What is data guard in simple language?

A1

Your primary database is running and you want to reduce downtime because of unplanned outages.
You create a replica of this primary database (termed as standby database).

You regularly ship redo generated in the primary database to standby database and apply it there. So
that is our ‘Data Guard’ standby database and it is in a continuous state of recovery, validating and
applying redo to remain in sync with the primary database.

Q2

Your standby database was out of reach because of network issue. How will you synchronize it with
primary database again?

A2

Data Guard automatically resynchronizes the standby following network or standby outages using
redo data that has been archived at the primary.

Q3

What is Redo Transport Services (RTS)?

A3

This process takes care of the transmission of redo from a primary database to the standby database.

Below is how Redo Transport Services (RTS) works:

1) Log Network Server (LNS) reads redo information from the redo buffer in SGA of PRIMARY
Database

2) Log Network Server (LNS) passes redo to Oracle Net Services for transmission to the STANDBY
database

3) Remote File Server (RFS) records the redo information transmitted by the LNS at the STANDBY
database

4) Remote File Server (RFS) writes it to a sequential file called a standby redo log file (SRL) at the
STANDBY database

** For multi-standby configuration, the primary database has a separate LNS process for each standby
database.

** Two redo transport methods are supported with the LNS process: synchronous (SYNC) or
asynchronous (ASYNC).

Q4

What is the difference between SYNC and ASYNC redo transport method?

A4

Synchronous transport (SYNC)

Also known as a “zero data loss” redo transport menthod.

Below is how it works:

1) Log Network Server (LNS) reads redo information from the redo buffer in SGA of PRIMARY
Database

This removes the performance impact on the primary database irrespective of the distance between primary and standby locations. Asynchronous transport (ASYNC) eliminates the requirement that the LGWR wait for acknowledgement from the LNS. the LNS automatically transitions to reading and sending from the Online Redo logs.2) Log Network Server (LNS) passes redo to Oracle Net Services for transmission to the STANDBY database 3) Remote File Server (RFS) records the redo information transmitted by the LNS at the STANDBY database 4) Remote File Server (RFS) writes it to a sequential file called a standby redo log file (SRL) at the STANDBY database 5) Remote File Server (RFS) transmits an acknowledgement back to the LNS process on the primary database 6) Log Network Server (LNS) notifies the LGWR that transmission is complete on the primary database. . 7) Log Writer (LGWR) acknowledges the commit to the user. So if the LNS is unable to keep pace and the log buffer is recycled before the redo can be transmitted to the standby. Asynchronous transport (ASYNC) Unlike SYNC.

Q1 . it automatically transitions back to reading & sending directly from the log buffer. Say a failure destroyed the primary database before any transport lag was reduced to zero. The only drawback of ASYNC is the increased potential for data loss. 6 & 7 as discussed above for SYNC are not applicable here. Below is how it works: 1) Log Network Server (LNS) reads redo information from the redo buffer in SGA of PRIMARY Database 2) Log Network Server (LNS) passes redo to Oracle Net Services for transmission to the STANDBY database 3) Remote File Server (RFS) records the redo information transmitted by the LNS at the STANDBY database 4) Remote File Server (RFS) writes it to a sequential file called a standby redo log file (SRL) at the STANDBY database so step 5.Once the LNS is caught up. So it is highly advisable to have enough network bandwidth to handle peak redo generation rates when using ASYNC method. this means any committed transactions that were a part of the transport lag will be lost.

At checkpoint. the server will makes all database file SCNs and control file SCN consistent with respect to an identical SCN.What is SCN? A1 The SCN is an Oracle server–assigned number that indicates a committed version of the database. It’s quite possible that different datafiles in the database might have a different SCN at any given point in time. so you will have to apply archive logs to make the data current and synchronize the SCNs across the datafiles. Q2 What is the significance of fast_start_mttr_target parameter? .The datafiles will not contain any database changes beyond that common SCN. you may end up with backups of the various datafiles at various time points and different SCNs and you can not open a database without synchronizing the SCN on all data files. This synchronization of the SCNs will make sure we have a consistent backup of database. When you are doing hot backup.

During instance recovery. Q3 There was a media failure. you control the gap between the checkpoint position and the end of the redo log. This is called Mean Time to Recover (MTTR). The maximum value of this parameter is 3600 seconds (1 hour). Thus. the database server must apply all transactions between the last checkpoint and the end of the redo log to the datafiles. which lists all files that need media recovery. in order to tune instance recovery. Oracle will try to recover the instance as close as possible to the time that you specify for the fast_start_mttr_target parameter. . in the first roll forward operation. How can you find which files you must recover? A3 By querying the V$RECOVER_FILE view.A2 You use the Oracle initialization parameter fast_start_mttr_target to specify the number of seconds you want the crash recovery to take.

you can test whether you will be able to do it or not – Incremental backup! only RMAN can do that. .Q4 What are the benefits of RMAN over user-managed backup-recovery process? A4 – powerful Data Recovery Advisor feature – simpler backup and recovery commands – automatically manages the backup files without DBA intervention. – Without actually restoring data. – automatically deletes unnecessary backup datafiles and archived redo log files both from disk and tape. – provides you with detailed reporting of backup actions – Easy to duplicate a database or create standby database.

you can perform database duplication without backups by using the network enabled database duplication feature – automatically detects corrupt data blocks during backups – Data block level recovery possible in case only few DB blocks are corrupt – Encrypted backups possible – Use RMAN with a variety of third-party storage systems easily With so many benefits. you need to be well prepared for any kind of contingency situation. As a DBA. RMAN shold be used as primary backup-recovery tool.– Active Duplication! (11g new feature). Q5 How important is Database Redundancy Set and where you should plan to keep it? A5 Database Redundancy Set is essential set of recovery-related files. .

password file. file systems. and RAID devices to hold the two sets of files You can set up FRA for keeping the redundancy set. . Oracle recommends the flash recovery area as a logical candidate to keep a copy of all the files belonging to the redundancy set (which includes the most recent database backup) on disk. They should be completely separated by using different volumes. tnsnames. use at least two disk drives(one for the redundancy set and the other for the datafiles).It should contain below: – Recent backups of all datafiles & control file (duplex or triplex the control file at database level) – All archived redo logs made after the last backup – Current control files and online redo file copies (duplex online redo files at database level) – Oracle database-related configuration file copies (spfile.ora and listener. If you using ASM. disk controllers.ora files etc) Operating system mirroring is good. try to have atleast Normal redundancy. but you should do database level mirroring wherever possible. When setting up production systems.

Q7 . you can restore RMAN’s backup and recovery information (called RMAN’s repository). the control file is automatically backed up. RMAN> configure controlfile autobackup on Now at the end of every RMAN backup command. when you lose all your control files and aren’t using the optional recovery catalog. Even when you make some changes via SQL*Plus( say creating a new tablespace or adding or renaming a datafile or an online redo log member). This is highly recommended. Below command can be used to have automatic control file backup to be taken. Also.Q6 What is the benefit of making automatic control file backup to ON? A6 Remember that control file is absolutely necessary during a recovery. RMAN automatically backs up the control file.

This is an in-memory view (means will not persist thru a database restart)and is not recorded in the controlfile. This is an alternative way of accessing the RMAN output information For Example: Review the last two days worth of rman output: select output from v$rman_output where session_recid in (select session_recid from v$rman_status where start_time > sysdate-2) order by recid .What is the significance of RMAN view V$RMAN_OUTPUT? A7 V$RMAN_OUTPUT displays messages reported by RMAN. . This information straight out of the database by using SQL queries. Sometimes RMAN log files may have already been overwritten by the next backup or simply just deleted.

… . Starting backup at 09-FEB-14 current log archived allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1 channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=124 instance=BRIJ devtype=DISK allocated channel: ORA_DISK_2 channel ORA_DISK_2: sid=126 instance=BRIJ devtype=DISK ….OUTPUT ———————————————————————————————————————————- connected to target database: BRIJ (DBID=3142459675) using target database control file instead of recovery catalog echo set on backup archivelog all not backed up delete all input.

– onlinelog: Online redo logs can also be made to go to the flash recovery area . if configured to go to the flash recovery area. – autobackup: for control file autobackups. you will see flashback logs in this subdirectory.Q8 What all you can store in Flash Recovery Area(FRA)? Can one FRA directory be used for more than one database? A8 Oracle can store different kind of files under FRA: – backupset: for RMAN regular backups. – datafile: for RMAN image copies. – flashback: If your database runs in flashback mode. – archivelog: for Archived redo logs – controlfile: The control file.

.You can use the same flash recovery area for as many databases as you want.SPACE_RECLAIMABLE. The RMAN backup process will create a subdirectory called <SID_NAME>.NUMBER_OF_FILES from v$recovery_file_dest.SPACE_LIMIT/1024/1024/1024 TOTAL_GB.—————– ————— /u01/oracle/DB11G/fast_recovery_area 16 1.SPACE_USED/1024/1024/1024 USED_GB. Q9 Which views can be used for Checking Space Usage in the FRA? A9 Check Below. SQL> select NAME. NAME TOTAL_GB USED_GB SPACE_RECLAIMABLE NUMBER_OF_FILES ————————————————– ———.———. the same name as the database you are backing up.13197899 0 3 .

12 0 1 BACKUP PIECE 6.————— CONTROL FILE 0 0 0 REDO LOG 0 0 0 ARCHIVED LOG .95 0 2 IMAGE COPY 0 0 0 FLASHBACK LOG 0 0 0 FOREIGN ARCHIVED LOG 0 0 0 7 rows selected. FILE_TYPE PERCENT_SPACE_USED PERCENT_SPACE_RECLAIMABLE NUMBER_OF_FILES ——————– —————— ————————. Q 10 .SQL> select * from v$flash_recovery_area_usage.

So we will always try to put control file in a safe and stable place. Similarly online logs are equally important and loosing them can also cause database to crash. You will be able to start database easily by removing that control file from the control file parameter in the initialization parameter file .Is putting control file and online redo logs in Flash Recovery Area (FRA) advisable? A 10 Control file is very important file for the database operation. Loosing a single control file will make the database unstable and will lead to interruption in service. then you lose one of the control files and the online redo log. incomplete recovery and possible data loss. then you should put one control file and one redo member/log group there. CASE 1: Usually the flash recovery area and the main database disks are located in such a way that the probability of both going down at the same time is very slim. If the flash recovery area fails. CASE 2: If your flash recovery area is NOT as reliable as the main database storage. the chance of failure in the flash recovery area is greater compared to the main database disks. And If your flash recovery area is in a storage location as reliable as the main database storage. It will surely help you in quick and complete recovery.

which is very undesirable.(copying online log from the secondary Non-FRA location) and restarting it but you will have an interruption of production service. so risk of loosing control file and (and fear of not able to do complete recovery) is more. Scenario B) Besides FRA. we have multiplexed Control files to only one other separate location. Q 11 How can you make sure that only one of the redo log member is created in FRA? . Scenario A) Besides FRA. Here we can go and put the control file in FRA. we have multiplexed Control files to two other separate location. so risk of loosing control file (and fear of not able to do complete recovery) is minimized We won’t be putting even a single control file in the FRA. Complete recovery of database is of primary importance to you than the database interruption.

GROUP# STATUS TYPE MEMBER IS_RECOVERY_DEST_FILE ———. SQL> Show parameter db_recovery_file_dest NAME TYPE VALUE ———————————— ———– —————————— db_recovery_file_dest string /u01/oracle/DB11G/fast_recovery_area SQL> alter system set db_create_file_dest =’/u01/oracle/DB11G/oradata'. Database altered. System altered.A 11 If you want only one member of the group in the flash recovery area and the other one in the regular database file location. SQL> alter database add logfile group 4.————————————————– ———————– .——.——. SQL> select * from v$logfile. you should define two parameters—the flash recovery area and db_create_file_dest.

log NO 4 ONLINE /u01/oracle/DB11G/oradata/brij/BRIJ/onlinelog/o1_mf_5_9hl8zjmt_.log append (use with append clause if you don’t wanna overwrite existing file) .3 ONLINE /u01/oracle/DB11G/oradata/brij/redo03.log’ OR $ rman log /tmp/rman_log.log YES Q 12 How can you create log of your RMAN activity? A 12 Two ways to do it A) WHILE STARTING RMAN $ rman log=’tmp/rman_log.log NO 4 ONLINE /u01/oracle/DB11G/fast_recovery_area/BRIJ/onlinelog/o1_mf_5_9hl8zjsz_.log NO 1 ONLINE /u01/oracle/DB11G/oradata/brij/redo01.log NO 2 ONLINE /u01/oracle/DB11G/oradata/brij/redo02.

RMAN> spool log off. (use with append clause if you don’t wanna overwrite existing file “spool log to ‘/tmp/rman_log.Also If you are running RMAN interactively and you want to see output on your terminal screen as well as have it written to a log file. ** you can use any writeable directory and log file name. .log B) WHILE INSIDE RMAN $rman RMAN> spool log to ‘/tmp/rman_log.log'.) . use tee command: $ rman | tee /tmp/rman..log’ append.

.Q 13 Can Recovery Catalog database also be shutdown from RMAN prompt like TARGET Database can be done? A 13 All the shutdown and startup commands applies only to the target database. Q 14 How to check the syntax of RMAN commands? A 14 Start the RMAN client with the operating system command-line argument checksyntax. You can’t start and stop the recovery catalog instance from RMAN. The only way to start up and shut down the recovery catalog instance is by connecting to the recovery catalog database as the target database and by issuing the relevant commands to start or stop the instance.

2011. Example: $ rman checksyntax @/tmp/rmancmdfile Q 15 Does using recovery catalog means RMAN won’t use the control file to store information? .2. Oracle and/or its affiliates.0 – Production on Wed Feb 12 14:36:22 2014 Copyright (c) 1982.4. RMAN> connect target / The command has no syntax errors RMAN> backup database. The command has no syntax errors You can also use the checksyntax argument to check the syntax of RMAN commands that are part of a command file. All rights reserved.0.$ rman checksyntax Recovery Manager: Release 11.

A 15 No. Even when you choose to use a recovery catalog. Q 16 What is the benefit of using Recovery Catalog? A 16 – provides larger storage capacity. backup information will continue to be stored in the control file as well by default. . thus enabling access to a longer history of backups – you can create and store RMAN scripts in the recovery catalog and Any client that can connect to the recovery catalog and a target database can use these stored scripts – Can service many target databases – you can use ‘KEEP FOREVER’ clause of RMAN backup command.

It’ll then compare the contents of the recovery catalog to the contents of the snapshot control file and update the recovery catalog by adding the missing information and modifying the changed backup and schema related records. . starting full resync of recovery catalog full resync complete When above command is executed. RMAN> resync catalog.– Allows you to list the data files and tablespaces that are or were in the target database at a given time Q 17 What is the significance of ‘resync catalog’ RMAN command? A 17 The resync catalog command is used in order to update or resynchronize a recovery catalog from the target database control file. so you must connect to the recovery catalog as well as to the target database in order to perform the resynchronization. RMAN will first create a snapshot control file. Since sync is done from Target database control file.

Q 18 You want to move your recovery catalog from one database to another. When you issue certain RMAN commands such as the backup command.It means that we will keep parameter control_file_record_keep_time longer than our backup interval. so that the data in the control file gets transferred to the recovery catalog before that data is overwritten. How you can do it? A 18 Moving Recovery catalog to another database is simple process a) Create a new recovery catalog in the target database. You don’t need to register any database to it b) Use the import catalog command in RMAN after connecting to the target database: . RMAN automatically performs a resynchronization.

Q 19 What are the most important recovery catalog views? A 19 Below are some of the frequently used views: RC_STORED_SCRIPT: Information about RMAN scripts stored in the recovery catalog. .$ rman RMAN> connect catalog rman_new/rman@target_database RMAN> import catalog rman_old/rman@source_database. The import catalog command will import the source recovery catalog contents into the target recovery catalog.

