Antisemitic Incidents in Europe

before, during and after the
Israel-Gaza conflict.

A Report by The International Network Against Cyber Hate
(INACH) and the Ligue Internationale contre le Racisme
et l’Antisémitisme (LICRA)
Written & edited by Floriane Hohenberg, Ronald Eissens and Suzette Bronkhorst

November 2014

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We like to thank all those who contributed essential data to this report:
Austria - Zivilcourage & Antirassismus Arbeit (ZARA), United Kingdom - The
Community Security Trust (CST), Belgium - The Inter-federal Centre for Equal
Opportunities and Opposition to Racism, Ligue Belge Contre l’Antisémitisme, Czech
Republic - The Jewish Community Prague, France – LICRA & Service de protection de la
Communauté Juive (SPCJ), Germany - The Amadeo Antonio Foundation, Germany The Association for a Democratic Culture in Berlin, Germany - Jugendschutz.NET,
Hungary - The Action and Protection Foundation, Italy - The Observatory on
Antisemitism of the Jewish Contemporary Documentation Center, The Netherlands Complaints Bureau for Discrimination on the Internet (MDI), The Netherlands - Center
for Information and Documentation Israel (CIDI), Sweden – The Jewish Community
Stockholm and the Jewish Community Malmö, Austria - Forum Gegen Antisemitismus
Vienna.
Other sources used:

JTA, Magenta Antisemitism News (CASW), ICARE Hate Crime News, Reuters, the
Institute for Jewish Policy Research (JPR), the Algemeiner and the ADL report
‘VIOLENCE AND VITRIOL - Antisemitism around the World during Israel’s Operation
Protective Edge, – July - August 2014’
We like to thank the Ministry of Aliyah and Immigrant Absorption (Israel) for use of
their Aliyah statistics over 2013 and 2014.
Special thanks go to both Carole Nuriel from the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) Israel,
and Ido Daniel from Israeli Students Combating Antisemitism (ISCA), for digging-out the
Aliyah statistics, and to Mike Whine and Mark Gardner (CST, United Kingdom) for
persistently hounding some respondents for data!
Philippe Schmidt, Chair of INACH and vice-president (International Affairs) of LICRA
Ronald Eissens, co-director of Magenta Foundation, board member of INACH
November 6, 2014

International Network Against Cyber Hate (INACH)
Camperstraat 3hs – 1091 AD Amsterdam
www.inach.net
T. +31 20 692 72 66
secretariat@inach.net

Ligue internationale contre le racisme et l’antisémitisme (LICRA)
42, rue du Louvre
75001 Paris
www.licra.org
T. + 33 145 08 08 08
info@licra.org
Cover photo: frame grab from a YouTube video.
© Copyright 2014 INACH & LICRA

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Table of Contents
Introduction & Summary....................................................................................... 6
Country Reports.................................................................................................... 8

Austria ................................................................................................................................................................... 8
Belgium ................................................................................................................................................................. 9
Czech Republic................................................................................................................................................... 9
France..................................................................................................................................................................10
Germany .............................................................................................................................................................10
Hungary ..............................................................................................................................................................11
Italy.......................................................................................................................................................................12
Netherlands.......................................................................................................................................................12
Sweden................................................................................................................................................................13
United Kingdom...............................................................................................................................................13

Impact .................................................................................................................14
Conclusions..........................................................................................................15
Recommendations by respondents ......................................................................15
Annex I -Aliyah statistics 2013 and 2014 ...............................................................16
ANNEX II – ISCA Activity summary 2014 on handled cases of Antisemitism
and Holocaust Denial. ..........................................................................................19
Annex III - Internet research - antisemitism on Twitter in English, French
and Dutch ............................................................................................................19
Dutch language ................................................................................................................................................19
English language .............................................................................................................................................20
French language ..............................................................................................................................................21

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Introduction & Summary
Why this report?
At the start of the Israel-Gaza conflict it was clear that it would generate an
upsurge in antisemitism. NGOs and Jewish communities know that the moment
the conflict in the Middle East flares up, the number of complaints about
antisemitism and the number of antisemitic incidents rise. The wish of the authors
of this report was to get a broad picture on what was happening coincided with
the announcement by the OSCE to organize a conference that marks the 10th
anniversary of the 2004 OSCE’s Conference on Antisemitism in Berlin. However,
since the annual hate crime report by OSCE/ODIHR is to be published in
November only, and as there was no other initiative to produce data on
antisemitism, we decided to ‘fill the gap’ and get together data on antisemitism for
at least 10 OSCE participating States, in order to have some idea of current
antisemitism, especially in the light of the Israel-Gaza conflict. Since time was of
the essence, we decided to do a short and fast report. We reached out to our own
networks and to NGOs and Jewish communities in Austria, Belgium, Czech
Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Sweden and the
United Kingdom.
Methodology

We asked organizations to provide data on the number of antisemitic incidents
they had monitored or that were reported to them for two distinct periods: from
January 1, 2014 to July 6, 2014 and from July 8, 2014 to August 31, 2014. In other
words, we wanted to compare the situation before the start of the Israel-Gaza
conflict and during or immediately after the conflict.

