Electric- and Magnetic-field Guideline

Evaluation

Technical Report

Electric and Magnetic Field
Guideline Evaluation
1005449

Interim Report, November 2001

EPRI Project Manager
R. Kavet

EPRI • 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 • PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303 • USA
800.313.3774 • 650.855.2121 • askepri@epri.com • www.epri.com

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CITATIONS This report was prepared by T. D. Suite 4 Portland. 5415 SE Milwaukie Avenue. Inc. CA: 2001. The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner: Electric and Magnetic Field Guideline Evaluation. EPRI. Bracken This report describes research sponsored by EPRI. 1005449. Dan Bracken. iii . Oregon 97202 Principal Investigator T. Palo Alto.

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and contactcurrents.REPORT SUMMARY This work is part of an ongoing EPRI effort to assess the technical basis for electric. and strategies for assessing compliance with existing and proposed guidelines were developed. if so. When a basic restriction on internal dose is present. magnetic-fields. Magnetic-field exposure limits are extrapolated from permissible in situ electric-field doses using dosimetric modeling. several organizations have promulgated guidelines for occupational exposure to EMF. Previous activities in this project have included technical evaluations of the major EMF exposure guidelines.and magnetic-field exposures in the 0.and magnetic-field exposure guidelines. This standard considers several established adverse effects and selects the most restrictive as the basis for exposure limits as a function of frequency for environmental electric-fields. and strategies to reduce exposure may be required. Objectives To summarize and evaluate the proposed IEEE Draft Standard for electric. Approach The project team summarized the basis of the IEEE Draft Standard. Electric-field and contact-current limits are derived directly from data on sensory responses to external fields and currents. The proposed limits were compared with those of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Guideline and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs®). However. These entail examining whether an exposure exceeds reference levels and. The recently issued IEEE Draft Standard in the frequency range of 0 to 3000 hertz (Hz) is founded on a careful examination of the current understanding of electrostimulation. All guidelines to date seek to prevent stimulation of electrically sensitive tissues.to-3000-Hz range and to develop strategies for evaluating compliance with electric. numerical modeling of electrical parameters in anatomically correct human models exposed to EMF. v . The team investigated the limits’ implications for utility industry compliance. identification of scenarios within the utility industry where exposure may approach guideline levels. Background Since the 1980s. whether basic restrictions also are exceeded. it serves as the final arbiter as to whether an exposure complies with the guideline. If the latter occurs. practical guidance on how to evaluate exposures for compliance is limited.and magnetic-field (EMF) exposure guidelines and their possible implications on utility operations. then the exposure is not in compliance with the guideline.

(2) conducted exposure surveys to identify highexposure scenarios within the electric utility industry. First. by summarizing the IEEE Draft Standard and by examining procedures for assuring compliance with exposure guidelines. This report continues the mission of the project in addressing key guideline issues as they arise: in this case. implementing and complying with the IEEE Draft Standard would have less impact on utility operations than would complying with either the ACGIH or the ICNIRP guidelines. (4) used dosimetric modeling to quantify the relationship between EMF and contact current exposures and the current densities and electric fields these exposures produce within the body. During that time. the IEEE occupational-exposure limits for electric fields are about the same but higher for magnetic fields. Consequently.Results Documentation of the assumptions and rationale for the basic restrictions and reference levels for exposure to electric and magnetic fields is more complete in the IEEE Draft Standard than in previous guidelines. The EMF Health Assessment Target will continue to research guideline issues most relevant to its members. Strategies for ensuring compliance with guidelines are described. These rely on increasing worker distance from the source. the guidelines project has evaluated (1) the scientific basis for existing guidelines. with an emphasis on the 60-Hz exposures common to utility environments. Electricité de France. If the reference level is exceeded. The occupational and general-public exposure limits proposed in the IEEE Draft Standard are higher than those found in the ICNIRP guideline. together with the National Grid. Numerous peer-reviewed publications and EPRI reports have resulted from this research. or reducing fields from the source through physical changes or operational restrictions. Determining whether a high-field exposure complies with a guideline entails several steps. Practical steps to complete both the exposure assessment and basicrestriction evaluation were developed. then an evaluation of whether a basic restriction is exceeded may be required to demonstrate compliance. The proceedings of that workshop will appear shortly as a special issue of Health Physics. (5) modeled interference that environmental EMF and contact currents may produce in implanted cardiac pacemakers. In June 2000. EPRI Perspective EPRI’s EMF Health Assessment Target has been involved for over five years in scientific issues relevant to EMF exposure guidelines. and the Health Physics Society sponsored a two-day workshop to explore cutting-edge issues in guideline science. and. the type. reducing the field through shielding. Keywords Exposure guidelines Magnetic fields Occupational health and safety vi Electric fields Exposure assessment . location. (3) conducted a full-scale exposure assessment of network vault workers. the EMF Health Assessment Target. Compared to TLVs set by the ACGIH. magnitude. An assessment’s purpose is to determine whether an exposure limit or reference level is exceeded. and other information about the exposure must be determined through an exposure assessment.

.....2-21 2............3......................2-19 2..............2-14 2....................................................3 Basis of Draft Standard .....4 Magnetic-Field Exposure ..........2-13 2................................................................................1 Introduction............................................................................................................................................3.......................................................2 Non-Uniform Fields..................................... 0 TO 3 KILOHERTZ (KHZ) .......1 Adverse Effects and Mechanisms ........................................................................................................... 2-9 2.......................................2-20 2...........................3 Threshold Multipliers....................................................................4....4......................1.......................2-16 2....................................................1 Basic Restrictions ........................ 1-2 References.......................... 1-1 Abbreviations ............................................4......................2 Reference Levels in the Draft Standard ...................2 Overview.......................................................................... 1-2 Organizations ................................................2-19 2....... 2-3 2...6 Contact Currents ................. 1-2 Units .................................................................3.......................................5 Electric-Field Exposure...... 2-8 2............................................................................. 2-8 2..................................................................................3..........4........................................................................................... 2-9 2.......................................................................2-12 2.......................................................................................................2 Basic Restrictions .................... 1-2 Acronyms....................... 2-1 2..........................................3...........................................5.CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION ......... 1-3 2 SUMMARY OF THE INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS (IEEE) DRAFT STANDARD FOR SAFETY LEVELS WITH RESPECT TO HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS....................4 Medical Devices and Implants ..................................................................................3.......................................................1 Purpose and Process................5 Implications for Electric Utilities .................................. 2-1 2.................................................................................3 Multiple Frequency and Non-Sinusoidal Exposures...................................... 2-2 2.......................................................1..............................................2-21 vii ...........2-20 2............................................. 2-1 2........................................................1 Occupational Exposure ...............4 Comparison With Existing Standards ..............

...............................3......3-13 3................................................................................................1 Guideline Structure.......................6 Summary ......4.................................................................................3-14 3.........12 Summary ..3-21 3...................................................2.................................3...... 3-8 3......................................................................3 Exposure Assessment for Reference Levels ............................ 3-7 3.2-22 2.......................3-12 3..............................................................................................................................................................3...........................................................................................................10 Field Computations .................................................................................................................2-23 3 EVALUATION OF EXPOSURES FOR COMPLIANCE.....................3-17 3...................................................................... 3-1 3......................................................................................................3.....................9 Frequency Content ..................................................................................................3-22 viii ............... 3-6 3.............................. 3-6 3.............2 Compliance Verification ...3-12 3.....................3-13 3....2 Extent of Exposures....................................5 Field Uniformity........6 Field Measurements .........................4..........3........................................3-10 PE Measurements......................................................................................3-15 3...........3................3 Body Location ................. 3-7 3..................................3-22 3......................3.....................................7 References............................................7 Sampling Issues..............................................................11 Special Circumstances............................................................... 3-1 3............. 3-9 Survey Measurements ..............3.........4 Source ...............................................................................................6 References ...........................3...........................................................3-10 Spatial Averaging ........2 Field Orientation..........3-15 3............3-21 3........................................................................................................................5......2 Control field............... 3-6 3.....................................................2-22 2.......................5 Exposure reduction strategies .................. 3-8 Instruments ..................3 Multiple-Frequency Exposures...............................................................................3...........................3................................................................................................................................................3. 3-5 3........................3-19 3.................................................................1 Type of Exposure ...............................................................8 Field Orientation............5..........................................................................5.......................................................2 General Public Exposure ........1 Control access ............3-18 3.....4 Evaluation of Basic Restrictions..............................................................................

... 2-8 ix .......... 2-7 Figure 2-3 Electric-Field Whole-Body Reference Levels and TLVs® for Occupational Exposures................................................................................................ 2-6 Figure 2-2 Magnetic-Field Whole-Body Reference Levels for General-Public Exposures.............................................................LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2-1 Magnetic-Field Whole-Body Reference Levels and TLVs® for Occupational Exposures. . ................. ....................................... 2-7 Figure 2-4: Electric-Field Whole-Body Reference Levels for General-Public Exposures............................

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.................................... .........2-18 Table 2-11 Contact and Induced Current Reference Levels in milliamperes (mA) for ICNIRP Guidelines [4]...............”.........................................................2-18  Table 2-9 ACGIH TLVs for Electric-Field in kilovolts-per-meter (kV/m) [3]. ........... by Guideline.............. All values are ceiling values unless otherwise noted................... All values are ceiling values unless otherwise noted.. Frequency is denoted by “f”................... .. All values are ceiling values unless otherwise noted..................... Frequency denoted by “f... Frequency is denoted by “f”....2-17 Table 2-8 Uniform Magnetic-Field Reference Levels in millitesla (mT) for the ICNIRP Guidelines [4]....2-15  Table 2-7 ACGIH TLVs for Magnetic-Field in units of millitesla (mT) [3]................2-18 Table 2-10 Uniform Electric-Field Reference Levels in units of kilovolts-per-meter (kV/m) for the ICNIRP (1998) Guidelines [4]........... .......... ............ Frequency is denoted by “f”.... 3-3 Table 3-3 Contact and Induced Current Reference Levels in units of milliamperes (mA) at 60 Hz...........................................” .......” ...................... All values are ceiling values unless otherwise noted.... All values are ceiling values.................................................. All values are ceiling values.............LIST OF TABLES Table 2-1 Summary of Exposure Guidelines ....... Frequency is denoted by “f............................. Frequency is denoted by “f”.......... 2-4 Table 2-2 Uniform Magnetic-Field Reference Levels in units of millitesla (mT) for the IEEE Draft Standard Guidelines [1]..... by Guideline.. Adapted from IEEE Draft Standard [1: 28]................. by Guideline....................... ................................. 3-3 Table 3-2 Electric-Field Reference Levels and TLVs in units of kilovolts-per-meter (kV/m) at 60-Hz.....2-19 Table 3-1 Magnetic-Field Reference Levels and TLVs in units of millitesla (mT) at 60 Hz......................... 2-5 Table 2-3 Uniform Electric-Field Reference Levels in units of kilovolts-per-meter (kV/m) for the IEEE Draft Standard Guidelines [1]............. ....2-11 Table 2-6 Derivation of Reference Levels for Electric-Field and Contact Current Exposures...... ........... by Guideline.......................................... Frequency is denoted by “f”.......................... 2-5 Table 2-4: Contact and Induced Current Reference Levels in units of milliamperes (mA) for IEEE Draft Standard [1].... 3-4 xi ... Frequency is denoted by “f............................................................. 3-4 Table 3-4 Basic Restrictions for Magnetic-Field Exposures at 60 Hz....................... 2-6 Table 2-5 Derivation of Basic Restrictions for Magnetic-Field Exposure from Median Nerve-stimulation Thresholds......................................... All values are ceiling values unless otherwise noted.................. All values are ceiling values.. Reference Levels apply for time-varying fields in frequency range 1 to 3000 Hz.................................................................

.......................... by Guideline....Table 3-5 Basic Restrictions and Reference Levels for Electric-Field Exposures at 60 Hz......................................... ................................ by Guideline..............3-11 Table 3-7 Checklist for Planning Reference-Level Exposure Assessment.............................................................................3-16 xii .... 3-5 Table 3-6 Elliptical Exposure Models Linking Basic Restrictions to Magnetic-Field Reference Levels.....................................

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Values (TLVs®). The IEEE Draft Standard includes exposure limits for both controlled (occupational) and uncontrolled (publicly accessible) environments. The development of external exposure limits from localized electrical interactions in the body is complex and uncertain. which are also of particular interest in the United States. Derivations and explanations contained in the IEEE Draft Standard and the other guidelines emphasize the basis of the limits rather than their practical implementation. The Draft Standard. and • to develop strategies for evaluating compliance with EMF exposure guidelines. several organizations in North America and Europe have promulgated guidelines for occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields (EMF) [1]. but only the Draft Standard includes contact currents. Both these guidelines address electric and magnetic fields in the frequency range that includes 60 hertz (Hz). The IEEE Draft Standard is founded upon a careful examination of the current understanding of biological effects of electrostimulation. Chapter 3 includes all three guidelines in the discussion of compliance assessment strategies. Therefore Chapter 2 provides a concise summary of the IEEE Draft Standard and compares it with other guidelines. the objectives of the work presented in this report were: • to summarize and evaluate the proposed IEEE Draft Standard for EMF exposures. In Chapter 2 the IEEE Draft Standard is compared with both the ACGH TLVs® and the ICNIRP Guideline. The IEEE Draft Standard explains the extrapolation from internal to external electrical parameters and characterizes the uncertainties in this process in detail. address only occupational exposures [3]. Exposure assessment for electric and magnetic fields in the frequency range of the IEEE Draft Standard has generally been directed towards occupational or residential field characterization or 1-1 . Given the potential impact of the IEEE Draft Standard and expected interest in its practical implementation. The rationale for all guidelines to date is prevention of stimulation of electrically sensitive tissues. as well as other IEEE standards. The resulting draft standard is a detailed and complex document with extensive discussions of neurophysiological processes that may be irrelevant to many professionals who could be called upon to implement these standards. which is affiliated with the World Health Organization (WHO) [4]. Another guideline of interest throughout the world is that of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). is of particular interest to electric utilities in the United States.1 INTRODUCTION Since the 1980s. The ICNIRP Guideline addresses both occupational and public exposures and the same exposure parameters as the Draft Standard. Most recently in 2001 the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) issued a Draft Standard for EMF exposures in the frequency range of 0 to 3000 hertz (Hz) [2].

these assessment strategies are also valid for high-field exposures in other industries. the assessment of compliance status emphasizes high-field exposures in electric utility environments. milliampere/meter2 tesla. Abbreviations Units cm. The fields normally encountered during such studies are. mT centimeter. µm ft. micrometer feet gauss (1 G = 0. such as line workers and cable splicers. with a few exceptions. G Hz in. kV/m mA. Therefore. those who typically experience such fields are utility workers in specific jobs. However. mA/m2 T.1 mT) hertz Inch kilovolts/meter milliampere. generally well below the exposure limits of guidelines.Introduction carried out in support of epidemiological studies. millitesla (1 mT = 10 G) Organizations ACGIH ICNIRP IEEE WHO American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers World Health Organization Acronyms BEIs ELF EMF f HVDC MPE NESC PE rms TLVs TWA 1-2 Biological Exposure Indices Extremely low frequencies Electric and magnetic fields Frequency High-voltage direct-current Maximum permissible exposures National Electrical Safety Code Personal exposure Root-mean-square Threshold Limit Values Time-weighted average . The principal source of exposures that approach guideline levels are high-current and high-voltage electric utility facilities.