RC_UNUSABLE_BACKUPFILE_DETAILS: Lists the unusable backup files recorded in the recovery catalog. RC_DATABASE: Shows the databases registered in the recovery catalog. RC_ARCHIVED_LOG: Provides historical information on both archived as well as unarchived redo logs. RC_DATAFILE: Shows all datafiles registered in the recovery catalog. RC_RMAN_CONFIGURATION: Information about persistent configuration settings. Q 20 How to check the version of your recovery catalog? A 20 . This view doesn’t contain information about any operations that are currently executing. RC_RMAN_STATUS: Similar to V$RMAN_STATUS view and shows the status of all RMAN operations.

VERSION ———— 11.02.00.04 Q 21 What all files can NOT be backed up by RMAN? A 21 1) Oracle home-related files 2) External files 3) Network configuration files 4) Password files [ POST VIEWS : 152 ] What are Oracle Clusterware processes for 10g on Unix and Linux .You can easily check the version of your recovery catalog by issuing the following command from SQL*Plus after logging in as the recovery catalog owner: RMAN@rmandb > select * from rcver.

Oracle RAC instances use two processes. What are Oracle database background processes specific to RAC •LMS—Global Cache Service Process •LMD—Global Enqueue Service Daemon •LMON—Global Enqueue Service Monitor •LCK0—Instance Enqueue Process To ensure that each Oracle RAC database instance obtains the block that it needs to satisfy a query or transaction. This process runs as the root user Event manager daemon (evmd) —A background process that publishes events that crs creates. An OPROCD failure results in Oracle Clusterware restarting the node. and so on) based on the resource’s configuration information that is stored in the OCR. a virtual IP (VIP) address. Process Monitor Daemon (OPROCD) —This process monitor the cluster and provide I/O fencing. stops running. the Global Cache Service (GCS) and the Global Enqueue Service (GES). ● Central reference of all nodes and keeps the heart beat information between nodes in terms of votes . stop. a service. an application process. and if the wake up is beyond the expected time. then OPROCD resets the processor and reboots the node. Runs server callout scripts when FAN events occur. What are Oracle Clusterware Components Voting Disk — ● Oracle RAC uses the voting disk to manage cluster membership by way of a health check and arbitrates cluster ownership among the instances in case of network failures. OPROCD performs its check. Cluster Ready Services (crsd) — The crs process manages cluster resources (which could be a database. The GRD contents are distributed across all of the active instances. The GCS and GES maintain records of the statuses of each data file and each cached block using a Global Resource Directory (GRD). an instance. racgimon) —Extends clusterware to support Oracle-specific requirements and complex resources. OPROCD uses the hangcheck timer on Linux platforms. monitor and failover operations. RACG (racgmain.Cluster Synchronization Services (ocssd) — Manages cluster node membership and runs as the oracle user. The voting disk must reside on shared disk. This includes start. failure of this process results in cluster restart. a Listener.

and use -import option to restore the contents back. when you start the cluster it is empty. The OCR must reside on shared disk that is accessible by all of the nodes in your cluster Oracle Cluster Interconnect — In other words also called as private interconnect. The default location is : $ORA_CRS_HOMEcdata”clustername” To display backups : #ocrconfig -showbackup To restore a backup : #ocrconfig –restore With Oracle RAC 10g Release 2 or later. transfer of blocks from one node to another) How do you backup the OCR There is an automatic backup mechanism for OCR. #dd if=voting_disk_name of=backup_file_name Voting disk backup is not required since this is non-persistent data and just records about the node (cluster membership) availability. with high speed gigabit channel or infiniband. How do I identify the voting disk location #crsctl query css votedisk . which is high speed . With Oracle RAC 11g Release 1. you can also use the export command: #ocrconfig -export -s online.Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) — Maintains cluster configuration information as well as configuration information about any cluster database within the cluster. This will be used by cluster to provide node membership and also inter cluster communication (aka global cache services . low latency network connection attached to private switches rather the public interfaces. you can do a manaual backup of the OCR with the command: # ocrconfig –manualbackup How do you backup voting disk & do you need to take a backup of voting Disk.

Why do we have a Virtual IP (VIP) in Oracle RAC? Without using VIPs or FAN. #crsctl query –activeversion Is ssh required for normal Oracle RAC operation ? “ssh” are not required for normal Oracle RAC operation. .loc or /etc/ocr. Cache Fusion is the remote memory mapping of Oracle buffers. Subsequent packets sent to the VIP go to the new node. shared between the caches of participating nodes in the cluster.loc ( depends upon platform) or #ocrcheck How to identify which version of Clusterware is running & active. you don’t really have a good HA solution without using VIPs. This communication is based on the TCP protocol. As a result. RAC uses the interconnect for cache fusion (UDP) and inter-process communication (TCP). clients connected to a node that died will often wait for a TCP timeout period (which can be up to 10 min) before getting an error. which will send error RST packets back to the clients. This results in the clients getting errors immediately. However “ssh” should be enabled for Oracle RAC and patchset installation. the VIP associated with it is automatically failed over to some other node and new node re-arps the world indicating a new MAC address for the IP. What is the purpose of Private Interconnect ? Clusterware uses the private interconnect for cluster synchronization (network heartbeat) and daemon communication between the the clustered nodes. When a node fails.How do I identify the OCR file location check /var/opt/oracle/ocr.

What do you do if you see GC CR BLOCK LOST in top 5 Timed Events in AWR Report? This is most likely due to a fault in interconnect network. support 100 nodes in a cluster using Oracle Clusterware. and 100 instances in a RAC database. There is one ons daemon started per clustered node. . The rdbms MMON is creating an advisory for distribution of work every 30seconds and forward it via racgimon and ONS to listeners and applications. Check netstat -s if you see “fragments dropped” or “packet reassemblies failed” . How many nodes are supported in a RAC Database? 10g Release 2. the 10gR2 Load Balancing Advisory.. This in order to facilitate: a. the FAN or Fast Application Notification feature or allowing applications to respond to database state changes. How to debug srvctl? Set the environmental variable SRVM_TRACE to true. Work with your system administrator find the fault with network. what is the purpose of the ONS daemon? The Oracle Notification Service (ONS) daemon is an daemon started by the CRS clusterware as part of the nodeapps. b. the feature that permit load balancing accross different rac nodes dependent of the load on the different nodes. The Oracle Notification Service daemon receive a subset of published clusterware events via the local evmd and racgimon clusterware daemons and forward those events to application subscribers and to the local listeners. Now you will get detailed error stack. And start the instance with srvctl.

which is there for backward compatibility. Basically a combination of GES and GCS. All the resources in the cluster group form a central repository called GRD. Which background process manages it? Other words called as Global cache services. .rac1. What is Node Mastering? The node which starts first in the cluster acts a master node. What is Dynamic Remastering? Every instance (node) owns the block(buffers) called master node for that blocks when accessed first time. a common memory structures across SGA’s. in other words this is the combination of GCS/GES memory structures (infact synchronizing all the times through cluster interconnect messages). upon receive the message (BST/AST) it manages the lock escalation and descalation with help of Global Enqueue services (LMD/LMON/LCK )processes. process the buffer and made a copy (if required) and then transfer that buffer to requested instance via cluster interconnect. If this crashes the other nodes who detects first will be the master node for that cluster. Cache fusion is to manage the buffers with in local or the global and transfers from instance to another .what is the ora. Each instance masters some of the resources (buffer) based on their weightage and accessibility) and together all formed called GRD. If the requests are more than 50 in an hour the mastership will be transferred to the other node. it has to send a request to the owning node to get the blocks (CR/CUR modes). basically LMS process take cares of the transfers. the RAC is running with Veritas cluster and the GSD will be synchronizing the instance details to Cluster. which is integrated and distributed across the nodes memory structures. If the other node requires the same. What is cache fusion. in other words in Oracle 9i.GSD in crs_stat? It is called Global Service Daemon. You can add the 9i instances to Oracle 10g or 11g RAC Clusters What is GRD? Global Resource directory .

we can. is a technique of keeping multiple copies of buffers consistent between different Oracle instances. before to that we should stop the clusterware and use oifcfg tool to delete the old and set the new interfaces. LMS process manages this in terms of local/global lock levels or with Message queues (AST/BST) How does instance recovery works in RAC databases? Can you change Private interconnect IP address or Ethernet interface after cluster installation? Yes.What is cache coherency which background process manages it? Cache coherency means that the contents of the caches in different nodes are in well defined state with respect to each other. for ex: #oifcfg –getif .

This Advisory monitors the current workload activity across the cluster and for each instance where a service is active. but you have to run vipca or using srvctl. There are 2 key parameters for this module: -> hangcheck-tick: this parameter defines the period of time between checks of system health. it provides a percentage value of how much of the total workload should be sent to this instance as well as service quality flag. If the system hangs or stop the node will be restarted automatically. its possible. please see here for complete steps What is the Load Balancing Advisory? To assist in the balancing of application workload across designated resources. you should only put the following files on Linux OCFS2: – Datafiles . Is the hangcheck timer still needed with Oracle RAC 10g? Yes What files can I put on Linux OCFS2? For optimal performance. Oracle Database 10g Release 2 provides the Load Balancing Advisory. Oracle recommends setting it to 30seconds.#oifcfg –delif #oifcfg –setif Can you change the Virutal IP after you install clusterware installation? Yes. What is hangcheck timer used for ? The hangcheck timer checks regularly the health of the system. -> hangcheck-margin: this defines the maximum hang delay that should be tolerated before hangcheck-timer resets the RAC node. The default value is 60 seconds.

etc.striping along with cluster filesystem capabilities. How do I identify the OCR file location . you must properly uninstall Oracle Clusterware and then re-install.– Control Files – Redo Logs – Archive Logs – Shared Configuration File (OCR) – Voting File – SPFILE What are various cluster file systems OCFS2. Can I change the name of my cluster after I have created it when I am using Oracle Clusterware? No. ASM is storage management provides storage mirroring. ASM. Does ASM cannot be used as Cluster filesystem. it also acts as volume manager eliminating the need of disk cache I/O layer from OS. NFS. Veritas Cluster Filesystems. Well yes. What command would you use to check the availability of the RAC system? crs_stat -t -v (-t -v are optional) Can you have many database versions in the same RAC? Yes. but Clusterware version must be greater than the greater database version.

loc ( depends upon platform) or #ocrcheck How do I identify the voting disk location #crsctl query css votedisk — this works only when the clusterware is up in 10g. For this we ○ Configure TNS entry for that service in both nodes ○ Update the remote listener parameter with the service name ○ Add service name to high availability stack i. where ONS can be used here. .loc or /etc/ocr. Transparent application failover is the mechansim to provide high availability of the database services to the connections happens via TNS along with RAC specific scripts called racgmon etc.e to CRS using srvctl ■ srvctl add service –d dbname –servicename –p <preferrednode> -r<availablenode> What is FAN? How does it works Fast application notification is different from the TAF.check /var/opt/oracle/ocr. which commonly used to trap the failures of the services using ONS (oracle notification services) for example JDBC connection does not failover on TAF events. where in CRS start up is not required What is TAF? How does it works.

What happens if one of the node is not able to access the voting disk? The master node OCSSD in the instance verifies the votes in the voting disk periodically and ensure quorum is matched. Or Node OCSSD recognises it and evicts the node What happens if all of the nodes not able to access the voting disk? .What are RAC based services? What are difference between normal database service and RAC services? •Is a means of grouping sessions that are doing the same kind of work •Provides single-system image instead of multiple instances image •Is a part of the regular administration tasks that provide dynamic service-to-instance allocation •Is the base for high availability of connections •Provides a new performance-tuning dimension •Normal services not maintained in data dictionaries where the Rac services maintained in data dictionary. if quorum is not matched then it posts the failure nodes OCSSD to evict the cluster.

can be delayed using csstimeout setting to reasonable value using crsctl. each node acts as master node. Which background daemons initiates node eviction? ocssd Which background daemon starts clusterware or the resources? crsd Can you tell me under which user crs. What happens if one of the node is not able to communicate via private interconnect? Node OCSSD recognises it and evicts the node What happens if all of the nodes not able to communicate via private interconnect? This can be lead to split brain syndrome. evmd. all nodes reboot. with the csstimeout setting clusterware waits until that period .cssd. Process Functionality Failure of the Process Run as CRSD Resource monitoring. What is split brain syndrome? Each node acts as master since there is communication or common storage access break down. start and what is anything fails. with the disktimeout setting clusterware waits until that period can be delayed using disktimeout setting to reasonable value using crsctl. all nodes reboot. does not cause node restart root .This can be lead to split brain syndrome.oprocd. failover. each node acts as master node. node recovery Restarts automatically.

On the negative side this method is unaware of load on the connections or even if they are up meaning they might cause waits on TCP/IP timeouts. evicts node oracle EVMD Spawns child process event logger and generate callouts Automaitcally restarted does not cause reboot oracle OPROCD Provides basic cluster integrity services. This means that it is very important how one balances connections and what these connections do on a long term basis. Load Based . Since establishing connections can be very expensive for your application.OCSSD Basic node membership. and Basic locking Node restart. I/O fencing to disk Node restart root Work Load Balancing & Failover questions:- What are my options for load balancing with Oracle RAC? Why do I get an uneven number of connections on my instances? All the types of load balancing available currently (9i-10g) occur at connect time. it is good programming practice to connect once and stay connected. The following options exist prior to Oracle RAC 10g Release 2 (for 10g Release 2 see Load Balancing Advisory): Random Either client side load balancing or hardware based methods will randomize the connections to the instances. Oracle Net Services provides load balancing or you can use external methods such as hardware based or clusterware solutions. This means one needs to be careful as to what option one uses. Group Services.

When a service is enabled on an instance. Session based load balancing takes into account the number of sessions connected to each node and then distributes the connections to balance the number of sessions across the different nodes. as long as the instance registers with the listeners. the Single Client Access Name (SCAN) provides a single name to be put in the client connection string (as the address). The load balancing advisory (setting a goal on the service) will give advice as to how many connections to send to each instance currently providing a service.Server side load balancing (by the listener) redirects connections by default depending on the RunQ length of each of the instances. So I do not have to change the connection string when I add a node to the Oracle RAC database) The combination of Server Side load balancing and Services allows you to easily mask cluster database configuration changes. server side load balancing will allow clients to connect to the service on currently available instances at connect time.E. With Oracle RAC 11g Release 2. Do not use this method for connections from connection pools or applicaton servers Session Based Server side load balancing can also be used to balance the number of connections to each instance. the clients can start getting connections to the service and the load balancing advisory will include that instance is its advice. How can a customer mask the change in their clustered database configuration from their client or application? (I. Note listener name is the actual name of the listener which is different on each node in your cluster and by default is listener_nodename. . Terrible for persistent connections or login storms. Session count balancing is method used when you set a listener parameter. Clients using SCAN never have to change even if the cluster configuration changes such as adding nodes. prefer_least_loaded_node_listener-name=off. As long as all instances register with all listeners (use the LOCAL_LISTENER and REMOTE_LISTENER parameters). This is great for short lived connections.

To enable it. For client. Oracle Database 10g Release 2 provides the Load Balancing Advisory.What is the Load Balancing Advisory? To assist in the balancing of application workload across designated resources. Why do we have a Virtual IP (VIP) in Oracle RAC 10g or 11g? Why does it just return a dead connection when its primary node fails? The goal is application availability. on the server: set a goal (service_time or throughput. The easiest way for an application to take advantage of the load balancing advisory. When this occurs. How do I enable the load balancing advisory? The load balancing advisory requires the use of services and Oracle Net connection load balancing. This Advisory monitors the current workload activity across the cluster and for each instance where a service is active. (1) VIP detects public network failure which generates a FAN event. instead of having to wait on TCP-IP timeouts . For JDBC. is to enable Runtime Connection Load Balancing with an integrated client. For ODP. (4) New connection requests rapidly traverse the tnsnames.ora address list skipping over the dead nodes. the following things happen. The feedback is provided as an entry in the Automatic Workload Repository and a FAN event is published. and set CLB_GOAL=SHORT ) on your service. (3) connected clients subscribing to FAN immediately receive ORA-3113 error or equivalent. When a node fails. the VIP associated with it is automatically failed over to some other node. (2) the new node re-arps the world indicating a new MAC address for the IP.NET enable the datasource parameter Load Balancing=true. it provides a percentage value of how much of the total workload should be sent to this instance as well as service quality flag. you must be using the connection pool. Those not subscribing to FAN will eventually time out. enable the datasource parameter FastConnectionFailoverEnabled.

