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ISSN 1392 – 1215

2011. No. 3(109)

ELEKTRONIKA IR ELEKTROTECHNIKA

AUTOMATION, ROBOTICS

T 125

AUTOMATIZAVIMAS, ROBOTECHNIKA

**Induction Motor Voltage Amplitude Control Technique based on the
**

Motor Efficiency Observation

V. Bleizgys, A. Baskys, T. Lipinskis

Center for Physical Sciences and Technology,

A. Gostauto 11, LT- 01108 Vilnius, Lithuania, phone +370 5 2613989, e-mail: mel@pfi.lt

Faculty of Electronics, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University,

Naugarduko str. 41, LT-03227, Vilnius, Lithuania; phone: +370 5 2744767, e-mail: algirdas.baskys@vgtu.lt

Introduction

**current amplitude and to find in the real time the amplitude
**

of voltage, at which phase current at given instant motor

load and speed is minimal. The proposed motor supply

voltage amplitude control method is relevant because the

efficiency of motor is one of the main characteristics of

electric motor drives [9–11].

**The main problem in control of AC induction motor
**

speed is control of amplitude of AC voltage provided by

the frequency converter. There are two widely used

amplitude control methods: scalar and vector control [1–7].

The scalar control is based on the steady–state model

of motor. The linear law of voltage amplitude control (ratio

amplitude to phase frequency UA / fp = const) should be

applied to keep the magnetizing flux of the motor

practically unchanged according this model. This allows us

to keep the torque of the motor nearly independent on the

motor velocity. The scalar control is used when the motor

load is approximately independent on motor speed or if

load dependence on speed is known in advance.

If the motor load changes randomly and the fast

response is needed the vector control is used. It is based on

the dynamic model of the motor. The instant values of

speed and flux of motor should be measured for full

realization of vector control. However, it is complicated to

provide these measurements [8]. Therefore, if the control

of motor is not relevant at very low speed, the sensorless

method of vector control can be used [1, 3].

The equations of motor dynamic model must be

solved and the data for calculations should be extracted

from the motor phases current transients in real time for

realization of sensorless vector control. Because of this,

complex algorithms must be applied and, as consequence,

expensive high performance DSP should be employed for

vector control realization [6].