We indicated that we were looking for incidents in these categories: homicide,
assault, threats, verbal insults, speeches, broadcasts, graffiti, texts on banners,
signs or flags, literature or publications, damage and desecration of Jewish
property. We asked for a breakdown of the totals by number of incidents directed
at persons and directed at property. We asked for disaggregated information
regarding the incidents targeting property: including figures about attacks at
synagogues, community centers and other Jewish property. For all incidents we
asked whether the recorded occurrences had been classified as of a violent nature
such as homicide, assault, physical attack or bombing or arson.
For the Internet, we asked for data from the same two periods, but for the total
number of antisemitic expressions, broken down by location (social media or
other) and by incitement to violence.

Additionally, we asked for examples of incidents, the perceived impact of antiSemitic incidents on the Jewish community and for possible recommendations for
the Berlin conference.
Where relevant and necessary, we made use of data from the ICARE Hate Crime
News Database, the Magenta Antisemitism Newsletter (CASW) and several online

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news services or papers. Additionally, the Dutch Complaints Bureau for
Discrimination on the Internet (MDI) and the INACH secretariat provided data on
antisemitism on Twitter in three languages, during and after the conflict with
Gaza. Israeli Students Combating Antisemitism (ISCA) provided data on
antisemitism in the Social Media, both data for 2013-2014 and during the IsraelGaza conflict.
Summary

There are great differences in the number of incidents reported by the different
NGOs and Jewish Communities across Europe. As we know, this is not necessarily
because there are more incidents taking place in one country. The figures have to
be taken with caution. There are many factors that can explain these
discrepancies. The availability of data depends greatly on the ability and
willingness of victims to report incidents. Reporting needs an environment that is
favorable, including a general public awareness and understanding about
antisemitism in general, and in particular about the fact that antisemitic incidents
are not acceptable. Reporting depends first and foremost on the victims
themselves – who will feel encouraged to do so, because they expect the
authorities to respond adequately. And this again is very often the result of daily
outreach and support work of civil society groups and Jewish communities. Some
of those organizations have been monitoring and recording antisemitic incidents
for quite some time and have the resources to reach out to potential victims, they
enjoy the trust of communities, and have the ability to process the information.
Some organizations have started recording and reporting antisemitic incidents on
top of everything else they do, without dedicated resources, because the impact of
a single incident on the victims is so devastating. Generally, it can be safely
assumed that the figures that are represented in this report do not reflect the
reality of the situation faced by Jewish communities in the ten countries that
provided information. These figures represent only the tip of the iceberg. They are
a pointer. For authorities, civil society, and the media to act upon, to improve the
quality of the picture we can get about this issue.
All organizations report that the number of incidents that were recorded after the
start of the Israel-Gaza conflict is disproportionately high, compared to figures
recorded during the first half of the year. The number of incidents recorded during
and immediately after the Israel-Gaza conflict was at least as high as the number
of incidents reported during the first half of the year (Belgium, France, Germany,
and the United Kingdom) and sometimes twice as high (Austria, Czech Republic,
Italy). Respondents reported as well that incidents reported during the IsraelGaza conflict were more often of a violent nature as during the preceding
reporting period, including in particular assaults and attacks at persons, or arson
attacks on buildings associated with the Jewish community.
The figures on incidents on the Internet follow this trend. There have been
disproportionately high numbers of expressions of antisemitism observed and
recorded by those that contributed to this report. It seems as well that during the
months of July and August expressions of antisemitism in the social media were
also more frequent compared to the total number of antisemitic expressions on
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the Internet. The Twitter-research that looked at expressions in the English, Dutch
and French languages confirms this, and so does the reporting of the Dutch MDI
which noted ‘more online antisemitism during the Israel-Gaza conflict than during
the whole of its 17-year existence’. The activity report by the Israeli Students
Combating Antisemitism (ISCA), which shows an increase of hundreds of
antisemitic expressions on Facebook, Instagram and YouTube from July 2014 on,
further indicates that the problem is huge. (See Annex II).

