Course subject

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Leadership
Brata T. Hardjosubroto

Course Content
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Approaches to the modern study of Leadership
Ethical Leadership
Leadership in Global and multicultural society
Intelligence and Personality
Motivation
Communication
Philosophy and Leadership
Power and Leadership from the top
Management and Leadership
Teaming and Leadership
Classical approach to the study of Leadership
Leadership Theories and Approaches for today and tomorrow
The art of Command
Environmental Leadership

Leadership is...
..the process of influencing a group to
achieve goals
 ..an influence relationship among leaders
and followers who intend real changes that
reflect their shared purposes (Rost, 1998)
 ..all about getting people to work together to
make things happen that might otherwise
not occur or prevent things from heppening
that ordinarily would take place (Rosenbach
& Taylor, 1993)

Leadership is:

Interpersonal influence directed through
communication, toward goal attainment

The influential increment over and above mechanical
compliance with directions and orders

An act that causes others to act or respond in a
shared direction

The art of influencing people by persuasion or
example to follow a line of action

The principal dynamic force that motivates and
coordinates the organization in the accomplishment
of its objectives

Leaders and Leadership
Leader – Someone who can influence others
and who has managerial authority
 Leadership – What leaders do; the process of
influencing a group to achieve goals
 Ideally, all managers should be leaders
 Although groups may have informal leaders
who emerge, those are not the leaders we’re
studying

Leadership research has tried to answer:
What is an effective leader?

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Seven Traits Associated with Leadership

Source: S. A. Kirkpatrick and E. A. Locke, “Leadership: Do Traits Really Matter?” Academy of
Management Executive, May 1991, pp. 48–60; T. A. Judge, J. E. Bono, R. llies, and M. W. Gerhardt,
“Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review,” Journal of Applied Psychology,
August 2002, pp. 765–780.

© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

6

Chapter 1: Approaches to the Modern Study of Leadership

APPROACHES TO MODERN LEADERSHIP
Leadership in
Limited Time and
Space
11

Ethical
Leadership
10

Leadership
Formulas
9

Vision, Human
Conditions and
Leadership
And Human
Relations
8

Multicultural
and Global
Leadership

Charismatic
Leadership
12

Modern
Leadership

Traits Theory
and Other
Psychological
Approaches
1
Group and
Team
Leadership
2

7

Politics, Power,
and Leadership
6

Situational
Leadership
Theories

Organizational
Development,
Change and
Leadership

Leadership Vs.
(and)
Management

Chapter 1: Approaches to the Modern Study of Leadership

APPROACHES TO MODERN LEADERSHIP
Leadership in
Limited Time and
Space
11

Ethical
Leadership
10

Leadership
Formulas
9

Vision, Human
Conditions and
Leadership
And Human
Relations
8

Multicultural
and Global
Leadership

Charismatic
Leadership
12

Modern
Leadership

Traits Theory
and Other
Psychological
Approaches
1
Group and
Team
Leadership
2

7

Politics, Power,
and Leadership
6

Situational
Leadership
Theories

Organizational
Development,
Change and
Leadership

Leadership Vs.
(and)
Management

Trait theory

Leadership is a function of Nature

Leadership is a function of Nurture

Chapter 1: Approaches to the Modern Study of Leadership

APPROACHES TO MODERN LEADERSHIP
Leadership in
Limited Time and
Space
11

Ethical
Leadership
10

Leadership
Formulas
9

Vision, Human
Conditions and
Leadership
And Human
Relations
8

Multicultural
and Global
Leadership

Charismatic
Leadership
12

Modern
Leadership

Traits Theory
and Other
Psychological
Approaches
1
Group and
Team
Leadership
2

7

Politics, Power,
and Leadership
6

Situational
Leadership
Theories

Organizational
Development,
Change and
Leadership

Leadership Vs.
(and)
Management

Group and team leadership
The roles individuals play in groups, such as
gatekeepers, process developers,
information senders, and so on
 Teams may be called task force, committees,
quality circles, project team or other
 They are functional and cross functional
 It can be virtual or face to face group
 Building an effective teams is a crucial
aspect of leadership

Chapter 1: Approaches to the Modern Study of Leadership

APPROACHES TO MODERN LEADERSHIP
Leadership in
Limited Time and
Space
11

Ethical
Leadership
10

Leadership
Formulas
9

Vision, Human
Conditions and
Leadership
And Human
Relations
8

Multicultural
and Global
Leadership

Charismatic
Leadership
12

Modern
Leadership

Traits Theory
and Other
Psychological
Approaches
1
Group and
Team
Leadership
2

7

Politics, Power,
and Leadership
6

Situational
Leadership
Theories

Organizational
Development,
Change and
Leadership

Leadership Vs.
(and)
Management

Situational leadership
theories

How leader is able to adapt his or her
leadership style to the situation at hand.
 Leadership is the process of ballancing the
needs of followers, the situation and the
leaders themselves
 Learning when to apply what style is a key to
effective leadership.