1-3 . 2001 TLVs and BEIs: Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. and Electromagnetic Fields (Up to 300 GHz). 74. 494-522 (1998). Su. OH. Bracken. Vol. and R. Cincinnati. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. pp.D. [4] ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection). IEEE P1555/D5 Draft Standard for Safety Levels With Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields. Prepared by Subcommittee 3 of Standards Coordinating Committee 28. T. 73. “Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric. NJ. 433-453 (1997). Bailey. pp. No. [2] IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers).” Health Phys. 0 to 3 kHz.” Health Phys. S.Introduction References [1] W. Kavet. Piscataway. 3. IEEE Standards Department. [3] ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). 2001. Magnetic. Vol. “Summary and Evaluation of Guidelines for Occupational Exposure to Power Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields.H. 2001.H.

2
SUMMARY OF THE INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND
ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS (IEEE) DRAFT STANDARD
FOR SAFETY LEVELS WITH RESPECT TO HUMAN
EXPOSURE TO ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS, 0
TO 3 KILOHERTZ (KHZ)

2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Purpose and Process
In March 2001, Subcommittee 3 of the IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 28 issued IEEE
Draft Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic
Fields, 0 to 3 kilohertz (kHz) [1]. Subcommittee 4 of the Standards Coordinating Committee 28
has developed and is updating standards for exposures above 3 kHz [2]. The IEEE Draft
Standard is the first, however, to address exposures to fields and currents in the range of 0 to
3000 Hz. With the adoption of this standard, the IEEE will have published exposure guidelines
across the electromagnetic spectrum from static to 300 x 109 Hz (gigahertz or GHz) fields.
Scientific and public controversy over the effects of exposures to extremely low frequency (ELF)
fields, and power-frequency fields in particular, provided some of the impetus for development
of the IEEE Draft Standard.
The IEEE Draft Standard recommends limits on exposures to magnetic fields, electric fields, and
contact currents in the frequency range from 0 to 3000 Hz. Those limits are based on short-term
effects of electric and magnetic fields. The Draft Standard is founded upon a careful examination
of the current understanding of biological effects of electrostimulation. Magnetic field exposure
limits are extrapolated from permissible in situ electric-field doses using dosimetric modeling.
Electric-field and contact-current limits are derived directly from data on sensory responses to
external fields and currents. The resulting draft standard is a detailed and complex document
with extensive discussions of neurophysiological processes.
To broaden understanding of the underpinnings of the Draft Standard and encourage discussion
of its application, this document summarizes the IEEE Draft standard by:

providing a concise summary of the basis for the proposed standard;

comparing the exposure limits in the proposed IEEE Draft Standard with those in the existing
ACGIH TLVs® and ICNIRP Guideline documents; and

2-1

Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with
Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields, 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz)

investigating implications for compliance with these proposed standards, with an emphasis
on 60-Hz exposures.

IEEE Subcommittee 3 is comprised of electric-utility and communications engineers, and
physical, biological, and medical scientists. The standard was developed by the Mechanisms
Working Group of Subcommittee 3. The major contributor to the document was J. Patrick Reilly,
who chaired the Working Group, drafted the standard, and adapted much of his own research on
electrostimulation and neurophysiology into the Draft IEEE Standard. Kent Jaffa of Pacificorp
serves as chairman of the Subcommittee. Sixty-seven individuals are listed in the Draft Standard
as members during its preparation.
2.1.2 Overview
The intent of the IEEE Draft Standard is to protect most exposed individuals from adverse shortterm effects. It accomplishes this with approaches similar to those of previous ELF field
exposure guidelines.
For effects where an internal mechanism of field interaction is known, limits for acceptable
exposures are derived from a basic restriction on an internal dose parameter, where the term
basic restriction refers to the level of an internal physical parameter below which no adverse
effects occur in humans. Given a basic restriction on an internal parameter, physical and
biological models are used to estimate exposure limits for external fields. Exposure limits,
referred to in this draft standard and other guidelines as reference levels, represent the field level
below which the basic restriction will not be exceeded. However, exposures above the reference
level may or may not cause the basic restriction to be exceeded. Thus, the basic restriction is the
ultimate determiner as to whether the exposure standard is exceeded.
When an internal mechanism is not known or quantified for an effect, exposure limits are derived
from external field and current levels known to cause adverse reactions. In such cases, no basic
restriction applies and the reference level is derived directly from empirical effects data.
The IEEE Draft Standard derives reference levels for both occupational and general-public
exposures. In both cases, conservative assumptions are employed to ensure that the limits are
based on excitation thresholds below those of the vast majority (>99%) of healthy adults. In
addition, to account for overly sensitive individuals including children and for uncertainties in
the determination of adverse effect thresholds and the extrapolation from internal parameters,
“acceptability” factors are introduced that can further reduce reference levels.
The specific approaches taken in the IEEE Draft Standard offer several improvements over
previous guidelines:

2-2

The principal physical parameter defining the direct interaction of fields with the human
body is the in situ electric field, which is the demonstrated determinant of electrostimulation
phenomena. Basic restrictions for magnetic-field exposure are established in terms of this
parameter. Previous guidelines rely on the induced current density as the internal dose
parameter.

and contact currents. multiple-frequency exposures. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) • The use of internal electric field as the basic interaction parameter recognizes that the electrostimulation effects occur at specific locations in the body: for example. Nevertheless. Tables 2-2. Consequently. electric fields. are based on empirical data rather than arbitrary default assumptions. 2-3 . termed acceptability multipliers. and contact currents. • The sensory effects of field perception and contact currents and spark discharges to ground produce aversive responses at lower electric-field levels than do electrostimulation effects associated with direct electric-field exposures. peripheral nerves. 2. the extrapolation from sensory responses associated with external electric field and current exposures to the electric-field reference levels are documented. 2-3. respectively.2 Reference Levels in the Draft Standard The IEEE Draft Standard establishes reference levels for environmental magnetic fields. the reference levels for electricfield exposures are based on quantifiable physical sensations rather than basic restrictions on internal parameters. pulsed fields. the brain. The Draft Standard addresses static and timevarying fields (0 to 3000 Hz). or the heart. the IEEE Draft Standard represents a clear advancement in the development and documentation of exposure guidelines in the designated frequency range. Thus. respectively. whole-body and extremity exposures. and exposures in controlled and uncontrolled environments. uniform and non-uniform fields. environmental electric fields. See Table 2-1 for the extent of coverage of the IEEE Draft Standard and a comparison with other exposure guidelines. • The steps from specific interactions at the cellular level to external magnetic-field reference levels are explicitly described. • Safety factors. Similarly. for the IEEE Draft Standard and other guidelines. Previous guidelines use the maximum induced current density in the body as the basic restriction. The reference levels as a function of frequency for magnetic fields and electric fields are shown in Figures 2-1 and 2-2 (magnetic fields) and Figures 2-3 and 2-4 (electric fields). it is easy to identify the assumptions made in the IEEE Draft Standard and to investigate the implications of any changes in those assumptions. and 2-4 give the reference levels in the IEEE Draft Standard for magnetic fields. ICNIRP places a restriction on current density in the central nervous system.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields. These improvements add to the complexity of the document and the derived limits.

and peripheral nerve excitation. cardiac. Aversive spark discharges and contact currents. averaged over > 1 second Ceiling (and timeweighted average (TWA) for static B-field) Ceiling a a 2 b [5] 2 Designated a “controlled environment” b The ACGIH TLVs® do not have separate basic restrictions and reference levels. 1998 [4] Frequency range 0 – 3000 Hz 0 – 30 kHz < 300 GHz Time-varying fields Yes Yes Yes Static fields Yes Yes Yes Contact currents Yes No Yes Non-uniform fields Yes No Yes Multiple-frequency exposures Yes No Yes Pulsed fields Yes No No Occupational exposure Yes Yes Yes General-public exposure Yes No Yes Whole-body exposures Yes Yes Yes Extremity exposure Yes Yes No Medical devices and implants No Yes No Provision for transmission-line rights-of-way Yes No No Biological basis: Short-term effects Synaptic.1 V/m < 10 mA/m < 10 mA/m Type of exposure limit Ceiling.9f mV/m (f > 20 Hz). Nerve stimulation et al. 2-4 . Nerve stimulation et al. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) Table 2-1 Summary of Exposure Guidelines Guideline Attribute IEEE.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields. 2001 [3] ICNIRP. Heart: < 943 mV/m Peripheral nerves & other tissues: < 2. Biological basis: Long-term effects No No No Dose parameter In situ E-field Internal current density Internal current density Basic restriction (occupational) Brain: < 18 mV/m (f < 20 Hz). The TLVs® stand alone as exposure guidance. 2001 [1] ACGIH TLVs®. and for ELF fields are based in part on this limit on induced current density. < 0.

Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields.3/f 20 – 759 2. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) Table 2-2 Uniform Magnetic-Field Reference Levels in units of millitesla (mT) for the IEEE Draft Standard Guidelines [1]. Controlled Environment Frequency.7 353 353 10. Hz Controlled Environments Head and torso General Public Limbs Head and torso < 0.614 d a a For non-uniform fields.1 gauss (G). 368 Hz for general public The whole-body reference level for uniform 60-Hz magnetic fields in a controlled (occupational) environment is 2. Hz Whole body <1 • 20 d 1 – 272 [368] c a General Public Whole body •5 c 20 5 272 [368] – 3000 5440/f 1840/f > 3000 1.7 – 3350 3790/f 3790/f Table 2-3 Uniform Electric-Field Reference Levels in units of kilovolts-per-meter (kV/m) for the IEEE Draft Standard Guidelines [1].813 0.71 0.71 millitesla (mT) or 27. 2-5 . Exposures above these levels require evaluation to determine compliance with the basic restriction.904 759 – 3350 2061/f 687/f Limbs 118 <10. Frequency is denoted by “f.” Frequency.2 mT (632 G). Frequency is denoted by “f”. limits apply to the average field over the body b On power-line rights-of-way. For arms and legs.153 353 0. Reference levels for the general public are a factor of three lower than those for controlled environments. the occupational reference level at 60-Hz increases to 63. recommended limit is 10 kV/m c Limits below 1 Hz are not less than those at 1 Hz d 272 Hz for controlled environment.153 – 20 54.

5 mA for a touch contact. 2-6 . mT 1000 100 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.35 0.7 1. respectively. Frequency.5 mA for grasp and touch contacts. where the limit is 10 kV/m. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) The reference level for 60-Hz uniform electric-field exposure in a controlled environment is 20 kilovolts/ meter (kV/m). The reference level for the general public is 0.5 a Limits apply to body as an induction object b Grip contacts only in controlled environment where personnel are trained to eliminate adverse effect 10000 MAGNETIC FIELD. The IEEE Draft Standard also establishes reference levels for contact currents that occur when an individual touches a grounded object when standing in an electric field.5 2. Frequency is denoted by “f”.) Table 2-4 Contact and Induced Current Reference Levels in units of milliamperes (mA) for IEEE Draft Standard [1]. The reference level for the general public is 5 kV/m. except on transmission-line rights-of-way. The reference levels for 60-Hz contact currents in controlled environments are 3 milliamperes (mA) and 1.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields.1 IEEE [1] ® ACGIH TLVs [3] ICNIRP [4] 1 10 60 100 1000 FREQUENCY Figure 2-1 Magnetic-Field Whole-Body Reference Levels and TLVs® for Occupational Exposures. Hz Controlled Environment a General Public a Nature of contact Both feet Each foot Grip b contact Touch contact Both feet Each foot Touch contact 0 – 3000 6 3 3 1. (Grasp contacts do not apply to the general public.

ELECTRIC FIELD. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) 1000 MAGNETIC FIELD.1 0.1 0.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields. mT 100 10 1 0.001 0.01 IEEE [1] ICNIRP [4] 0. 2-7 .1 1 10 60 100 1000 FREQUENCY Figure 2-3 Electric-Field Whole-Body Reference Levels and TLVs® for Occupational Exposures.1 1 10 60 100 1000 FREQUENCY Figure 2-2 Magnetic-Field Whole-Body Reference Levels for General-Public Exposures. kV/m 100 10 1 IEEE [1] ACGIH TLVs® [3] ICNIRP [4] 0.

1 Adverse Effects and Mechanisms The basis for the IEEE Draft Standard that applies to both static and time-varying fields is succinctly given by the Subcommittee: The exposure levels in this standard are based on well-documented short-term effects of electric and magnetic fields.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields. or animal data can be confidently extrapolated to humans.1 IEEE [1] ICNIRP [4] 0. and • it is widely accepted among experts in the scientific community. Such effects are understood in terms of recognized [established] interaction mechanisms. . • it can be described with an explicit model.1 1 10 60 100 1000 FREQUENCY Figure 2-4 Electric-Field Whole-Body Reference Levels for General-Public Exposures. [1: v] An established mechanism (as opposed to a proposed mechanism) is described as a bioelectric mechanism with the following characteristics: • it can be defined in humans. using equations and parametric relationships.01 0. [1: 3] The exposure limits in the IEEE Draft Standard are intended to eliminate the following adverse short-term effects: • 2-8 aversive or painful stimulation of sensory or motor neurons. • it is supported by strong evidence.3. kV/m 100 10 1 0.3 Basis of Draft Standard 2. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) ELECTRIC FIELD. • it has been verified in humans. 2.