Country Reports
Austria

Zivilcourage & Antirassismus Arbeit (ZARA) reported 30 incidents in Austria
between January and 7 July 2014, among which one violent incident targeting a
person and two violent incidents targeting Jewish property. From 7 July until the
end of August, ZARA reported 14 incidents, including two violent incidents against
persons and two other incidents targeting persons.
Ten expressions of antisemitism on the Internet were reported between January
and the end of August; four of them were identified during the conflict with Gaza.
Incidents included a posting on Facebook saying that “Hitler has obviously not
done enough” and antisemitic smears on the building of an elementary school
saying “Jews out of here”. An orthodox Jewish man was the target of obscene
gestures and told ‘“I want to give gas to a Jew now!”.

The Forum Against Antisemitism, a Vienna-based NGO, reported 68 antisemitic
incidents during the first half of 2014 and almost twice as many (118) during the
Israel-Gaza conflict. These figures include four incidents targeting persons
between January and June, while there were six incidents (all of violent nature)
targeting persons after the start of the conflict with Gaza. The Forum further
mentioned three attacks at a synagogue and three at identifiable Jewish property
in the first half of the year.

The Forum against Antisemitism does not monitor the Internet but reported that
14 antisemitic expressions on the Internet (including nine expressions inciting to
violence on social media) were reported during the first half of the year, while 59
antisemitic expressions (including 21 expressions inciting to violence) were
reported during the Israel-Gaza conflict.
As an example of antisemitic statements to be found on social media, the Forum
reported following post on a Facebook page “All Jews are equal animals. I will
participate and burn their flag and nobody can stop me”.

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Belgium
The Inter-federal Centre for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism
reported 37 incidents for the period covering January-August 2014, more than
half of which (20) took place between 7 July and 31 August. The Centre reported
that 32 of those incidents were targeting persons, 12 of which were recorded
during and after the conflict in Gaza. It is noticeable that 7 out of 12 of the
antisemitic incidents targeting persons were of violent nature. One incident
targeting Jewish property was recorded between January and July, while one
incident of arson on a synagogue was reported during the conflict in Gaza.
The Centre reported 25 expressions of antisemitism, including 18 inciting to
violence, from January to July 2014 and 14 expressions of antisemitism during and
after the conflict in Gaza, including six inciting to violence. Of those 39 expressions
of antisemitism, 21 were identified on social media.
Among the incidents recorded by the Centre, the arson of a synagogue in
Anderlecht (Brussels) received important media coverage. On the occasion of the
European Day of Jewish Culture on 14 September, projectiles were thrown at a
group of visitors to the National Memorial to the Jews Martyrs in Anderlecht
(Brussels). A 75year old woman was physically and verbally abused by a man in
the city hall of Ixelles (Brussels).
“Slaughter the Jews” was chanted at a July 12 demonstration in Antwerp and
“Death to Jews!” at a July 19 demonstration in Brussels. 1

The Belgian League against Antisemitism reported that on 23 July in a small city
in the vicinity of Lieges a poster with following words was placed at the entrance
of a café “Dogs allowed but Zionists are banned” in French and “Dogs allowed but
Jews are banned” in Turkish.

Czech Republic

The Jewish Community Prague recorded 15 incidents from January to June and
twice as many (30) during July and August. During the first half of the year, in one
instance a synagogue was targeted while in two other instances other Jewish
property were. During the summer months, two incidents targeted synagogues
and three incidents targeted other Jewish property. While there was no incident
reported targeting persons during the first half of the year, there were four
incidents targeting persons, one of them including physical violence, recorded in
July and August.

1 VIOLENCE AND VITRIOL - Antisemitism Around the World During Israel’s Operation Protective Edge, –

July - August 2014, Anti-Defamation League (ADL). http://www.adl.org/assets/pdf/antisemitism/international/adl-report-on-anti-semitism-during-ope-july-aug-2014.pdf

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France
LICRA reported 109 incidents during the first half of the year and 22 incidents in
the months of July and August. In total 107 incidents targeted persons during the
whole period, 12 of them were of violent nature. One incident on a synagogue and
five incidents on other Jewish property were reported to LICRA.
Antisemitic expressions on the Internet amounted to 147 during the reporting
period, 30 of them were recorded in July and August. Most of these expressions
(77 from January to June and 18 in July and August) were observed in the social
media.