In this work we would like to present some

alternative for vector control. The proposed method is

based on the observation of motor phase current amplitude

instant value. The amplitude of voltage is controlled in

real time in such a way that for the given instant motor

load and speed the instant phase current amplitude would

be minimal (the efficiency of the motor would be

maximal). The realization of this method of voltage

amplitude control is less complicated as compared to

vector control. It is enough to measure the motor phase

**Investigation of the inverter and motor phase current
**

The experimental investigation of the inverter DC

current (IDC) and motor phase current amplitude (IP) on

amplitude of voltage supplied by the frequency converter

(UA) was provided to obtain the initial data for

development of UA control technique. The experimental

example of the frequency converter developed in Center

for Physical Sciences and Technology was used for this

purpose. The block diagram of the frequency converter is

given in Fig.1. It contains rectifier, which converts

standard 3 phase AC voltage to DC voltage, and inverter

that converts DC voltage to variable frequency variable

amplitude 3 phase AC voltage for motor supply. The

Control unit based on the

DSP dsPIC30F6010

Rectifier

DC bus

Inverter

IDC

3 phase

380V

50 Hz

UDC

IP

Variable frequency

variable amplitude

3 phase AC voltage

Fig. 1. The block diagram of frequency converter

89

AC

induction

motor

75Nm 13Nm 15 IP at fP=40Hz. The dependences of the relative motor supply voltage amplitude. The dependences of the inverter DC bus current and motor supply phase current amplitude on the relative voltage amplitude at various phase frequency (at various motor speed) and motor load torque.75Nm 0.25Nm IP .2 UA / UAlin The purpose of the UA control is to keep the UA value.e. 90 .0 Motor supply voltage amplitude control algorithm 1. which acts as the motor load.6 9 0 3 6 9 12 M. (1) U AQ The range of possible values of UA is split up in to the zones with the even width ΔUA (Fig. the minimal value of IP can be used as criterion for the estimation of UA.4 1. The single variable optimization problem should be solved continuously in the real time. on motor load torque at various phase frequencies 3 0. 2. for various fp (various motor speed) are given in Fig. at which the motor efficiency is maximal. M=9. at which the IP would be close to minimal. which correspond to minimal IP (maximal motor efficiency). 3. The investigation results show that the IDC and IP become minimal practically at the same UA value.control unit controls the operating of the frequency converter and implements the Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) method [2.5Nm 9. The maximal efficiency of the motor supplied by the frequency converter at given motor load and speed corresponds to minimal IDC.1). i. M=6. 2).8 IDC at fP=40Hz. There are n zones where UA < UA0 and m zones where UA ≥ UA0. at which IP is minimal and. at which Fig.8 1. A 12 fp=30Hz 3 0. 3. The test bench includes the motor load torque and rotation velocity sensors.75Nm 12 9 6 UA / UAlin 15 0Nm 3.25Nm 6. The UA lin is the amplitude of voltage required by the linear voltage amplitude control law The experimental dependences of IP on the relative value of UA for various motor load torque values at fp=30Hz (at 1700 rpm motor speed) are presented in Fig. 5). The results obtained during the experimental investigation show that IP depends strongly on motor load and speed and has the only minimum (Figs. 4. The dependences of the motor supply phase current amplitude on the relative voltage amplitude at fp=30Hz and various motor load torque values 1. The control algorithm employed in the frequency converter should guarantee the variation of UA in accordance with these dependences. A 1.4. The aim of the optimization is to select the value of UA=UAopt from the Q region of possible values. which correspond to minimal motor phase current amplitude. Nm 6 Fig.. I p U Aopt min I p U A . motor efficiency is maximal. 3] for switching of inverter transistors.0 UA / UAlin IDC at fP=30Hz. It is seen that the UA value. 2 and 3). Therefore. The results are obtained for 4 kW (speed 2900rpm at fp =50Hz) AC induction motor. 2. which is taken from the DC bus by inverter (Fig.2 Fig. A special test bench was used for this purpose. M=9.8 1.25Nm 1. IP . IDC .0 10Hz 20Hz 30Hz 40Hz 0. M=6. at which the efficiency of the motor is close to maximal. The dependences of the relative value of UA on the motor load torque. The experimental dependences of IDC and IP on the UA for various phase frequency (fp) (for various speed of motor) and motor load torque values are presented in Fig. It includes the AC induction motor fed from the frequency converter.2 IP at fP=30Hz.5 kW DC generator. depends strongly on motor load torque. The motor drives the 5. consequently. This is more convenient for UA control realization because the IP dependence minimum is expressed stronger as compared to IDC minimum (Fig.