Therefore. The basic restriction does not apply one value to the whole body. the IEEE Draft Standard assumes that the in situ electric field is the fundamental electric parameter responsible for electrostimulation effects. For example. • excitation of neurons or direct alteration of synaptic activity within the brain. This assumption is based on a contemporary understanding of neurophysiological effects and allows for a more accurate derivation of reference levels than does the previously relied-upon assumption of internal current density as the relevant parameter [1]. In these cases. the physical parameters directly responsible for effects are not easily determined. for determination of compliance with guidelines. The effect with lowest threshold in terms of external exposure field determines the reference level for a given frequency and body position. The IEEE Draft Standard links the in situ electric field to specific excitable tissue effects in the brain. empirically determined thresholds for synapse alteration in the brain or excitation of a 20-micromillimeter (µm) neuron are expressed as estimated median values. However. and • adverse effects associated with induced potentials or forces on rapidly moving ions with the body.field exposures. general public). all guidelines would be expressed only in terms of basic restrictions on biologically effective internal parameters.2 Basic Restrictions In establishing basic restrictions for magnetic. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) • muscle excitation that may lead to injury while performing hazardous activities. the IEEE Draft Standard and other guidelines ultimately do revert to a basic restriction. [1: 8] No potential long-term exposure effects are considered. the reference levels for external fields or currents are generally relied on to evaluate exposures. heart. Unfortunately. measurement of the parameter or derivation of its level for a specific exposure are not easily accomplished. and peripheral nerves. the median value is multiplied by a factor to yield the lower threshold level applicable to the most sensitive one2-9 . rather. such as blood flow.3. Ideally. [1: 1] 2. and for those that are.3 Threshold Multipliers The stimulation responses that are the biological bases for establishing basic restrictions may not be given in terms of the adverse effect addressed by the guidelines. for two reasons: • there is not sufficient reliable evidence that community or occupational exposures cause adverse effects. Effects characterized by basic restrictions and effects characterized by external parameters both must be considered in determining reference levels. frequency and the potential sensitivity of exposed individuals (controlled environment vs. if present. and • there is no confirmed mechanism that would provide a basis for predicting long-term effects.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields. it depends on location of exposure in the body.3. • cardiac excitation. 2.and electric.

The IEEE Draft Standard identifies the following three types of threshold multipliers: • an adversity multiplier to account for the increased threshold for pain above that for perception. A lognormal probability distribution for nerve electrical reaction thresholds is commonly observed across populations. including humans. because the threshold levels are better understood for this effect. This lower threshold is a measure of the adverse effect that is appropriate for a basic restriction. This is achieved by basing the basic restriction on the estimated reaction threshold for 1% of healthy adults. This results in a probability multiplier of 0. the median threshold for perception is increased by an adversity multiplier of 1. An acceptability factor of 0. threshold data for nerve stimulation are given in terms of “perception. the threshold for the most sensitive one-percent of the affected population is one-third the median threshold. The intent of the IEEE Draft Standard is to protect most exposed individuals. and uncertainty in the induction models used to extrapolate from basic restrictions to reference levels. Acceptability factors are not applied for contact current limits. The adverse effect associated with stimulation of 20-µm neurons is “pain. the probability multiplier serves to extrapolate empirical median thresholds to those for the most sensitive one-percent of the population. In this case. The Draft Standard conservatively assumes that the ratio of the median to the one-percentile value in the lognormal distributions of threshold responses is three. uncertainties in thresholds due to pathological conditions or drug treatments.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields. uncertainties in the reaction thresholds. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) percent of the population. These multipliers can be applied to empirical data to achieve basic restrictions or reference levels appropriate to the adverse effect and population of concern. The acceptability factor is generally not applied in the case of controlled environments.45 to provide the median threshold for pain.333: that is.333 is introduced in the derivation of most of the basic restrictions for the general public (see Table 2-5). This factor reduces the operative threshold for the basic restrictions by a factor of three.” However. under the assumptions that some discomfort is acceptable in such environments and that an affected individual can readily leave such environments. and • an acceptability multiplier to account for uncertainties in the threshold levels due to various conditions and the exposed population. • a probability multiplier to adjust from the median threshold to that for less than 1% of the population.” Consistent with empirical results. 2-10 . It is intended to account for the following: protection of exceptionally sensitive individuals. Examples of each follow.

333 1 1 2.97 — 20-µm neuron pain Body 4.35 (perception) 1.0009f (f > 20 Hz) 0.70 1. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) Table 2-5 Derivation of Basic Restrictions for Magnetic-Field Exposure from Median Nerve-stimulation Thresholds.333 353 mT a 118 mT a < 0.0 0. V/m-rms Controlled environment Controlled environment General public General public Determines magneticfield limit in frequency range. < 10. Adapted from IEEE Draft Standard [1: 28].153 body.333 0. V/m-root mean square (rms) Adversity multiplier.94 0.0 0.7 extremities a Exposure limits for magnetodynamic effects are reference levels based on response to external magnetic field.94 — Magnetodynamic effects Body/ head 1.7 759 – 3000 20-µm neuron pain Extremities 4.0059 (f < 20 Hz) 0.1 2.3000 Cardiac excitation Heart apex 8.153 – 759 10-µm neuron excitation Brain 8.35 (perception) 1.7 .1 10.06 T-rms 1 0.333 1 0.333 1 0. 2-11 .018 (f < 20 Hz) 0.0 0.0003f (f > 20 Hz) 0.333 2.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields.333 1 0.45 (pain) 0.333 0.49 1.053 (f < 20 Hz) 0.333 2. Hz Synapse alteration Brain 0.333 0.1 0. median to 1-percentile Acceptability multiplier Basic restriction.333 0.45 (pain) 0.333 1 0.0027f (f> 20 Hz) 1. perception to pain Probability multiplier. Reaction Locus Median Threshold.90 0.

Ellipses that model the torso or body have larger semi-minor and semi-major axes: 20 by 40 cm (7. For example.1 inches [in. • excitation of 20-µm nerves in body and extremities.0.5 by 4. 60-Hz head and torso reference levels are determined by the basic restriction derived from alteration to synapses in the brain. They are important only at very low frequencies and do not have an associated basic restriction.7 in. The median thresholds. basic restrictions. • cardiac excitation.) for the torso (front view) and 17 by 90 cm (6. threshold multipliers. The magnetodynamic effects determine reference levels only at very low frequencies (< 0.) for the whole body (side view). The induced electric field from a uniform magnetic field normally incident on the ellipse is then computed at the periphery or other location of interest in the cross-section.7 by 35. • excitation of 10-µm nerves in brain. The IEEE recommended magnetic-field reference levels in Table 2-2 are determined by the basic restriction that is lowest for the given conditions of frequency and body location. Magnetodynamic effects are related directly to the magnetic field expressed in tesla (T). the specific short-term stimulation responses that are evaluated over the frequency range of the standard are as follows: • alteration of synapses in the brain. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) 2. The cross-sectional area of the appropriate part of the body is modeled as an ellipse. With the exception of 20-µm neuron pain. the reference levels for the head and torso are determined by the basic restriction for peripheral nerve stimulation.5 centimeters (cm) (3. These dimensions are consistent with the outer perimeter of the brain [1: 40].]).9 by 15. the in situ electric field as related to the 10µm neuron excitation and synapse effects in the brain is estimated at the periphery of an ellipse with semi-minor and semi-major axes of 9 and 10. Above 759 Hz.3. The magnetic-field reference levels are derived from the basic restrictions in Table 2-5. 2-12 . < 10.153 Hz for head and torso.7 Hz for extremities). 60-Hz reference levels for limbs are determined by the basic restriction for peripheral nerve (20-µm neuron) pain. and applicable frequency ranges for these adverse effects are given in Table 2-5 (adapted from the IEEE Draft Standard [1: 28]).Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields.4 in. all of the effects are based upon empirical data directly related to the adverse effect targeted by the basic restriction and are given adversity multipliers of 1.4 Magnetic-Field Exposure For magnetic-field exposure. For example. and • the effects of motion of charged particles in magnetic fields (magnetodynamic effects). respectively. using elliptical induction models for the whole or partial body.

8. allowing the reference level to be increased to 20 kV/m. and below which spark discharges are not aversive for the general public (< 368 Hz).3. It is unlikely that exposures in excess of 30 kV/m would be acceptable on any exposed body part. However. 5 kV/m in general-public environments. the Draft Standard does not identify an internal mechanistic parameter as a basic restriction in the case of electric-field exposure. However. and 10 kV/m on transmission-line rights-of-way. grounding measures.5 Electric-Field Exposure The short-term effects that electric field limits seek to avoid are as follows: • annoying field perception. and about 5% consider the sensations on the body caused by hair vibration in the field annoying. The same short-term electrostimulation effects described above for magnetic fields can occur during electric-field exposures. The effects thresholds and multipliers used to derive electricfield and contact-current reference levels from empirical data for sensory effects are summarized in Table 2-6.. 7. Empirical data are available for the external conditions under which aversive spark discharge and contact currents and annoying field perception take place [6. For higher frequencies. These reference levels are given in Table 2-3: 20 kV/m in controlled environments. Instead. and other work practices. the thresholds for sensing contact currents and spark discharges and perceiving the field occur at much lower electric fields than do the thresholds for direct electrostimulation. for electric-field exposure.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields. • painful spark discharges. and • aversive or painful contact currents. at 20 kV/m. and the reference levels are based on the external currents where contact currents become aversive as given in Table 2-4. The currents and spark discharges can occur when an ungrounded person standing in an electric field touches a conductive path to ground. with a reference level of 10 kV/m for the general 2-13 . In controlled environments. spark discharges can be mitigated by workers through the use of appropriate clothing. the reference levels for electric-field exposure at lower frequencies are derived directly from the external fields below which field perception is not annoying in controlled environments (< 282 Hz). 10]. the determining adverse effect is contact current. the reference levels for electric-field exposures are determined by sensory responses to external conditions rather than an internal response to induced electric fields. Transmission-line rights-of-way are considered intermediate between uncontrolled and controlled environments. Therefore. Thus. 9. This annoyance level leads directly to the reference levels for electric-field exposures [11]. Spark discharges at the 5-kV/m limit for the general public are estimated to be painful to 7% of adults. Field perception is enhanced when a person is grounded when standing in a field. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) 2. Empirical data on responses to spark discharges are also used to derive the reference for the general pubic. the 20-kV/m limit can be exceeded in controlled environments if no ground is within reach. However. The absolute limit is determined by need to avoid corona on body surfaces. 50% of standing adults perceive the field.

0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) public. for touch and grip contacts. the magnitude is given by the average field over the area in which body is placed. response data for 10-kHz current exposures were multiplied by a factor of 0. Both touch and grip contact currents are considered. 2-14 . in controlled environments. The multipliers used to convert empirical threshold data to reference levels for contact currents in the IEEE Draft Standard are given in Table 2-6 for both touch and grip contacts. The extrapolation from the contact current reference level to a reference level for external field exposure is based on observations of the total induced current to a person standing in a vertical electric field.5 mA for touch contacts in generalpublic environments. 2) painful sensations. the contact-current reference levels are the basis setting reference levels for electric fields above 282 Hz for controlled environments. and above 368 Hz for general-public environments.9 feet). It is presumed that the grip-contact reference level does not apply to the general public. The inverse relationship between the reference level and frequency in Table 2-3 reflects the proportionality between induced current and frequency: at higher frequencies. painful discharges would be experienced by about 50% of adults (1. The derivation of the contact-current reference levels is described in the next section. because their grip contacts would be inadvertent and would most likely entail pain. On the other hand. The reference levels for contact currents are derived from empirical data at 10 kHz on pain level from touch contacts and perception level from grip contacts for adults and children. and 0. down to at least 3 kHz. and 3) startle reactions.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields.3. Consequently. because the response depends on the surface area of the contact. Grip contacts have a larger contact area and.8 m tall or 5. The reference levels for contact currents in an electric field are 1.6 Contact Currents The contact current reference levels are intended to reduce the probability that inadvertent contact with energized objects could lead to 1) localized burns.5 and 3 mA. These responses are characterized by the externally applied current in milliamperes (mA). higher thresholds for aversive responses. training to avoid adverse responses from grip contacts would be available to those with access to controlled environments. Therefore there is no basic restriction for contact currents that corresponds to an internal dose parameter. hence.3 (3 kHz/10 kHz) to estimate the 3-kHz thresholds. As noted above. The total current is dependent on the magnitude and frequency of the field and on the square of the person’s height. if they are perfectly insulated from ground. For non-uniform vertical fields. the electric field must be reduced in order to keep the induced current below a fixed current limit. In a 10-kV/m field. 2. The limits for contact and induced currents apply only to time-varying currents in the range of 1 to 3000 Hz. The threshold for human response to injected current is assumed to be proportional to frequency. The percentage of persons adversely affected decreases at all field levels for more realistic grounding conditions. respectively. which could lead to an accident.

35 mA Controlled Not given e 1 6 mA General public Not given e 1 2. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) Table 2-6 Derivation of Reference Levels for Electric-Field and Contact Current Exposures.4 mA. insulated adults would experience painful spark discharges d Derivation of reference level for touch contact in controlled environment is not explicitly stated in the Draft Standard.4 Mean to median. Adverse effect Type of contact Environme nt Empirical threshold for a effect Adversity multiplier Probability multipliers Acceptability multiplier Description Value Description Value Description Value Value Reference level Determines electric-field limit in frequency range. Reference Levels apply for time-varying fields in frequency range 1 to 3000 Hz. children 2.333 1 0. 1.7 Mean to median.5 mA Grip Controlled Mean grip perception: adults 3. 10 c kV/m 1 – 368 Contact current Touch Controlled Mean touch pain: adults 2.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields. The median adult pain threshold is assumed here to coincide with the stated value e Insufficient information provided in Draft Standard to derive reference level b 2-15 .89 1 1.8 mA Pain to discomfort 0.89.9 mA Perception to pain 2.3 Adverse effect threshold for reference level is not explicitly stated in Draft Standard [11] c 10 kV/m reference level applies to transmission line rights-of-way where 50% of standing. Hz Field b perception — Controlled Annoyance for 5% of b adults 20 kV/m — 1 — 1 1 20 kV/m 1 – 272 Spark discharge Touch General public Pain for 7% of adults 5 kV/m — 1 — 1 1 5 kV/m.36 1 3 mA Each foot Controlled Not given e 1 3 mA General public Not given e 1 1.4 mA Pain to discomfort 0.7 mA Induced current Both feet d 272 – 3000 368 – 3000 e e e e a Thresholds at 3 kHz derived from 10 kHz empirical values by multiplying by 0. 0. Median to 1-%ile 0. Median to 1.6-%ile 0.5 mA General public Mean touch pain: adults.7 Mean to median 0.89. 0.

