# Biochemistry I

Lecture 17

Oct 8, 2007

Lecture 17: Enzyme Kinetics
Assigned reading in Lehninger: 6.3, pg 202-4
Key Terms:
Michaelis-Menton Equation: Vo = Vmax[S]/(Km+[S])
Vmax = kcat[Etotal]
Km = (k-1+kcat)/k1

1. Utility of enzyme kinetic analyses

Elucidating enzyme mechanism and comparisons between enzymes
Predicting enzyme activity under various conditions
Development of enzyme inhibitors (or activators) as therapeutic agents

2. Definitions of terms
k1

E + S"
\$# ES \$kcat
\$# E + P
k-1

!

k1 is the forward rate constant for substrate binding.
k-1 is the reverse rate constant for substrate binding.
ES is the enzyme-substrate complex.
kcat is the catalytic rate constant (containing terms
related to stabilization of the transition state).
Km (k-1+k2/k1) is approximates the affinity of enzyme for substrate when
kcat << k-1

3. Derivation of the Michaelis-Menton equation based on the Steady State
Assumption:

Vo =

VMAX [S]
K m + [S]

This is the Michaelis-Menton equation.

4. Important constants that describe the enzymatic reaction:

!

Km or Michaelis constant: K m =

k"1 + k cat
k1

This is almost the same as the KD (=k-1/k1) dissociation constant, except
for the presence of the kcat term. Therefore it is related to the affinity or
strength of binding of a substrate to the enzyme. Km is equal to the
!
substrate concentration
that gives 1/2 of the maximal velocity, in a similar
manner that KD is given by the [L] that gives Y=0.5.

1

2007 Vmax = kcat[ET] This is the highest rate of product production possible. or efficiency. and [S]: Vo = • kcat [E T ][S] km High Substrate: At high substrate concentrations ([S]>>Km) the rate becomes independent of [S] since all of the enzyme molecules are !saturated with [S]. Therefore the intrinsic efficiency of an enzyme at high substrate concentrations is given by kcat. The overall rate depends on the total amount of enzyme. In other words.Biochemistry I • Lecture 17 Oct 8. [ET]. moles of product formed in a defined period by a mole of enzyme) when the enzyme is fully saturated with substrate. [ET]. The overall rate depends only on kcat and the total amount of enzyme. It is obtained at high substrate levels ([S]>>Km). Vo = VMAX = k cat [E T ] . Under these conditions all of the enzyme is in the [ES] form (i.g. 5.e. the intrinsic efficiency of an enzyme at low substrate levels is given by kcat/Km. of enzyme systems Vo = • VMAX [S] K m + [S] Low Substrate: At low substrate concentrations ([S]<<Km) the efficiency of an enzyme will depend both on how efficiently it can bind substrate as ! well as how well it can perform the chemical step (kcat). [ES]=[ET]). ! 2 . • Turnover number or catalytic efficiency: kcat = Vmax/[ET] This is the number of reactions performed by a single enzyme molecule in a certain period of time (e. Throughput.