The Service de protection de la Communauté Juive (SPCJ) reported 326 incidents
during the first half of 2014, of which 149 incidents targeted persons. One third of
the incidents (51) against persons included the use of physical violence. During
the month of July only, the SPCJ recorded 201 incidents, including 140 threats and
61 violent acts against persons (28) or property (33). Notably, two terror attacks.
The SPCJ noted that the number of antisemitic incidents have doubled compared
to the same reporting period in 2013, linking the dramatic increase of hatemotivated incidents to two events, the debates and demonstrations surrounding
the French public figure Dieudonne in January, and the demonstrations organized
against the background of the conflict in Gaza in July. The SPCJ noted further that
the number of incidents of violent nature (i.e. physical violence, defacing,
vandalizing, terror attacks) had experienced a much sharper increase than other
types of incidents.

Germany

The Amadeo Antonio Foundation reported 55 incidents for the first half of 2014
and 86 for the months of July and August 2014. These included 34 incidents
targeting persons, 19 of which took place during July-August 2014. The number
of incidents targeting persons involving physical violence amounted to 6 during
the first half of the year and 11 during the summer months. There were nine
incidents recorded targeting property (two targeting synagogues, one
community center, and six aimed at other Jewish property) from January to June;
there were 15 incidents recorded targeting property in July and August (nine
targeting synagogues, one a community center and five other Jewish property).
The only two incidents involving an arson attack took place during the summer
months, one being an attempted firebombing in which petrol bombs were
thrown at a synagogue in the western town of Wuppertal by three suspects, the
other an attack on the building of the Jewish Community Center in West Berlin.

The Association for a Democratic Culture in Berlin reported 25 incidents in Berlin
for the first half of 2014. Among the eleven incidents targeting persons, five were
of violent nature. The rest of the incidents were directed at Jewish property. From
7 July and until the end of August, the Association reported that 25 antisemitic
incidents took place in Berlin, 16 of which were anti-Israel demonstrations
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because of the conflict with Gaza, and seven were assaults or physical attacks. One
attack was directed at a synagogue, and two at Jewish property.

Examples of antisemitic incidents reported by the Association for Democratic
Culture in Berlin include posters trivializing the Holocaust that were displayed
during a march following a call on a Facebook profile named ‘Free Palestine
Berlin” gathering approximately 700 people on 19 July. A man wearing a kippa
who was on the side of the march reported he was the victim of antisemitic slurs
and death threats emanating from some demonstrators.

On 4 August a “Peace March” condemning the acts of the Israeli government in
Gaza stopped in front of the “New Synagogue”, a Jewish community center in
Berlin. The participants shouted anti-Israel slogans and the speaker condemned
the ‘crimes of the Israeli government’. The association of the Jewish community
with the actions of the Israeli government is an expression of antisemitism. 2

The organization Jugendschutz.NET reported 23 cases of online Holocaust Denial
during the first half of the year, of which 10 cases were monitored on social media.
In July and August, Jugendschutz.NET recorded 48 cases of online Holocaust
Denial, of which 22 were observed on social media.

Hungary

The Action and Protection Foundation reported eleven incidents during the
period covering January-August 2014, one of those was directed at a person and
two at Jewish property.

Among noticeable incidents, the Action and Protection Foundation reported on
the desecration of several graves in the Jewish cemetery of the city of Tabanya on
13 March. The perpetrators smeared following message on one of the graves:
“There was no Holocaust, but it’s coming!!!” on two other graves they wrote
“stinking Jews”, and “Holohoax”. On a third grave they sprayed a swastika along
with the acronyms “S.H.” and “H.H.”

On 27 July, during an event called “Peaceful Demonstration for Israel” a person
threw a pyrotechnic device on the steps of a Synagogue in Budapest. The police
announced on their website that they were investigating an act of vandalism.
On 2 August, the mayor of Érpatak, a village in eastern Hungary had an appalling
presentation of hate in protest of Israel's operation "Protective Edge" in Gaza: a
speech full of antisemitic hate and demeaning remarks about the Holocaust
while holding an Israeli flag which had its Star of David replaced with a
Freemasonry symbol (common antisemitic imagery). At the end, with a help of a
masked "executioner", the mayor hangs an effigy of former Israeli President
Shimon Peres and of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.