The reference level for grip contact currents is derived in a fashion similar to that for touch contacts. The IEEE Draft Standard also introduces reference levels for induced currents through one or both feet as shown in Table 2-3. No acceptability factors are included in the contact current reference levels.4 Comparison With Existing Standards Two other guidelines are cited widely with respect to electric.7 is used to represent the discomfort-to-pain ratio. However. The NESC 5-mA limit on induced current is based on a less stringent criterion than that for the IEEE Draft Standard contact current reference levels. and may not protect a grounded person when touching large conductive objects that are insulated from ground.5 mA. The empirical basis for establishing the reference level is the mean pain level for touch contacts at 10 kHz. The resulting reference level is a touch contact of 0. 2. The NESC limit is based on not exceeding the estimated let-go current level for all but a few percent of sensitive children. given as 8 mA for adults and 6 mA for children. These are the ACGIH TLVs and the ICNIRP) Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-varying Electric. These thresholds are multiplied by 0. 8% of adults would experience discomfort and 1.8 mA for adults and children.6% would experience pain.and magnetic-field exposures related to the utility industry. touch contact current is the limiting effect.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields. Applying the appropriate multipliers (Table 2-6) yields reference levels on grip contact currents for controlled environments of 3 mA.333 to convert from the median to one-percentile level of response. corresponding to the reference level in controlled areas. and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300 GHz) [3. The contact current limits. except that the empirical basis in this case is the mean perception level for a grip contact at 10 kHz. Where the reference levels for electric fields are determined by induced currents. The ACGIH TLVs apply only to occupational exposures.3 to yield values at 3-kHz of 2.89 to convert from mean to median pain or discomfort levels. 2-16 . At this level. while the IEEE Draft Standard general-public current limit is below the estimated pain level for all but 1% of children. An adversity multiplier of 0. because the reaction thresholds for contact current are better understood than other reactions to field exposures. apply only to an ungrounded person touching a grounded conductor. while one-tenth of 1% of adults and 1% of children experience pain. the basis for these levels is not derived and they do not enter into the reference levels for electric fields. and hence the electric-field reference levels. Limits on contact currents from large objects in electric fields under transmission lines are established in the National Electrical Safety Code (NESC) [12]. while the ICNIRP guidelines provide reference levels for both occupational and general-public exposures. 4]. At this contact current level. respectively. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) The reference level for touch contact current for the general public is established as the level below which only 1% of adults will experience discomfort from a touch contact. and 2) a multiplier of 0.4and 1. Thus. 1% of adults and 5% of children experience discomfort. the 5-mA level will not preclude the occurrence of aversive or painful contact currents or spark discharges. Magnetic. 50% of adults would experience discomfort and 23% would experience pain. At the touch contact current of 1.5 mA for the general public. Two probability multipliers are involved: 1) a multiplier of 0.

300/f 300 – 3000 0.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields.1 G) for the IEEE Draft Standard and 0. All values are ceiling values unless otherwise noted. Tables 2-2 and 2-3 present the IEEE Draft Standard reference levels for magnetic and electric fields. Table 2-7  ACGIH TLVs for Magnetic-Field in units of millitesla (mT) [3]. Frequency is denoted by “f. mention of reference level or basic restriction with respect to ACGIH guidance means the TLVs.0 mT (10 G). generally. Examination of these figures indicates that.” Frequency. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) In contrast to the IEEE Draft Standard and the ICNIRP Guidelines. the reference levels for occupational exposure are 20 kV/m for the IEEE Draft Standard and 8. For uniform 60-Hz electric fields. The TLV for magnetic fields of frequency “f” is 60/f mT. respectively. Reference levels for whole-body occupational exposure to a uniform 60-Hz magnetic field are 2. ACGIH and ICNIRP guidelines. and 2-3 and 2-4.2 a b c a b Hands and feet Arms and legs 8-hr TWA for static magnetic field 2-17 .71 mT (27. the ACGIH TLVs do not have separate basic restrictions and reference levels. Hz Occupational Whole body c Limbs c 0 2000 [60] 5000 [600] 1 – 300 60/f 600/f . The ACGIH TLV for magnetic fields at 60 Hz is 1. The ACGIH TLV for 60-Hz electric fields is 25 kV/m. Table 2-1 summarizes the scope and basis for the current IEEE. Tables 2-7 and 2-8 present ACGIH TLVs and ICNIRP reference levels for magnetic fields.42 mT (4. respectively.2 0. Tables 2-9 and 2-10 present their respective limits for electric fields. Wholebody reference levels as a function of frequency for magnetic and electric fields for the three guidelines are shown in Figures 2-1 and 2-2. it stands alone as the ACGIH exposure guidance.2 G) for the ICNIRP Guidelines.33 kV/m for the ICNIRP Guidelines. the ICNIRP guidelines are more conservative (lower) than the others. In the discussion that follows.

00625 Continuous exposure 820 Hz for occupational exposure. All values are ceiling values unless otherwise noted. Hz 1 – 25 25 – 820 [3000] 820 – >3000 a a Occupational General-Public Whole body Whole body 20 10 500/f 250/f 0. Frequency is denoted by “f”. All values are ceiling values unless otherwise noted. Hz Occupational General Public Whole body a <1 2000. Frequency is denoted by “f”. Frequency. Hz Occupational Whole body Limbs 0 – 100 25 25 100 – 4000 2500/f 2500/f a Caution should be exercised in fields above 5 – 7 kV/m.61 820 Hz for occupational exposure.0307 0. 3000 Hz for general-public exposure 2-18 .Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields. [200] 1–8 200/f b 8 – 820 [800] b 820 [800] – 3000 a b Limbs Whole body a 5000 40 2 2 40/f 25/f 5/f 0. Frequency denoted by “f. 800 Hz for general-public exposure Table 2-9  ACGIH TLVs for Electric-Field in kilovolts-per-meter (kV/m) [3]. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) Table 2-8 Uniform Magnetic-Field Reference Levels in millitesla (mT) for the ICNIRP Guidelines [4].” Frequency. Frequency. All values are ceiling values unless otherwise noted. and protective devices used in fields above 15 kV/m Table 2-10 Uniform Electric-Field Reference Levels in units of kilovolts-per-meter (kV/m) for the ICNIRP (1998) Guidelines [4].

All values are ceiling values unless otherwise noted. respectively. rely on the internal current density as the basic electrical parameter. with a commonly cited basic restriction of 10 mA/m2 [ 4.1 Basic Restrictions The IEEE Draft Standard and ICNIRP Guidelines use the common definition of a basic restriction as the level of an internal physical parameters below which no adverse effects occur in humans. relies on extensive data on a variety of nerve-excitation phenomena. The contact current reference levels provided by the IEEE Draft Standard and the ICNIRP Guidelines are given in Tables 2-4 and 2-11. the current ICNIRP Guidelines . A method for performing this evaluation is to average the non-uniform field over cross 2-19 . such as vehicles. Table 2-11 Contact and Induced Current Reference Levels in milliamperes (mA) for ICNIRP Guidelines [4]. 2]. The IEEE Draft Standard. Frequency. 2. Frequency is denoted by “f”. Thus. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) The principal contributor to the lower values in the ICNIRP Guidelines is uncertainty as to how the basic restriction on internal current density of 10 mA/m2 relates to nerve excitation and adverse responses: 10 mA/m2 is a general estimate and may be an overly conservative estimate of the dose at which effects are manifest in relevant locations in the body.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields.4. The IEEE Draft Standard. However.4. the basic restriction on in situ electric field takes on different values depending on the adverse effect and location in the body. in their case the limit is not considered a basic restriction. uses in situ electric field as the parameter for basic restrictions for magnetic-field exposures. However. However. most realistic magnetic-field exposures at fields near guideline levels are not uniform. Furthermore.2/f 2. The ACGIH also considers an induced current density limit of 10 mA/m2 as one factor in developing magnetic-field TLVs.5 2500 – >3000 0.2 Non-Uniform Fields The IEEE Draft Standard reference levels are given in terms of uniform single-phase fields over the body or a portion thereof.4/f 0. by comparison. The IEEE Draft Standard reference levels for currents apply only to currents flowing from an individual who is assumed to be freestanding in an electric field and insulated while touching a conductive path to ground. The IEEE Draft Standard provides for evaluation of non-uniform sinusoidal magnetic-field exposures to determine whether the basic restriction on in situ electric field is exceeded. these limits would not apply to induction currents from large objects. exposure in measured fields that exceed guideline limits may not necessarily exceed the basic restriction. The ICNIRP Guidelines do not make such a distinction. and then carefully considers the factors that provide a margin of safety beyond known excitation levels at various locations in the body. as well as the previous IEEE standard for higher frequencies. on the other hand. Hz Occupational General Public 1 – 2500 1 0. Applying reference levels for uniform fields to the highest measured (as opposed to average) field over the body may be overly conservative: that is.

For these waveforms. This same approach also applies to the internal dosimetric quantities of in situ electric field (IEEE) and induced current density (ICNIRP). 2-20 . 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) sections in the ellipsoids used to model the human body.4. By comparison. To satisfy the reference level for any of these. or contact currents. electric fields. The ACGIH TLVs are intended to serve as guides in the control of exposure. There is no option to evaluate exposures that exceed the ACGIH TLVs. not as a demarcation between safe and dangerous levels. However.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields. the ACGIH TLVs are ceiling values that are not to be exceeded in the specified part of the body: head and torso. 60-Hz magnetic fields # 0.and magnetic-field interference with medical electronic devices.1 mT (1 G). the sum over all frequencies of the ratios of the Fourier component of the field to its respective reference level must be less than or equal to one. and 60-Hz electric fields. such as cardiac pacemakers. or extremities. with the proviso that the basic restriction not be exceeded locally. the ICNIRP Guidelines permit the limit to be increased accordingly. The ICNIRP reference levels are also intended to apply to spatially averaged values over the entire body. the field could be non-uniform on or near grounded structures in high electric fields. by external fields in the frequency range of 0 to 3000 Hz. The IEEE Draft Standard and ICNIRP reference levels would apply directly to electric-field exposures under transmission lines. # 1 kV/m. the rms limits in Tables 22 to 2-4 are converted to peak values by multiplying by √2. 2. The frequency of interest in this case is determined by the reciprocal of twice the phase duration of the pulse in seconds. In the event that there is some cancellation by different components. only the ACGIH TLVs® suggest quantitative limits for exposures of medical electronic-device wearers: static magnetic fields # 0. Then spatial averaging would be required to determine whether the reference level is exceeded. A limit computed in this manner conservatively assumes that all frequency components are in phase. However.5 mT (5 G).4.4 Medical Devices and Implants All three guideline documents discuss the potential for and possible impact from electric.3 Multiple Frequency and Non-Sinusoidal Exposures The IEEE Draft Standard and ICNIRP Guidelines specify the same approach to multiplefrequency exposures to magnetic fields. The ACGIH provides no guidance on multiple frequencies. The IEEE Draft Standard also provides a method for applying the reference levels in Tables 2-2 to 2-4 to non-sinusoidal and pulsed waveforms. where the fields are uniform. 2. for a particular multi-frequency exposure.

Working in the towers of such lines could also result in exposures above the ICNIRP reference level.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields.3 kV/m. 18]. However.). the field at the surface of a single conductor carrying 500 A at 60 Hz exceeds the 2. The IEEE Draft Standard specifies a minimum reference level (based 2-21 .) or less from a single vertical conductor carrying 1000 A in order for the non-uniform fields to induce a current density in the torso exceeding the basic restriction. An exception might be a superconducting energy storage system. Similarly. the surface of the body would have to be about 0. the generally non-uniform nature of these magnetic fields makes the likelihood of non-compliance remote [16]. the surface of the head would have to be within 0. 15. However.23 feet [ft. for a conductor carrying 2000 A.. an evaluation of the field levels where the basic restriction on induced current density is actually exceeded should be performed. For horizontal conductors. which could be exceeded on the right-of-way of lines with voltages of 500-kV or higher.71 mT (27. For example. the average of the non-uniform field over an area corresponding to the brain is much less than the maximum value at the surface and results in in situ fields that do not exceed the basic restriction. When exposures do exceed these levels (e. The in situ electric field or induced current density may be shown to fall below the basic restriction by averaging a non-uniform magnetic-field exposure over the entire body. fields are enhanced by ions downwind from the line and can sporadically exceed 20 kV/m [17. For example. Generally. when performing bare-hand maintenance on high-voltage transmission lines). 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) 2. for a 500-A conductor. implementation of the ICNIRP limits for electric fields could entail major changes to work practices. the distances of approach before exceeding 10 mA/m2 are even smaller.5 Implications for Electric Utilities 2. The presence of ions varies with wind and weather conditions. However. where the field is 5.7 mT (57 G). the distance would have to be less than 0. Consequently.]). Static electric fields under high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) transmission lines are produced by both the voltage on the conductors and space charge in the form of corona-generated ions. the guidelines allow for a determination of compliance by an evaluation as to whether the basic restriction is exceeded. Exposures to electric fields in the utility industry will generally be below the IEEE Draft Standard reference level of 20 kV/m and the ACGIH TLV of 25 kV/m. work practices generally require the wearing of hooded conducting suits and gloves as shielding. which could produce magnetic fields similar to those encountered near MRI facilities.g. In fields that exceed reference levels.1 G) IEEE Draft Standard reference level.1 Occupational Exposure The 60-Hz magnetic fields in utility environments can exceed the reference levels and TLVs cited in all three guidelines [14.07 m (0.08 m (0.26 ft. to exceed the basic restriction.5. 16].3 m (1 ft. Static magnetic fields near utility facilities will not exceed the reference levels set in guidelines. as does the electric field at ground level. The non-uniform fields associated with realistic exposures also make unlikely the exceedance of 2 the more stringent basic restriction of 10 mA/m found in the ACGIH and ICNIRP guidelines in utility environments. The ICNIRP reference level for 60-Hz electric fields is 8.