Where are the Clusterware files stored on a RAC environment? The Clusterware is installed on each node (on an Oracle Home) and on the shared disks (the voting disks and the CSR file) 2. you should set CLB_GOAL=SHORT Oracle RAC Interview Questions & Answers 1. SERVICE_TIME – Work requests are directed based on response time. Where are the database software files stored on a RAC environment? The base software is installed on each node of the cluster and the . turn off advisory THROUGHPUT – Work requests are directed based on throughput.NET. you don’t really have a good HA solution without using VIPs and FAN. The easiest way to use FAN is to use an integrated client with Fast Connection Failover (FCF) such as JDBC.Without using VIPs or FAN. clients connected to a node that died will often wait for a TCP timeout period (which can be up to 10 min) before getting an error. This should be used when the work in a service completes at homogenous rates. As a result. or ODP. OCI. What are my options for setting the Load Balancing Advisory GOAL on a Service? The load balancing advisory is enabled by setting the GOAL on your service either through PL/SQL DBMS_SERVICE package or EM DBControl Clustered Database Services page. There are 3 options for GOAL: None – Default setting. An example is as internet shopping system where work requests are various lengths Note: If using GOAL. An example is a trading system where work requests are similar lengths. This should be used when the work in a service completes at various rates.

This implies that all members of a cluster have the same view. 7.raw devices .Shared configuration files (spfile) .OCFS (Release 1 or 2) . files described by the bfile datatype) .raw devices .third party cluster file system such as GPFS or Veritas 5. 6.database storage on the shared disks.OCFS (Release 1 or 2) . datafiles. redologs.Oracle files (controlfiles. Which files can be placed on an Oracle Cluster File System? .ASM . What is a CFS? A cluster File System (CFS) is a file system that may be accessed (read and write) by all members in a cluster at the same time.third party cluster file system such as GPFS or Veritas 4. 3. What is an OCFS2? The OCFS2 is the Oracle (version 2) Cluster File System which can be used for the Oracle Real Application Cluster. What kind of storage we can use for the shared Clusterware files? .Oracle Software installation (Windows only) . What kind of storage we can use for the RAC database storage? .

Veritas. Raw devices are used for Real Application Clusters since they enable the sharing of disks. How is possible to install a RAC if we don’t have a CFS? This is possible by using a raw device.Autoextend enabled on Oracle datafiles . What is a raw partition? A raw partition is a portion of a physical disk that is accessed at the lowest possible level. 11.Single Oracle Software installation . 10. Once formatting is complete.Files created by Oracle during runtime Note: There are some platform specific limitations. 12. A raw partition is created when an extended partition is created and logical partitions are assigned to it without any formatting..Use of Oracle Managed Files with RAC . Do you know another Cluster Vendor? HP Tru64 Unix. What is a raw device? A raw device is a disk drive that does not yet have a file system set up. 8. When to use CFS over raw? A CFS offers: .Simpler management .OCR and voting disk . Microsoft 9. it is called cooked partition.

the clients have to wait around 10 minutes to receive ORA-3113: “end of file on communications channel”. In Release 2. when its primary node fails. When to use raw over CFS? .The performance is very. What is VIP IP used for? It returns a dead connection IMMIDIATELY. 14. 17. 15. Note: Autoextend fails on raw devices if the space is exhausted.10g+) or RSH (Remote Shell. when you apply Oracle patches CFS guarantees that the updated Oracle_Home is visible to all nodes in the cluster. very important: Raw devices offer best performance without any intermediate layer between Oracle and the disk. RSH needed for normal RAC operations? . What CRS is? Oracle RAC 10g Release 1 introduced Oracle Cluster Ready Services (CRS).Uniform accessibility to archive logs in case of physical node failure . However the space could be added online if needed. 16. However. 13. using Transparent Application Failover (TAF) could avoid ORA-3113. Why we need to have configured SSH or RSH on the RAC nodes? SSH (Secure Shell. a platform-independent set of system services for cluster environments.With Oracle_Home on CFS.. Is the SSH. 9i+) allows “oracle” UNIX account connecting to another RAC node and copy/ run commands as the local “oracle” UNIX account. Without using VIP IP. Note: This option is very dependent on the availability of a CFS on your platform. . Oracle has renamed this product to Oracle Clusterware.Always when CFS is not available or not supported by Oracle.

dedicated switch. Are there any issues for the interconnect when sharing the same switch as the public network by using VLAN to separate the network? RAC and Clusterware deployment best practices suggests that the interconnect (private connection) be deployed on a stand-alone. Oracle Database 10g Release 2 provides the Load Balancing Advisory. see bug 4024251 for more information. 22. The SID prefix is relaxed up to 8 characters in 10g Release 2. physically separate. This Advisory monitors the current workload activity across the cluster and for each instance where a service is active. Do we have to have Oracle RDBMS on all nodes? Each node of a cluster that is being used for a clustered database will typically have the RDBMS and RAC software loaded on it. What is the Load Balancing Advisory? To assist in the balancing of application workload across designated resources. it provides a percentage value of how much of the total workload should be sent to this instance as well as service quality flag. patch set installation and clustered database creation. On big network the connections could be instable. 21. How many nodes are supported in a RAC Database? . What are the restrictions on the SID with a RAC database? Is it limited to 5 characters? The SID prefix in 10g Release 1 and prior versions was restricted to five characters by install/ config tools so that an ORACLE_SID of up to max of 5+3=8 characters can be supported in a RAC environment. SSH or RSH are needed only for RAC. Does Real Application Clusters support heterogeneous platforms? The Real Application Clusters do not support heterogeneous platforms in the same cluster. but not actual data files (these need to be available via shared disk). 23. 18. 19. 20.No.

There are 2 key parameters for this module: -> hangcheck-tick: this parameter defines the period of time between checks of system health. What is the Cluster Verification Utiltiy (cluvfy)? The Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) is a validation tool that you can use to check all the important components that need to be verified at different stages of deployment in a RAC environment. we support 100 nodes in a cluster using Oracle Clusterware. you can use Vendor Clusterware however you must still install and use Oracle Clusterware for RAC. If I am using Vendor Clusterware such as Veritas. 27.1. When certified. 24. The default value is 60 seconds. . For details see Metalink Note 332257. What versions of the database can I use the cluster verification utility (cluvfy) with? The cluster verification utility is release with Oracle Database 10g Release 2 but can also be used with Oracle Database 10g Release 1. With 10g Release 1 the Maximum is 63. Currently DBCA has a bug where it will not go beyond 63 instances. IBM. Oracle recommends setting it to 30seconds. What is hangcheck timer used for ? The hangcheck timer checks regularly the health of the system. If the system hangs or stop the node will be restarted automatically. do I still need Oracle Clusterware to run Oracle RAC 10g? Yes. 25. 26. 28. Sun or HP.With 10g Release 2. There is also a documentation bug for the max-instances parameter.1 and for Veritas SFRAC see 397460. and 100 instances in a RAC database. Best Practice is to leave Oracle Clusterware to manage RAC. Is RAC on VMWare supported? Yes.

Archive Logs . 29. Can I change the name of my cluster after I have created it when I am using Oracle Clusterware? No. 32.Shared Configuration File (OCR) .Redo Logs . .Control Files . OCFS2 includes some services.SPFILE 31. 30.-> hangcheck-margin: this defines the maximum hang delay that should be tolerated before hangcheck-timer resets the RAC node. Is the hangcheck timer still needed with Oracle RAC 10g? Yes. What the O2CB is? The O2CB is the OCFS2 cluster stack.Datafiles . Is it possible to use ASM for the OCR and voting disk? No. 33. These services must be started before using OCFS2 (mount/ format the file systems). What files can I put on Linux OCFS2? For optimal performance.Voting File . you must properly uninstall Oracle Clusterware and then re-install. you should only put the following files on Linux OCFS2: . the OCR and voting disk must be on raw or CFS (cluster file system).

dd to backup your voting disk and hard copies of the OCR file.34. Can you have many database versions in the same RAC? Yes. 37. For example. What is the recommended method to make backups of a RAC environment? RMAN to make backups of the database. What was RAC previous name before it was called RAC?OPS: Oracle Parallel Server 42. LMDx. Name two specific RAC background processes RAC processes are: LMON. What is the minimum number of instances you need to have in order to create a RAC? You can create a RAC with just one server. start) RAC services in command-line mode? . 40. What the Voting Disk file is used for? The voting disk is nothing but a file that contains and manages information of all the node memberships. LMSn. LKCx and DIAG. GV$SESSION instead of V$SESSION 44. 36. What command would you use to check the availability of the RAC system? crs_stat -t -v (-t -v are optional) 38. 43. 41. What the OCR file is used for? OCR is a file that manages the cluster and RAC configuration. 39. 35. What RAC component is used for communication between instances?Private Interconnect. What is the difference between normal views and RAC views?A RAC view has the prefix ‘G’. Which command will we use to manage (stop. but Clusterware version must be greater than the greater database version.

The voting disk must reside on shared disk. The OCR must reside on shared disk that is accessible by all of the nodes in your cluster 47. What is SCAN? . How do you backup voting disk #dd if=voting_disk_name of=backup_file_name 48.loc ( depends upon platform) or #ocrcheck 50. How do I identify the OCR file location check /var/opt/oracle/ocr.One for each instance. Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) — Maintains cluster configuration information as well as configuration information about any cluster database within the cluster.loc or /etc/ocr.srvctl 45. How do I identify the voting disk location #crsctl query css votedisk 49. What are Oracle Clusterware Components Voting Disk — Oracle RAC uses the voting disk to manage cluster membership by way of a health check and arbitrates cluster ownership among the instances in case of network failures. How many alert logs exist in a RAC environment? A. 46.

media failover features.To start the GSD service $ gsdctl stop -.RAC Oracle RAC Interview Questions and Answers How does OCSSD starts first if voting disk & OCR resides in ASM Diskgroups? You might wonder how CSSD.To stop the GSD service $ gsdctl stat -. and obtain the status of the GSD service on any platform.log What is RAC? RAC stands for Real Application cluster. What is gsdctl in RAC? list gsdctl commands in Oracle RAC? GSDCTL stands for Global Service Daemon Control. But without being part of the cluster. which is required to start the clustered ASM instance. The kfdhdb. .To obtain the status of the GSD service Log file location for gsdctl: $ ORACLE_HOME/srvm/log/gsdaemon_node_name. stop. we can use gsdctl commands to start.Single Client Access Name (SCAN) is s a new Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) 11g Release 2 feature that provides a single name for clients to access an Oracle Database running in a cluster.2: you can use kfed to read the header of an ASM disk containing a voting disk.vfend fields tell CSS where to find the voting file. CSSD cannot start the ASM instance. Once the voting disks are located. can be started if voting disks are stored in ASM? This sounds like a chicken-and-egg problem: without access to the voting disks there is no CSS. The options for gsdctl are:$ gsdctl start -. Oracle DBA Interview Questions and Answers . The benefit is clients using SCAN do not need to change if you add or remove nodes in the cluster. hence the node cannot join the cluster. This does not require the ASM instance to be up. To solve this problem the ASM disk headers have new metadata in 11.vfstart and kfdhdb. It is a clustering solution from Oracle Corporation that ensures high availability of databases by providing instance failover. CSS can access them and joins the cluster.

If the instance fails for some reason then RAC one node detect it and restart the instance on the same node or the instance is relocate to the 2nd node incase there is failure or fault in 1st node. Oracle RAC provides the foundation for enterprise grid computing. What is Oracle RAC One Node? Oracle RAC one Node is a single instance running on one node of the cluster while the 2nd node is in cold standby mode. What is Cache Fusion? . The benefit of this feature is that it provides a cold failover solution and it automates the instance relocation without any downtime and does not need a manual intervention. What are the advantages of RAC (Real Application Clusters)? Reliability . In Real Application Clusters environments. all nodes concurrently execute transactions against the same database. Oracle introduced this feature with the release of 11gR2 (available with Enterprise Edition). If the instance fails for some reason then RAC one node detect it and restart the instance on the same node or the instance is relocate to the 2nd node incase there is failure or fault in 1st node.more nodes can be added to the cluster as the workload increases What is Oracle RAC One Node? Oracle RAC one Node is a single instance running on one node of the cluster while the 2nd node is in cold standby mode. the database won't fail Availability .if one node fails.Oracle RAC is a cluster database with a shared cache architecture that overcomes the limitations of traditional shared-nothing and shared-disk approaches to provide a highly scalable and available database solution for all the business applications. What is RAC and how is it different from non RAC databases? Oracle Real Application clusters allows multiple instances to access a single database. Real Application Clusters coordinates each node's access to the shared data to provide consistency and integrity.nodes can be added or replaced without having to shutdown the database Scalability . the instances will be running on multiple nodes. The benefit of this feature is that it provides a cold failover solution and it automates the instance relocation without any downtime and does not need a manual intervention. Oracle introduced this feature with the release of 11gR2 (available with Enterprise Edition).

SPFIles. Which is the "MASTER NODE" in RAC? The node with the lowest node number will become master node and dynamic remastering of the resources will take place. What command would you use to check the availability of the RAC system? crs_stat -t -v (-t -v are optional) How do we verify that RAC instances are running? SQL>select * from V$ACTIVE_INSTANCES. it is easy to get the block image from the instance which has the block in its SGA rather than reading from the disk.ora ensure that you have INSTANCE_NAME specified in it. The query gives the instance number under INST_NUMBER column. you can query v$ges_resource for MASTER_NODE column. When a block of data is read from datafile by an instance within the cluster and another instance is in need of the same block.log file and search for "master node number". ·Raw disk devices. when the first master node fails in the cluster the lowest node number will become master node. you can see ocssd. What components in RAC must reside in shared storage? All datafiles.Oracle RAC is composed of two or more instances. To enable inter instance communication Oracle RAC makes use of interconnects. redo log files must reside on cluster-aware shred storage. The Global Enqueue Service (GES) monitors and Instance enqueue process manages the cache fusion. How can you connect to a specific node in a RAC environment? tnsnames. To find out which is the master node. controlfiles. ·Network file system (NFS).host_:instancename under INST_NAME column. ·OCFS2 and ·OCFS (Oracle Cluster Fie systems). Give few examples for solutions that support cluster storage? ·ASM (automatic storage management). What are Oracle Cluster Components? . To find out the master node for particular resource.

generally using fibre to connect to the SAN NAS (Network Attached Storage) .Clusterware software 4. How to turn on RAC? # link the oracle libraries $ cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib $ make -f ins_rdbms.Cluster Interconnect (HAIP) 2.Oracle Kernel Components What are Oracle RAC Components? VIP. Consistent heartbeat information travels across the interconnect to the voting disk when the cluster is running.LCK.LMD.LMS etc.generally using a network to connect to the NAS using either NFS. The software is run by the Cluster Ready Services (CRS) using the Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) that records and maintains the cluster and node membership information and the voting disk which acts as a tiebreaker during communication failures.1. Node apps etc.Shared Storage (OCR/Voting Disk) 3. What are Oracle Kernel Components? Basically Oracle kernel need to switched on with RAC On option when you convert to RAC. ISCSI What is Oracle Clusterware? The Clusterware software allows nodes to communicate with each other and forms the cluster that makes the nodes work as a single logical server. that is the difference as it facilitates few RAC bg process like LMON.mk rac_on # rebuild oracle $ cd $ORACLE_HOME/bin $ relink oracle Disk architechture in RAC? SAN (Storage Area Networks) . Real Application Clusters .