EUMC Working Definition of Antisemitism (2004). http://www.european-forum-onantisemitism.org/working-definition-of-antisemitism/
2

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Italy
The Observatory on Antisemitism of the Jewish Contemporary Documentation
Center reported 70 incidents between January and August 2014, of which 21 took
place after the Israel-Gaza conflict started. Five incidents were directed at persons,
five at a synagogue and 11 at a community center or other Jewish property. The
Observatory reported that there were no incidents of violent nature recorded
after the Israel-Gaza conflict started and that the recorded incidents did not target
any persons.
The Observatory reported ten episodes of antisemitism on the Internet during the
reporting period; four of them took place after the beginning of the Israel-Gaza
conflict. The Observatory noted that they record only incidents that are either
referred to them or reported in the mass media. There were in total 12
expressions of violence, half of which were reported after the beginning of the
Gaza conflict.

Noticeable examples of hate-motivated incidents included five pig heads sent to
representatives of the Jewish community or to Israeli by a neo-Nazi group. Other
incidents included threats and insults targeting a rabbi and a Jewish journalist. An
antisemitic sermon inciting to hatred was also recorded in a mosque in the
province of Venice.
Furthermore, on 27 July, the well-known Italian philosopher Gianni Vattimo
declared publicly that he wished to “shoot those bastard Zionists” and that Israel
was “a bit worse than the Nazis”. On 29 July, The Jewish Telegraph Agency (JTA)
reported a widespread spate of antisemitic graffiti and posters in Rome,
including the display of dozens of swastikas painted on walls, and the spraying or
printing on posters of anti-Semitic slogans such as “Dirty Jews,” “Jews your end is
near,” “Out with Zionists,” and “Israel executioner”. Some posters bore a
swastika and the phrase “Anne Frank storyteller.” On 11 August, there were
posters in Rome calling for a boycott of Jewish shops.

Netherlands

The Center on Information and Documentation on Israel (CIDI) reported 105
incidents in the Netherlands from 7 July until the end of August. Twenty-nine
incidents targeted persons, four of which were of violent nature. Three incidents
targeted Jewish property.
The Complaints Bureau Discrimination Internet (MDI) recorded 130 expressions
of antisemitism on the Internet from January to June 2014. Thirty of those
expressions incited to violence and 61 were observed on social media. The
Complaints Bureau recorded a higher number (143) of expressions of
antisemitism for the months of July and August only, including 79 expressions
inciting to violence. Hundred and nine of these expressions were observed on
social media.

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The Complaints Bureau provided examples of antisemitic expressions on the
Internet such as the tweet: “If I was the gas company I would gas all of your fucking
people! Not a fake holocaust but a gasocaust (sic) because of what you are doing
in #Gaza!” and the creation of a Facebook group named ‘The Jews need to die like
this when you are against Jews – free Palestine’.

Sweden

The Jewish Community of Malmö and the Jewish Community of Stockholm,
reported respectively eleven (11) and eight (8) antisemitic incidents for the first
half of 2014. These figures include eight incidents targeting persons (including
two of violent nature) in Malmö. The figures include four attacks at synagogues
(three in Malmö and one in Stockholm), eleven attacks at community centers (five
in Malmö, six in Stockholm) and four attacks at other Jewish property (one in
Malmö, three in Stockholm).

After the start of the Gaza conflict and until the end of August, the Jewish
Community in Malmö recorded eight incidents targeting property (one attack at
the synagogue, five targeting the community center and the rest aimed at other
identifiable Jewish property). The Jewish community in Stockholm reported
increased levels of anti-Semitism, including eleven incidents targeting persons
(two of which were classified as violent), one attack at the synagogue, six attacks
at the community center and three other incidents aimed at Jewish property.

Among noticeable incidents, the Jewish Community of Malmö reported that the
Rabbi was harassed on his way from and to the synagogue on Shabbat and that the
windows of the synagogue were smashed at several occasions. They also reported
that members of the Jewish community were the victims of verbal abuse after
confronting some persons walking by on the street making anti-Semitic
statements. The Jewish Community of Stockholm reported that they received two
serious threats (with mention of suicide bombing in one case and car bomb in the
second case) during the reporting period. The Jewish Community also reported
that representatives of the community who usually participate in the annual gay
pride in Stockholm were the targets of verbal abuse during the event.

United Kingdom

The Community Security Trust (CST) reported more than 600 antisemitic
incidents from January to the end of July 2014, half of which were recorded during
the month of July. Three hundred and four (304) incidents were reported by the
CST for the period January-June, including 22 incidents of violent nature targeting
persons. In this period there were six attacks at synagogues, and 27 attacks at
other Jewish property. During the month of July, CST reported 302 incidents,
including 21 incidents of violent nature targeting persons, 22 attacks at
synagogues and 12 at other Jewish property.

