# Pressure drop

This sheet calculates the pressure drop for liquid flow in a pipe using the Darcy-Weisbach equation. This equ
and therefore assumes that the fluid density remains constant along the length of the pipe.
dP = f * (L / D) * r * v2 / 2
In the turbulent zone (Re > 3000) friction factor, f, is solved iteratively using the Colebrook-White equation (wh
chart):
1 / f 0.5 = -0.86 * Log[ (e/D) / 3.71 + 2.51 / ( Re * f 0.5 ) ]
In the laminar zone (Re <2000) friction factor is solved using the Hagen-Poiseuille equation:
f = 64 / Re
Note that other variations on the general flow equation such as the Weymouth or Panhandle equations are sim
allow an analytical (non-iterative) solution. These equations are not applicable over the full range of flow cond
prior to personel computers.

Wall thickness
Minimum pipe wall thickness is calculated based on the hoop stress caused by the pressurised fluid in the pip
are in use depending on the service (pipeline or plant process piping) and the standard that you are working to
= (Pint - Pext).(D - t)/(2t.F); ASME B31.4 uses Barlow's equation which is a simplification of Lame's equation,
ASME B31.3 uses Sy = PDo/(2t.F) - P.F2. Sy is the minimum yield strength at the maximum design temperatur
is the actual outer diameter and F is a design factor (not exactly the same in each case). The general form of
the minimum wall thickness is then translated into a standard wall thickness the end result is likely to be simila

Based on the minimum wall thickness a standard wall thickness can then be selected from a table of standard
done automatically via a lookup to allow quick sensitivities on diameter to be carried out without having to revi
time. However, if you want to consider a specific wall thickness or pipe schedule then it is also possible to ent

Note 1: The diameter term in Lame's equation (D - t) is correct - ie. it is not (D - 2t). This is because the stress
thickness. The average stress occurs at the centre of the pipe wall (ie. D - t).
Note 2: There appears to be no good reason for using the nominal diameter instead of the actual outer diame
Note 3: For plastic pipe standard sizes are based on the ratio of diameter to wall thickness so the pressure ra
more useful approach than the schedule numbers in use for steel pipe which are essentially arbitrary and have
rating).
Note 4: The wall thickness calculation provided here is sufficient for a preliminary sizing only
relevant code should be refered to for any detailed sizing.

Weisbach equation. 2t). elected from a table of standard pipe sizes (c/. ISO13623 uses Lame's formula. -White equation (which represents the familiar Moodey uille equation: or Panhandle equations are simplifications of the above approach to over the full range of flow conditions/ pipe sizes and were developed the pressurised fluid in the pipe. This is arried out without having to revisit the wall thickness calculation each le then it is also possible to enter an overwrite.F).Do/(2t.other stresses may need to be considered and the . all thickness so the pressure rating is the same across all sizes (a re essentially arbitrary and have no relationship to the pressure ary sizing only . Sy mplification of Lame's equation. The general form of the equation is similar and given that e end result is likely to be similar. D is the nominal outer diameter. For process piping. This equation was derived based on water flow of the pipe. Several slightly different equations standard that you are working to. D o ach case). he maximum design temperature. This is because the stress in the pipe wall varies across it's stead of the actual outer diameter other than perhaps convenience. S y = P.ANSI 36.10).

1    20  F  Sy ( MPa)  ***Compliments of The Chemical Engineers' Resource Page at www.com SCHED.9 10.88 mm 1.298 m/s 3 330.11 SCHED. 30 .90 303.0 m /h Sy = A 206.90 Pipe Class = Custom F= 0.31 323.Pipe Size Optimization for Carbon Steel Pipes Selected Pipe p= Q= r= n= 40 bar-g 3 330 m /h 1000 kg/m 1 cP 3 as per ASME Economical internal Dia = Economical internal Dia = Economical Velocity = Calculated Flowrate = 11.6 11. 20 ID (mm)= 14 350 355.28 Pipe Grade = Standard twall = Pipe OD = ID = MPa Enter the most suitable size from the tabl mm mm mm Standard Pipe Sizes Nominal NPS 12 Nominal DN 300 OD (mm) Calculated tmin (mm) 323. 10 SCHED.cheresources.81 " 299.10 ID (mm)= as per ISO13623 tmin (mm)  pgage (b ar  g)  D(mmOD) pgage (b ar  g)   (20  F  Sy ( MPa)).3 DN = 300 Schedule = 40 10.

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28 295. 140 SCHED. 60 SCHED.26 19.58 33.02 31.most suitable size from the table below SCHED.94 281.13 15.83 27.27 17.18 .44 25.09 333.1 266.48 21.05 23.4 28. 40 SCHED.36 11.94 300.5 307.74 257. 120 SCHED.31 14.75 35. 160 10.42 288.79 317.1 284.02 273.71 292. 80 SCHED. 100 SCHED.32 303.34 325.

10 SCHED.13 " 130.3 DN = 150 Schedule = 80 17.36 mm 4.30 133.cheresources.90 Pipe Class = Custom F= 0. 1    20  F  Sy ( MPa)  ***Compliments of The Chemical Engineers' Resource Page at www. 20 ID (mm)= ID (mm)= as per ISO13623 tmin (mm)  pgage (b ar  g)  D(mmOD) pgage (b ar  g)   (20  F  Sy ( MPa)).34 Pipe Grade = Standard twall = Pipe OD = ID = MPa Enter the most suitable size from the tabl mm mm mm Standard Pipe Sizes Nominal NPS 6 Nominal DN 150 OD (mm) Calculated tmin (mm) 168.Pipe Size Optimization for Carbon Steel Pipes Selected Pipe p= Q= r= n= 70 bar-g 3 200 m /h 1000 kg/m 1 cP 3 as per ASME Economical internal Dia = Economical internal Dia = Economical Velocity = Calculated Flowrate = 5.163 m/s 3 200.3 8.0 m /h Sy = A 206. 30 .48 168.98 SCHED.com SCHED.