One DB opened by multipe instances so the the db ll be Highly Available if an instance crashes. The cluster registry holds all information about nodes. Oracle RAC provides the foundation for enterprise grid computing. scalability.Oracle RAC is a cluster database with a shared cache architecture that overcomes the limitations of traditional shared-nothing and shared-disk approaches to provide a highly scalable and available database solution for all your business applications. Cluster Software. . Oracle Clusterware has two key components Cluster Registry OCR and Voting Disk. become separated from the majority. instances. The voting disk is used to determine if a node has failed. What is Voting Disk and OCR? Voting Disk Oracle RAC uses the voting disk to manage cluster membership by way of a health check and arbitrates cluster ownership among the instances in case of network failures. providing fault tolerance from hardware failures or planned outages. i. services and ASM storage if used. What are the Oracle Clusterware key components? Oracle Clusterware has two key components Cluster Registry OCR and Voting Disk. The voting disk must reside on shared disk. If a node is deemed to no longer belong to the majority then it is forcibly rebooted and will after the reboot add itself again the the surviving cluster nodes. it also contains state information ie they are available and up or similar. and low-cost computing.e. Oracles Clusterware or products like Veritas Volume Manager are required to provide the cluster support and allow each node to know which nodes belong to the cluster and are available and with Oracle Cluterware to know which nodes have failed and to eject then from the cluster. so that errors on that node can be cleared. A node must be able to access more than half of the voting disks at any time. Oracle’s Real Application Clusters (RAC) option supports the transparent deployment of a single database across a cluster of servers. Oracle RAC running on clusters provides Oracle’s highest level of capability in terms of availability.

Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) The cluster registry holds all information about nodes. it also contains state information ie they are available and up or similar. stop Oracle Clusterware (with the crsctl stop crs command) on all nodes. How do we backup voting disks? 1) Oracle recommends that you back up your voting disk after the initial cluster creation and after we complete any node addition or deletion procedures. Give the syntax of backing up voting disks:On Linux or UNIX systems: . 2) First. from the cluster. as appropriate. determine the current voting disk by issuing the following command: crsctl query votedisk css 3) Then. services and ASM storage if used. by that cluster will be down as its lost you just need to start crs in exclusive mode and add the votedisk using crsctl add votedisk <path> What is the Oracle Recommendation for backing up voting disk? Oracle recommends us to use the dd command to backup the voting disk with a minimum block size of 4KB. as root user. Then. but if you have only one voting disk . if you have 3 voting disks configured. The OCR must reside on shared disk that is accessible by all of the nodes in your cluster. issue the dd or ocopy command to back up a voting disk. as per documentation. then a node must be able to access at least two of the voting disks at any time. instances.For example. What are the administrative tasks involved with voting disk? Following administrative tasks are performed with the voting disk : 1) Backing up voting disks 2) Recovering Voting disks 3) Adding voting disks 4) Deleting voting disks 5) Moving voting disks Can you add voting disk online? Do you need voting disk backup? Yes. if you have multiple voting disk you can add online. If a node cannot access the minimum required number of voting disks it is evicted. or removed.

dd if=voting_disk_name of=backup_file_name where.The most common wait events related to this are gc cr request and gc buffer busy GC CR request :the time it takes to retrieve the data from the remote cache Reason: RAC Traffic Using Slow Connection or Inefficient queries (poorly tuned queries will increase the amount of data blocks requested by an Oracle session. What are the major RAC wait events? In a RAC environment the buffer cache is global across all instances in the cluster and hence the processing differs. voting_disk_name is the name of the active voting disk backup_file_name is the name of the file to which we want to back up the voting disk contents On Windows systems. You can add the ocr back by restoring the automatic backup or import the manual backup. the crsd stack will be down. the hasd still up and running. The more blocks requested typically means the more often a block will need to be read from a remote instance via the interconnect. this is true in 10g. what is your next step? The cluster stack will be down due to the fact that cssd is unable to maintain the integrity..) GC BUFFER BUSY: It is the time the remote instance locally spends accessing the requested data block.1 Troubleshooting CRS Reboots . Note 265769. Check netstat -s if you see "fragments dropped" or "packet reassemblies failed" . How do you troubleshoot node reboot? Please check metalink .. use the ocopy command: copy voting_disk_name backup_file_name How do we verify an existing current backup of OCR? We can verify the current backup of OCR using the following command : ocrconfig -showbackup You have lost OCR disk. What do you do if you see GC CR BLOCK LOST in top 5 Timed Events in AWR Report? This is most likely due to a fault in interconnect network. Work with your system administrator find the fault with network. From 11gR2 onwards.

Cluster Ready Services (crsd) — The crs process manages cluster resources (which could be a database. however sqlplus can start it on both nodes? How do you identify the problem? Set the environmental variable SRVM_TRACE to true. a service. and if the wake up is beyond the expected time. What are Oracle Clusterware processes for 10g on Unix and Linux? Cluster Synchronization Services (ocssd) — Manages cluster node membership and runs as the oracle user.Oracle RAC instances are composed of following background processes: ACMS—Atomic Controlfile to Memory Service (ACMS) GTX0-j—Global Transaction Process LMON—Global Enqueue Service Monitor LMD—Global Enqueue Service Daemon .559365. an instance. And start the instance with srvctl. What are Oracle database background processes specific to RAC? Oracle RAC is composed of two or more database instances.. This includes start. monitor and failover operations. GCS(Global Cache Service) that enable cache fusion. a Listener. Process Monitor Daemon (OPROCD) —This process monitor the cluster and provide I/O fencing. then OPROCD resets the processor and reboots the node. OPROCD performs its check. stops running. RACG (racgmain. racgimon) —Extends clusterware to support Oracle-specific requirements and complex resources. a virtual IP (VIP) address. They are composed of Memory structures and background processes same as the single instance database. An OPROCD failure results in Oracle Clusterware restarting the node. Srvctl cannot start instance. This process runs as the root user Event manager daemon (evmd) —A background process that publishes events that crs creates.1 Using Diagwait as a diagnostic to get more information for diagnosing Oracle Clusterware Node evictions.Note. Runs server callout scripts when FAN events occur. Now you will get detailed error stack. an application process. failure of this process results in cluster restart.Oracle RAC instances use two processes GES(Global Enqueue Service). stop. OPROCD uses the hangcheck timer on Linux platforms. I get the following error PRKP-1001 CRS-0215. and so on) based on the resource's configuration information that is stored in the OCR.

ii. What is ACMS? ACMS stands for Atomic Controlfile Memory Service. Oracle RAC instances use two processes. SCAN IP can be disabled if not required.In an Oracle RAC environment ACMS is an agent that ensures a distributed SGA memory update(ie)SGA updates are globally committed on success or globally aborted in event of a failure. The GCS and GES maintain records of the statuses of each data file and each cached block using a Global Resource Directory (GRD). What is GRD? GRD stands for Global Resource Directory.Stop scan srvctl stop scan (this will stop the scan vip's) iv. Stop scan listener srvctl stop scan_listener iii. However SCAN IP is mandatory during the RAC installation.This process is referred to as cache fusion and helps in data integrity. The GES and GCS maintains records of the statuses of each datafile and each cahed block using global resource directory. Disable scan and disable scan listener srvctl disable scan . i. What is SCAN listener? A scan listener is something that additional to node listener which listens the incoming db connection requests from the client which got through the scan IP. the Global Cache Service (GCS) and the Global Enqueue Service (GES). Steps to disable the SCAN IP. The GRD contents are distributed across all of the active instances. Do not use SCAN IP at the client end. Enabling/disabling SCAN IP is mostly used in oracle apps environment by the concurrent manager (kind of job scheduler in oracle apps). it got end points configured to node listener where it routes the db connection requests to particular node listener.LMS—Global Cache Service Process LCK0—Instance Enqueue Process RMSn—Oracle RAC Management Processes (RMSn) RSMN—Remote Slave Monitor To ensure that each Oracle RAC database instance obtains the block that it needs to satisfy a query or transaction.

This communication is based on the TCP protocol. and vip components Private interfaces is for intra node communication. shared between the caches of participating nodes in the cluster.What are the different network components are in 10g RAC? public. The interconnect network uses a switch/multiple switches that only the nodes in the cluster can access. When a node fails then the VIP component fail over to some other node. How can we configure the cluster interconnect? · Configure User Datagram Protocol (UDP) on Gigabit Ethernet for cluster interconnects. we need to reserve a spare IP address for each node. What is a virtual IP address or VIP? A virtual IP address or VIP is an alternate IP address that the client connections use instead of the standard public IP address. To configure VIP address. and the IP addresses must use the same subnet as the public network. What is the use of VIP? . · Windows clusters use the TCP protocol. What is the use of cluster interconnect? Cluster interconnect is used by the Cache fusion for inter instance communication. VIP is all about availability of application. this is the reason that all applications should based on vip components means tns entries should have vip entry in the host list What is an interconnect network? An interconnect network is a private network that connects all of the servers in a cluster. What is the purpose of Private Interconnect? Clusterware uses the private interconnect for cluster synchronization (network heartbeat) and daemon communication between the the clustered nodes. · On UNIX and Linux systems we use UDP and RDS (Reliable data socket) protocols to be used by Oracle Clusterware. private. Cache Fusion is the remote memory mapping of Oracle buffers. RAC uses the interconnect for cache fusion (UDP) and inter-process communication (TCP).

What enables the load balancing of applications in RAC? Oracle Net Services enable the load balancing of application connections across all of the instances in an Oracle RAC database. What are the characteristics controlled by Oracle services feature? The characteristics include a unique name. When a node fails. As a result. clients connected to a node that died will often wait for a TCP timeout period (which can be up to 10 min) before getting an error. Subsequent packets sent to the VIP go to the new node. What is the significance of VIP address failover? When a VIP address failover happens.Client Side load balancing (also called as connect time load balancing) . the VIP associated with it is automatically failed over to some other node and new node re-arps the world indicating a new MAC address for the IP. then the node's VIP address fails over to another node on which the VIP address can accept TCP connections but it cannot accept Oracle connections. What is the use of a service in Oracle RAC environment? Applications should use the services feature to connect to the Oracle database. Why do we have a Virtual IP (VIP) in Oracle RAC? Without using VIPs or FAN. What are the types of connection load-balancing? Connection Workload management is one of the key aspects when you have RAC instances as you want to distribute the connections to specific nodes/instance or those have less load. There are two types of connection load-balancing: 1. you don't really have a good HA solution without using VIPs. all interfaces for the VIP address are disconnected from the network. Give situations under which VIP address failover happens? VIP addresses failover happens when the node on which the VIP address runs fails.They don't have to wait for TCP connection timeout messages. Clients that attempt to connect to the VIP address receive a rapid connection refused error . failover options. Services enable us to define rules and characteristics to control how users and applications connect to database instances.If a node fails. all interfaces for the VIP address fails. workload balancing. and high availability. This results in the clients getting errors immediately. which will send error RST packets back to the clients.

An tns entry that contains all nodes entries and use load_balance=on (default its on) will use the connect time load balancing or client side load balancing.remote_listener parameter which is a tns entry containing all nodes addresses need to set to enable the load balance advisory updates to PMON. Client Side load balancing:. In a rac environments.Oracle client side load balancing feature enables clients to randomize the connection requests among all the available listeners based on their load. the listener selects the least dispatcher to handle the incoming client requests. . In a RAC environment. Sample Client Side TNS Entry:finance = (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = myrac2-vip)(PORT = 2042)) (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = myrac1-vip)(PORT = 2042)) (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = myrac3-vip)(PORT = 2042)) (LOAD_BALANCE = yes) (CONNECT_DATA = (SERVER = DEDICATED) (SERVICE_NAME = FINANCE) (FAILOVER=ON) (FAILOVER_MODE = (TYPE = SELECT) (METHOD = BASIC) (RETRIES = 180) (DELAY = 5)) ) ) Server side load balancing:. In a single instance environment (shared servers). PMON is aware of all instances load and dispatchers . and depending on the load information PMON redirects the connection to the least loaded node.This improves the connection performance by balancing the number of active connections among multiple instances and dispatchers.In case of server-side load balancing listener uses a load-balancing advisory to redirect connections to the instance providing best service.Server side load balancing (also called as Listener connection load balancing) What is the difference between server-side and client-side connection load balancing? Client-side balancing happens at client side where load balancing is done using listener.2. *.

Sample Tns entry should be in an instances of RAC cluster.After that asm can be removed using srvctl tool as follows: srvctl stop asm -n node_name srvctl remove asm -n node_name . · DBCA. · Cluster Verification Utility (CLUVFY). · SQL*PLUS. ·CVU .Cluster verification utility to get status of CRS resources. local_listener=LISTENER_MYRAC1 remote_listener = LISTENERS_MYRACDB What are the administrative tools used for Oracle RAC environments? Oracle RAC cluster can be administered as a single image using the below · OEM (Enterprise Manager).Command-line tool for managing Oracle Cluster Registry. ·OCRCONFIG .allocating and deallocating network interfaces. · Server control (SRVCTL).disks etc How do we remove ASM from a Oracle RAC environment? We need to stop and delete the instance in the node first in interactive or silent mode. · NETCA Name some Oracle Clusterware tools and their uses? ·OIFCFG . ·OCRDUMP .vip. What is the difference between CRSCTL and SRVCTL? crsctl manages clusterware-related operations: Starting and stopping Oracle Clusterware Enabling and disabling Oracle Clusterware daemons Registering cluster resources srvctl manages Oracle resource–related operations: Starting and stopping database instances and services Also from 11gR2 manages the cluster resources like network.Identify the interconnect being used.

What are the background process that exists in 11gr2 and functionality? Process Name Functionality crsd •The CRS daemon (crsd) manages cluster resources based on configuration information that is stored in Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) for each resource. cssd •Cluster Synchronization Service (CSS): Manages the cluster configuration by controlling which nodes are members of the cluster and by notifying members when a node joins or leaves the cluster. This service formerly was provided by Oracle Process Monitor daemon (oprocd). The GNS process performs name resolution within the cluster. If you are using certified third-party clusterware. diskmon •Disk Monitor daemon (diskmon): Monitors and performs input/output fencing for Oracle Exadata Storage Server. monitor. gnsd •Oracle Grid Naming Service (GNS): Is a gateway between the cluster mDNS and external DNS servers. A cssdagent failure results in Oracle Clusterware restarting the node. and the CSS Monitor (cssdmonitor). CSS has three separate processes: the CSS daemon (ocssd). This includes start. the CSS Agent (cssdagent)./crs_stat What are the modes of deleting instances from ORacle Real Application cluster Databases? We can delete instances using silent mode or interactive mode using DBCA(Database Configuration Assistant). The mDNS process is a background process on Linux and UNIX. The cssdagent process monitors the cluster and provides input/output fencing. and a service on Windows. the diskmon daemon is always started when ocssd is started. then CSS processes interfaces with your clusterware to manage node membership information. evmd •Event Manager (EVM): Is a background process that publishes Oracle Clusterware events mdnsd •Multicast domain name service (mDNS): Allows DNS requests. ons •Oracle Notification Service (ONS): Is a publish-and-subscribe service for communicating Fast Application Notification (FAN) events . and failover operations.We can verify if ASM has been removed by issuing the following command: srvctl config asm -n node_name How do we verify that an instance has been removed from OCR after deleting an instance? Issue the following srvctl command: srvctl config database -d database_name cd CRS_HOME/bin . As Exadata storage can be added to any Oracle RAC node at any point in time. stop. also known as OraFenceService on Windows. The crsd process generates events when the status of a resource changes.

evmlogger grid owner Cluster Time Synchronization Service (CTSS) octssd root Oracle Notification Service (ONS) ons. It runs server callout scripts when FAN events occur.1). But there is a significant difference in 11gR2. and the Grid virtual IP address oclskd •Cluster kill daemon (oclskd): Handles instance/node evictions requests that have been escalated to CSS gipcd •Grid IPC daemon (gipcd): Is a helper daemon for the communications infrastructure ctssd •Cluster time synchronisation daemon(ctssd) to manage the time syncrhonization between nodes. such as the network. cssdagent grid owner Event Manager (EVM) evmd.cssd monitor. the following were managed by Oracle CRS Databases Instances Applications Node Monitoring Event Services High Availability . orarootagent •Oracle root agent (orarootagent): Is a specialized oraagent process that helps CRSD manage resources owned by root. eons grid owner Oracle Agent oragent grid owner Oracle Root Agent orarootagent root Grid Naming Service (GNS) gnsd root Grid Plug and Play (GPnP) gpnpd grid owner Multicast domain name service (mDNS) mdnsd root grid owner What is the major difference between 10g and 11g RAC? There is not much difference between 10g and 11gR (1) RAC.oraagent •oraagent: Extends clusterware to support Oracle-specific requirements and complex resources. root Cluster Ready Service (CRS) Cluster Ready Services Cluster Synchronization Service (CSS) ocssd. rather depending on NTP Under which user or owner the process will start? Component Oracle High Availability Service Name of the Process ohasd Owner init. Prior to 11gR1(10g) RAC. This process was known as RACG in Oracle Clusterware 11g Release 1 (11.