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From January until the end of July 2014, CST recorded 140 antisemitic incidents
on social media, 54% of which were recorded during July only. CST does not
record static antisemitic websites as antisemitic incidents.
Among noticeable incidents, CST reported that the wall of the Hove Hebrew
Congregation synagogue was spray-painted above the windows with the text
‘Free Gaza’ and that during many demonstrations posters were put up equating
Israel to Auschwitz. A further incident involved two men entering the London
kosher restaurant ‘White House Express’ while one of them shouted ‘Heil Hitler’
and did a Nazi salute.

Two supermarket chains were targeted for stocking ‘Israeli’ food. In Birmingham
up to 100 demonstrators ran amok in a Tesco store throwing around stock and
some attacked police officers in apparent protest against its selling of Israeli
food. In London a Sainsbury's store removed its kosher food from display after
fearing that anti-Israeli protesters would attack it. It was later put back on the
shelves.3

Impact

NGOs that register antisemitism and Jewish Community organizations reported
that members of the Jewish communities experienced that the conflict in Gaza had
a direct impact on their situation, in particular in relation to their security. Many
reported a heightened feeling of insecurity, nurtured by reports of incidents in the
media, by members of the community, as well as personal experiences of
antisemitism (verbal or physical). (Austria, Germany, The Netherlands)
Some reported that members of the Jewish communities were worried about what
was perceived to be a global surge of antisemitism and anti-Zionism in the media
(Italy).

One group (Germany) reported that widespread antisemitic slurs expressed
during anti-Israel manifestations during the conflict in Gaza and experiences of
antisemitic threats on the street created a sense of insecurity among many
members of the Jewish community.
Some members of the Belgium and Dutch Jewish communities reported that they
prefer not to go out with their kippah (religious head covering) on (or cover it with
hat or cap), or visibly wear a Magen David (Star of David) or other symbols of
Judaism.

Some reported (Netherlands, France) that they envisaged for the first time (or for
the first time in years) emigrating, to Israel or to another country. Especially the
elder reported being nervous and scared. Some publicly stated that they did not
feel at home anymore. (Netherlands).
JPR European Jewish Digest, August 2014.
http://www.jpr.org.uk/documents/European_Jewish_Digest_August_2014.pdf
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Most Jewish communities mentioned that some members declared they were
considering leaving the country. According to the same respondents, this issue had
not been a topic of discussion in a long time and was perceived both as a
consequence of the climate of fear generated by antisemitic acts and a source of
concern for Jewish communities. We have annexed the statistics provided by the
Ministry in Israel that keeps a record of the people who decide to do Aliyah.
Although these figures have to be considered with caution, it appears that
comparable numbers of people made Aliyah during the first six months of the year
and during the two months of the Israel-Gaza conflict and its immediate aftermath.

Conclusions

All respondents report a rise in antisemitic incidents, both on Internet and in the
physical world after the start of the Israel-Gaza conflict. Monitoring, research,
complaints –and case handling by INACH, MDI and ISCA, the ICARE Hate Crime
News and the Magenta Antisemitism News all confirm this. The level of violence
is also up, including in particular assaults and attacks against persons, or arson
attacks on buildings associated with Jewish communities.

Another observation that can be drawn from the antisemitic expressions that
were reported after the start of the Israel-Gaza conflict (on the Internet and in
‘real life’) is the increasingly blurred separation line between legitimate criticism
of Israel and anti-Semitism, in particular on social media. ‘Jew’, ‘Zionist” or
“Zionazi’ were often used interchangeably on social media. To quote a recent
Facebook posting: ‘That you are a Jew is already pretty bad, but you are also a
Zionist – that is doubly unacceptable’.
We recommend this booklet to all those who work on the problem of
antisemitism in Europe and to the participants of the 10th Anniversary of the
OSCE’s Berlin Declaration on Anti-Semitism High-Level Commemorative Event
and Civil Society forum on November 12 and 13, 2014 in Berlin.