As discussed above. 2-22 .2 kV/m at 60 Hz for the general public.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields.2 General Public Exposure The magnetic fields in spaces accessible to the general public do not exceed the 60-Hz reference level of 0. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) on the occurrence of spark discharges) of 20 kV/m for electric fields below 1 Hz. The IEEE Draft Standard explicitly increases the general public reference level for electric fields from 5 kV/m to 10 kV/m on transmission-line rights-of-way. This provision would allow the high static-electric fields found under some HVDC transmission lines to comply with the IEEE Draft Standard. Implementation of the ICNIRP guidelines for exposure of the general public could severely affect transmission-line designs and right-of-way management. Static magnetic fields near utility facilities will not exceed the static field limits established for the general public under this guideline. For leakage resistances below 1000 megohms. fields under lines with voltages of 500 kV or less would not exceed the 10-kV/m reference level. realistic leakage resistances make it unlikely that such exposures would exceed a reference level based potential spark discharges.9 mT (9 G) cited in the IEEE Draft Standard. Exposure of the general public would not exceed the 10 kV/m limit. can be mitigated by appropriate work practices.5. except in limited areas under some 765-kV lines. beginning at 1 Hz. the limit can be increased. 2. Public use of HVDC transmission-line rights-of-way could result in exposures to static fields above 20 kV/m. Occupational exposure occurs in controlled environments.and electric-field exposures and contact currents in both controlled and general-public environments. Work practices in the controlled environment near HVDC lines can include appropriate grounding to eliminate spark discharges. also a potential source of discomfort in high static fields. exposures under transmission lines with voltages of 345-kV and above could exceed the ICNIRP reference level in some areas on the right-of-way. 2. The reference level can be increased if the leakage resistance to ground of an individual standing in the field mitigates spark discharges. ICNIRP makes no exception for transmission lines in its reference level of 4. The basic restrictions and reference levels are based on empirical data for established short-term adverse effects of magnetic.and electric-field exposures in the frequency range of 0 to 3000 Hz. The data and assumptions that were used to develop the exposure guidelines are welldocumented. Thus.6 Summary The IEEE Draft Standard provides basic restrictions and reference levels for magnetic. In general. Corona on extended parts of the body. The ACGIH TLV of 25 kV/m for static fields does not include this provision and could be exceeded when working on certain HVDC transmission lines.

electric fields in small areas on the rights-of-way of 765-kV lines could exceed the IEEE Draft Standard reference level of 10 kV/m. consistent computer models using accurate. Based on the basic restrictions and reference levels established in the IEEE Draft Standard. However. 2001. • Occupational electric-field exposures will rarely exceed the reference levels in the IEEE Draft Standard. 2. The whole-body occupational reference levels for 60-Hz fields are as follows: 2. Piscataway. Previous guidelines have used the induced current density as the fundamental parameter. Public reference levels are 0. anatomically correct.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields. implementation of the ICNIRP guidelines.9 mT (9 G) for magnetic field and 5 kV/m for electric field. IEEE P1555/D5 Draft Standard for Safety Levels With Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields. with their lower reference levels for both occupational and generalpublic exposure. Implementation of the IEEE Draft Standard would have minimal impact on current electricutility practices. by eliminating redundant terms and repetition. Basic restrictions for magnetic-field exposures are given in terms of the in situ electric field at different locations in the body. and right-of-way management. the non-uniformity of the magnetic field most likely precludes exceeding the basic restriction on in situ electric fields for 60-Hz fields. it appears that the following are true: • Magnetic-field exposures above the occupational reference levels occur very rarely in utility environments. more direct link between internal dose and the reference levels. Reliable. highresolution. The latter is increased to 10 kV/m on transmissionline rights-of-way. IEEE Standards Department. Furthermore. Current understanding of nerve function links the in situ electric field closely to the mechanism for stimulation. and by careful editing. by reorganizing the document.71 mT (27. One possible exception is changes in the design of 765-kV lines to meet the 10 kV/m limit for general-public exposure on the right-of-way. electrical models of the human body can improve on the estimates of in situ electric field at specific locations in the body. 2-23 . NJ. The IEEE Draft Standard and other guidelines rely on simple circular or elliptical conducting models to simulate the human body. when they do occur.1 G) for magnetic fields and 20 kV/m for electric fields. On the other hand. 0 to 3 kHz. The IEEE Draft Standard is presently in a draft stage: it could be improved substantially by providing additional information on the derivation of electric-field and current reference levels. Better in situ field estimates will provide a stronger. work practices. could have a significant impact on transmission-line design. Prepared by Subcommittee 3 of Standards Coordinating Committee 28.7 [1] References IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) The fundamental physical parameter assumed responsible for neural stimulation is the in situ electric field.

2001 TLVs and BEIs: Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. “Documentation of the threshold limit values for physical agents in the work environment. New York. Apparat. Electromagnetic Compatibility. Exponent. 4.P. Vol. 1997. EMC-29. Bailey. NY. 100-106 (1994).W.” IEEE Trans. [3] ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). Principal Scientist. 1373-1381 (1978). 1999. Eng. 1997 ed. [10] D. “Human body impedance and threshold currents for perception and pain for contact hazard analysis in the VLF-MF band. Larkin. IEEE Std. IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields. Inc.” Health Phys.1. Vol. Gandhi. Chatterjee.” Chapter 8 in Transmission Line Reference Book. “Electric and magnetic coupling from high voltage AC power transmission lines – classification of short-term effects on people. pp. Zaffanella.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields. Electric Power Research Institute. Vol. [5] ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection). New York. Deno and L.” IEEE Trans. 494-522 (1988). 3. Reilly and W. “Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric. “Human sensitivity to electric shock induced by power frequency electric fields. pp. 5. Wu.. [7] J. D. “Field effects of overhead transmission lines and stations. and Electromagnetic Fields (Up to 300 GHz). Reilly. No. “Guidelines on Limits of Exposure to Static Magnetic Fields. Springer. pp. 66. [6] J. 1999 Edition. OH. [8] I. No. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) [2] IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). Cincinnati. and O.” page PA-62. 329-419 (1982). Biomed. Sys. 1998. [12] IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). 221-232 (1987). American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. CA. Vol. Private communication. [11] William H. [13] ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists).P. Inc. Pwr. The empirical basis for the determination of the basic restriction for electric-field exposures in controlled environments is not stated explicitly in the Draft Standard. D. published by Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 2001. No. Palo Alto. Vol. PAS-97.” Health Phys. [9] J. BME-33. 2001. [4] ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection).P. pp. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values (TLVs) and biological exposure indices 2-24 . New York. C95. W.” IEEE Trans. National Electrical Safety Code. pp. Applied Bioelectricity: from Electrical Stimulation to Electropathology. 74. pp. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. P. 486-494 (1986). Magnetic. 3 kHz to 300 GHz. Reilly.

“Magnetic Field Exposures in the Electric Utility Industry Relevant to Occupational Guideline Levels. Bailey. “Ground Level Electric Fields and Ion Currents on the Celilo-Sylmar + 400 kV DC Intertie During Fair Weather. Bracken.” Health Phys. 0 to 3 Kilohertz (kHz) (BEIs). “Electric Fields and Ion Currents of a " 400 kV HVDC Test Line. Power Apparatus and Systems. Vol.S. 12. Vol. 2-25 . PAS-102. No.D. Kavet. “Magnetic-field Exposures of Cable Splicers in Electrical Network Distribution Vaults. Capon.D. Vol.B. and D. pages 2559-2568 (1983). R.D.” IEEE Trans. To be published (2001).” Applied Occupational and Environmental Health. Bracken. Sixth Edition. [16] T. Senior. and L. W. Johnson. pages 370-378 (1978). 1991. Vol.S. Kavet. R. Cincinnati. [17] T. PAS 97. [15] T. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. [14] T.H. 2.D. Bracken. 16. Rankin. Senior. Power Apparatus and Systems.F. R. Rankin. 3.F.G. Geissinger. R. Montgomery. No. [18] G. 8. R.” IEEE Trans. No.V. OH.S. No.Summary of The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Draft Standard For Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields.” Applied Occupational and Environmental Health. Bracken. and R. 11. pages 756-768 (1997). A. pages 369-379 (2001). “Assessing Compliance with Power-frequency Magnetic Field Guidelines.

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and consequently reference levels. These effects are caused by exposures of very short duration. Exposure guidelines for electric and magnetic fields in the frequency range of 1 to 3000 Hz are based on short-term adverse effects related to nerve stimulation. is expressed in terms of an external exposure parameter. In such cases. exposures above the reference level may. Exposures below the reference level are considered to be in compliance with the guideline. The reference level is derived from effects data. Emphasis is on exposures to power-frequency (60-Hz) fields in the electric utility industry. In the frequency range of 1 to 3000 Hz that includes the 60-Hz power frequency. To avoid the occurrence of such effects. 3-1 . or may not. Reference levels. for magnetic-field exposures are based on reactions of the nervous system and are stated in terms of internal electrical parameters.and electric-field exposures are in compliance with exposure guidelines. On the other hand. For certain adverse effects. no basic restriction applies. Guidelines generally provide for evaluation of exposures above the reference level to determine whether the exposure is in compliance with the basic restriction. exposure guidelines express the basic restrictions and reference levels as ceiling values that are not to be exceeded. the causative internal or external parameter is not known or not quantified. physical and biological models are used to estimate reference levels for external fields.3 EVALUATION OF EXPOSURES FOR COMPLIANCE 3.1 Guideline Structure The purpose of this chapter is to provide practical evaluation strategies for determining whether time-varying magnetic. and is the arbiter of whether the exposure is in compliance with the guideline. Contact-current reference levels are based on empirical data for external currents. where the term basic restrictions refers to the levels of internal physical parameters below which no adverse effects occur in humans. basic restrictions. Given a basic restriction on an internal parameter. be in compliance with the basic restriction. However. also referred to as exposure limits or maximum permissible exposures (MPE). The basic restriction is the final arbiter of whether the exposure guideline is exceeded. They rely on basic restrictions to determine acceptable exposures. represent the magnitude of the external field below which the basic restriction will not be exceeded.and electric-field exposure guidelines generally use a common approach to protect against the occurrence of deleterious or adverse effects. Magnetic. reference levels for electric-field exposures are based on external electrical parameters in this frequency range.

. the TLVs® are intended to guide an overall program in worker health and safety. 2. Thus. Static-field exposures occur near a limited number of electric utility facilities but are not discussed here because of the scant opportunities for exceeding exposure limits. for the three guidelines of interest. . . . The ACGIH TLVs are based. the general approaches outlined below can also be applied to evaluation of static field exposures. Reference levels and TLVs at 60 Hz for magnetic fields. The guidelines of particular interest to utilities in the United States are those promulgated by the IEEE. . on consideration of an induced current limit of 10 mA/m2. duration of exposure does not enter into considerations of compliance. The ACGIH TLVs do not contain explicit reference to basic restrictions. As explicitly stated in the TLV booklet. mention of reference level or basic restriction with respect to ACGIH guidance means the TLVs. Basic restrictions are not used for contact currents. as described in the Documentation for the TLVs [4]. respectively. at these frequencies. 3]. 3-2 . This approach to exposure guidance and intended use makes compliance per se less of an issue with respect to the TLVs® than it may be for other guidelines or standards. Exposures that approximate the TLVs® are signals that corrective action should be undertaken to reduce the exposure levels. . In other words. In the discussion that follows. while ACGIH includes limits for occupational exposures only. The rationale for the limits is contained in the separate Documentation of the Physical Agents TLVs [4]. respectively. published by ACGIH. Basic restrictions at 60 Hz are given in Tables 3-4 and 3-5 for magnetic and electric fields. These values are not fine lines between safe and dangerous concentrations . The TLVs® are not intended to mark a dividing line between safety and harm. among other factors. "[2: inside cover]. the ACGIH TLVs do not have separate basic restrictions and reference levels. the ACGIH through its TLVs. The IEEE and ICNIRP guidelines provide exposure limits for occupational and general-public exposures. The basic restrictions and reference levels for frequencies from 0 to 3000 Hz and a detailed description of the IEEE Draft Standard [1] are presented in Chapter 2 of this document. The TLV of 1 mT (10 G) at 60 Hz stands alone as the exposure guidance provided by the ACGIH. However. and ICNIRP) [1. "The Threshold Limit Values (TLVs®) and Biological Exposure Indices (BEIs®) are developed as guidelines to assist in the control of health hazards. electric fields and contact currents are given in Tables 3-1 to 3-3.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance even momentarily. A further aspect of the TLVs concerns their intended use. In contrast to the IEEE Draft Standard and the ICNIRP Guideline.

Guideline Controlled Environments Whole body Limbs General Public Whole body IEEE Draft Standard [1] 20 a — 5. 5 – Uncontrolled Environments (General Public) 0. recommended limit is 10 kV/m c Caution should be exercised in fields above 5 – 7 kV/m. Guideline Controlled Environments (Occupational Exposures) Head and torso IEEE Draft Standard [1] 2.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance Table 3-1 Magnetic-Field Reference Levels and TLVs in units of millitesla (mT) at 60 Hz.904 a Limbs 21.42 a b c a Limbs a Head and torso 63.17 a a a.22 a b c 10 . by Guideline.71 ACGIH TLVs [2] 1 ICNIRP Guideline [3] 0. and protective devices used in fields above 15 kV/m b 3-3 . by Guideline.07 – a – 0.083 a – Limit for uniform fields. for non-uniform fields. limits apply to the average field over the body Hands and feet Arms and legs Table 3-2 Electric-Field Reference Levels and TLVs in units of kilovolts-per-meter (kV/m) at 60-Hz. All values are ceiling values. All values are ceiling values. 10 ACGIH TLVs [2] 25 c 25 – ICNIRP Guideline [3] 8. limits apply to the average field over the body On power-line rights-of-way. for non-uniform fields.33 — 4. b a a Limit for uniform fields.