State the initialization parameters that must have same value for every instance in an Oracle RAC database? Some initialization parameters are critical at the database creation time and must have same values. HAIP Storage Management (with help of ASM and other new ACFS filesystem) Time synchronization (rather depending upon traditional NTP) Removed OS dependent hang checker etc. -> hangcheck-margin: this defines the maximum hang delay that should be tolerated before hangcheck-timer resets the RAC node. The default value is 60 seconds.From 11gR2(onwards) its completed HA stack managing and providing the following resources as like the other cluster software like VCS etc. manages with own additional monitor process What is hangcheck timer? The hangcheck timer checks regularly the health of the system. Databases Instances Applications Cluster Management Node Management Event Services High Availability Network Management (provides DNS/GNS/MDNSD services on behalf of other traditional services) and SCAN – Single Access Client Naming method. There are 2 key parameters for this module: -> hangcheck-tick: this parameter defines the period of time between checks of system health.Their value must be specified in SPFILE or PFILE for every instance. Oracle recommends setting it to 30seconds.The list of parameters that must be identical on every instance are given below: ACTIVE_INSTANCE_COUNT ARCHIVE_LAG_TARGET COMPATIBLE CLUSTER_DATABASE CLUSTER_DATABASE_INSTANCE CONTROL_FILES . If the system hangs or stop the node will be restarted automatically.

Real Application Clusters coordinates each node's access to the shared data to provide consistency and integrity. the database won't fail Availability . Benefits: Improve response time Improve throughput High availability Transparency Advantages of RAC (Real Application Clusters) Reliability .DB_BLOCK_SIZE DB_DOMAIN DB_FILES DB_NAME DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE DB_UNIQUE_NAME INSTANCE_TYPE (RDBMS or ASM) PARALLEL_MAX_SERVERS REMOTE_LOGIN_passWORD_FILE UNDO_MANAGEMENT --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------What is RAC? What is the benefit of RAC over single instance database? In Real Application Clusters environments.nodes can be added or replaced without having to shutdown the database Scalability . all nodes concurrently execute transactions against the same database.if one node fails.more nodes can be added to the cluster as the workload increases What is a virtual IP address or VIP? .

then it will reboot itself. so as to confirm that they are all operational. Oracle recommends that you have a minimum of three or odd number (3 or greater) of votingdisks. all interfaces for the VIP address fails. To configure VIP address. What is voting disk? Voting Disk is a file that sits in the shared storage area and must be accessible by all nodes in the cluster. All nodes in the cluster registers their heart-beat information in the voting disk.is file that resides on shared storage and Manages cluster members. The voting disk files are also used in concert with other Cluster components such as CRS to maintain the clusters integrity. For high availability. Voting disk reassigns cluster ownership between the nodes in case of failure. If heart-beat information of any node in the voting disk is not available that node will be evicted from the cluster. When any node is not able to send heartbeat to voting disk. What is the use of VIP? If a node fails. The CSS (Cluster Synchronization Service) daemon in the clusterware maintains the heart beat of all nodes to the voting disk. we need to reserve a spare IP address for each node. What is the significance of VIP address failover? When a VIP address failover happens.A virtual IP address or VIP is an alternate IP address that the client connections use instead of the standard public IP address. and the IP addresses must use the same subnet as the public network. then the node's VIP address fails over to another node on which the VIP address can accept TCP connections but it cannot accept Oracle connections.They don't have to wait for TCP connection timeout messages. Give situations under which VIP address failover happens:VIP addresses failover happens when the node on which the VIP address runs fails. Using virtual IP we can save our TCP/IP timeout problem because Oracle notification service maintains communication between each nodes and listeners. thus help avoiding the split-brain syndrome. Clients that attempt to connect to the VIP address receive a rapid connection refused error . Voting Disk . The Voting Disk Files are used by Oracle Clusterware to determine which nodes are currently members of the cluster. . all interfaces for the VIP address are disconnected from the network.

Why we need to keep odd number of voting disks ? Oracle expects that you will configure at least 3 voting disks for redundancy purposes. Oracle expects that you will configure at least 3 voting disks for redundancy purposes.aspx By default Oracle will create 3 voting disk files in ASM. Oracle Clusterware can access the OCR and the voting disks present in ASM even if the ASM instance is down.Oracle RAC instances are composed of following background processes: ACMS—Atomic Controlfile to Memory Service (ACMS) GTX0-j—Global Transaction Process LMON—Global Enqueue Service Monitor LMD—Global Enqueue Service Daemon LMS—Global Cache Service Process . You should always configure an odd number of voting disks >= 3. if you are using ASM and external redundancy then you will need to allocate 280MB of disk for the voting disk. If you are using ASM and normal redundancy you will need 560MB.Oracle Database 11g Release 2 provides the ability to store the voting disks in ASM along with the OCR. What are Oracle RAC software components? Oracle RAC is composed of two or more database instances.com/KNOWLEDGE/KnowledgeXpertforOracle/tabid/648/TopicID/RACR2ARC6/ Default. You should plan on allocating 280MB for each voting disk file. This is because loss of more than half your voting disks will cause the entire cluster to fail. For example. How many voting disks are you maintaining ? http://www.toadworld. As a result CSS can continue to maintain the Oracle cluster even if the ASM instance has failed. This is because loss of more than half your voting disks will cause the entire cluster to fail. You should always configure an odd number of voting disks >= 3. GCS(Global Cache Service) that enable cache fusion. They are composed of Memory structures and background processes same as the single instance database.Oracle RAC instances use two processes GES(Global Enqueue Service).

it is easy to get the block image from the insatnce which has the block in its SGA rather than reading from the disk. Runs server callout scripts when FAN events occur. The Global Enqueue Service(GES) monitors and Instance enqueue process manages the cahce fusion . Process Monitor Daemon (OPROCD) —This process monitor the cluster and provide I/O fencing. monitor and failover operations. a service. The GCS and GES maintain records of the statuses of each data file and each cached block using a Global Resource Directory (GRD). This includes start. and so on) based on the resource's configuration information that is stored in the OCR. When a block of data is read from datafile by an instance within the cluster and another instance is in need of the same block. This process runs as the root user Event manager daemon (evmd) —A background process that publishes events that crs creates.LCK0—Instance Enqueue Process RMSn—Oracle RAC Management Processes (RMSn) RSMN—Remote Slave Monitor What are Oracle Clusterware processes for 10g ? Cluster Synchronization Services (ocssd) — Manages cluster node membership and runs as the oracle user. What are Oracle database background processes specific to RAC? LMS—Global Cache Service Process LMD—Global Enqueue Service Daemon LMON—Global Enqueue Service Monitor LCK0—Instance Enqueue Process Oracle RAC instances use two processes. then OPROCD resets the processor and reboots the node. a Listener. racgimon) —Extends clusterware to support Oracle-specific requirements and complex resources. an instance. failure of this process results in cluster restart. an application process. a virtual IP (VIP) address. stops running. OPROCD performs its check. OPROCD uses the hangcheck timer on Linux platforms.Oracle RAC is composed of two or more instances. The GRD contents are distributed across all of the active instances. RACG (racgmain. stop. Cluster Ready Services (crsd) — The crs process manages cluster resources (which could be a database. An OPROCD failure results in Oracle Clusterware restarting the node. What is Cache Fusion? Transfor of data across instances through private interconnect is called cachefusion. To enable inter instance communication Oracle RAC makes use of interconnects. and if the wake up is beyond the expected time. the Global Cache Service (GCS) and the Global Enqueue Service (GES).

Oracle recommends assigning 3 addresses to SCAN. either in DNS (Domain Name Service) or GNS (Grid Naming Service). Single Client Access Name (SCAN) eliminates the need to change TNSNAMES entry when nodes are added to or removed from the Cluster. which will create 3 SCAN listeners.UP or DOWN events.This is a notification mechanism that Oracle RAc uses to notify other processes about the configuration and service level information that includes service status changes such as. Oracle recommends configuring the SCAN to resolve to three addresses.What is SCAN? (11gR2 feature) Single Client Access Name (SCAN) is s a new Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) 11g Release 2 feature that provides a single name for clients to access an Oracle Database running in a cluster.Applications can respond to FAN events and take immediate action.services and nodes. The SCAN must resolve to at least one address on the public network. SCAN provides a single domain name via (DNS).html What are SCAN components in a cluster? 1. though the cluster has got dozens of nodes.SCAN IPs (3) 3. allowing and-users to address a RAC cluster as-if it were a single IP address. Until now. we have to keep adding multiple address records in all clients tnsnames. RAC instances register to SCAN listeners as remote listeners.ora.. irrespective of number of nodes and node location.SCAN Listeners (3) What is FAN? Fast application Notification as it abbreviates to FAN relates to the events related to instances. For high availability and scalability. when a new node gets added to or deleted from the cluster. SCAN works by replacing a hostname or IP list with virtual IP addresses (VIP). The benefit is clients using SCAN do not need to change if you add or remove nodes in the cluster.SCAN Name 2. What is TAF? TAF (Transparent Application Failover) is a configuration that allows session fail-over between different nodes of a RAC database cluster. http://www. . SCAN is a domain name registered to at least one and up to three IP addresses. Single client access name (SCAN) is meant to facilitate single name for all Oracle clients to connect to the cluster database.com/2011/12/scan-setup-for-oracle-11g-release211gr2.freeoraclehelp.

Any disrupted transactions are rolled back. Which enable the load balancing of applications in RAC? Oracle Net Services enable the load balancing of application connections across all of the instances in an Oracle RAC database.loc On Solaris: /var/opt/oracle/ocr. the connection fails over to another active node. TAF allows the DBA to configure the type and method of failover for each Oracle Net client.loc” file. How to find location of OCR file when CRS is down? If you need to find the location of OCR (Oracle Cluster Registry) but your CRS is down. OCFS2 (Oracle Cluster File System). Two netwrok cards on each cluster ware node (and three set of IP address) Network Card 1 (with IP address set 1) for public network Network Card 2 (with IP address set 2) for private network (for inter node communication between rac nodes used by clusterware and rac database) IP address set 3 for Virtual IP (VIP) (used as Virtual IP address for client connection and for connection failover) 3. In some cases. …. Oracle's answer to application failover is a new Oracle Net mechanism dubbed Transparent Application Failover. When the CRS is down: Look into “ocr. The challenge in rerouting is to not lose transactions that were "in flight" at the exact moment of the crash. NFS. if the statement executing at the time of the failover is a Select statement.RAW. One of the requirements of continuous availability is the ability to restart in-flight application transactions. Storage Option for OCR and Voting Disk .OCR) 2. If a communication link failure occurs after a connection is established.loc . What are the requirements for Oracle Clusterware? 1.Transparent Application Failover (TAF). TAF architecture offers the ability to restart transactions at either the transaction (SELECT) or session level. location of this file changes depending on the OS: On Linux: /etc/oracle/ocr. and session properties and server-side program variables are lost. After an Oracle RAC node crashes—usually from a hardware failure—all new application transactions are automatically rerouted to a specified backup node. External Shared Disk to store Oracle Cluster ware file (Voting Disk and Oracle Cluster Registry .. that statement may be automatically re-executed on the new connection with the cursor positioned on the row on which it was positioned prior to the failover. allowing a failed node to resume processing on another server without interruption.

168. or various programs # that requires network functionality will fail.168.1 localhost.When CRS is UP: Set ASM environment or CRS environment then run the below command: ocrcheck In 2 node RAC.168.11 node1-pub. how many IP’s are r using ? 6 .10.3 set of IP address ## eth1-Public: 2 ## eth0-Private: 2 ## VIP: 2 How to find IP’s information in RAC ? Edit the /etc/hosts file as shown below: # Do not remove the following line.net node1-pub 192.hingu.33 nas-server nas-server ## Virtual IPs 192.net node1-vip 192.168.1.168.168.hingu.168.1. how many NIC’s are r using ? 2 network cards on each clusterware node Network Card 1 (with IP address set 1) for public network Network Card 2 (with IP address set 2) for private network (for inter node communication between rac nodes used by clusterware and rac database) In 2 node RAC.168.0.11 node1-prv node1-prv 192.net node2-pub ## Private Network (Interconnect) 192.22 node2-pub.22 node2-prv node2-prv ## Private Network (Network Area storage) 192.168.hingu.10.0.10.0.111 node1-vip.1.11 node1-nas node1-nas 192.222 node2-vip.hingu.0.10. 127.localdomain localhost ## Public Node names 192.22 node2-nas node2-nas 192.net node2-vip What is difference between RAC ip addresses ? .

system and database.com/2012/01/02/oracle-rac-interview-question-answer/ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------What is RAC? RAC Architechture? What is a SCAN Listener? What is VIP? What is TAF? What is FAN? What is LMON? What is CACHE FUSION? What is SPLIT BRAIN in RAC? How Load balancing works in ORACLE RAC? What is Voting Disk? How many backups are there for Voting Disk? . Private IP address is used only for internal clustering processing (Cache Fusion) (aka as interconnect).wordpress.Public IP adress is the normal IP address typically used by DBA and SA to manage storage. private IP address is used only for internal clustering processing (Cache Fusion) (aka as interconnect) http://rajeevjhaoracle. The purpose for having VIP is so client connection can be failover to surviving nodes in case there is failure Can application developer access the private ip ? No. Private IP addresses are reserved for private networks. VIP is used by database applications to enable fail over when one cluster node fails. Public IP addresses are reserved for the Internet.

The default parameter settings work perfectly for ASM. how do you Restore? What is OCR? How many backups are there for OCR? How to take OCR backup? Do you take OCR backup? If you lost OCR. how do you Restore? What is a Master Node? How do you know which is the Master Node without connecting to Database? Can we have Node 1 in SOLARIS OS and Node 2 in LINUX OS? Commomnly used commands in RAC? How to convert standalone database to RAC? ASM Interview Questions. How does the database interact with the ASM instance and how do I make ASM go faster? . What init.WHY ODD NUMBER OF VOTING DISK IS USED? How to take Voting Disk backup? Do you take Voting Disk backup? If you lost Voting Disk. The only parameters needed for 11g ASM: • PROCESSES • ASM_DISKSTRING* • ASM_DISKGROUPS* • INSTANCE_TYPE* Q. ASM Architecture Q.ora parameters does a user need to configure for ASM instances? Ans.

. and user processes do sequential pre-fetches • All IO capable processes do un-buffered IO (raw IO) because of ASM Q. direct I/O. e. Don’t I lose all the advanced filesystem features when I move to AMS. the RDBMS does I/O directly to the raw disk devices. No. It just does ☺ •There are two keys processes and a lot of crafty coding to get this to work in the correct startup sequence.255. But how does CSS and CRS startup in this configuration? Ans. but that’s okay. and pre-fetech? Ans.g. e. ASMCMD> pwd +DATA/rst-cluster/OCRFILE ASMCMD> ls -l Type Redund Striped Time Sys Name OCRFILE UNPROT COARSE JUN 25 11:00:00 Y REGISTRY.Ans. Q. ASM is not in the I/O path so ASM does not impede the database file access. though good for general file data performance.g.718984285 ASMCMD> lsdg . Do I need to define the RDBMS FILESYSTEMIO_OPTIONS parameter when I use ASM? Ans. • DBWR & LGWR does write coalescing. • Most of the filesystem features mentioned. Since the RDBMS instance is performing raw I/O. interfere and fractionalize the benefits inherently provided by the database. write coalescing. the FILESYSTEMIO_OPTIONS parameter is only for filesystems. This is cool that ASM can now store Vote and OCR files.. Yes. Q. the I/O is as fast as possible.

