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**Introduction/Revision of Some Fundamental Concepts
**

Kinetic Energy

It can be shown that kinetic energy

1

mv 2 where m is mass and v is velocity.

2

Potential Energy

A body has potential energy by virtue of its position. The reference level of potential energy

is arbitrary; only differences in potential energy at two different levels have physical

significance.

Velocity

The average velocity of a particle during a specified time interval is a vector quantity defined

as the displacement of the particle during that time interval divided by the time interval.

Acceleration

In most cases, the velocity of a moving body changes as the motion proceeds and the body is

said to move with accelerated motion or to have an acceleration.

The average acceleration of a particle during a specified time interval is a vector quantity

defined as the change in velocity of the particle during the time interval divided by the time

interval.

Motion in Circle at Constant Speed

A particle moving in a circle of radius r at constant speed v has acceleration a which at each

v2

instant is directed towards the centre of the circle and has magnitude

. This is called the

r

‘centripetal’ (centre seeking) acceleration. It is this acceleration that accomplishes the

continuous turning of the velocity vector in direction, without change of speed.

Newton’s Principles

From the second principle we conclude that F ma . For motion in a circle as discussed in

v2

the previous section, the acceleration is given by

. If the particle has mass m, it must be

r

acted upon by a force F ma if it is to have this acceleration. This force is called the

centripetal force and its magnitude is

F

mv 2

r

**Since the centripetal acceleration is directed towards the centre of the circle, the centripetal
**

force is also directed towards the centre of the circle.

Principle of Universal Gravitation

1

represented by J. r 4 0 0 8. is defined as the ratio of the current to the cross-sectional area.m / Kg Coulomb’s Principle The electric force between two point charges is proportional to the magnitude of each of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charges QQ F 2 1 2 where 0 is a dimensional constant known as the permittivity of free space. is divided by the quantity of charge Q on the test charge.m 2 . e the electron charge. Current is represented by the letter i (or I) i dq dt i nevA where n is the number of free electrons per unit volume. or dq . The magnitude of the field at any point. The equation expressing this relation for a given pair of particles of masses m 1 and m2 is mm F G 1 2 2 where r is the distance between the two particles and G is a fixed r proportionality constant called the gravitation constant. E F F or sometimes lower case Q q In other words. J i A nev The direction of the current is in the opposite direction to the direction of motion of the electrons. v the average velocity of the electrons and A the cross section of the wire.Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other with a gravitational force. represented by E. Force on a Moving Charge 2 . Current The rate at which charge is transported across a section of a wire. The value of G is 11 2 2 6.670 10 N. Electric Field An electric field is said to exist at a point if a force of electrical origin is exerted on a charged body placed at the point. The current density in the wire. is defined as the quotient obtained when the force F on a test charge placed at the point. is called the current dt in the wire. the magnitude of an electric field is the force per unit charge.85 10 12 C2 N.

This energy gain manifests itself as an increase in 1 kinetic energy. eV mv 2 where V is the accelerating potential. i.s 3 .s and F is the frequency. second finger in the direction of speed or velocity. an increase in mass starts to take place. moving with velocity v perpendicular to the direction of a uniform magnetic field. It is the energy gained by an electron in being accelerated through 1 volt. As very high velocities are achieved. In nuclear reactions and particle accelerators. contrary to what is shown in programmes such as Star Trek.1 x 10 31 kg Planck’s Constant is 6. Clearly. f and the wavelength. Useful Data 1 A or Angstrom is 10 10 m 10 8 cm 0.e. The energy of the photons or quanta is given by E hf where h is Planck’s constant equal to 6.63 x 10 34 J. F Bqv Clearly. 2 Electromagnetic Radiation The electromagnetic spectrum covers an extremely large frequency range.63 10 34 J. c.1 x 10 31 kg Velocity of Light is 3 x 10 8 m / sec Mass of electron is 9. the force on electrons having negative charge is in the opposite direction to the force on positive charges. particles of matter cannot travel at the velocity of light. is c f . is found to experience a force F in a direction as given by the left-hand rule.6 10 17 Joules. Electron Volt The electron volt is a very small ‘slang’ unit of energy and is equal to 1. The thumb then points in the direction of the Thrust or force.1nm 1 nanometre = 10 9 metres 1nm 10 A 1 micrometre = 10 6 metres 1 m 1000nm Electron Charge = 1. Note carefully.A positive charge q.6 10 19 1. Photons or quanta always travel at the velocity of light. The relationship between c. velocities for entitites such as electrons and protons can approach to within a few per cent of those for light. etc.6 10 19 Joules. B. but never actually reach it. the gain in energy in being accelerated through 100 volts is 100 electron volts 100 1. which in free space or vacuum can be taken to be 3 108 m / s .6 x 10 19 Coulombs Electron Mass = 9. First finger points in the direction of the field.