3-4 .5 Limits apply to body as an induction object Grip contacts only in controlled environment where personnel are trained to eliminate adverse effect Table 3-4 Basic Restrictions for Magnetic-Field Exposures at 60 Hz.1 V/m 0.35 0. limbs 2. head 0.5 1 – – 0.0059 V/m Peripheral 20-µm nerve stimulation In-situ electric field. Guideline Mechanism Parameter Controlled environment General public IEEE Draft Standard [1] Synaptic nerve stimulation In-situ electric field.1 V/m ACGIH TLVs [2] Central nervous system stimulation Induced current density 10 mA/m ICNIRP Guideline [3] Central nervous system stimulation Induced current density over -4 -2 10 m 10 mA/m a 2a – 2 2 mA/m 2 Consideration for the TLV.1 V/m 2. body 2.5 2.7 V/m Peripheral 20-µm nerve stimulation In-situ electric field. Guideline Controlled Environment Nature of contact Both feet Each foot Grip contact IEEE Draft a Standard [1] 6 3 3 ICNIRP (1998) Guidelines [3] – – – a b b General Public Touch contact Both feet Each foot Touch contact 1.7 1. All values are ceiling values.018 V/m 0.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance Table 3-3 Contact and Induced Current Reference Levels in units of milliamperes (mA) at 60 Hz. but not a basic restriction in the sense of IEEE and ICNIRP. by Guideline. by Guideline.

if the guideline is. Controlled environment Guideline Mechanism Parameter IEEE Draft Standard [1] Field perception External electric field Reference Levels Spark discharge External electric field ACGIH TLVs [2] Central nervous system stimulation Induced current density 10 mA/m ICNIRP Guideline [3] Central nervous system stimulation Induced current density over -2 -2 10 m 10 mA/m Basic Restriction a b General public 20 kV/m 5 kV/m. a 10 kV/m 2b – 2 2 mA/m 2 10 kV/m reference level applies to transmission line rights-of-way. the magnitude of the exposure. This latter step will entail detailed measurements or computations of the fields and could involve modeling of the interaction of the exposed person with the field. but not a basic restriction in the sense of ICNIRP. then a more detailed evaluation may be needed to determine compliance with the guideline. For electric field reference levels that are not derived from a basic restriction the evaluation will entail comparison of exposures with reference levels.2 Compliance Verification An exposure scenario that possibly exceeds a guideline level could be identified by a measurement survey. this will entail an evaluation with respect to the basic restriction. Consideration for the TLV. If this assessment indicates that reference levels may be exceeded. Once a scenario is identified where a magnetic. steps can be taken to verify or achieve compliance with guidelines. Finally. by field computations. a plan for reducing exposures can be developed. Initially.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance Table 3-5 Basic Restrictions and Reference Levels for Electric-Field Exposures at 60 Hz. 3. the frequency content of the fields. an exposure assessment determines general information about the location of the exposure. in fact. or by a regulatory requirement or action. by worker or public concern. The discussion that follows is intended to indicate common approaches and considerations that can be applied on a case-by-case basis.or electric-field exposure may exceed reference levels. the position of the exposed person. exceeded. Emphasis is on compliance evaluation of 60-Hz exposures with examples drawn from electric-utility environments. by Guideline. 3-5 . Each exposure scenario will have unique aspects that may require a separate evaluation. For magnetic field reference levels. and the nature of the source.

suspected high-field exposure near a static VAR compensator would most likely require assessment at only one location because of the limited number of such installations.2 Extent of Exposures • Is there a specific location at a site where the exposure occurs? • Is there a specific task or activity during which the exposure occurs? If the exposure occurs at a specific location at one site. For example. Public exposures approaching reference levels are generally limited to electric fields near high-voltage overhead transmission-line facilities. the objective of an exposure assessment is to determine whether the reference level is actually exceeded at the location where exposure occurs. Otherwise. then the assessment can be limited to that location. complete understanding of the source.3. the following discussion addresses the individual topics that should be included in a complete assessment. This becomes increasingly important as exposure levels approach the guidance limits. 3. The applicable guideline(s) for the exposure should also be identified. 3. This investigation should entail a visit to the exposure location and. The exposure assessment should conclude with a very clear. Occupational exposures to magnetic fields approaching reference levels are also possible in other environments near high-current devices such as demagnetizers and welding cables. it might be necessary to survey similar locations at several sites throughout a utility system.3 Exposure Assessment for Reference Levels The indicator of a possible out-of-compliance exposure will generally be a measured or calculated field that suggests that the reference level in an occupational or publicly accessible area is exceeded. exposures approaching guideline levels during work in distribution network vaults could involve similar locations at many sites and require a more extensive assessment. By posing and then answering questions. On the other hand. and their environment. their interrelationship.1 Type of Exposure • Does the exposure involve occupational (controlled environment) or public (uncontrolled environment) exposure? • Is the exposure to magnetic fields.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance 3.3. Survey measurements with a field meter capable of determining whether significant harmonics are present are also recommended. electric fields. or both? The type of exposure determines which of the reference levels and basic restrictions in Tables 31 to 3-5 apply for 60-Hz exposures. if possible. because of restricted access to areas with high magnetic fields. the receptor. observation of the exposure in question. then the frequency-dependent reference levels and basic restrictions discussed in Chapter 1 apply. 3-6 . If frequencies other than 60 Hz are involved. Therefore. Occupational exposures to electric or magnetic fields approaching reference levels can occur in electric utility workplaces.

if so. feet and ankles).71 mT (27.1 G) for the head or head and torso. Therefore. However. The reference levels for electric-field exposure generally apply to the whole body. Guideline limits are established for whole-body and limb exposures for magnetic fields. and what the maximum fields under all operating conditions are. The difference in thresholds for these two phenomena results in 60-Hz reference levels of 2. The basic restriction for the head and whole body is based on stimulation of the brain. the IEEE Draft Standard provides different limits for induced or contact currents to one foot. it is useful to determine whether the exposure in question occurs for a specific task and. wrists. and a grip contact. As with the question of location and site. one may design a measurement or computational approach to determine the field for comparison with the corresponding reference level. the postures likely to result in the highest exposures. frequent performance of the task may dictate a larger sample of sites.8 mT (384 G) for the torso alone. what the frequency content of the field is. and of 34. and the part(s) of the body most likely to encounter high fields. The IEEE Draft Standard specifies different basic restrictions for magnetic-field exposures of the head and torso.3 Body Location • Where is the exposed person located in relation to the source during the exposure? • What part of the body is subject to exposures above the reference level: head. 3-7 . 3. torso. while the basic restriction for the torso alone is based on peripheral nerve stimulation. [1: 30] The ACGIH TLVs include limits for whole-body and limb exposures to magnetic-field exposures. and workers. and the extremities (hands. the torso alone.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance Occupational exposures can be very task-specific.4 Source • What is the field source for the exposure? • What is the frequency content of fields from the source? • What is the operational range of the source? Knowing the source responsible for high-field exposures will allow determination of important aspects of the exposure assessment and compliance evaluation: these aspects include whether a simple model can be used to estimate fields in the exposure area. operating conditions.3. as well as a general approach to reducing exposures. 3. both feet. a touch contact.3.and partial-body magnetic-field exposure. to determine the frequency and extent of performance of the task. Having established where and which part(s) of the body are likely to have exposures above reference levels. limbs? Observation of a high-field exposure will indicate the exact location(s) where reference levels are likely to be approached. The ICNIRP guidelines identify reference levels for whole.

transmission lines have minimal harmonic content.5 Field Uniformity • Are the fields where the exposure occurs uniform or non-uniform? Both the IEEE Draft and ICNIRP guidelines stipulate that non-uniform fields are to be averaged over the body for comparison with reference levels. However. while for the latter it might be necessary to measure the frequency spectrum of the field. such as on a transmissionline tower. 3. PE measurements can be used only for magnetic fields and they may need to be supplemented with survey measurements to demonstrate compliance. models for complicated sources should be validated with survey measurements under operating conditions known to be similar. Both types of measurements should be performed where the exposure in question actually occurs. while distribution feeders may have considerable harmonic content. both types of measurements are performed and reconciled with one another for a consistent exposure assessment. in fact.3. However. The frequency content of the field may also be derivable from known source characteristics. then the fields in the exposure area may be estimated from a simple computation. Field magnitude will depend on the operating conditions of the source: operating current will determine magnetic fields and operating voltage will determine electric fields. a single frequency could be assumed. either through measurements or computations.6 Field Measurements • What instruments should be used for characterizing high-field exposures? • What measurement protocols are appropriate for determining compliance with guideline levels? Either survey or personal exposure (PE) measurements may be used to assess whether reference levels are exceeded. Reliable computations can provide estimates of maximum and average fields in the area of interest without measurements. it is important to accurately determine the fields over the area of the body. Ideally. Occupational electric-field exposures can occur in uniform field conditions under high-voltage overhead conductors or in non-uniform fields near a single energized conductor. in compliance. 3.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance If the source is a simple line source. For example. In investigating exposures from the former for compliance. depending on the load served. 3-8 .3. Therefore. It may be necessary to scale the measured or computed field with the appropriate electrical parameter to produce estimates of the highest expected exposures for the source. such as a transmission-line conductor or substation bus. Exposures in uncontrolled areas are generally in uniform vertical electric fields. Magnetic-field exposures near reference levels generally occur very near high-current sources and are non-uniform. More complicated source geometries can be modeled with sophisticated commercially available software. spatial averaging of the field is one of the principal ways by which exposure with maximum fields above the reference level can be demonstrated to be. With the prevalence of non-uniform field exposures in occupational settings.

such as one employing a Hall-effect sensor. the field may exceed the range of meters with induction-coil sensors. can overestimate the fields relevant to calculating the induced quantities for comparison with basic restrictions. such as demagnetizer coils. it is necessary to use the high-field version of this instrument. For example. Therefore. PE measurements. If fields at frequencies greater than the fundamental are present. Characterization of the frequency content of the fields will generally be needed only for magnetic-field exposures. The instruments used to measure electric fields that approach occupational reference levels should be designed to avoid corona on the instrument. The maximum field. Therefore. may be required. Campbell. a free-body electric-field survey meter is required. the standard EMDEX II (Enertech Consultants. a broadband meter with the capability to indicate or measure harmonic content is preferred. For measurements in fields comparable to reference levels. As with survey meters. Therefore. is then used to estimate the induced biologically relevant quantity in a given cross-section of the body. The meter should have the capability to measure the true maximum field.3 mT (3 G). 3-9 . it is preferable to measure the field components by orientation and also to determine the maximum field and its direction by rotating a single sensor to achieve the maximum reading in an elliptically polarized field. Since the electric-field reference levels are expressed in terms of the unperturbed electric field. with a full-scale range of 12 mT (120 G).Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance The resultant field will be up to √2 times larger than the maximum field in an elliptically polarized field produced by a multi-phase source. In this case. For localized exposures near especially intense sources. because electric-field exposures at high levels are associated with transmission-line voltages that have low harmonic content. it may be necessary to quantitatively determine the frequency content of the fields. care must be taken to ensure that the instrument has adequate dynamic range to measure fields near and above reference levels. whereas basic restrictions will not be exceeded in fields much higher than this. an instrument with a wider dynamic range. Instruments Meters should comply with the IEEE standard on instrumentation for measuring magnetic flux density and electric fields from 10 to 3000 Hz [5]. There are no electric-field PE meters valid for such measurements. It is not possible to detect the maximum field in this manner during PE measurements. or the maximum of a field component. The full-scale range of meters commonly used for magnetic-field survey measurements is often not adequate for investigating fields approaching reference levels. The broadband survey meter should have a filter to determine whether harmonic or other higherfrequency fields are present along with the fundamental frequency component. even if only to confirm that it is a single frequency. especially for magnetic fields where high-field scenarios are more likely to contain harmonics of 60 Hz. This can be done using a spectrum analyzer or waveform-capture instrument with a suitable field probe. which are generally expressed as the resultant field. It is desirable to determine the frequency content of the exposure field. CA) has a full-scale range of 0. as well as the vertical and horizontal components. it is not necessary to acquire a high-range model. Available electric-field survey meters are likely to have full-scale ranges exceeding reference levels.

or computed with a model. in a non-uniform field. If the field is non-uniform. such as the use of a 1-m measurement height. Initial survey measurements with a hand-held meter at the exposure location can provide preliminary indications of the extent of the exposures. then additional measurements (or computations) are needed to determine the spatial average field for comparison with the reference level. Survey measurements of magnetic and electric fields near power lines should be performed following methods described in IEEE Standard 644-1994 [6]. it is necessary to determine the spatial average field for comparison with the reference level in either the IEEE Draft Standard or the ICNIRP guideline. The spatial average is then computed for the relevant body cross-section and compared with the reference level. an evaluation of the basic restriction may be required to demonstrate compliance with the guideline. a resultant field computed from the components will not necessarily represent the average over the volume of the sensors. then it is used in the evaluation of compliance with the basic restriction. supplemental measurements are required. single-frequency. the source of exposure. However. then the exposure is in compliance with the guideline. To provide repeatable measurements in highly non-uniform fields. field uniformity. then it may be necessary to measure the spectral content of the field. If the spatial average does not exceed the applicable reference level. Survey meters often have sensors that are not co-located: that is. field magnitude. If the initial measurements (scaled to the highest operating current or voltage) do not exceed the reference level. This does not introduce error in a uniform field. the body location of exposure. If multiple frequencies are present. If the initial measurements are above the reference level. The accuracy with which fields can be determined in the volume of the body will depend on the degree to which the fields change over the body and the spacing of points in the grid for survey 3-10 . then the exposure is in compliance with the guideline. These protocols should also be followed to the extent practical for survey measurements in high-field areas. field orientation. if the exposure field is uniform. To compute an average. Supplemental survey measurements. will have to be adjusted to characterize non-uniform fields in work areas near sources. and frequency content. The initial survey measures are to quickly characterize the magnitude and uniformity of the exposure fields and to determine whether they are near or above the reference level. the field at several locations in the exposure area of interest is measured. Spatial Averaging For non-uniform fields. provide a detailed spatial mapping and frequency spectrum. calculated analytically. it is necessary to ensure reliable positioning and consistent orientation for both three-axis and single-axis meters. the field components may be measured at different locations by three separate coils. and exceeds the reference field.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance Survey Measurements Survey measurements should be performed in two stages. if needed. On the other hand. If the spatial average does exceed the reference level. Certain specifications.

estimate of average field. from side 0.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance measurements or computations. These models are described in Table 3-6.4] Limit current density in body to 2 < 10 mA/m Body. Table 3-6 Elliptical Exposure Models Linking Basic Restrictions to Magnetic-Field Reference Levels.42 ACGIH TLVs [2.to 0.20 0.09 0.1. averaging the measured fields over a coarse grid originating at the point on the body closest to the source will generally overestimate the true average field in the body. from front 0.40 Peripheral 20-µm nerve stimulation Leg 0.1-m grid will provide an array of approximately 3 x 5 measurement locations for a cross-section of the body in a horizontal plane.3-m intervals should be sufficient to provide an average field at a body location. m Major axis. and a larger number of measurements for a frontal or side-facing cross-section in a vertical plane. but conservative.20 0. Measurements at 0.90 Peripheral 20-µm nerve stimulation Torso. Guideline IEEE Draft Standard [1] Effect Exposure Orientation Elliptical cross-section Minor axis. A 0. from side 0. It is essential that the maximum field at the closest point of approach to the source be included in the average. from front 0. Because fields generally fall off rapidly from a source.85 ICNIRP Guideline [3] Central nervous system stimulation Simple model not linked to body orientation Tissue loop with radius 0. a 10-cm grid would provide about nine measurements over the area of concern.3-m intervals corresponding to the approximate horizontal dimensions of the human body should provide a reasonable. The elliptical models used to represent the human body in the various guidelines indicate the area over which the field should be averaged.1 m A grid with measurements at 0. m Synaptic nerve stimulation Head.17 0.09 0. 3-11 . For head exposures where the vertical cross-section is smaller.105 Peripheral 20-µm nerve stimulation Body. by Guideline.