State Type Rebal Sector Block AU Total_MB Free_MB Req_mir_free_MB Usable_file_MB Offline_disks Voting_files Name MOUNTED EXTERN N 512 4096 1048576 203824 193028 0 193028 0 Y DATA/ ASM Configuration Q. or otherwise? What about a database consolidation scenario. a couple of disk groups. So you’ll to Install GI to use ASM • In 11gR2 there are two options for install – GI for Standalone Server (aka Oracle Restart) and GI for Clusterware Q. e. The ASM admin merely has to communicate the ASM Best Practices and application characteristics to storage folks : • Need equally sized / performance LUNs • Minimum of 4 LUNs • The capacity requirement • The workload characteristic (random r/w. What is the best LUN size for ASM Ans. Do I need 11gR2 Grid Infrastructure to use ASM? Ans. Q. Yes. Tier2 (RAID5 FC). Each one of these is mapped to a diskgroup.g. For VLDBs you will probably end up with different storage tiers. 1 large disk group.g with some of our large customers they have Tier1 (RAID10 FC). Tier3 (SATA). I’m curious about the number of disk groups we should use. There is no best size! In most cases the storage team will dictate based on their standardized LUN size. We have a 16 TB database. ASM is now part of Grid Infrastructure. Ans. ASM and ACFS. etc. Clusterware. sequential r/w) & any response time SLA . e. which includes.

and their standards.2. the storage folks should build a nice LUN group set for you Q. In this config.asm • ALTER DISKGROUP data SET ATTRIBUTE ‘compatible. • For pre-11gR2.e.rdbms • Need to have compatible.1.1 for OCR/Vote files and SPFILE in ASM •ACFS also needs 11. For 11gR2. the SCAN listener is run from GI Home.asm •Advance compatible. This is particularly important for RAC env.0.0’ Q.Using this info. In 11gR2 can my RDBMS and ASM instances run different versions? Ans. Yes. When should I use RMAN and when should I use ASMCMD copy? Ans.asm’ = ’11. RMAN is the recommended and most complete and flexible method to backup and transport database files in ASM. i. since the listener is a node-level resource. Where do I run my database listener from. How do I backup my ASM instance? Ans.0.0. and database listener from DB HOME.2.1 compatible.asm set to 11. Backups Q. there’s two components of compatibility: • Software compatibility • Diskgroup compatibility attributes: • compatible. it is recommended to run the listener from the ASM HOME. But since ASM is now part of GI stack. you can create additional [user] listeners from the database homes as needed.2. it must be at the highest version.asm • compatible. ASM HOME or DB HOME? Ans.. Keep in mind. . Not applicable! ASM has no files to backup Q.

1.ASMCMD copy is good for copying single files • Supports all Oracle file types • In some cases. can be used to instantiate a Data Guard environment • Does not update the controlfile • Does not create OMF files ASMCMD> ls +fra/dumpsets/expdp_5_5. Migration Q. copy committed.dat source +fra/dumpsets/expdp_5_5.dat copying file(s)… file. We are migrating to a new storage array.dat sys@rac1.orcl1:+DATA/dumpsets/expdp_5_5. ASM rebalance will migratedata online.dat ASMCMD> cp expdp_5_5. +DATA/dumpsets/expdp_5_5. • For pre-11gR2. simply add the new disks to the ASM disk group and drop the old disks.dat. See Note 428681. How do I move my ASM database from storage A to storage B? Ans: • Given that the new and old storage are both visible to ASM.dat target +DATA/dumpsets/expdp_5_5. which covers how to move OCR/Voting disks to the new storage array .

data_legacy2. Cross-platform disk group migration not supported. you need to use XTTS. ACFS Q. Is it possible to unplug an ASM disk group from one platform and plug into a server on another platform (for example. What is ASM Cluster File System (ACFS)? • General purpose scalable file system • Journaling. Datapump or Streams. extent based • Single node and cluster • POSIX. data_legacy3 add disk ‘/dev/sddb1’. from Solaris to Linux)? Ans. ASM Rebalancing • Automatic online rebalance whenever storage configuration changes • Only move data proportional to storage added • No need for manual I/O tuning • Automatic online rebalance whenever storage configuration changes • Online migration to new storage • Automatic online rebalance whenever storage configuration changes • Online migration to new storage Q. X/OPEN file system solution for UNIX/Linux . ‘/dev/sddc1’. ‘/dev/sddd1’. To move datafiles between endian-ness platforms.ASM_SQL> alter diskgroup DATA drop disk data_legacy1. No.

Can ACFS be used to store database datafiles? What about archive logs? . Yes. Other platforms are forthcoming Q. shared file system model and delivers coherent data access • ACFS file system is installed as a dynamically loadable OS VFS driver • Starting with RHEL5. • ACFS designed as a peer to peer. multi-node.• Windows file system solution for Windows platforms • Accessible through NAS protocols (NFS. • Customers should be able to install an update or patch to the kernel and our drivers should not be impacted Q. Redhat now supports a ‘white list’ -kernel APIs which they commit they will not change in updates or patches. Is ACFS supported on other platforms besides Linux Ans. CIFS) • Leverages ASM technology • Integrated with Oracle Clusterware for cluster support • Multi OS platform (Linux and Windows at initial release) • Integrated with Oracle system mgt tools • Oracle installation and configuration • Enterprise Manager and ASM Storage mgt tools • Native OS File System Management tools ACFS Features Provides filesystem snapshots (FCOW) • File system integrity and fast recovery via ACFS metadata checksums and journaling. APIs used by ACFS-ADVM were added to their ‘white list’.

Is it possible to do rolling upgrades on ASMLIB in a RAC configuration . Will ACFS support other Data services. This is due to performance reasons.Ans. No. and thus is transparent. but it is certainly recommended. Yes. Is ASM constantly rebalancing to manage “hot spots”? Ans. de-dupe. Other advanced features are part of the roadmap.. and thus can store any file data type (besides database files ☺) Q. etc. ASMLIB is not required to run ASM. 3rd Party Software Q. Yes. replication. Can I sue ACFS to store BFILE data or other non-database related data Ans. You may need to adjust ASM_DISKSTRING to specify only the path to the multipathing pseudo devices. Ans. such advanced cloning. ACFS is POSIX compliant filesystem. Is ASMLIB required on Linux systems and are there any benefits to using it? Ans. Though you can do this in test/Q&A environments where performance is not essential Q. Q. Currently we will not support database file to bestored in ACFS. ACFS Replication will be introduced in the next patchset release. How does ASM work with multipathing software? Ans: It works great! Multipathing software is at a layer lower than ASM. No…No…Nope!! Q. ASMLIB has following benefits: • Simplified disk discovery • Persistent disk names • Efficient use of system resources Q.

Ans. Value can be 1(lowest) to 11 (highest). What is the use of ASM (or) Why ASM preferred over filesystem? Ans: ASM provides striping and mirroring. 2. ‘/dev/rdsk/c1*’ ASM_DISKGROUPS = DG_DATA. ASMLIB is independent of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Database. What are the init parameters related to ASM? INSTANCE_TYPE = ASM ASM_POWER_LIMIT = 11 ASM_DISKSTRING = ‘/dev/rdsk/*s2′. . DG_FRA 3. and thus can be upgraded on its own. ********************* 1. Conclusion: •ASM requires very few parameters to run •ASM based databases inherently leverage raw disk performance •No additional database parameters needed to support ASM •Mixed ASM-database version support •Facilitates online storage changes •RMAN recommended for backing up ASM based databases •Spreads I/O evenly across all disks to maximize performance and eliminates hot spot *************************ASM genral questions. What is rebalancing (or) what is the use of ASM_POWER_LIMIT? ASM_POWER_LIMIT is dynamic parameter. which will be useful for rebalancing the data across disks.

CREATE DISKGROUP disk_group_2 EXTERNAL REDUNDANCY DISK ‘/dev/sde1′ATRRIBUTE ‘au_size’ = ’32M'. 5. High redundancy. How to find out the databases. 8. An AU is the fundamental unit of allocation within a disk group.ALLOCATION_UNIT_SIZE from v$asm_diskgroup. What are different types of redundancies in ASM & explain? External redundancy. How to copy file to/from ASM from/to filesystem? By using ASMCMD cp command 6. What process does the rebalancing? . A file extent consists of one or more AU. 9. Normal redundancy. An ASM file consists of one or more file extents. What is allocation unit and what is default value of au_size and how to change? Every ASM disk is divided into allocation units (AU). which are using the ASM instance? ASMCMD> lsct SQL> select DB_NAME from V$ASM_CLIENT. What are the background processes in ASM? 10. What are different types of stripings in ASM & their differences? Fine-grained striping Coarse-grained striping lsdg select NAME. 7.4.

rather than continue processing transactions. the primary database will shut down. How to add/remove disk to/from diskgroup? Oracle Data Guard Interview Questions 1. It provides the highest level of data protection that is possible without affecting the performance of a primary database. To provide this level of protection. Maximum availability: This protection mode provides the highest level of data protection that is possible without compromising the availability of a primary database. This is accomplished by allowing transactions to commit as soon as all redo data generated by those transactions has been written to the online log.RBAL. the redo data needed to recover a transaction must be written to both the online redo log and to at least one standby database before the transaction commits. How to setup Data Guard? 2. To ensure that data loss cannot occur. Maximum protection: This protection mode ensures that no data loss will occur if the primary database fails. Transactions do not commit until all redo data . ARBn 11. What are different types of modes in Data Guard and which is default? Maximum performance: This is the default protection mode.

needed to recover those transactions has been written to the online redo log and to at least one standby database. 7. MRP will apply archives Logical standby – in READ ONLY state. 9 standby databases are supported. is it mandatory to set these? 6. logical. snapshot standby and ADG (or) what are different types of standby databases? Physical standby – in mount state. can do any kind of testing. we can create 30 standby databases. 4. From Oracle 11g R2. What are the parameters we’ve to set in primary/standby for Data Guard? 5. How many standby databases we can create (in 10g/11g)? Till Oracle 10g. What are differences between physical. How to find out backlog of standby? . What is the use of fal_server & fal_client. 3. which will be in READ WRITE mode. LSP will run Snapshot standby databases – Physical standby database can be converted to snapshot standby database. MRP will apply archives ADG – in READ ONLY state. then we can convert back snapshot standby database to physical standby database and start MRP which will apply all pending archives.

status from v$archived_log a. what view would you check in the primary database to check the error message? You can check the v$dataguard_status view. 11. let him do updates. create guaranteed restore point. start MRP.SEQUENCE#-1). 9. How can u recover standby which far behind from primary (or) without archive logs how can we make standby sync? By using RMAN incremental backup.SEQUENCE#. 10. convert to physical standby. What is snapshot standby (or) How can we give a physical standby to user in READ WRITE mode and let him do updates and revert back to standby? Till Oralce 10g.m. If you didn’t have access to the standby database and you wanted to find out what error has occurred in a data guard configuration. What are new features in 11g Data Guard? . convert physical standby to snapshot standby. status from v$managed_standby where process like ‘%MRP%’)m where a. 8.m. (select process.SEQUENCE#-1 “Seq Applied”.select round((sysdate – a.NEXT_TIME)*24*60) as “Backlog”. let him do updates. m. From Oracle 11g. flashback to restore point. start MRP.SEQUENCE#=(m.process. select message from v$dataguard_status. open in read write.

What is the difference between normal MRP (managed apply) and RTA MRP (real time apply)? 16. and AFFIRM/NOAFFIRM? 18. What is the difference between SYNC/ASYNC.12. What is Data Guard broker (or) what is the use of dgmgrl? 19. What is StaticConnectIdentifier property used for? 20. What is RTA (real time apply) mode MRP? 15. LSP. Oracle RMAN Interview Questions/FAQs . What are the background processes involved in Data Guard? MRP. LGWR/ARCH. What is dg_config? 14. What is failover/switchover (or) what is the difference between failover & switchover? 21. What are the uses of standby redo log files? 13. What are various parameters in log_archive_dest and it’s use? 17.

4. In recovery catalog. we can store scripts. Can we use same target database as catalog? No. by default RMAN stores? . It will be preserved in recovery catalog. Command to delete archive logs older than 7days? RMAN> delete archivelog all completed before sysdate-7. Difference between catalog and nocatalog? Make money bloggingEmailRecover FilesHeat PumpDatabase management system 2. Recovery catalog is central and can have information of many databases.1. How many days backup. the old backup information in control file will be lost. Difference between using recovery catalog and control file? When new incarnation happens. because the database can’t be recovered in the mounted state. 3. The recovery catalog should not reside in the target database (database to be backed up). From where list & report commands will get input? 6. How do u know how much RMAN task has been completed? By querying v$rman_status or v$session_longops 5. 7.

What is Level 0. What is the use of crosscheck command in RMAN? Crosscheck will be useful to check whether the catalog information is intact with OS level information. backing the datafile up into a backup set just as a full backup would. which backs up all blocks changed after the most recent incremental backup at level 1 or 0 A cumulative backup. which backs up all blocks changed after the most recent incremental backup at level 0 11. Can we perform level 1 backup without level 0 backup? If no level 0 backup is available. then the behavior depends upon the compatibility mode setting. If compatibility < 10. which backs up all blocks changed after the most recent incremental backup at level 1 or 0 A cumulative backup.0. What are the differences between crosscheck and validate commands? 10. . Which is one is good. copies all blocks containing data.0. which is the base for subsequent incremental backups. RMAN generates a level 0 backup of the file contents at the time of the backup.8. which backs up all blocks changed after the most recent incremental backup at level 0 12. A level 1 incremental backup can be either of the following types: A differential backup. Level 1 backup? A level 0 incremental backup. 9. differential (incremental) backup or cumulative (incremental) backup? A differential backup.

the SCN at the time the incremental backup is taken is the file creation SCN. You loss one datafile and DB is running in ARCHIVELOG mode. How to do cloning by using RMAN? RMAN> duplicate target database … 18.0.’ size n. RMAN command to backup for creating standby database? RMAN> duplicate target database to standby database …. and stores the results as a level 1 backup.If compatibility is >= 10. 13. What is the difference between backup set and backup piece? Backup set is logical and backup piece is physical.. 16. Will RMAN put the database/tablespace/datafile in backup mode? Nope. You have full database backup of 1 week/day old and don’t have backup of this (newly created) datafile. How do you restore/recover file? create the datafile and recover that datafile. . In other words. What is snapshot control file? 15.0. 17. 14. SQL> alter database create datafile ‘…path. RMAN copies all blocks changed since the file was created.

ctl'. then take backup. A status of “obsolete” means the backup piece is still available. 19. What is obsolete backup & expired backup? A status of “expired” means that the backup piece or backup set is not found in the backup destination. but it is no longer needed. What is the difference between hot backup & RMAN backup? For hot backup.RMAN> recover datafile file_id. 21. 22. 20. RMAN won’t put database in backup mode. we have to put database in begin backup mode. The backup piece is no longer needed since RMAN has been configured to no longer need this piece after so many days have elapsed. What are new features in Oracle 11g RMAN? 23. What is the difference between auxiliary channel and maintenance channel? . How to put manual/user-managed backup in RMAN (recovery catalog)? By using catalog command. or so many backups have been performed. RMAN> CATALOG START WITH ‘/tmp/backup.

Default is 256KB.Oracle Export/Import (exp/imp). Export the objects (especially tables and indexes) with COMPRESS=Y. 2. to extract data by reading the data directly. 4. Sometime it is found desirable to export with COMPRESS=N. If table was spawning 20 Extents of 1M each (which is not desirable. What is use of DIRECT=Y option in exp? Setting direct=yes. What is use of CONSISTENT option in exp? Cross-table consistency. in situations where you do not have contiguous space on disk (tablespace). Later on when importing the extents will be coalesced. Default value N. 4. so it should be faster. Exporting to disk is faster. Stop unnecessary applications to free the resources. taking into account performance). the DDL generated will have initial of 20M. This parameter is helpful during database re-organization. Default value N. and do not want imports to fail. Set the BUFFER parameter to a high value. Specifies how export will manage the initial extent for the table data. Implements SET TRANSACTION READ ONLY. Do not export to NFS (Network File Share). bypasses the SGA. make sure they write to different disks. If you are running multiple sessions. What is use of COMPRESS option in exp? Imports into one extent. bypassing the SQL command-processing layer (evaluating buffer). . 2. 3. 3.Data Pump (expdp/imp) Interview Questions 1. if you export the table with COMPRESS=Y. How to improve exp performance? 1.