which implements the SVPWM method for the three phase variable frequency and amplitude voltage forming. the values of IP at UA = UA0 and UA = UA(–1) are measured and compared according the algorithm (2) (move 1 in Fig. (2) Step 5 if I P U A j I P U A j 1 and j n. Step 4 else decrement j by 1. m–1.5s. The UA in the proposed algorithm has only discrete values with ΔUA discreteness (Fig 5). 5. speed) changes and function minimum moves out of range UA1 < UA < UA3. . …. . Since the function increases. a) Implementation and investigation of the motor supply voltage amplitude control algorithm The proposed motor supply voltage amplitude control algorithm (2) was employed in the experimental example of the frequency converter. i. –n+1. it provides lower load torque overshoot and. The response of the IP to motor load torque pulse change for the case when the proposed UA control method is employed is given in Fig.6b). the algorithm (2) seeks again the function minimum in the same way. Fig.6a and 6b). i. which is essential because of the high EMD produced by the inverter. The discrete change of UA values and measurement of IP was provided every 0. 1div =2. higher motor efficiency as compared to the case when linear control of UA is used. The isolation amplifier with short circuit and overload detection HCPL788J was employed for measurement of the phase current. The increment of function during the 4th move is registered.03UA0 was chosen for the realization of the algorithm.5s during the function IP (UA) minimum search. First of all.e. 0. Step 3 increment j by 1 and goto Step 2. The algorithm of phase current amplitude minimum search The developed algorithm of function IP (UA) minimum search is as follows: Step 1 set j 0. as a consequence. The measurement of IP was not reliable if Δt<0.change discreetness in time Δt=0.6a. Step 7 else goto Step 3. The reason is that the response of the IP measurement circuit output to IP change is slow due to the low-pass filter. the movement direction is changed and values of IP at UA = UA1 (move 2 in Fig. where j = –n. m. Consequently. 6.5A) to pulse change of motor load torque (bottom curves. 5). lower AC induction motor drive overload during the instant load torque increment. it is seen that the IP overshoot is higher and has longer duration in the case when proposed control method is employed (compare transients given in Figs. Step 2 if I P U A j 1 I P U A j and j m. UA = UA2 (move 3) and UA = UA3 (move 4) are measured.e. Additionally.5s. …. The algorithm changes the movement direction (makes move 5) and after that cyclically repeats moves 4 and 5. On the other hand. Step 6 decrement j by 1 and goto Step 5. It was realized using DSP dsPIC30F6010.–2. the gradient of function is tested moving to the left. The transients are obtained at 30 Hz phase frequency 91 . 5). The width of zone ΔUA =0. therefore. The initial value UA = UA0 for function IP(UA) minimum search using algorithm (2) corresponds to the value of UA obtained at given fp for linear control law (for law UA/fp=const). If the motor operating conditions (load torque. 1div = 4Nm) when motor supply voltage amplitude control based on the motor phase current amplitude observation (a) and linear amplitude control (b) are applied. They show that the developed UA control method guarantees lower steady state value of IP. the proposed UA control method based on the IP observation can be used effectively in the situations when the fast response of the motor supply voltage is not needed. i. 2. The response oh the motor phase current amplitude (upper curves. 1.–1. the minimum of function is in range UA1 < UA < UA3. The investigation of the developed algorithm was performed using the test bench and AC induction motor mentioned in this paper previously.e. The obtained transients are compared to the transients gained using linear control of UA (Fig. the UA b) Fig.

