LARGEST AMONG ANIMALS • The human brain has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals. . but is larger than any other in relation to body size.

but when measured using the encephalization quotient which compensates for body size. the human brain is almost twice as large as the brain of the bottlenose dolphin. and three times as large as the brain of a chimpanzee .• Large animals such as whales and elephants have larger brains in absolute terms.


especially the frontal lobes. which are associated with executive functions such as self-control. . planning.• Much of the expansion comes from the part of the brain called the cerebral cortex. reasoning. The portion of the cerebral cortex devoted to vision is also greatly enlarged in humans. and abstract thought.

although there is substantial individual variation. (1. . Men with the same body height and body surface area as women have on average 100 grams heavier brains.Difference between MEN &WOMEN BRAIN • The adult human brain weighs on average about 3 lbs. although these differences do not correlate in any simple way with IQ or other measures of cognitive performance.5 kg) with a volume of around 1130 cubic centimetres (cm3) in women and 1260 cm3 in men.

LANGUAGES • In human beings. . it is the left hemisphere that usually contains the specialized language areas. While this holds true for 97% of righthanded people. about 19% of left-handed people have their language areas in the right hemisphere and as many as 68% of them have some language abilities in both the left and the right hemisphere.

human brains are capable of adapting to . the child may develop language in the right hemisphere instead. So. the better the recovery. The younger the child. allowing other regions of the brain to adopt the function of a damaged area. an example of plasticity of the brain. although the "natural" tendency is for language to develop on the left.RECOVERY IN CHILD • Studies of children have shown that if a child has damage to the left hemisphere.

the brain will primarily use ketone bodies for fuel with a smaller requirement for glucose. more than any other organ. . The brain can also utilize lactate during exercise. but during times of low glucose (such as fasting).METABOLISM OF BRAIN • The brain consumes up to twenty percent of the energy used by the human body.[37] Brain metabolism normally relies primarily upon blood glucose as an energy source.

and 25% of total body glucose utilization. but active regions of the cortex consume somewhat more energy than inactive regions . • he energy consumption of the brain does not vary greatly over time.• Although the human brain represents only 2% of the body weight. it receives 15% of the cardiac output. 20% of total body oxygen consumption.

and intermediate-term memory. short-term memory. working memory. and in long-term memory indefinitely . information can remain in intermediate-term memory for 5 to 8 hours. While shortterm and working memories persist for only about 20 to 30 seconds.MEMORY • • • • Long-term memory (LTM) Short-term memory(STM) Intermediate-term memory According to the theory. long-term memory differs structurally and functionally from sensory memory.

EFFECT OF SLEEP • one group was given the information at 9am and the other group received theirs at 9pm. This information is similar to other results found by previous experiments by Jenkins and Dallenbach (1924). . or 24 hours later. Participants were then tested on the word pairs at one of three intervals 30 minutes. 12 hours. It was found that participants who had a period of sleep between the learning and testing sessions did better on the memory tests.

though they have been a topic of scientific speculation and a subject of philosophical and religious interest throughout recorded history. The content and purpose of dreams are not definitively understood. Scientists believe that other mammals. ideas. The scientific study of dreams is called oneirology. and sensations that occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep. .DREAMS • Dreams are successions of images. also dream. birds and reptiles. emotions.

• Dreams mainly occur in the rapid-eye movement (REM) stage of sleep—when brain activity is high and resembles that of being awake. The average person has three to five dreams per night. dreams may occur during other stages of sleep. or as long as twenty minutes. People are more likely to remember the dream if they are awakened during the REM phase. At times. • Dreams can last for a few seconds. but some may have up to seven dreams in one night. However. REM sleep is revealed by continuous movements of the eyes during sleep. these dreams tend to be much less vivid or memorable. .


But now researchers show that this device can also be used for a malicious purpose: to hack into a person’s mind and extract information such as computer passwords and banking data. .HOW TO HACK HUMAN BRAINS • Emotiv brain-computer interface (BCI) for the gaming and entertainment industry. The device was designed to let users play computer games or to control their computers by their thoughts alone.

• Researchers at the University of California and the University of Oxford in Geneva tested the security risks of BCIs. They found that a person can easily reveal private information via a brain wave pattern known as the P300 response. . which is present when a person’s brain registers stimuli as meaningful.