Chapter 1: Approaches to the Modern Study of Leadership

APPROACHES TO MODERN LEADERSHIP
Leadership in
Limited Time and
Space
11

Ethical
Leadership
10

Leadership
Formulas
9

Vision, Human
Conditions and
Leadership
And Human
Relations
8

Multicultural
and Global
Leadership

Charismatic
Leadership
12

Modern
Leadership

Traits Theory
and Other
Psychological
Approaches
1
Group and
Team
Leadership
2

7

Politics, Power,
and Leadership
6

Situational
Leadership
Theories

Organizational
Development,
Change and
Leadership

Leadership Vs.
(and)
Management

Organizational development, change
and leadership

Leadership as the process of helping an
organization to effectively meet its goal.

Leadership takes major role in the concept of
unfreezing, changes and refreezing.

Chapter 1: Approaches to the Modern Study of Leadership

APPROACHES TO MODERN LEADERSHIP
Leadership in
Limited Time and
Space
11

Ethical
Leadership
10

Leadership
Formulas
9

Vision, Human
Conditions and
Leadership
And Human
Relations
8

Multicultural
and Global
Leadership

Charismatic
Leadership
12

Modern
Leadership

Traits Theory
and Other
Psychological
Approaches
1
Group and
Team
Leadership
2

7

Politics, Power,
and Leadership
6

Situational
Leadership
Theories

Organizational
Development,
Change and
Leadership

Leadership Vs.
(and)
Management

Leadership versus
management
Mix perceptions:

Leadership as a subset of management
 Management as a subset of leadership

What is Management

It involves coordinating and overseeing the
work activities of others so that their
activities are completed efficiently and
effectively

Manager is someone who coordinates and
oversees the work of other people so that
organizational goals can be accomplished

Chapter 1: Approaches to the Modern Study of Leadership

APPROACHES TO MODERN LEADERSHIP
Leadership in
Limited Time and
Space
11

Ethical
Leadership
10

Leadership
Formulas
9

Vision, Human
Conditions and
Leadership
And Human
Relations
8

Multicultural
and Global
Leadership

Charismatic
Leadership
12

Modern
Leadership

Traits Theory
and Other
Psychological
Approaches
1
Group and
Team
Leadership
2

7

Politics, Power,
and Leadership
6

Situational
Leadership
Theories

Organizational
Development,
Change and
Leadership

Leadership Vs.
(and)
Management

Politics, power and
leadership

The term Politics implies understanding and
resolving human factors involved in decision
making
 The field of political science is seen as
applied leadership
 Power... is refering to authority or
empowering others
 Leadership is based on influence not
positional power

Chapter 1: Approaches to the Modern Study of Leadership

APPROACHES TO MODERN LEADERSHIP
Leadership in
Limited Time and
Space
11

Ethical
Leadership
10

Leadership
Formulas
9

Vision, Human
Conditions and
Leadership
And Human
Relations
8

Multicultural
and Global
Leadership

Charismatic
Leadership
12

Modern
Leadership

Traits Theory
and Other
Psychological
Approaches
1
Group and
Team
Leadership
2

7

Politics, Power,
and Leadership
6

Situational
Leadership
Theories

Organizational
Development,
Change and
Leadership

Leadership Vs.
(and)
Management

Charismatic leadership
Leader who lead by inspiration and often by
sheer personality
 Some give hope energy and bring out the
best people (Dr Martin Luther King, Kennedy)
 Some bring out the worst in people (Hitler)

Chapter 1: Approaches to the Modern Study of Leadership

APPROACHES TO MODERN LEADERSHIP
Leadership in
Limited Time and
Space
11

Ethical
Leadership
10

Leadership
Formulas
9

Vision, Human
Conditions and
Leadership
And Human
Relations
8

Multicultural
and Global
Leadership

Charismatic
Leadership
12

Modern
Leadership

Traits Theory
and Other
Psychological
Approaches
1
Group and
Team
Leadership
2

7

Politics, Power,
and Leadership
6

Situational
Leadership
Theories

Organizational
Development,
Change and
Leadership

Leadership Vs.
(and)
Management

Vision, the human condition and
leadership
What is the goal of leader?
 What does it involve humankind
 Can a leader lead if there is no goal to lead
toward?