What is use of IGNORE option in imp? . 5. 8. if possible. Use STATISTICS=NONE 9. 5. Use DIRECT=yes (direct mode export). Increase the DB_CACHE_SIZE. 6. Disable the INSERT triggers. 2. as they fire during import. 4. 6. Set the BUFFER parameter to a high value. 6. Indexes can easily be recreated after the data was successfully imported. How to improve imp performance? 1. 7.5. Stop redolog archiving. Use COMMIT=n. 7. Default is 256KB. Set the RECORDLENGTH parameter to a high value. 10. Set LOG_BUFFER to big size. It’s advisable to drop indexes before importing to speed up the import process or set INDEXES=N and building indexes later on after the import. if possible. What is use of INDEXFILE option in imp? Will write DDLs of the objects in the dumpfile into the specified file. Place the file to be imported in separate disk from datafiles. Set Parameter COMMIT_WRITE=NOWAIT(in Oracle 10g) or COMMIT_WAIT=NOWAIT (in Oracle 11g) during import. 3.

Data Pump uses direct path API. Data Pump will do parallel execution. How to improve impdp performance? . Data Pump will do parallel execution. Why expdp is faster than exp (or) why Data Pump is faster than conventional export/import? Data Pump is block mode. Tapes & pipes are not supported in Data Pump. we can stop and restart the jobs. 10. Data Pump has APIs. In Data Pump. exp is byte mode.Will ignore the errors during import and will continue the import. This should be set based on the number of cpus. 9. 8. if user doesn’t exist. 11. What are the differences between expdp and exp (Data Pump or normal exp/imp)? Data Pump is server centric (files will be at server). Data Pump consumes more undo tablespace. Data Pump import will create the user. from procedures we can run Data Pump jobs. How to improve expdp performance? Using parallel option which increases worker threads.

13. 12. where XXXX can be FULL or SCHEMA or TABLE. where the jobs info will be stored (or) if you restart a job in Data Pump. In Data Pump.Using parallel option which increases worker threads. This should be set based on the number of cpus. What is the order of importing objects in impdp? Tablespaces Users Roles Database links Sequences Directories Synonyms Types Tables/Partitions . Oracle will find out how much job has completed and from where to continue etc. Oracle will create a table with the JOB_NAME and will be deleted once the job is done. where XXXX can be FULL or SCHEMA or TABLE. Default export job name will be SYS_EXPORT_XXXX_01. From this table. how it will know from where to resume? Whenever Data Pump export or import is running. Default import job name will be SYS_IMPORT_XXXX_01.

How to export/import without using external directory? 17. How to import into different user/tablespace/datafile/table? REMAP_SCHEMA REMAP_TABLESPACE REMAP_DATAFILE REMAP_TABLE REMAP_DATA 16. how to export in higher version (11g) and import into lower version (10g/9i)? . How to import only metadata? CONTENT= METADATA_ONLY 15.Views Comments Packages/Procedures/Functions Materialized views 14. can we import to 9i? 18. Using Data Pump. Using normal exp/imp. how to export in higher version (11g) and import into lower version (10g).

What are the special background processes for RAC (or) what is difference in stand-alone database & RAC database background processes? DIAG. Voting disk & ocrfile can be on the ASM. What are the prerequisites for RAC setup? 3. What are Oracle Clusterware/Daemon processes and what they do? Ans: ocssd. racgimon 4.19. crsd. LMON 5.com/2010/07/new-features-in-9i-10g-11g-rac. racgmain. LCKn. evmd. LMSn. How to do transport tablespaces (and across platforms) using exp/imp or expdp/impdp? Oracle RAC Interview Questions 1. LMD.html Grid & ASM are on one home. What is the use of RAC? 2.blogspot. . What are structural changes in 11g R2 RAC? Ans: http://satya-racdba. oprocd.

scan. scan_listener. home. ons.html Grid & ASM are on one home. home.SCAN. ons. vip. shared between the caches of participating nodes in the cluster. When a block of data is read from datafile by an instance within the cluster and another instance is in need of the same block. we can mange diskgroups. it is easy to get the block image from the instance which has the block in its SGA rather than reading from the disk. filesystem. By using srvctl. gns.com/2010/07/new-features-in-9i-10g-11g-rac. Cache Fusion is the remote memory mapping of Oracle buffers. What is cache fusion? Ans: Transferring of data between RAC instances by using private network. we can mange diskgroups. By using srvctl. GSD 6. server. scan_listener. server. scan. SCAN. GSD 7. filesystem. eons. vip. oc4j. What are the new features in 11g (R2) RAC? Ans: http://satya-racdba. Voting disk & ocrfile can be on the ASM. eons. . srvpool. srvpool. gns.blogspot. oc4j.

The voting disk must reside on shared disk. crsd – Cluster Resource Services Daemon cssd – Cluster Synchronization Services Daemon evmd – Event Manager Daemon oprocd / hangcheck_timer – Node hang detector . RAC uses the interconnect for cache fusion (UDP) and inter-process communication (TCP). The daemon OCSSd manages the configuration info in OCR and maintains the changes to cluster in the registry. Subsequent packets sent to the VIP go to the new node.8. The OCR must reside on shared disk that is accessible by all of the nodes in your cluster. What is the purpose of Private Interconnect? Ans: Clusterware uses the private interconnect for cluster synchronization (network heartbeat) and daemon communication between the clustered nodes. What are the Clusterware components? Ans: Voting Disk – Oracle RAC uses the voting disk to manage cluster membership by way of a health check and arbitrates cluster ownership among the instances in case of network failures. Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) – Maintains cluster configuration information as well as configuration information about any cluster database within the cluster. Virtual IP (VIP) – When a node fails. which will send error RST packets back to the clients. This results in the clients getting errors immediately. This communication is based on the TCP protocol. 9. the VIP associated with it is automatically failed over to some other node and new node re-arps the world indicating a new MAC address for the IP.

10. which helps to avoid the split-brain syndrome.dmp #ocrdump -backupfile my_file $cp -p -R /u01/app/crs/cdata /u02/crs_backup/ocrbackup/RAC1 . Voting disk is akin to the quorum disk. The OCR also manages information about Oracle Clusterware resource profiles for customized applications. The daemon OCSSd manages the configuration info in OCR and maintains the changes to cluster in the registry. What is Voting file/disk and how many files should be there? Ans: Voting Disk File is a file on the shared cluster system or a shared raw device file. Maintains cluster configuration information as well as configuration information about any cluster database within the cluster. Oracle Clusterware uses the voting disk to determine which instances are members of a cluster. Oracle RAC uses the voting disk to manage cluster membership by way of a health check and arbitrates cluster ownership among the instances in case of network failures. The OCR must reside on shared disk that is accessible by all of the nodes in your cluster. 11. How to take backup of OCR file? Ans: #ocrconfig -manualbackup #ocrconfig -export file_name. The voting disk must reside on shared disk. What is OCR file? Ans: RAC configuration information repository that manages information about the cluster node list and instance-to-node mapping information. 12.

How do I identify the voting disk location? .ocr /var/opt/oracle/local. What is local OCR? Ans: /etc/oracle/local. How to take backup of voting file? Ans: dd if=/u02/ocfs2/vote/VDFile_0 of=$ORACLE_BASE/bkp/vd/VDFile_0 crsctl backup css votedisk — from 11g R2 17.ocr 15.dmp 14. How to check backup of OCR files? Ans: #ocrconfig –showbackup 16.13.ocr #ocrconfig -import file_name. How to recover OCR file? Ans: #ocrconfig -restore backup_file.

Who will manage OCR files? Ans: cssd will manage OCR Oracle RAC Interview Questions/FAQs Part2 Oracle RAC Interview Questions/FAQs Part2 21. If voting disk/OCR file got corrupted and don’t have backups. how to get them? Ans: We have to install Clusterware. How do I identify the OCR file location? check /var/opt/oracle/ocr.Ans: # crsctl query css votedisk 18.loc Ans: # ocrcheck 19.loc or /etc/ocr. Who will take backup of OCR files? Ans: . 20.

As a result. What are various IPs used in RAC? Or How may IPs we need in RAC? Ans: Public IP. one instance attempts to manage updates simultaneously while the other instance attempts to manage updates. the VIP associated with it is automatically failed over to some other node and new node re-arps the world indicating a new MAC address for the IP. 22.crsd will take backup. In a two-node environment. What is split brain syndrome? Ans: Will arise when two or more instances attempt to control a cluster database. Subsequent packets sent to the VIP go to the new node. clients connected to a node that died will often wait for a TCP timeout period (which can be up to 10 min) before getting an error. Private IP. What is the use of SCAN IP (SCAN name) and will it provide load balancing? . Without using VIPs or FAN. which will send error RST packets back to the clients. Virtual IP. you don’t really have a good HA solution without using VIPs. What is the use of virtual IP? Ans: When a node fails. SCAN IP 24. 25. 23. This results in the clients getting errors immediately.

Ans:
Single Client Access Name (SCAN) is a new Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) 11g Release 2,
feature that provides a single name for clients to access an Oracle Database running in a cluster. The
benefit is clients using SCAN do not need to change if you add or remove nodes in the cluster.

26. How many SCAN listeners will be running?
Ans:
Three SCAN listeners only.

27. What is FAN?
Ans:
Applications can use Fast Application Notification (FAN) to enable rapid failure detection, balancing of
connection pools after failures, and re-balancing of connection pools when failed components are
repaired. The FAN process uses system events that Oracle publishes when cluster servers become
unreachable or if network interfaces fail.

28. What is FCF?
Ans:
Fast Connection Failover provides high availability to FAN integrated clients, such as clients that use
JDBC, OCI, or ODP.NET. If you configure the client to use fast connection failover, then the client
automatically subscribes to FAN events and can react to database UP and DOWN events. In response,
Oracle gives the client a connection to an active instance that provides the requested database
service.

29. What is TAF and TAF policies?
Ans:
Transparent Application Failover (TAF) – A runtime failover for high availability environments, such as
Real Application Clusters and Oracle Real Application Clusters Guard, TAF refers to the failover and
re-establishment of application-to-service connections. It enables client applications to automatically
reconnect to the database if the connection fails, and optionally resume a SELECT statement that was
in progress. This reconnect happens automatically from within the Oracle Call Interface (OCI) library.

30. How will you upgrade RAC database?

31. What are rolling patches and how to apply?

32. How to add/remove a node?

33. What are nodeapps?
Ans:
VIP, listener, ONS, GSD

34. What is gsd (Global Service Daemon)?

35. How to do load balancing in RAC?

36. What are the uses of services? How to find out the services in cluster?

Ans:
Applications should use the services to connect to the Oracle database. Services define rules and
characteristics (unique name, workload balancing, failover options, and high availability) to control
how users and applications connect to database instances.

37. How to find out the nodes in cluster (or) how to find out the master node?
Ans:
# olsnodes — Which ever displayed first, is the master node of the cluster.
select MASTER_NODE from v$ges_resource;
To find out which is the master node, you can see ocssd.log file and search for “master node number”.

38. How to know the public IPs, private IPs, VIPs in RAC?
Ans:
# olsnodes -n -p -i
node1-pub

1

node1-prv

node1-vip

node2-pub

2

node2-prv

node2-vip

39. What utility is used to start DB/instance?
Ans:
srvctl start database –d database_name
srvctl start instance –d database_name –i instance_name

crsctl check has crsctl config has crsctl disable has crsctl enable has crsctl query has releaseversion crsctl query has softwareversion crsctl start has crsctl stop has [-f] 42. What is HAS (High Availability Service) and the commands? Ans: HAS includes ASM & database instance and listeners. How many nodes are supported in a RAC Database? Ans: 10g Release 2. . How can you shutdown single instance? Ans: Change cluster_database=false srvctl stop instance –d database_name –i instance_name 41. support 100 nodes in a cluster using Oracle Clusterware.40. and 100 instances in a RAC database.

and detecting failure and preventing split brain in cluster. This methodology is called I/O Fencing. What are the wait events in RAC? Ans: http://satya-racdba. the failed node needs to be fenced off from all the shared disk devices or diskgroups. What is fencing? Ans: I/O fencing prevents updates by failed instances.blogspot. 44.com/2012/10/wait-events-in-oracle-rac-wait-events.html gc buffer busy gc buffer busy acquire gc current request gc cr request gc cr failure gc current block lost gc cr block lost gc current block corrupt gc cr block corrupt . When a cluster node fails. Why Clusterware installed in root (why not oracle)? 45. sometimes called Disk Fencing or failure fencing.43.

gc current block 2-way gc cr block 2-way gc current block 3-way gc cr block 3-way (gc current/cr block n-way. n is number of nodes) gc current grant 2-way gc cr grant 2-way gc current grant busy gc current grant congested gc cr grant congested gc cr multi block read gc current multi block request gc cr multi block request gc cr block build time gc current block flush time gc cr block flush time gc current block send time .gc current block busy gc cr block busy gc current block congested gc cr block congested.

What is the difference between cr block and cur (current) block? 47.com/2012/09/init-parameters-in-oracle-rac. What are the initialization parameters that must have same value for every instance in an Oracle RAC database? Ans: http://satya-racdba.gc cr block send time gc current block pin time gc domain validation gc current retry ges inquiry response gcs log flush sync 46.html ACTIVE_INSTANCE_COUNT ARCHIVE_LAG_TARGET COMPATIBLE CLUSTER_DATABASE CLUSTER_DATABASE_INSTANCE CONTROL_FILES DB_BLOCK_SIZE .blogspot.

What is the use of root.sh & oraInstRoot. starts the clusterware stack 62. What are the new features in Oracle RAC 12c? Ans: 61.sh? Ans: Changes ownership & permissions of oraInventory Creating oratab file in the /etc directory In RAC. What is transportable tablespace (and across platforms)? .DB_DOMAIN DB_FILES DB_NAME DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST_SIZE DB_UNIQUE_NAME INSTANCE_TYPE PARALLEL_MAX_SERVERS REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORD_FILE UNDO_MANAGEMENT 47.

How can you transport tablespaces across platforms with different endian formats? Ans: RMAN 64. How to find if your Oracle database is 32 bit or 64 bit? . What is the difference between restore point & guaranteed restore point? 66. What is the difference between 10g/11g OEM Grid control and 12c Cloud control? 67. What is xtss (cross platform transportable tablespace)? 65. What are the components of Grid control? Ans: OMS (Oracle Management Server) OMR (Oracle Management Repository) OEM Agent 68.63. What are the new features of 12c Cloud control? 69.

Ans: execute the command “file $ORACLE_HOME/bin/oracle”. What is SGA? . How to find opatch Version ? Ans: opatch is utility to apply database patch. you should see output like /u01/db/bin/oracle: ELF 64-bit MSB executable SPARCV9 Version 1 means you are on 64 bit oracle. What is an instance? SGA + background processes. If your oracle is 32 bit you should see output like below oracle: ELF 32-bit MSB executable SPARC Version 1 70. 2. In order to find opatch version execute”$ORACLE_HOME/OPatch/opatch version” Oracle DBA Interview Questions/FAQs Part1 1.

What are the new background processes in Oracle 10g? MMAN MMON MMNL CTWR ASMB RBAL ARBx 9. MMON. 4. RBAL. ARBx etc. What are the optional background processes? ARCH. MMNL.System/Shared Global Area. 3. 7. What are new memory parameters in Oracle 11g? MEMORY_TARGET 6. 8. What is PGA (or) what is pga_aggregate_target? Programmable Global Area. ASMB. MMAN. What are new memory parameters in Oracle 10g? SGA_TARGET PGA_TARGET 5. What are the new features in Oracle 9i? . CTWR. What are the mandatory background processes? DBWR LGWR SMON PMON CKPT RECO.

blogspot.html 14.blogspot.com/2009/01/whats-new-in-10g. What background process will writes data to datafiles? DBWR .com/2009/09/whats-new-in-11g-release-2.html 10.html 13.blogspot. What are the new features in Oracle 11g R2? http://satya-dba. What process will get data from datafiles to DB cache? Server process 15. What are the new features in Oracle 12c? http://satya-dba. What are the new features in Oracle 10g? http://satya-dba.http://satya-dba.com/2009/01/whats-new-in-9i.blogspot.html 12.blogspot. What are the new features in Oracle 11g? http://satya-dba.com/2009/01/whats-new-in-11g.com/2012/10/new-features-in-oracle-database-12c.html 11.

and one or more control files. October 22. Tablespaces. 18. What is segment space management? LMTS and DMTS. Password file and parameter file also come under physical components. What are physical components of Oracle database? Oracle database is comprised of three types of files. 20. Extents. and tablespaces that record extent allocation in the tablespace header are called locally managed tablespaces. Segments. What are the differences between LMTS and DMTS? Tablespaces that record extent allocation in the dictionary are called dictionary managed tablespaces.16. What are logical components of Oracle database? Blocks. What is extent management? Auto and Manual. What background process will write undo data? DBWR 17. One or more datafiles. two or more redo log files. 21. 2012Oracle DBA Interview Questions/FAQs Part2 Oracle DBA Interview Questions/FAQs Part2 . 19.

