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TRANSPORT OF SAND

Ni Fusheng1, Zhao Lijuan2, Xu Liqun3, W.J. Valsblom4

ABSTRACT

The hydraulic transport of sand is an important process in dredging engineering. An accurate calculation of the flow

resistance of sand when hydraulically transported is a significant part of any reasonable design for a pump-pipeline

transport system. Although there have been a number of empirical formulae proposed by Durand, Condolios, Jufin,

Wilson, GIW, etc., the flow resistance calculation still needs to be subjected to further investigation. A model that is

widely used in coal hydraulic transport, called the Wasp model is introduced in this paper. The model classifies

particles as homogeneously distributed particles and heterogeneously distributed bed particles. Water and the

suspended particles form the so called two-phase carrying fluid or vehicle and transport the heterogeneous bed

particles. This paper tries to apply a model, proposed by Wasp and used in coal slurry, to the resistance calculation

for the hydraulic transport of sand. The model is checked by our measured data from the laboratory stand of sand

transport at Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands. Results show that the model can result in a reasonable

prediction for the resistance of small particles slurry. However, like the other popular models, it could not give a

satisfactory prediction for coarse sand transport either. The accuracy given by the Wasp model actually depends on

the modeling of the homogeneous slurry and the modeling of the heterogeneous slurry.

Keywords: Sand hydraulic transport, flow resistance, Wasp model.

INTRODUCTION

Solids transported in dredging engineering can be mud, clay, sand, gravel, coral reef or other materials. Different

mechanisms are active in the solid-liquid mixture flow, which has led in a great number of empirical models to

describe the mechanisms governing the slurry flow regime in the past decades (Durand 1953a,b, Wilson 1976, 1997,

Matousek 1997). Generally speaking, solids hydraulic transport can be conceptually divided into fully-stratified,

partially-stratified and fully-suspended flow (Sundqvist et al. 1997). The most common type of slurry flow is the

partially-stratified or heterogeneous case, in which turbulent suspension and inter-granular contact are the two

significant mechanisms of particle support. Due to the complexity of slurry flow, however, the modeling of the

interaction between solids and the carrying liquid is still subject to further study. That is why the modeling of slurry

flow resistance has always been an important subject in dredging and other solid hydraulic transport industries. This

paper tries to apply a model, proposed by Wasp and used in coal slurry, to the resistance calculation for the hydraulic

transport of sand. The model is checked by our measured data from the laboratory stand of sand transport at Delft

1

Professor Center for Dredging Education and Research, Hohai University, Changzhou 213022, Jiangsu Province,

P.R.CHINA, T: 86-519-5191969, M: 86-13961216331, F: 86-519-5191969, E-mail: FushengNI@126.com.

LecturerCenter for Dredging Education and Research, Hohai University, Changzhou 213022, Jiangsu Province, P.R.CHINA,

T: 86-519-5191969, F: 86-519-5191969, E-mail: zljhh@163.com.

Associate ProfessorCenter for Dredging Education and Research, Hohai University, Changzhou 213022, Jiangsu Province,

ProfessorSection Dredging Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, 2628 CD, THE NETHERLANDS, T:

1377

WASP MODEL

Division of Slurry Flow

Based on coal slurry data accumulated over 13 years of experiments and actual 102-mile pipeline transport, Wasp

proposed to separate the slurry flow into two components: a vertically homogeneous slurry flow called a vehicle

and a vertically heterogeneous slurry called a Durand flow (Wasp 1963, 1977, Onishi et al. 2002). Water and the

suspended smaller particles form the so called two-phase carrying fluid or vehicle and transports the

heterogeneous coarser particles. According to the model, the total pressure loss per unit pipe length J is the sum of

the losses due to the vehicle and the Durand flow components:

J = J du + J ve

(1)

where J du and J ve denote the pressure loss gradients of the vehicle and the heterogeneous slurry, respectively.

The most important step in the use of the Wasp model is to determine which portion of the slurry is in the vehicle

and which is in the Durand heterogeneous flow portion. The vehicle volume concentration Cve and the

Durand heterogeneous volume portion concentration Cdu are divided from the slurry total volume concentration

Cvt as follows:

top

C =C

ve

vt C

mid

(2)

C = C C

du

vt

ve

where

top

C

mid

(3)

determines the amount of the suspended particles contributed to the vehicle. Here Ctop and

Cmid denote the solid volume fraction at y/D=0.92 and at y/D=0.5 of the pipe cross-section, respectively, where y

and D denote the vertical position from the pipe bottom and the diameter of the pipe, respectively. The following

equation is usually used to determine the division of the two portions:

log

where

Ctop

Cmid

= 1.8(

ku*

(4)

constant (=1),

1378

V* the friction velocity, given by V* = Vm ve / 8 , where ve denotes the friction coefficient of the vehicle and

Vm the mean velocity of the total slurry.

The resistance caused by the vehicle is calculated by

J ve =

veVm

2D

ve

(6)

where ve denotes the density of the vehicle. The friction coefficient ve can be obtained from the Moody

diagram, depending on the flow regime of the vehicle. It is usually considered that the vehicle flow is in the

smooth turbulent regime and ve can be expressed by

(7)

The pressure drop due to the Durand heterogeneous slurry flow can be calculated by the Durand formula:

J du = 82Cdu [

Vm 2 s 1

(

) CD ]1.5 J ve

gD

(8)

where s , denote the particle and water density, respectively, and CD the particle drag coefficient.

CALCULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

From 1998 to 1999, a series of sand-water slurry tests were carried out at the laboratory stand of sand transport at

Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands. The diameter of the pipeline in the closed pump circuit is 150mm.

