Hybrid Electrical Generation Stand-Alone Systems Application in Offshore Satellite

Oil Platforms in Mexico
Raúl González Galarza Humberto R. Jiménez Grajales Jorge M. Huacuz Villamar
Non Conventional Energy Unit, Electrical Research Institute, St. Reforma 113, Cuernavaca, Morelos,
62490, Mexico. Tel/Fax: +52 (777) 362-38-11 Ext. 7253
rgg@iie.org.mx, hjimenez@iie.org.mx, jhuacuz@iie.org.mx

Physically, the hybrid EGSAS is integrated in a
hermetic metallic shelter which is divided in two
independent compartments and is provided with the
appropriate equipment to ventilate and generate a
positive pressure inside (continuously keeping a
maximum room temperature of 40ºC). All this with the
aim of provide in the shelter the necessary operative
and security conditions in order that the EGSAS satisfies
the corresponding norms to operate in hazardous
locations classified as Class I, Division 2 (NRF-036PEMEX-2003 and NFPA-497-1997). Figure 1 shows the
physical appearance of the EGSAS in an satellite oil
platform (uninhabited).
The daily annual average of the global solar irradiance
on the horizontal plane of the GoM region is 5.53
kWh/m².day (2,019 kWh/m .year). The annual
distribution of this irradiance is shown in figure 2.

Figure 1. Hybrid EGSAS on an offshore satellite oil
platform (uninhabited).



Horizontal Irradiance (kWh/m2-day)

One of the principal challenges that face the
electrical generation stand-alone systems (EGSAS) in
unsupervised installations classified as hazardous
locations (Class I, Division 2) is to guarantee the
permanent supply of the demanded electrical energy
with a high degree of reliability. In the case of offshore
satellite oil platforms (uninhabited), there exist critical
communication, and process supervision devices. In this
kind of application, especially when the strong power
required onboard is less than 1KW, hybrid EGSAS
which use photovoltaic (PV) modules as main
generation source and a gas generator set as secondary
source, is an adequate and mature technological choice
to assume the above mentioned challenge. In this work
it is described some of the advantages and
disadvantages inherent to the application of the hybrid
EGSAS in satellite offshore oil platforms (uninhabited),
as a result of the evaluation carried out to a group of
systems installed at the Zone of Campeche in the Gulf
of Mexico (GoM). As well, a brief description of the main
components which are parts of the balance of system is
done; underlying the importance of an adequate system
sizing in order to maximize the operative availability of
the EGSAS, as such as, increase its reliability as
electrical supply with minimal maintenance.


















Figure 2. Solar irradiance on the horizontal.

The irradiance over a surface inclined 19º (the
mean latitude of the application) and with azimuth 0º
(south) is 5.3% higher than that of the horizontal plane:
5.82 kWh/m -day (2,125 kWh/m .year). Figure 3 shows
the behavior of the irradiance over such inclined surface
during the summer (april-september) and the winter
(october-march). This behavior pattern is the same that
describes the PV electricity generation in the hybrid

only if this is provided of a adequate ventilation (since a nonclassified location) that ensures a positive pressure. the system own services consumption. any electrical equipment within general or industrial purpose enclosure can operate at hazardous (classified) location as Class I. Operative Philosophy. demand a maximum reliability and availability of the supply source. as well as to regulate the feeding voltage to the loads (24 VCD regulated). System configuration. Both generation sources are always available in the system and are controlled by the control subsystem.. PV .72) GENSET 1 6 kW POWER CONSUMPTION G ENERGY STORAGE GENSET 2 6 kW BATTERY BANK Ef (0. the hybrid EGSAS is integrated by: 900 800 Irradiance (W/m2) 700 An electricity generation subsystem made up by a photovoltaic array of 9. sized for two days and a half of autonomy.Testing and remote separator instrumentation: 85 Watts. the efficiency of the control and power conditioning subsystem. this working load is considered as continuously constant with value: 18.. A control and power conditioning subsystem composed by a set of elements which as well as to administrate the generated energy towards the battery bank. basically made up by lamps. An additional set of electrical equipments for the EGSAS own services. System features.9 kW which is the main electricity generation source. it also monitors the system operation and link it with the SCADA system in the platform.24 kWh/day). the environmental where the electrical equipment operates is changed to non-hazardous (classified) location. the redundancy provided by the secondary generation unit. the EGSAS topology. fans and blinds. whose purpose is to provide the environmental and security conditions in the locations which allow an adequate operation of the EGSAS and its easy maintenance. which must be available with the necessary equipment for proving a continuous ventilation that keeps a positive pressure and an interior temperature less than 40ºC. PV-Gas Hybrid EGSAS Topology.Radio: 80 Watts. Division 2. In this case. For this purpose it is considered the site irradiance level and the performance relation of the photovoltaic modules.battery bank in the system as an additional element for backup.2% SYSTEM CONTROL AND CONDITIONING POW ER 9. Figure 4 shows. In this case.24 kWh/day.000 Wh/day 204 Wh/day Figure 4. Winter Irradiance mean. considered as critical. This subsystem drives all the fitting points and the load calibration of the PV array and the gas generator sets.24 kWh/day Ef (0.75) MAIN BUS 0 LOAD FED PLC USER INTERFACE Pot: 760 W CONTROL RELAY CD/CD CONVERTERS BATTERIES MULTI-ISOLATOR Demand 18. and the losses due to the .Valves Valtek: 75 Watts. therefore. like: the losses associated to the energy storage in the battery bank. The PV array is the main source of electricity generation in the hybrid EGSAS and must be appropriately sized to supply the total energy demanded by the working load at the platform (18. and the incorporation of the An energy storage subsystem composed by a bank of electrochemical nickel-cadmium batteries (4.9 kWp RD (0. This loads in the platform. Power requirements. These properties of the EGSAS are basically due to the used technology in the main generation source. the hybrid EGSAS must meet with this standard covering every component within a shelter. Summer Figure 3. 3.875) CD/CA INVERTER HEAT EXCHANGER ROOMS VENTILATION INTERIOR LIGHTING 240 Wh/day 720 Wh/day 7. This configuration of the constitutive elements of the EGSAS makes it highly reliable and available for supplying the electrical energy demanded by the loads.280 AH @ 24VCD G Transmission losses: 6. both the configuration of the hybrid EGSAS and its constitutive elements should provide this higher level of reliability and availability..GAS GENERATION PV ARRAYS ENERGY CONTROL AND STORAGE POWER CONDITIONING 4.SCD: 520 Watts. For the estimation of the demanded electrical energy. just as the room pressurization-ventilation. 2. Therefore.280 Ah @ 24 VCD). Technical restrictions. 600 500 400 300 200 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Hour Irradiance mean. with descriptive purposes. According to Mexican Standard NOM-001. 4.. In general terms. the power of the working load at the platform is 760 Watts and corresponds to: 1. Average daily irradiance on the plane of PV array. in combination with two natural gas generator sets of 6 kW which constitute the secondary generation source (a redundant backup).

RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS Using hybrid EGSAS in offshore oil platforms (uninhabited) is an reliable and robust choice in order to supply locally electrical energy.9 19.0 19.2 18.6 14. The battery bank which provides some autonomy to the hybrid system under a fault or failure of both electricity generation sources is also the element which under normal operation of the main source generation. JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC GAS PROD 3. manager of project of AIC-PEPPEMEX in Mexico.2 18.0 0.0 0. Jiménez H. and d). Table 1 shows the monthly PV energy production maximum levels (kWh/day) of the EGSAS through the year.The requirements of additional energy in power consumption for meeting with the Class I. specially in the main generation source (PV).24 kWh/day 20 15 10 Table 5.0 Surplus Deficit Genset Op.4 40 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 42 107 In this case..6 3.8 18.1 --------- 3.0 0.0 2. variability of the irradiance during the year. Oct. because of it requires a minimum maintenance and meets the standardization referent to hazardous (classified) location as Class I.2 18. the operative logic of the EGSAS is that these must operate only during a short time period.0 17. However.0 0.0 0.2 16.2 0. and even though they have the capacity to feed the load by themselves.8 21.0 17. cloudy days.2 18.2 18.0 1.2 20. REFERENCES [1] González R.13 kWh/day.The magnitude of daily work load demand. the energy Authors wish to acknowledge the support of Ing. In the same way. working at 80% of its nominal power. 2006. Power consumption and losses. the daily electricity production scenario of the PV-Gas hybrid EGSAS is shown in figure 5.8 1.9 Month Figure 5. the appropriated sizing is essential for ensuring and maximizing its operational availability and reliability. and typical distance between the EGSAS and loads distribution board (50-70 m).57 kWh/day). part of the energy daily generated by the PV array..The losses by storing the energy in the batteries during daily duty cycle.28 kWh/day.. additionally to the magnitude of daily work load demand (18.3 16.0 1.2 0. “Evaluación de los Sistemas Autónomos de Generación Eléctrica Híbrida en las Plataformas Satélites del Campo Nohoch y la Plataforma Akal-CI del Complejo Akal-J”. Report No. This energy is available to be supplied to the load during the periods of low or null insolation. where the following factors must be considered: a). The gas generator sets are the secondary generation sources in the system (redundant backup).16 kWh/day..).24 kWh/day). Daily electricity production estimates for EGSAS. PV Production (kWh/day) JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC ANNUAL 15.1 4.energy transportation from the generation source to the working loads. Hybrid EGSAS Operation.0 22. ACKNOWLEDGMENT 5 0 contribution to the EGSAS of the gas generator sets. like fortuitous circumstances where the PV array generates less electricity than the designed or estimated value (v.0 0.6 1.4 --------------------------------1. The daily electricity consumption by the EGSAS for supplying its power consumption is of 8. Lindoro Marín R. Division 2.2 18. Division 2 standardization. and the estimated monthly and annual time of operation of these secondary generation sources.0 0. during the day.. in order to assure an absolute energetic availability and reliability of the hybrid EGSAS.2 18. Taking into account the previous information. b).g.8 3. the losses by storing the energy in the batteries during daily duty cycle is of 2. IIE/01/14/13019/I 001/F/DC. etc. Energy balance. (kWh/day) (kWh/day) (Hr/month) --------3.4 PV PROD 15. the energy provided by the gas generator sets represents 4% of the annual energy demanded by the loads.4 0. .0 0.2 19.6 3. the surplus PV energy with respect to the demanded by the working load. PV Production and Gas conventional (kWh/day) 25 Requested Net Energy of System: 18.4 23. Last two factors may be significant if both are considered the operation voltage (24 VCD).6 14. In practice this means around 107 hours/year of operation of one of the gas generator sets.2 18. The hybrid EGSAS has to produce also this energy (11.9 19.. and the losses by transmitting electricity from the generation point to the loads distribution board is of 1. storage. c).The losses by transmitting electricity from the generation point to the consume point.