PE Measurements PE measurements can be used to assess whether reference levels are exceeded either in staged tasks or in a large sample of workers performing various tasks at several locations. The electrical loading on the sources during high-field exposures should be estimated to characterize conditions under which PE measurements were taken. it may still be necessary to perform survey measurements to determine whether reference levels are exceeded for other body locations. the PE meter should be positioned on the body at a point as close as practical to the location where the maximum exposure is likely to occur. Two compensating factors effect the interpretation of PE measurements vis à vis guideline reference levels: first. To have confidence in estimating the highest field exposure for a task from PE measurements. or other factors. Both when and where fields are measured are important factors in capturing the maximum level. When PE measurements are used to survey a population. a contemporaneous time/activity or time/location log linked to the time of measurements should be kept to identify the task/location where high exposures occur. recording the operating conditions during measurements.3. However. the assumed load on the source and the locations selected for calculations are of importance for computational models for field exposures.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance Survey measurements should measure the magnitude and direction at each grid point. performing measurements at the point of closest approach to the source. even after identifying high-exposure scenarios with PE measurements. The maximum perpendicular components are then averaged over the appropriate cross-section for comparison with the reference level. 3. and second. the highest exposures may not have been captured because of meter position. less-than-peak load. such as the head. With confidence in the distance of closest approach to a source and the maximum field reading. it is possible to determine (for single conductor sources) whether the reference level or basic restriction is exceeded [7]. Strategies to ensure that the maximum field is measured include the following: basing measurement locations on observations of the actual task or activity. using survey measurements 3-12 . scaling measured fields to the highest current or voltage that is anticipated during exposures. the chest is a practical position on the torso. as it will be nearest the source for tasks performed with the hands. Typically. similarly. the spatially averaged field will most likely be less than the highest measured field because of field non-uniformity. But fields vary in time with current or voltage on the source and in space near a source. To have confidence that the maximum exposures are captured. performing measurements on a grid in the area of the exposure. making it difficult to determine the maximum field. the PE meter position on the body should be confirmed to produce the maximum exposure readings and the maximum recorded field exposures should be scaled to the peak load.7 Sampling Issues • How can you ensure that the maximum exposure field is measured or calculated for comparison with the reference level? Ceiling-level-type exposure limits make it necessary to compare the maximum exposure field with the reference level.

Unless there is some constraint on body movement. an exposure at 60-Hz could be in compliance with the basic restriction. the frequency content of an exposure can affect whether a basic restriction or reference level is exceeded. while an exposure of the same magnitude that contained harmonics could exceed it. but not the ACGIH TLVs. 3. Any constraints that would prevent orientations for maximum induction should be noted during the exposure assessment and considered if an evaluation of compliance with the basic restriction is required. The IEEE and ICNIRP guidelines. by the NESC [8] 3. In such cases. In other words. The ICNIRP guideline. allow the relative phasing of the components to be taken into account. Thus. The field orientations assumed in the guidelines for various basic restrictions are given in Table 3-6. the magnitude of an exposure with high frequency components will have to be lower than the exposure at the fundamental frequency to meet a fixed basic restriction of. but not the IEEE Draft Standard. it is assumed that the orientation for maximum induction will be realized during exposure. Thus. or field orientation. Both guidelines require that the sum over all frequencies of the ratios of the Fourier component of the exposure field (or basic induced quantity) to its respective reference level (or basic restriction) must be less than or 3-13 . the conditions for computing transmission-line electric fields to evaluate induced currents to large objects are specified as maximum operating voltage and minimum conductor clearance at 50° C.3. say. For example. posture.8 Field Orientation • What is the orientation of the field relative to the human body? The derivation of reference levels from basic restrictions generally assumes a worst-case orientation of the field relative to the body: that is.3. exposure above a reference level might not result in exceedance of the basic restriction. the locations for field calculations should be selected based on observations or detailed knowledge of the body position during exposure. and repeating measurements for the same exposure. electric-field. 10 mA/m2. Circumstances that might prevent the maximum induction conditions from occurring would be restriction to a standing posture in a vertical magnetic field or a non-vertical electric field with respect to an upright posture.9 Frequency Content • What is the frequency content of the fields in the exposure area? Induced fields and current densities increase linearly with frequency for the same field magnitude.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance to validate and supplement PE measurements. the body orientation in a uniform field is such that it produces the maximum induced current density or in situ electric field. provide guidance on the evaluation of magnetic-field. and contact-current exposures when multiple frequency components are present. When fields are calculated to estimate exposure conditions. Operating conditions should be based on the maximum current and/or voltage and the closest approach to the source anticipated during exposure.

Many high-field exposures in electric utility environments are associated with the transmission system.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance equal to one. complex environments such as substations and network vaults that have unique source layouts may require a case-by-case approach that would be more time-consuming than survey measurements at specific locations at several sites.3. as in characterizing electric-field exposure in transmission towers. with simple sources.or electric-field exposure near the reference level contains substantial contributions from fields at frequencies above the fundamental. This approach could also be applied to advantage for exposures near sources with varying operating conditions. 3. analytic solutions and simple computer models provide confidence in the validity of the field calculation and the model representation of the source. However. 3-14 . measurements of the spectral content of the fields are probably not required and the initial survey measurements can convincingly demonstrate the lack of harmonics. averaged over the appropriate body cross-section. if survey measurements or the source type indicate that a magnetic. but comparing them with reference levels requires additional exposure modeling. Because of missing information about the source or computational limitations. The spectral content can be measured with a spectrum analyzer or wave-capture system with a suitable probe. Similarly. The protocols and caveats that were discussed for survey measurements also apply to these measurements. allowing exposures to be estimated with accuracy. the magnetic fields near bundled transmission-line conductors can be computed. calculations of electric fields at ground level under high-voltage transmission lines can determine whether the reference levels or TLVs are exceeded. Three-dimensional modeling is useful for exposure scenarios where measurements are difficult. One uncertainty in using complex models is the accuracy with which the model represents the source geometry. More sophisticated computer programs are available for modeling non-uniform fields from complicated three-dimensional sources. To evaluate whether the sum of the ratios is less than one requires measurements of each of the frequency components of the exposure. For simple-source geometries. such as single conductors or multiple parallel lines. For example. measurements are generally needed at only a few locations in the measurement grid to confirm a constant relative magnitude of harmonics. Also. Because the high exposures of interest are typically due to a single source. then it may be necessary to explicitly measure the frequency content. and compared with reference levels.10 Field Computations • When can computed fields be used to characterize exposures? The exposures most tractable for evaluation by calculations are those near simple sources. Thus. which generally does not contain significant harmonics of the power frequency. Calculations of non-uniform electric fields near conductors are accurate. the body position with respect to the source is easily described. In such cases. the model may not provide sufficient accuracy to allow an adequate estimate of the exposure.

and electric-field exposure may be exceeded if it can be demonstrated that the basic restriction for the exposure in question is not exceeded. At frequencies below 1 Hz.3. and.11 Special Circumstances • Are there special conditions that affect the reference levels for magnetic-field exposure? • Are there special conditions that affect the reference levels for electric-field exposure? As indicated. exposures above 20 kV/m would be acceptable at higher frequencies. the reference level of 20 kV/m for electric fields can be increased for leakage resistance from the individual to ground below 1000 megohms. then compliance with the guideline may require an evaluation as to whether the basic restriction is exceeded. Both the IEEE Draft Standard and the ICNIRP guideline allow electric-field exposures above reference levels in controlled environments when the exposed insulated individual is not within reach of a grounded object. even for the simple models. For lower leakage resistance. This exception allows exposures above the 20-kV/m reference level of the IEEE Draft Standard and above the 8.12 Summary A summary of the issues to be considered when determining whether an exposure exceeds a reference level is presented as a checklist in Table 3-7. demonstrated agreement between computed and measured fields establishes confidence in the results. the IEEE Draft Standard relaxes the reference level for electric-field exposures of the general public from 5 to 10 kV/m. Completing the checklist before performing an assessment and evaluation will identify areas where additional information is required and will facilitate determination of compliance. If the exposure assessment indicates that a reference level in Tables 3-1 to 3-3 is exceeded. 3-15 . 3.3-kV/m reference level of the ICNIRP guideline. This is mandatory for the more complex models. On transmission-line rights-of-way.3. 3. the reference levels for magnetic.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance It is recommended that the results of model field calculations be validated by measurements.

Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance Table 3-7 Checklist for Planning Reference-Level Exposure Assessment Exposure Characterization Guideline: Source Characterization Field characterization Exposure quantification 3-16 Agent: Magnetic field __ Electric field __ Contact current __ Type: Controlled environment/ Occupational __ Investigation prompted by: Describe: ________________________________________ ________________________________________________ Site/Location: Site: Describe ___________________________Number __ Location: Describe _______________________Number __ Task/activity: Describe ________________________________________ Duration ____minutes Frequency ______/day Body location: Head __ Torso __ Limbs __ Special conditions: Transmission-line right-of-way? __ Nearby grounded objects? __ Fields < 1 Hz? __ IEEE Draft __ ACGIH __ ICNIRP __ Other _________ Applicable reference level: Magnitude _____ Frequency dependent? __ Spatial averaging required? __ Description: Physical ________________________________________ _______________________________________________ 1-phase __ 3-phase __ Maximum current ____ voltage____ Frequency: 60-Hz __ Previous measurements: Description:_______________________________________ ________________________________________________ Expected magnitude: Maximum: __________________Location relative to source and body: _______________________________________ Field uniformity: Uniform? __ Non-uniform? __ Not known __ Field orientation relative to body: Vertical? __ Horizontal? __ Homogeneous or Not applicable __ Method: Survey measurements __ PE measurements __ Model __ Needed measurements: Survey: initial __ supplemental __ PE __ Frequency content __ Instrument: Describe: ________________________________________ Dynamic range: ___________________________________ Computational model: Simple __ General public __ Harmonics __ Other __ Complex __ three-dimensional models .

43 mT (4.1 G). an evaluation can indicate that exposures above the reference level are. Actually. then the associated basic restriction will be exceeded. which is considerably above the reference level [9]. there is ambiguity in the ACGIH and ICNIRP guidelines. the IEEE Draft Standard electric-field reference levels based on field perception and spark discharge.1 m to model the head and a conductivity of 0. and the IEEE Draft Standard magnetic-field reference level based on magnetodynamic effects at very low frequencies. compliance with the guideline is ascertained by comparing the exposure level directly to the reference level. In these cases. then a follow-up investigation may be necessary to determine whether the basic restriction is exceeded.71 mT (27.6 mA/m at 60-Hz at the reference level of 0.2 and 0. Factors that may influence whether an exposure above the reference level is in compliance are the linkage between basic restriction and reference level in the guideline. Using a radius of 0. the orientation of the field relative to the body. For guidelines where the reference levels for electric-field and contact-current exposures are empirically based on the external conditions known to cause an adverse effect.and partial-body magnetic-field exposures. the reference levels correspond to the basic restriction. ICNIRP employs a circular cross-section of uniform conductivity to demonstrate induction in the body. The IEEE Draft Standard clearly makes the link between reference level and basic restriction. allowing some latitude in evaluating exposures above the reference level. Examples of guidelines based on external conditions are: the IEEE Draft Standard and ICNIRP contactcurrent reference levels.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance 3.4 Evaluation of Basic Restrictions If the reference level is exceeded for an exposure. if the spatial average field exceeds the reference level. in fact. in compliance with the guideline.3 G).2 S/m results in a 2 maximum induced current of 1. 0.43 mT (4. evaluation of compliance with the basic restriction is straightforward: simply. the ACGIH model calculation for human exposure employs an ellipsoid with realistic cross-sections for the human body (semi-axes of 0. Thus. and electric-field exposures in non-uniform fields.85 m) [4].1 Linkage between Basic Restriction and Reference Level Compliance with the basic restriction for magnetic fields in the IEEE Draft and ICNIRP guidelines is determined by comparing the spatially averaged 60-Hz magnetic field over the relevant body part with the reference level in Table 3-1. For induction models that are based on realistic body cross-sections. The ACGIH TLVs are not based on basic restrictions and are therefore not subject to evaluation.1. To reach the basic restriction of 10 mA/m2 with this model would require a uniform magnetic-field exposure of 2. This model is more realistic than the simple loop and can be used to evaluate exposures for compliance with the 3-17 .4. However.3 G). and the presence of multiple-frequency fields. this demonstration model does not provide a direct link between the ICNIRP basic restriction of 10 mA/m2 and the reference level of 0. There appears to be considerable flexibility to demonstrate that the basic restriction of 10 mA/m2 is not exceeded when magneticfield exposures are above the ICNIRP reference level. Exposures that are amenable to such an evaluation are as follows: whole. 3. For those exposures that derive reference levels from basic restrictions.