4 . Light of frequency f.First observed by Heinrich Hertz in 1887.Wave – Particle Duality Photoelectric Effect Pre – 1900 – Classical Theories Light This was thought of as purely a wave phenomenon and its properties could be explained by Maxwell type of equations. then provided they have sufficient energy to overcome the retarding force field set up by voltage Vg between grid and cathode. The effect may be demonstrated by using an apparatus of the type shown in the diagram. (usually metals). Incident light (frequency f) electrons collector anode grid vacuum envelope photocurrent photocathode microammeter Vg Va A photoelectric experiment.Wave Mechanical. The Photoelectric Effect . then it is possible for electrons to be emitted from the solid. they will be swept to the anode and a current registered on the microammeter in series with it. This is called the Photoelectric Effect. Wave – particle duality is fundamental to understanding modern physical electronics. Post – 1900 . Electrons and Nuclei Distinct particles since they possess charge and mass and properties could be explained by Newtonian Mechanics. illuminates a cold cathode situated inside a vacuum tube. If electrons are emitted. Quantum Mechanical Theories Phenomena such as black body radiation and photoelectric effect could not be explained satisfactorily by classical theory. If light of sufficiently short wavelength impinges on the surface of certain solids.

no emission is observed. which is dependant on the cathode material.A diagram illustrating the emission of electrons from a metal plate. the photocurrent can be measured as a function of grid voltage Vg and of light intensity keeping collector voltage. Vg accelerating Variation of photocurrent with grid voltage in the photoelectric experiment. Unless the frequency of the incident light is greater than some critical value f0. 5 . no matter how intense the light. high light intensity low light intensity -V0 retarding 0 Grid voltage. constant to give typical collector current data of the form shown. requiring energy gained from an incoming photon to be more than the work function of the material. Experimental Results Two points to note. collector photocurrent For constant light frequency and provided f is greater than f 0.

K.No matter what the intensity of the light. in this case. V0 (stopping potential) which entirely inhibits emission. ie. Some of the energy is used to overcome the binding forces and the remainder is converted to kinetic energy of the emitted electron. This implies that the maximum kinetic energy of emitted electrons is constant and independent of the intensity of the incident light. a straight line is produced with a slope of h .. is known as the work function of the material. of emitted electron = photon energy – work function 6 . providing the frequency is high There is no explanation for the threshold frequency. ~ 10 enough. if the light is of sufficient intensity. there is a constant retarding voltage. Quantum Explanation of Einstein – 1905 Each photon has an energy equal to hf and this is the total energy used in the interaction. Contradictions to Classical Theory Electrons are emitted instantaneously. 14 s . If we plot a graph of stopping potential against incident (V0) Stopping Potential light frequency. The maximum energy of emitted photoelectrons is not dependent on the intensity of the incoming radiation. e Constant Slope Incident Light Frequency (f) Classical Theory Explanation According to the Classical Theory electrons can gain sufficient energy to be emitted if the light is bright enough.E.

5 volts i. When ultraviolet light of wavelength 300 nm falls on a zinc surface.Individual Events Wave Theory . 0.5 volts is required to stop the most energetic electrons. f0 is the critical frequency or threshold frequency.Statistical average of a large number of events. The wave theory of light and the quantum theory of light complement each other..5 electron volts (eV). The frequency f can be obtained from c f .5 V must be applied to keep the most energetic electrons from reaching the collector.63 x 10 Joules 7 . a retarding potential of 0.6 X 10-19 Joules and is the energy gained by an electron in going through a potential difference of 1 volt. Determine the work function. Solution Since 0. E = hf = 6. 1 Watt = 1 Amp = 1Ǻ = 1 Joule per sec 1 Coulomb per sec 10-10m Ǻ known as an Angstrom Unit The photoelectric yield is the number of electrons given off or emitted by a single photon or quantum. Example 1. the wavelength of the photoelectric threshold and the retarding potential required for light of 200 nm wavelength. Then hf0 f0 h . this is equal to the energy required in accelerating an electron through a potential difference of 0.f 3 10 8 300 10 9 1 1015 Hz 34 Energy of a photon. Quantum Theory .1 mv 2 2 hf eV0 The limiting case when the photon energy is equal to the work function and an electron is just emitted with zero kinetic energy. 1 electron volt (eV) = 1.63 x 10 1 x 1015 -19 = 6.e.

945 10 19 8.58 eV Thus a retarding potential of 2.5 eV 3.63 10 19 f 34 5. hf0 f c 3 10 8 600 10 6.5 volts 1 2 mv max 2 0.945 10 19 Joules 19 6.64 eV hf 3. E 5.63 10 34 hf 1. Light of wavelength 500 nm is incident on the surface.14 eV 0.22 3. f 34 6.63 10 1 mv 2 2 hf 1 2 mv max 2 hf E 4.5 1015 9 1.5 1015 Hz 9.63 10 c f .22 eV 19 6.63 10 9.6 10 34 6.14 eV 19 1.5 eV 4.78 1014 HZ 200 nm wavelength.19 6. Example 2 The threshold wavelength to stop all emission from a photoelectric surface is 600 nm.6 19 6.6 10 0.64 2.824 10 3 108 200 10 1.63 10 34 3. Determine: (a) the work function of the material (b) the maximum velocity of the emitted electrons Solution At the threshold condition.824 10 19 6.315 10 19 9 and c f 5 1014 Hz 5 1014 Joules 8 .58 volts would be needed for the light of 200 nm wavelength.64 1.

457 1011 v 6 1014 3.315 10 19 Joules 19 19 v2 9.326 10 1.1 10 34 31 3.78 10 20 1 mv 2 2 0.315 10 19 1.3. f 1 mv 2 2 6.63 10 1 mv 2 2 39.07 eV electron volts h 6 1014 Hz 500 nm.817 10 5 m / s 9 19 .6 10 19 1 mv 2 2 for 2.326 10 v2 1.315 10 3.663 10 19 mv 2 1.

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