Recommendations by respondents

1. Put more focus on preventive work especially in the field of youth (e.g.
through workshops etc.) - ZARA, Austria.
2. Limit the freedom of U. S. based hateful fora, persuade governments to
campaign against antisemitism the way Angela Merkel did - Jewish
community Prague.
3. OSCE Participating states should fully adopt and enact the 2005 EUMC
Working Definition of Anti-Semitism. Police and public institutions should
also use it to register cases of antisemitism. - Verein für demokratische
Kultur in Berlin e.V. & Ligue Belge contre l'Antisémitisme.
4. Make sure that social media content, with violent or graphic images is not
intended to justify or glorify violence and is not exploited to generate hate
against certain groups of society. – Jugendschutz.Net in Germany, as
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part of their September 2014 publication ‘Images and videos depicting
violence, suffering and victims - Recommendations on news coverage and
handling in social media’4
5. In Hungary hate speech is the most common type of hate incidents.
However, according to the OSCE definition these are not hate crimes. It is
very important to take into account these acts as well. – Action and
Protection Foundation, Budapest.
6. A single EU system for cataloging data on antisemitic incidents is
particularly essential for countering online antisemitism and also more
coordination between research-centers and governments. Furthermore,
EU countries should adopt the Working definition of antisemitism. Osservatorio antisemitismo (Observatory on Anti-Semitism) of CDEC
Foundation (Jewish Contemporary Documentation Center).
7. Improved recording of antisemitic hate crime, more prosecutions, and
greater intervention on social media – CST, United Kingdom
8. NGOs and other organizations that presently work on antisemitism should
receive more training on monitoring and registering incidents. - Jewish
Community Stockholm.
9. Stricter laws against hate speech, Uniform definition of antisemitism,
prevention through education (youth work), more networking of public
authorities and NGO’s, especially about the internet. – Forum Gegen
Antisemitismus, Vienna.
10.A broader approach to education of young people, both on Holocaust and
on the intricacies of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict should be pursued. Ligue Belge contre l'Antisémitisme

Annex I -Aliyah statistics 2013 and 2014
Aliyah statistics from 1-1-2014 to 7-7-2014 – before the Israel-Gaza conflict
2560
234
119
98
68
62
38
16
8
5
4

France
United Kingdom
Italy
Belgium
Hungary
Germany
Netherlands
Austria
Sweden
Czech Republic

www.jugendschutz.net

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Aliyah statistics from 8-7--2014 to 31-09-2014 – during and after Israel-Gaza
conflict
2503
245
120
69
41
40
22
2
3
9

France
United Kingdom
Italy
Belgium
Hungary
Germany
Netherlands
Austria
Sweden
Czech Republic

Aliyah statistics for 2014 - totals
5063
479
239
167
109
102
60
18
11
14

France
United Kingdom
Italy
Belgium
Hungary
Germany
Netherlands
Austria
Sweden
Czech Republic

Aliyah statistics from 1-1-2014 to 31-09-2014 per month

France September
Total
5063
384

August

July

June

748

1371

546

May

April

March

413

333

471

February January
428

369

17

United September
Kingdom
Total
479
37

August

109

May

April

March

24

41

47

Italy September
Total
239
22

June

99

44

February January
33

45

August

July

June

51

47

22

May

April

March

12

13

21

Belgium September
Total
167
10

July

February January

August
34

May

April

March

15

14

18

27

24

July

June

25

17

February January
16

18

Aliyah statistics for 2013
3263
495
162
273
153
111
75
24
29
17

France
United Kingdom
Italy
Belgium
Hungary
Germany
Netherlands
Austria
Sweden
Czech Republic

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ANNEX II – ISCA Activity summary 2014 on handled cases of
Antisemitism and Holocaust Denial.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

March

April May

June

July

Aug. Sept.

Sum

Facebook 279

473

454

428

440

479

502

559

525

682

567

5388

Instagram 53

89

195

339

316

198

231

205

189

236

258

2309

Wikipedia 54

129

110

131

144

160

168

145

136

117

180

1474

Yahoo
Answers

44

62

79

91

88

72

77

84

139

103

124

963

YouTube

414

378

366

380

363

577

565

843

581

571

519

5557

Annex III - Internet research - antisemitism on Twitter in
English, French and Dutch
Dutch language
The Dutch Complaints Bureau from Discrimination on the Internet (MDI) did
research into the use of negative expressions about Jews during the Israel-Gaza
conflict which were a direct reaction to the conflict, using the Dutch-language
section of Twitter.
19