P. Pateikiamas asinchroninio elektros variklio. Valentine R. srovės amplitudė būtų minimali. – Kaunas: Technologija. 3(109). – Kaunas: Technologija. which is some alternative for the vector control. Bleizgys V. Ursaru O. Control in Power Electronics. abstracts in English and Lithuanian). – Kaunas: Technologija. – P. V. – 754 p.D. It is based on the observation of motor phase current amplitude value. Eidukas D. Variable Speed Drive Supplied by the Voltage Formed using Special–purpose Algorithm // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. Metodas taikytinas. 2001. –P.. – 627p. 4(92). 2008. Filizadeh S. Guseinovienė E.e. Touhami O. Asinchroninio elektros variklio įtampos amplitudės valdymo metodas.164. Gobis V. – P. – Nr. Baskys A. 6. Baškys. 9. Baskys. student of Vilnius University Mr. kad. L. 2011. Influence of the Inverter Boost Voltage on the Transients of Variable Speed Drives //Electronics and Electrical Engineering. 11 (anglų kalba.. įtampos amplitudės valdymo metodas. Jis remiasi variklio srovės amplitudės stebėjimu. 2002. Baskys A. allows us to vary the amplitude automatically in such a way that the efficiency of the motor at given motor load torque and rotation speed would be maximal. Jankūnas V. Tam pakanka nepertraukiamai matuoti variklio srovės amplitudę ir realiu laiku nustatyti. 2007. 5(93). 8(104). The technique of voltage amplitude control of AC induction motor supplied by the frequency converter has been proposed. i. Ill. However. The developed technique has been investigated experimentally using special test bench. 2009. 6.. – P. 5. variklio naudingumo veiksnys būtų maksimalus. Investigation of Supply Posibilities of Mechatronic Actuator // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. – Kaunas: Technologija. 1583–1592. 69–72. – P.. The impact of output voltage modulation strategies on power losses in inverter.. 25–28. The proposed AC induction motor supply voltage amplitude control algorithm. 2009. – Kaunas: Technologija. Toks variklio įtampos amplitudės valdymas yra paprastesnis nei vektorinis valdymas. santraukos anglų ir lietuvių k. Three–Phase Motor Control using Modified Reference Wave // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. //Electronics and Electrical Engineering. The Influence of Supply Voltage Amplitude Variation Law on AC Induction Motor Efficiency in Variable–Speed Drive // Solid state phenomena. 6(94). Rinkevičienė R. 3. – P... A. 35–38. Il. 3(109).. – P. – Lyon. 7(87). the developed algorithm can be applied if the fast response of the motor supply voltage amplitude is not needed. Neacsu D. Conference on Power Systems Transients IPST’07. Blaabjerg F. – No. Lipinskis. – Kaunas: Technologija. esant tam tikrai variklio apkrovai ir greičiui. – Vol.). 1998. Grouni S. – McGraw–Hill. pagrįstas variklio naudingumo veiksnio stebėjimu // Elektronika ir elektrotechnika. Harmonic and Loss Analysis of Space–Vector Modulated Converters // Proceedings of the Int. – P. – No. 53–56. It is enough to provide the continuous measurement of motor phase current amplitude and to find in the real time the amplitude of voltage. 92 . 2010. Baskys A. – No. 89–92. – No. References 1. 1–4. Batkauskas V. T. Lucanu M. Lipinskis. 2009. 75–78. bibl. 7. – P. maitinamo dažnio keitiklio. The amplitude of motor supply voltage is controlled in real time in such a way that for given instant motor load and speed the phase current amplitude would be minimal. Lisauskas S. kokia turėtų būti įtampos amplitudė. 89–92. T. taip. 11. – Kaunas: Technologija. Batkauskas V. 11 (in English.. srovės amplitudė būtų minimali. Petrovas A. kad variklio maitinimo įtampos amplitudė sparčiai keistųsi. Variklio maitinimo įtampos amplidudė valdoma realiu laiku. – No. Space Vector Modulation // Proceedings of the 27th Annual IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Conference. Real Time Rotor Flux Estimation for Induction Machine Drives: an Experimental Approach // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. Aghion C. kai nebūtina. Induction Motor Voltage Amplitude Control Technique based on the Motor Efficiency Observation // Electronics and Electrical Engineering. – P. 2011. 2010. Cirtautas V. Kidouche M.. Wilson P. Krishnan P. 3(99). – No. – Kaunas: Technologija. 8.. the efficiency of the motor would be maximal.. t. The realization of the algorithm is more simple and cheap as compared to the vector control algorithms. – P. – No. at which phase current amplitude is minimal. Bleizgys V... The realization of this method of voltage amplitude control is less complicated as compared to vector control. A. 47–50. y.. Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank Ph.. 2010. Selected Problems. 10. Sukurtas metodas ištirtas eksperimentiškai. Ibtiouen R. – Denver. The proposed technique can be applied in the situations when the fast response of the motor supply voltage amplitude is not needed. – Elsevier Science. kad. 6.. Bleizgys.. 2. Received 2011 02 08 V. 1–6. Motor Control Electronics Handbook. Kazmierkowski M. bibl.. Andrius Bleizgys for help in creating of program for data processing. Bleizgys. Mehrizi–Sani A. esant tam tikriems variklio apkrovai ir greičiui.Conclusions 4. naudojant specialų tyrimo stendą.

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