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27 18. 120 SCHED. 140 SCHED. 160 10.most suitable size from the table below SCHED. 100 SCHED.76 131.26 146. 40 SCHED. 60 SCHED.36 139.97 14. 80 SCHED.78 .

5 65 73.23 25.35 6.1 12 300 323.10 Diameter Nominal NPS Nominal DN Outside [inches] [mm] [mm] 0.38 3.53 2.35 6.75 20 26.20 3.3 2.35 6.55 4.3 2 50 60.91 4.02 3.24 2.56 3. mountains.70 12. Hydrotest P=1.7 1 25 33. RD STRONG STRONG 10 20 1.11 8. Hydrotest P =1.55 7.4 18 450 457. mountains. SCHED.24 17.70 12.41 3.35 6. deserts.08 8.PIPE SIZES Steel yield strength Grade Yield stress [psia] [kPa] A25 25000 172414 A 30000 206897 B 35000 241379 X42 42000 289655 X52 52000 358621 X60 60000 413793 X70 70000 482759 X80 80000 551724 Pipeline basic design factor ASME B31.92 7.35 7.68 3.8 Location class & summary description Class 1.35 6.70 12. div 2 Wasteland.12 19.35 6.7 0.56 9.47 7.3 8 200 219.92 7. industrial areas Class 4 Multistory buildings.6 4 100 114.9 14 350 355.62 8. div 1 Wasteland.2 20 500 508.5 90 101. high traffic density.54 7.1*MAOP Class 2 Fringe areas around cities & towns.02 6.53 9.25 32 42.31 2.6 16 400 406.375 10 17.0 3 80 88.9 3.53 9.1 0. industrial areas.70 7.85 5.25 8 13.70 12.91 5.87 3. numerous other utilities underground Custom Enter custom value in table ANSI B36.16 5. farmland & sparsely populated areas. deserts.4 25. residential areas.49 5.125 6 10.74 6.02 15.1 10 250 273.70 12.3 5 125 141.53 10.3 0. shopping centres.53 .18 9. farmland & sparsely populated areas.09 9.73 2.15 11.07 14.70 12.27 9.05 21.53 9.92 9.25*MAO Class 1.3 0.82 9.5 40 48. grazing land.5 15 21.77 2.97 12.0 Wall thickness [mm] STANDA EXTRA XX SCHED.4 6. ranch or country estates Class 3 Suburban housing developments.3 6 150 168.53 9.2 1.73 3.4 1.95 22. grazing land.7 10.01 7.08 5.

92 7.53 12.6 9.70 750 762.53 12.8 9.92 9.53 12.70 800 812.92 7.92 7.92 7.70 12.53 12.6 17 17.70 1050 1066.70 12.53 12.53 12.6 21 26 33 6.35 7.0 9.8 9.53 12.22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 42 Note: 550 558.70 .70 Schedule determines the wall thickness (not the pressure class) Standard dimension ratios (SDR=D/t) for plastic pipe 9 11 13.2 9.70 850 863.4 9.8 9.70 12.70 12.70 650 660.53 12.6 9.53 12.70 700 711.35 6.4 9.92 7.70 600 609.70 900 914.53 9.70 12.53 12.

04 7.91 5.10 20.02 42.35 7.53 39.70 11.13 12.94 66.14 8.32 35.48 15.70 1.31 2.02 3.40 0.82 25.40 311.42 366.09 16.02 6.87 3.70 29.66 19. industrial areas 0. SCHED.26 23. SCHED.83 26.32 109.76 20.80 8.45 13.92 90.54 11.49 5.18 325.01 28.68 3.38 9.71 40.05 21.35 6.20 342.83 26.72 0.62 2.96 34.56 9.74 15.78 173.12 102.70 14.70 444.54 7.19 29.13 12.82 53.31 12.72 407. SCHED.01 min ID [mm] 5.77 2.Factor parsely populated areas.85 5.41 3.08 5.74 6.53 10.16 5.24 50.50 34.66 10.13 12.25*MAOP 0.08 40.58 33. Hydrotest P=1.90 393.19 4.98 max ID [mm] 6.73 2.75 36.55 7.68 77.74 9.31 11.79 30.30 .60 ntial areas.53 11.27 15.70 14.53 11.56 6.93 38. SCHED.97 12.96 26.30 SCHED.53 9.08 8.56 3.27 15.13 15.91 4.26 128.09 17.11 8.27 18.40 27. 30 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 7.80 parsely populated areas.50 495. Hydrotest P =1.48 62.44 87.26 21.40 260.1*MAOP0.44 23.49 45. SCHED.38 3.94 52.58 20. SCHED.05 20.18 9.70 15.84 9.26 284.78 5.48 19.64 85.94 257.40 28.20 154.73 3.54 131.88 18.27 10.62 8.26 21.44 23.08 206.36 32.48 7.01 7.09 10.20 3.58 31.24 2.64 35.67 44.55 4.44 25.22 12.70 14.49 15.50 0.08 215. SCHED.09 18.

88 15.56 695.84 828.23 24.76 898.16 796.88 15.12.40 546.88 15.58 30.24 777.70 14.96 34.37 53.63 52.56 1047.74 .00 679.89 41.27 17.05 22.02 47.54 450.52 635.84 490.28 46.88 15.61 28.30 1041.64 876.96 847.10 596.48 15.93 38.98 59.88 17.44 730.48 17.48 19.36 746.90 644.