediment.fhwa. selecting the number of tRoadside Lagasse.The 3digital imaging tool is quick and can be very riprap have a peak discharge of 31 ft... The characteristic data locally using the Calculator.H. the user enters the dimensions of the basin bottomThe the “Compute using the options presented in4.When the bed contraction scour:Water temperature. of field pier. apublication value for k. step in on the detention basin analysis is to define inflow There are Discharge (ft*3/s) selected Channel number=21&id=46 B-Oseveral Project .8 S= = of the surface./sec. the Results flow depth at the the block. J. lbs. If on-grade. curves. Wolman Intensityshear stress is different bar. compute and the the NCHRP basic Theinput governing 2<*adrtonCa*tTtP*itcvM . isThe following additional Input Parameters are required to compute livetoconditions the Wave Attack riprap calculator..000ft 2Effective Area3.F. R.T.Rational Method Olining = CIA = yequation . dike)Specific depth. a superimposed scaling tool.

Contraction Scour for Pressure Flow Conditions 98 .