However. At the ACGIH TLV® of 1 mT (10 G). the higher reference level dependent on peripheral nerve stimulation would apply at 60-Hz: 34. Based on the IEEE ellipsoid model.7 mT (7 G) do not exceed the ICNIRP 10-mA/m2 basic restriction. compliance with the IEEE Draft Standard basic restriction for head or head and torso exposures to 60-Hz and nearby frequencies (20 to 759 Hz) would not be affected by field orientation. while still complying with the basic restriction. where the reference level is much lower.2 Field Orientation For the ellipsoidal models used to represent the human body. field orientation would not affect compliance with the basic restriction for this exposure: it is unlikely that a field could have a vertical orientation with respect to the torso without also involving the head. an exposure that restricted the exposure field to be incident on a horizontal cross-section of the body could exceed the reference level. However. Field orientation would not change the relationship between basic restriction and reference level for limb exposures in the IEEE Draft Standard. For 60-Hz magnetic-field exposures.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance ICNIRP basic restriction. the IEEE Draft Standard basic restriction for whole-body exposure is based on in situ electric fields in the brain.7 times the magnitude of those incident on a vertical cross-section before the basic restriction was exceeded. the realistic model of the ACGIH for a horizontally incident field estimates that uniform field exposures up to 0. Thus. Therefore. For partial body exposures not involving the brain. For example. See Table 3-6. and 2) the ellipitical cross-sections of the brain for different directions are probably not significantly different. and 6 mA/ m2 for a vertically oriented field. vertical fields incident only on a horizontal crosssection of the body could reach approximately 1. and exposure incident from the end of a limb (smallest cross-section) would most likely also be incident on the torso. At higher frequencies (> 759 Hz). the disparity between cross-sections for vertical and horizontal field incidence is greater. 7 mA/ m2 for a uniform horizontal field incident from the side. Rotational symmetry of the model ellipsoids for limbs would produce the same results for any exposure perpendicular to the long axis of the limb. 3. a significant reduction in the induced field due to field orientation is not anticipated because: 1) rotation and changes in the position of the head due to normal movements in a horizontal or vertical field would result in the worst-case sideways orientation. cross-sections in the vertical planes can be much larger than the cross-section in the horizontal plane.4 mT (344 G) for incidence on a vertical cross-section. The draft standard does not provide the third dimension for the brain ellipsoid that would allow comparison of in situ electric fields for different field orientations. Use of the ellipsoidal models from the IEEE Draft Standard would similarly indicate that magnetic-field exposures above the ICNIRP reference levels are in compliance with the ICNIRP basic restriction. where peripheral nerve stimulation in the body is the limiting basic restriction. 3-18 . The magnetic-field reference levels are derived assuming a worst-case orientation of the field: horizontal field incident on a vertical cross-section.4. The worst-case exposure is for a horizontal magnetic field from the side of the body (sagittal exposure). the maximum induced current density for the ACGIH ellipsoidal model is 14 mA/ m2 for a uniform horizontal field incident from the front.

prone or other non-upright posture in a vertical field. the increase in the basic restriction offsets the linear increase in induced in situ electric field. over the frequency range of 1 to 272 Hz the electric-field reference level is 20 kV/m for controlled environments. such as synaptic alteration in the IEEE Draft Standard. These same induced current density levels could be used to evaluate the effects of orientation on the ICNIRP guideline basic restriction. The resulting reference level is independent of frequency. when evaluating this type of basic restriction. increase linearly with frequency above a base frequency.4. higher-frequency components in an exposure field can contribute significantly to the total for these internal parameters. induced quantities would be lower. the higher-frequency field components must be weighted by the frequency to account for their contribution to the induced current. whether it is based on field perception [1]. In the unusual case of electric fields oriented from the front or side of the body. With lower induced currents and voltages. Therefore. or induced current density [3]. the basic restriction will be exceeded at a lower level for a higher-frequency field. Exposures to only vertical fields 2 would not cause the a current density above 10 mA/m until the field reached about 1.71 mT (27. as long as they are within the range of the constant reference level. lower induced electrical parameters would result than for the standing posture in a vertical field. based on field perception. For this type of basic restriction. On the other hand. Consequently. for a crouching. basic restrictions that are based on nerve stimulation thresholds. In these frequency ranges.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance Although normal body movement in a horizontal field can be expected to reduce the average maximum induced current density. 3-19 . it is valid to compare the broadband measurement of field with the reference level to evaluate the basic restriction. 3. exposures above the reference level could be in compliance with the basic restriction. For exposure at and somewhat above 60-Hz. the frequency components in an exposure are not weighted. the magnetic-field reference level for whole body exposure is 2. This is the most common exposure because it occurs under overhead high-voltage air-insulated conductors.1 G) for controlled environments. spark discharge [1]. based on preventing alteration of synapses in the brain. Similarly.7 mT (17 G). such movement would also ensure that orientations would occur where current density of 10 mA/m2 might be exceeded. equivalently. such as the ICNIRP 10 mA/m limit. When evaluating this type of basic restriction. However.3 Multiple-Frequency Exposures There is a linear increase in the magnitude of induced currents and electric fields with frequency. contact current [1]. evaluations of the coupling of these uncommon field exposures to the human body must be done on a case-by-case basis using measurements or induction modeling techniques [10: 365-379]. Consequently. the field components are not weighted by frequency when evaluating compliance with the basic restriction. the IEEE Draft Standard reference levels for both magnetic and electric fields are not frequency-dependent. Electric-field reference levels are generally based on standing in a vertical field. for basic restrictions that are based on induced 2 quantities and are frequency-independent. a higher frequency results in a lower reference level or. Over the frequency range of 20 to 759 Hz. which results in the maximum induced current.

when the exposure includes field components outside the range where the reference value is independent of frequency (> 759 Hz for magnetic fields. The dependence of the average field close to the conductor has been combined with the maximum induced current density in a uniform field to produce a graphic for evaluating whether the 10mA/m2 basic restriction is exceeded [7]. Thus. Although it would be difficult to perform such a computation for every exposure in question. and contact currents produce estimates of mean and maximum induced quantities on a tissue-by-tissue basis. Methods that use the results of numerical computations with anatomically correct models can evaluate specific tissues or organs. because of the weighted contributions of higher-frequency fields to induced current density. However.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance Because of the nature of basic restrictions for the IEEE Draft Standard at and around 60-Hz. The graphic is intended for use by industrial hygienists to assess exposures without a need for dosimetric calculations or extensive measurements. > 272 Hz for electric fields). 3. Magnetic-field exposures at and above reference levels often are produced by sources that can be modeled as single-phase line sources. For this example. However. there are other approaches that have been proposed to evaluate magnetic. The average field across elliptical cross-sections near a single conductor is a function of the point of closest approach to the conductor.4 Alternative Evaluation Methods An evaluation as to whether an exposure is in compliance with a specific guideline may be most credible if it is performed with the models used by the guideline in question. rather than relying on the homogeneous ellipsoidal model. electric fields.4. The IEEE Draft Standard emphasized the need for consistency in the models and validation of the results prior to their incorporation into guideline methodology. Recent comparisons between 3-20 . they will tend to reduce the effective reference level. a modest two-percent addition of a 300-Hz component to a 60-Hz field at a level commensurate with the basic restriction would cause the ICNIRP guideline basic restriction to be exceeded by 10 percent and the IEEE Draft Standard by two percent. The impact of higher-frequency components on a basic restriction evaluation will depend on their magnitude and on the frequency dependence of the reference level. If higher-frequency components are present when evaluating the ICNIRP basic restriction. could be out of compliance with the basic restriction.and electric-field exposures visá-vis basic restrictions. Numerical computations of the exposure of anatomically correct human models to magnetic fields. a field measurement at or slightly below the reference level. achieving compliance with the ICNIRP basic restriction would require a much larger percentage of field reduction than would meeting the IEEE Draft Standard. the broadband field can be compared with the 60-Hz reference level. For example. an evaluation that takes into account frequency may be required. but containing harmonics. exposures in electric utility environments may not require the inclusion of frequency content when evaluating compliance with the basic restriction: that is. a field-ratio method utilizes the results tissue-bytissue from uniform-field exposures to estimate induced parameters for non-uniform field exposures [11].

administrative controls and personal protection measures. 3. Hot-stick work practices for liveline maintenance ensure that workers remain at a safe distance from conductors and also preclude them from experiencing high magnetic. strategies exist to reduce exposure levels and achieve compliance. Within these two approaches. Given the mileage of transmission lines with a potential for exposures above reference levels (especially the ICNIRP 4. The first two are preferred [3].5.1 Control access Increasing distance from a source involves controlling access to high-field areas. any such actions would be extensive. and limiting access of wearers of pacemakers or other medical implants to generation plants or substations or at least warning them of the presence of high fields in such facilities. If exposure is found to exceed the limits for a guideline. whether one unique location or many similar locations are involved. the difficulty of validating the models remains an impediment to their inclusion in the guideline process. or work practices. whether the source is localized or extends over a large area. ICNIRP identifies three types of protective measures that can be taken to limit exposure: engineering controls. what the source’s geometry and operating characteristics are.5 Exposure reduction strategies The compliance status of an exposure may be determined either by an evaluation with respect to the basic restriction or by a comparison of exposure field with reference levels. there are still unrestricted locations in controlled (occupational) environments where high magnetic-field exposures can be present. Transmission-line rights-of-way probably represent the only uncontrolled areas where the general public encounters electric fields at reference levels. whether the exposure is in a controlled or uncontrolled area.or electric.fields are described below with examples drawn from utility environments. The nature of fields (and radiation) leads to two approaches to reducing exposures: increase the distance from a high-field source or decrease the fields from sources present at exposure locations. signs could be posted alerting persons with medical implants to the presence of high fields on the right-of-way or their access to the limited area of high fields could be restricted. Examples of these strategies include fenced areas around static VAR compensators in substations. However. barriers near secondary cables in confined work spaces. Conceivably. (Many of these factors were addressed during the exposure assessment described in § 3.3 kV/m reference level). designated paths away from high-field areas in substations and generation facilities.or electric-field exposures.3. Control of access to such locations can be accomplished through the use of physical exclusion.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance independent researchers have demonstrated reliability with rational explanations for differences [12]. 3-21 . Strategies for limiting exposures to either magnetic. However. warnings. whether the conditions for out-of-compliance exposures occur rarely or frequently. and how much field reduction required to be in compliance. 3.) The information gathered then can be used to evaluate strategies and select the optimum one for the exposure scenario. Control of access is already in place for many high-field areas because of safety issues related to contact with energized conductors. Exposure reduction strategies may depend on the following: whether a magnetic or electric field is involved.

Examples of source modification to reduce fields are as follows: bundling cables with dissimilar phases in network vault cable trays. and limiting currents on transmission or secondary conductors during work. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Piscataway. 3.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance 3.” page PA-62.. “Documentation of the threshold limit values for physical agents in the work environment. 494-522 (1998).5. 3-22 .” Health Phys. 1991. Sixth Edition.2 Control field Reducing fields at exposure locations can be accomplished by altering the source or by shielding. and Electromagnetic Fields (Up to 300 GHz). (IEEE Std 1308-1994) The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Magnetic shielding is most appropriate for protecting office or other uncontrolled areas adjacent to large sources such as building vaults. Bonding the suit to the high-voltage conductor prevents arcing and spark discharges. The conducting hooded suits and gloves worn during bare-hand live-line maintenance on highvoltage transmission lines provide shielding for the wearer from the very high fields at and near the conductors. 74. A summary of powerfrequency magnetic-field shielding methodologies is provided in EPRI’s Electric and Magnetic Field Management Reference Book [13]. [2] ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Similarly. [4] ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). Cincinnati. Inc. electric fields are more amenable to shielding than are magnetic fields. reduction in field levels sufficient to meet guideline reference levels is certainly possible through the use of ferromagnetic materials. [5] IEEE: IEEE recommended practice for instrumentation: Specifications for magnetic flux density and electric field strength meters10 Hz to 3 kHz. or composites. Although shielding for magnetic fields is not as efficient as a Faraday shield is for electric fields. overhead shield wires can reduce the electric field beneath overhead conductors in controlled or uncontrolled environments. 2001. Cincinnati. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values (TLVs) and biological exposure indices (BEIs). 2001. Generally. conducting materials. OH. pp. “Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric. Prepared by Subcommittee 3 of Standards Coordinating Committee 28. IEEE P1555/D5 Draft Standard for Safety Levels With Respect to Human Exposure to Electric and Magnetic Fields. 1995a. Vol. increasing the height of transmission line conductors. New York. Magnetic. 2001 TLVs and BEIs: Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices. NJ. IEEE Standards Department. OH. [3] ICNIRP (International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection).6 References [1] IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). 0 to 3 kHz.

To be published (2001).H. [9] W. 1997 ed. pp. pp. Transmission line reference book: 345 kV and above. Bailey.D. “Inter-laboratory comparison of numerical dosimetry for human exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields. [7] T. 1997.D.A. Bracken. Kavet. Inc. EPRI Palo Alto. CA.). 365-379.and Magnetic-field Guidelines. Bailey. W. M. Kavet. “Evaluation of Biological Effects. LaForest (Ed.” Bioelectromagnetics Vol. [12] M. TR114200.. In press. [13] Electric and Magnetic Field Management Reference Book: First Edition. 1995b. 167-174 (2000). Bracken.A. and R. 3-23 . pp.H.” Appl.” Health Phys. and T. “Assessing Compliance with Power-frequency Magnetic Field Guidelines. Stuchly and O. Environ. Palo Alto. Dosimetric Models.. Health. (IEEE Std. Gandhi.H. Su. [11] R.P. Stuchly. Electric Power Research Institute. Vol. IEEE standard procedures for measurement of power frequency electric and magnetic fields from AC power lines.Evaluation of Exposures for Compliance [6] IEEE Power Engineering Society. 644-1994) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. New York. Occ. and Exposure Assessment Related to ELF Electric.D. NY. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. National Electrical Safety Code. 1982. T. IEEE.” Health Phys. 433-453 (1997). [8] IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers).J. No. 3. “Summary and Evaluation of Guidelines for Occupational Exposure to Power Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields. 21. CA: 1999. [10] J. S. Inc. Second ed. Bracken. New York. 73.

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