The tested sands were the fine sand, medium sand and coarse sand with the mass-median diameter of d50=0.123mm,

d50=0.372mm, and d50=1.84mm, respectively. The particle size distribution is shown in Figure 1. The test data were

employed to check the Wasp model in this paper. The comparison between the calculation results and the measured

data are shown in Figures 2, 3 and 4. In those figures Cvd denotes the delivered volumetric concentration of sand. In

the model calculation, Cvt takes the value of Cvd.

1379

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

0.01

fine

sand

mediu

m sand

coarse

sand

0.1

10

3.5

water

3

Experiment

Wasp model

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

water

4.5

4

Experiment

3.5

Wasp model

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0

0

10

(a) Cvd=14-15%

(b) Cvd=26-28%

1380

10

3.5

Proessure gradient J (kPa/m)

Experiment

2.5

Wasp model

2

1.5

1

0.5

4.5

water

water

Experiment

3.5

Wasp model

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0

0

2

4

6

8

10

Mean slurry velocity Vm (m/s)

(a) Cvd=11-13%

2

4

6

8

10

Mean slurry velocity Vm (m/s)

(b) Cvd=25-26%

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

water

Experiment

Wasp model

0.5

3.5

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

water

Experiment

Wasp model

0.5

0

2

4

6

8

10

Mean slurry velocity Vm (m/s)

(a) Cvd=13-16%

2

4

6

8

10

Mean slurry velocity Vm (m/s)

(b) Cvd=23-24%

Generally speaking, the Wasp model could give reasonable prediction to the slurry of fine and medium sand.

However, like the other popular models, it could not give a satisfactory prediction for coarse sand transport either.

As for the so-called double peak flow resistance occurred in the coarse sand slurry, see Figure 4, the Wasp model

1381

Wasps contribution to slurry pipeline transport assessment was to introduce explicitly the concept of two-phase

flow to the slurry pipeline transport. But the calculation process in the model is much more complicated than that in

other popular models and the accuracy given by the model depends on the following three points:

(1) the division of the two portions of vehicle and Durand slurry;

(2) the modeling of the vehicle resistance; and

(3) the modeling of the Durand slurry resistance.

For the fine sand slurry, most of the particles were classified as homogeneous portion and then the density of the

vehicle ve increased, which resulted in greater vehicle resistance by Formula (6). Figures 2(a) & (b) show that

the calculated pressure drop in the fine sand slurry is gradually larger than the measured. For the coarse sand slurry,

however, little particles contributed to the vehicle from low slurry velocities to high slurry velocities, therefore the

Durand heterogeneous model actually determines the accuracy of the solid-effect calculation in the Wasp model,

see Figures 4(a) & (b).

For the medium sand slurry, a certain amount of particles were considered in the vehicle. Table 1 shows that an

increasing amount of particles contributes to the vehicle with the increase of the mean slurry velocity Vm when

delivered volumetric concentration Cvd=25-26%, see Figure 3(b). In this papers validation calculation, the medium

sand slurry is the intermediate case and both the vehicle modeling and the Durand modeling play important

roles. As is known to us, there have been a great number of resistance models for the vehicle or homogeneous

slurry and the Durand or heterogeneous slurry. In order to improve the accuracy of the Wasp model, there would

be a great deal of research to do in the division of the two flow portions and the appropriate modeling of flow

resistance due to the vehicle and the Durand heterogeneous slurry with high solids concentration.

Table 1. The vehicle and the Durand portions in the medium sand slurry of Cvd=25-26%.

Mean slurry

velocity

3.98

4.99

5.98

6.98

7.97

8.98

1.6

3.2

5.5

7.6

9.8

10.5

23.2

21.7

20.0

18.0

16.1

16.4

6.5

12.9

22.0

29.7

37.8

39.0

Vm (m/s)

Vehicle

portion

volume

Durand

portion

volume

Percentage of the vehicle

portion Cve / Cvt (%)

1382

REFERENCES

Durand, R. (1953a). Hydraulic transport of coal and sand materials in pipes. Proceedings of a Colloquium on the

Hydraulic Transport of Coal. National Coal Board, London, 39-52.

Durand, R. (1953b). Basic relationships of the transportation of solids in pipes-experimental research.

Proceedings of Minnesota International Hydraulics Convention. Minnesota, USA, 89-103.

Matousek, V. (1997). Flow mechanism of sand-water mixtures in pipelines. Delft University Press. The Netherlands,

1997.

Ni, F., Zhao, L., Matousek, V., Vlasblom, W. J., and Zwartbol, A. (2004). Two-phase flow of highly concentrated

slurry in a pipeline. Journal of Hydrodynamics, Series B, 16(3), 325-331.

Onishi, Y., Wells, B.E., Hartley, S.A., and Cooley, S.K. (2002). Pipeline cross-site, transfer for Tank 241-SY-101,

Report PNNL-13650, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA.

Sundqvist, A., Sellgren, A., and Addie, G.R. (1996). Slurry pipeline friction losses for coarse and high density

industrial products. Powder Technology, 89, 19-28.

Wasp, E.J. (1963), Cross country coal pipeline hydraulics. Pipeline News, 20-28.

Wasp, E.J. (1977), Kenny, J.P., and Gandhi, R.L., Solid-liquid flow slurry pipeline transportation. Trans Tech

Publication.

Wilson, K. C. (1976). A unified physically-based analysis of solid-liquid pipeline flow. Proceedings of

Hydrotransport 4, BHRA, Cranfield, UK, 1-16.

Wilson, K. C., Addie, G. R., Sellgren, A., and Clift, R. (1997). Slurry Transport Using Centrifugal Pumps.

London: Blackie Academic and Professional.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors wish to thank Dr. Matousek and Mr. Zwartbol for the work they carried out on this research. They also

thank the Delft University, The Netherlands for giving them the opportunity to carry out this research.

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