The Dutch Internet expression ‘kk Joden’ (literally cunt –cancer Jews) was used in
tweets 307 times while the more popular expression ‘kankerjoden’ (cancer Jews)
was used 534 times. ‘Joden aan het gas’ (Jews to the gas) was ‘only’ used 268
times and ‘Hamas Hamas Joden aan het gas’ (Hamas Hamas Jews to the gas) 167
times.
Most popular were tweets that contained ‘Joden dood’ (Kill the Jews), 759 times.
Examples of expressions on Twitter
(translated from Dutch)

kk Jews
Did Jews not learn from history
I hope that once in my life I 'm going to kill some Jews Fucking shit Jews
#Free Palestine
All those fucking Jews can die , and I prefer to kill them #FREE PALESTINE
Now we know why Hitler gave the jews a shower #FREE PALESTINE we need a
new Hitler
#Free Palestine fuck the Jews ! Destroy the #Jews!
Fucking shit all the Jews dead #Free Palestine
Hamas, Hamas, all Jews to the gas ! #Free Palestine
Fucking shit Jews Kill those dirty Jews Hitler has done nothing wrong
@Kevitatjuuh_x : @ _goldmocro_ Hitler must come back again to kill those jews
#Free Palestine

English language

The INACH Secretariat did research into the use of negative expressions about
Jews during the Israel-Gaza conflict which were a direct reaction to the conflict,
using the English-language section of Twitter.

The hashtag #hitlerwasright was used more than 10,000 times and became a socalled trending topic. The hashtag #hitlerdidnothingwrong was used nearly 3700
times. Both hashtags were used only in connection with the conflict with Gaza.
Other popular hashtags used in antisemitic tweets were #KillTheJews,
#freepalestine, #freegaza, #ZioNazis, #Nazisrael, #Gazaundersiege,
#Ethniccleansing. #Nazionism, #Blitzkrieg, #IsraHell and #Gaza.
Examples of expressions on Twitter

What hitler done to the Jews was awesome #KillTheJews
#freepalestine#freegaza iA palestine and gaza wil be free.. Remember them in ur
Prayers.. #killthejews
“@Op_Israel: #protip: "Israel" is endangering the lives of millions of Jews
worldwide.” #zionazis anti-Semitism. Forces Jews 2 their side.
Kikes.... kikes everywhere #dirtyjews #kikes #fuckinpigs #Zionistpigs
#isrealdogs #isreal #cocksuckers #impalestinian #bitch
20

Fukin dirty Jews in Edmonton acting like they no what the other dirty Jews are
doing in gaza is right #dirtyjews #freegaza #corruptedworld
@ADNAN_AMAR Hitler was a good man bro,it's a shame he never finished of the
job he started.#gasemall

French language

The INACH Secretariat did research into the use of negative expressions about
Dutch Jews during the Israel-Gaza conflict which were a direct reaction to the
conflict, using the French-language section of Twitter.

The hashtag #UnBonJuif (a good Jew) was used 689 times in antisemitic tweets
during Israel-Gaza conflict. The hashtag #UnJuifMort (a dead Jew) has been
removed by Twitter.
UEJF (The French Union of Jewish Students) asked the French court in 2013 to
have Twitter provide the identities of those using the hashtags #UnBonJuif and
#UnJuifMort. Ultimately UEJF won the court case and the appeal (2014), but
Twitter has still not provided the identities. UEJF has now started a civil suit
against Twitter. In the meantime Twitter claims to have made the use of the two
hashtags no longer possible, but our research shows this is not completely correct.
#UnJuifMort was blocked and all tweets using the hashtag were removed, but
some of the Tweets using this hashtag are still to be seen outside of France.
#UnBonJuif is still ‘alive and kicking’ and was used 63 times on Twitter during the
past 30 days.
In the meantime, alternative antisemitic hashtags have become popular, like
#LesJuifsAuFours (The Jews in the Ovens) and #TuonsToutLesJuifsCesFilsDePute
(all the Jews are sons of whores).
Examples of French-language expressions on Twitter

@slt_t_magnifik un bon juif est un juif mort (magnificent, a good jew is a dead jew)
Le lobby juif contre la démocratie shar.es/110zAb via @grtvnews (The jewish
lobby against democracy)
#UnBonJuif n'existe pas lol :-) (A good Jew does not exist – lol )
Qui se souvient de " #UnBonJuif est bien dans un four " mdrrrr (remember a good
jew is good in an oven)
#UnBonJuif boit du sang d'enfant musulman pour decupler ses forces. (A good Jew
drinks the blood of Muslim children to multiply his strength)
#UnGayMort et #UnJuifMort est puni par la loi. Car les juifs dirigent le monde, et
la plupart de hommes politiques sont gays. #SachezLe (A Dead Gay and A dead
Jew, to say this is punishable by law. For the Jews rule the world, and most
politicians are gay)

21