Chapter 1: Approaches to the Modern Study of Leadership

APPROACHES TO MODERN LEADERSHIP
Leadership in
Limited Time and
Space
11

Ethical
Leadership
10

Leadership
Formulas
9

Vision, Human
Conditions and
Leadership
And Human
Relations
8

Multicultural
and Global
Leadership

Charismatic
Leadership
12

Modern
Leadership

Traits Theory
and Other
Psychological
Approaches
1
Group and
Team
Leadership
2

7

Politics, Power,
and Leadership
6

Situational
Leadership
Theories

Organizational
Development,
Change and
Leadership

Leadership Vs.
(and)
Management

Leadership Formula?
Is there any single formula?
 Stephen Covey’s Seven habits of highly
successful people
 Maxwell’s 21 Indisputable Rules of Success
 Powel’s 18 Lessons in Leadership
 Gardner’s 10 functions of Leadership
 Bennis’s 4 major competencies of leadership
 ..and others.

Chapter 1: Approaches to the Modern Study of Leadership

APPROACHES TO MODERN LEADERSHIP
Leadership in
Limited Time and
Space
11

Ethical
Leadership
10

Leadership
Formulas
9

Vision, Human
Conditions and
Leadership
And Human
Relations
8

Multicultural
and Global
Leadership

Charismatic
Leadership
12

Modern
Leadership

Traits Theory
and Other
Psychological
Approaches
1
Group and
Team
Leadership
2

7

Politics, Power,
and Leadership
6

Situational
Leadership
Theories

Organizational
Development,
Change and
Leadership

Leadership Vs.
(and)
Management

Ethical Leadership
Some leaders (Kenneth Lay of Enron, Dennis
Kozlowski of Tyco) have behaved in a manner
that brought disgrace to the image of
corporate leader.
 Ethics should be central to all leaders
 Ethical leadership is the only leadership

Chapter 1: Approaches to the Modern Study of Leadership

APPROACHES TO MODERN LEADERSHIP
Leadership in
Limited Time and
Space
11

Ethical
Leadership
10

Leadership
Formulas
9

Vision, Human
Conditions and
Leadership
And Human
Relations
8

Multicultural
and Global
Leadership

Charismatic
Leadership
12

Modern
Leadership

Traits Theory
and Other
Psychological
Approaches
1
Group and
Team
Leadership
2

7

Politics, Power,
and Leadership
6

Situational
Leadership
Theories

Organizational
Development,
Change and
Leadership

Leadership Vs.
(and)
Management

Leadership in limited time and
space
Project leadership, it requires all skills to be
applied within limited time
 Challenges of Virtual leadership
 Time limited and space limited (virtual)
situation require skilled leadership

Chapter 1: Approaches to the Modern Study of Leadership

APPROACHES TO MODERN LEADERSHIP
Leadership in
Limited Time and
Space
11

Ethical
Leadership
10

Leadership
Formulas
9

Vision, Human
Conditions and
Leadership
And Human
Relations
8

Multicultural
and Global
Leadership

Charismatic
Leadership
12

Modern
Leadership

Traits Theory
and Other
Psychological
Approaches
1
Group and
Team
Leadership
2

7

Politics, Power,
and Leadership
6

Situational
Leadership
Theories

Organizational
Development,
Change and
Leadership

Leadership Vs.
(and)
Management

Multiculture and Global
leadership
Different Era, nationality, gender drives
different way in leading
 Multicultural leadership is about being able
to recognize and appreciate human
differences
 Leadership must be based on respect and
understanding of human differences.

Questions ??

Group Exercise

Make a group of 2

Discuss the understanding of leadership,
which one you most agree

Discuss your leadership skill

Mention some personal experiences
(3 positive and 3 negative experiences)

Present it to the class

Chapter 1: Approaches to the Modern Study of Leadership

Questions for Discussion and Review:

Of the definitions of leadership
given, which do you prefer?
Why?

What psychological approach
to leadership do you use?
Which approaches are less
used by you?

Name three groups you belong
to. Name three teams you
belong to. Explain why some
are groups and some are
teams.

Give an example of situational
leadership that you
experienced.

Are “change” and “leadership”
the same thing?

What is the difference between
leadership and management?

What does the term “politics”
mean to you?

Who is your favorite
charismatic leader? Why is that
person charismatic?

Name two ethical leaders you
admire. Why do you admire
them?

What is a virtual team?