What is ORA-01555 – snapshot too old error and how do you avoid it? 27. What are the uses of undo tablespace or redo segments? 25. datafile locations. The data of logical database structures such as tables and indexes is physically stored in the datafiles allocated for a database. DB Creation Time. Flashback mode. redolog locations. Datafiles contain all the database data. SCN. LSN. How undo tablespace can guarantee retain of required undo data? Alter tablespace undo_ts retention guarantee. What is the use of redo log files? 24.21. What are the contents of control file? Database name. 23. RMAN Backup & Recovery Details. What is the use/size of temporary tablespace? . archive mode. 26. 22. What is a datafile? Every Oracle database has one or more physical datafiles.

Preferred when cardinality is low. 31. Bitmap index. Explicit indexes are again of many types like simple index. unique index.Bitmap index 3. What is the use of password file? 29. What is bitmap index & when it’ll be used? Bitmap indexes are preferred in Data warehousing environment. Organisational index. Functional index. . How to create password file? $ orapwd file=orapwSID password=sys_password force=y nosysdba=y 30. cluster index.Function based index Implicit index and explicit index.B-Tree index 2. How many types of indexes are there? Clustered and Non-Clustered 1.28.Unique index 4.

It should be noted that this table contains only one row and therefore only one index can be analysed at a time. Delete can be used to delete some records.e. indicating that the index should be rebuilt. Preferred when cardinality is high. 34. * If the ‘HEIGHT’ is greater than 4. Truncate can’t. What is the difference between delete and truncate? Truncate will release the space. if del_lf_rows / lf_rows > 0. analyze index validate structure.32. 33. i. An index should be considered for rebuilding under any of the following conditions: * The percentage of deleted rows exceeds 30% of the total. What is B-tree index & when it’ll be used? B-tree indexes are preferred in OLTP environment. . This populates the table ‘index_stats’. Delete can be rollbacked. Delete won’t. * If the number of rows in the index (‘LF_ROWS’) is significantly smaller than ‘LF_BLKS’ this can indicate a large number of deletes. How you will find out fragmentation of index? AUTO_SPACE_ADVISOR_JOB will run in daily maintenance window and report fragmented indexes/Tables.3.

But by default primary key creates a clustered index on the column. SYSOPER can’t do incomplete recovery. Truncate is a DDL statement whereas DELETE is a DML statement. Hence data removed by Delete command can be rolled back but not the data removed by TRUNCATE). SYSOPER can’t change character set. What’s the difference between a primary key and a unique key? Both primary key and unique enforce uniqueness of the column on which they are defined. What is the difference between schema and user? Schema is collection of user’s objects. Primary key doesn’t allow NULLs. 35. but unique key allows one NULL only. What is the difference between SYSDBA. SYSOPER can’t CREATE DISKGROUP. Truncate is faster than delete.Delete will generate undo (Delete command will log the data changes in the log file where as the truncate will simply remove the data without it. 38. where unique key creates a nonclustered index by default. ADD/DROP/RESIZE DISK SYSASM can do anything SYSDBA can do. 36. 37. SYSOPER and SYSASM? SYSOPER can’t create and drop database. What is the difference between SYS and SYSTEM? .

’YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS’) from dba_mview_refresh_times. will store only the query. What are materialized view refresh types and which is default? Complete. 39. How fast refresh happens? 43.’YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS’) from dba_mviews. to_char(LAST_REFRESH. force(default) 42. How to improve sqlldr (SQL*Loader) performance? 40. Mview is physical. SYSTEM can’t create another SYSTEM.SYSTEM can’t shutdown the database. (or) SQL> select NAME. 41. will store the data. How to find out when was a materialized view refreshed? Query dba_mviews or dba_mview_analysis or dba_mview_refresh_times SQL> select MVIEW_NAME. fast. (or) . to_char(LAST_REFRESH_DATE. but SYS can create another SYS or SYSTEM. and will always gets latest data. What is the difference between view and materialized view? View is logical. and may not get latest data.

ATOMIC_REFRESH = FALSE. 44. 46. What is materialized view log (type)? 45. SQL> EXEC DBMS_MVIEW. What is row chaining? If the row is too large to fit into an empty data block in this case the oracle stores the data for the row in a chain of one or more data blocks.SQL> select MVIEW_NAME. complete refresh of single materialized view can do delete instead of truncate. atomic_refresh=FALSE). parameter ATOMIC_REFRESH must be set to false. ‘C’. . Undo will be generated. mview will be truncated and whole data will be inserted. The refresh will go faster. to_char(LAST_REFRESH_DATE. To force the refresh to do truncate instead of delete. and no undo will be generated. mview will be deleted and whole data will be inserted. We will have access at all times even while it is being refreshed. How to find out whether database/tablespace/datafile is in backup mode or not? Query V$BACKUP view.’YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS’) from dba_mview_analysis. 47. What is atomic refresh in mviews? From Oracle 10g. ATOMIC_REFRESH = TRUE (default).REFRESH(‘mv_emp’. Can occur when the row is inserted.

48. What is row migration?
An update statement increases the amount of data in a row so that the row no longer fits in its data
blocks. Now the oracle tries to find another free block with enough space to hold the entire row if
such a block is available oracle moves entire row to new block.

49. What are different types of partitions?
With Oracle8, Range partitioning (on single column) was introduced.
With Oracle8i, Hash and Composite(Range-Hash) partitioning was introduced.
With Oracle9i, List partitioning and Composite(Range-List) partitioning was introduced.
With Oracle 11g, Interval partitioning, REFerence partitioning, Virtual column based partitioning,
System partitioning and Composite partitioning [Range-Range, List-List, List-Range, List-Hash,
Interval-Range, Interval-List, Interval-Interval] was introduced.

50. What is local partitioned index and global partitioned index?
A local index is an index on a partitioned table which is partitioned in the exact same manner as the
underlying partitioned table. Each partition of a local index corresponds to one and only one partition
of the underlying table.
A global partitioned index is an index on a partitioned or non partitioned tables which are partitioned
using a different partitioning key from the table and can have different number of partitions. Global
partitioned indexes can only be partitioned using range partitioning.

51. How you will recover if you lost one/all control file(s)?

52. Why more archivelogs are generated, when database is begin backup mode?

During begin backup mode datafile headers get freezed and as result row information cannot be
retrieved as a result the entire block is copied to redo logs as a result more redo generated and more
log switch and in turn more archive logs. Normally only deltas (change vectors) are logged to the redo
logs. When in backup mode, Oracle will write complete changed blocks to the redo log files.

Mainly to overcome fractured blocks. Most of the cases Oracle block size is equal to or a multiple of
the operating system block size.

e.g. Consider Oracle blocksize is 2k and OSBlocksize is 4k. so each OS Block is comprised of 2 Oracle
Blocks. Now you are doing an update when your db is in backup mode. An Oracle Block is updating
and at the same time backup is happening on the OS block which is having this particular DB block.
Backup will not be consistent since the one part of the block is being updated and at the same time it
is copied to the backup location. In this case we will have a fractured block, so as to avoid this Oracle
will copy the whole OS block to redo logfile which can be used for recovery. Because of this redo
generation is more.

53. What UNIX parameters you will set while Oracle installation?
shmmax, shmmni, shmall, sem,

54. What is the use of inittrans and maxtrans in table definition?

55. What are differences between dbms_job and dbms_schedular?
Through dbms_schedular we can schedule OS level jobs also.

56. What are differences between dbms_schedular and cron jobs?
Through dbms_schedular we can schedule database jobs, through cron we can’t set.

57. Difference between CPU & PSU patches?
CPU – Critical Patch Update – includes only Security related patches.
PSU – Patch Set Update – includes CPU + other patches deemed important enough to be released
prior to a minor (or major) version release.

58. What you will do if (local) inventory corrupted [or] opatch lsinventory is giving error?

59. What are the entries/location of oraInst.loc?
/etc/oraInst.loc is pointer to central/local Oracle Inventory.

60. What is the difference between central/global inventory and local inventory?
October 22, 2012Oracle DBA Interview Questions/FAQs Part4
Oracle DBA Interview Questions/FAQs Part4

61. What is the use of root.sh & oraInstRoot.sh?
Ans:
Changes ownership & permissions of oraInventory

How can you transport tablespaces across platforms with different endian formats? Ans: RMAN 64. What is the difference between 10g/11g OEM Grid control and 12c Cloud control? 67.Creating oratab file in the /etc directory In RAC. What is xtss (cross platform transportable tablespace)? 65. What is the difference between restore point & guaranteed restore point? 66. What is transportable tablespace (and across platforms)? 63. What are the components of Grid control? Ans: OMS (Oracle Management Server) OMR (Oracle Management Repository) OEM Agent . starts the clusterware stack 62.

68. How to find if your Oracle database is 32 bit or 64 bit? Ans: execute the command “file $ORACLE_HOME/bin/oracle”. What are the new features of 12c Cloud control? 69. In order to find opatch version execute”$ORACLE_HOME/OPatch/opatch version” Oracle Performance Related Interview Questions/FAQs Oracle Performance Related Interview Questions/FAQs . How to find opatch Version ? Ans: opatch is utility to apply database patch. If your oracle is 32 bit you should see output like below oracle: ELF 32-bit MSB executable SPARC Version 1 70. you should see output like /u01/db/bin/oracle: ELF 64-bit MSB executable SPARCV9 Version 1 means you are on 64 bit oracle.

tune SQL (to do less I/O). Redistribute I/O across disks. tune SQL. It related to memory starvation and non selective index use. Caused due to full table scans may be because of insufficient indexes or unavailability of updated statistics.1. This event is indicative of disk contention on index reads. tune disks. . How to find out whether the query has ran with RBO or CBO? 6.blogspot. refresh statistics. Make sure all objects are analyzed. The wait that comes from the physical side of the database. and create materialized view. What are top 5 wait events (in AWR report) and how you will resolve them? http://satya-dba. tune disks. What is the use of statistics? 3.in/2012/10/wait-events-in-oracle-wait-events.html db file sequential read => tune indexing. How to generate explain plan? 4. Sequential read is an index read followed by table read because it is doing index lookups which tells exactly which block to go to. How to check explain plan of already ran SQLs? 5. db file scattered read => disk contention on full table scans. increase buffer cache. Add indexes. What you’ll check whenever user complains that his session/database is slow? Make money bloggingDatabase management systemEmailMessagesBlog Oracle monitoring tools 2.

log buffer space => Increase LOG_BUFFER parameter or move log files to faster disks. log file switch (checkpoint incomplete) => May indicate excessive db files or slow IO subsystem. and look for poor behavior that updates an entire row when only a few columns change. It could be a table or index partition. log file switch (archiving needed) => Indicates archive files are written too slowly. tune disks where redo logs exist. archive log generation is more. redo log space wait time => shows cumulative time (in 10s of milliseconds) waited by all processes waiting for space in the log buffer. db file single write => if you see this event than probably you have a lot of data files in your database. increase buffer cache. Disks may be too slow or have an I/O bottleneck. tune disk I/O. db file parallel write => if you are doing a lot of partition activity then expect to see that wait even. log buffer could be too large. If you are doing a lot of partition activity then expect to see that wait even. use NOLOGGING. Tune applications to commit less. control file sequential read control file parallel write log file sync => committing too often. try using nologging/unrecoverable options. log file parallel write => Deals with flushing out the redo log buffer to disk. Tune application. log file switch completion => May need more log files per group.db file parallel read => tune SQL. Look for log file contention. It could be a table or index partition. redo buffer allocation retries => shows the number of times a user process waited for space in the redo log buffer. tune indexing. .

may have to turn off in memory undo. no free buffers => Insufficient buffers.hashes. lock is session specific. we often see this event along with full table scans. latch: cache buffer handles => Freelist issues. if the waits are on segment header blocks. direct path write => You wont see them unless you are doing some appends or data loads. tune shared pool. consider increasing extent sizes. latch: cache buffer chains => check hot objects. direct path read temp or direct path write temp => this wait event shows Temp file activity (sort. hot blocks. free buffer waits => insufficient buffers. . You might want to increase them.temp tables. direct Path reads => could happen if you are doing a lot of parallel query activity. latch free latch: session allocation latch: in memory undo latch => If excessive could be bug. bitmap) check pga parameter or sort area or hash area parameters. process holding buffers too long or i/o subsystem is over loaded. Tune SQL. consider increasing FREELISTS and/or INITRANS. cache buffers lru chain => Freelist issues. check for your version. dbwr contention. library cache load lock library cache pin => if many sessions are waiting. if the SQL is inserting data. Also check you db writes may be getting clogged up. hot blocks.buffer busy waits/ read by other session => Increase DB_CACHE_SIZE. tune indexing. if few sessions are waiting.

if the session is trying to recompile PL/SQL. What are the init parameters related to performance/optimizer? optimizer_mode = choose optimizer_index_caching = 90 optimizer_index_cost_adj = 25 optimizer_max_permutations = 100 optimizer_use_sql_plan_baselines=true optimizer_capture_sql_plan_baselines=true . wait for a undo record => Usually only during recovery of large transactions. look at turning off parallel undo recovery. undo segment extension => If excessive. enque wait events => Look at V$ENQUEUE_STAT SQL*Net message from client SQL*Net message from dblink SQL*Net more data from client SQL*Net message to client SQL*Net break/reset to client 7.library cache lock => need to find the session holding the lock. tune undo. look for DML manipulating an object being accessed. look for other sessions executing the code.

optimizer_use_pending_statistics = true;
optimizer_use_invisible_indexes=true
_optimizer_connect_by_cost_based=false
_optimizer_compute_index_stats= true;

8. What are the values of optimizer_mode init parameters and their meaning?
optimizer_mode = choose

9. What is the use of AWR, ADDM, ASH?

10. How to generate AWR report and what are the things you will check in the report?

11. How to generate ADDM report and what are the things you will check in the report?

12. How to generate ASH report and what are the things you will check in the report?

13. How to generate STATSPACK report and what are the things you will check in the report?

14. How to generate TKPROF report and what are the things you will check in the report?
The tkprof tool is a tuning tool used to determine cpu and execution times for SQL statements. Use it
by first setting timed_statistics to true in the initialization file and then turning on tracing for either
the entire database via the sql_trace parameter or for the session using the ALTER SESSION command.

Once the trace file is generated you run the tkprof tool against the trace file and then look at the
output from the tkprof tool. This can also be used to generate explain plan output.

Oracle GoldenGate Interview Questions/FAQs
Oracle GoldenGate Interview Questions/FAQs

1. What is GoldenGate and how to setup GoldenGate?

2. What are processes/components in GoldenGate?
Manager, Extract, Replicat, Data Pump

3. What is Data Pump process in GoldenGate?

4. What is the command line utility in GoldenGate (or) what is ggsci?

5. What is the default port for GoldenGate Manager process?
7809

6. What are important files GoldenGate?
GLOBALS, ggserr.log, dirprm, etc …

7. What is checkpoint table?

8. How can you see GoldenGate errors?
ggsci> VIEW GGSEVT
ggserr.log file
UNIX Interview Questions/FAQs for Oracle DBAs

1. What’s the difference between soft link and hard link?
Ans:
A symbolic (soft) linked file and the targeted file can be located on the same or different file system
while for a hard link they must be located on the same file system, because they share same inode
number and an inode table is unique to a file system, both must be on the same file system.

2. How you will read a file from shell script?
Ans:
while read line
do
echo $line
done < file_name

4. What’s the use of umask? Will decide the default permissions for files.3. What is crontab and what are the arguments? Ans: The entries have the following elements: field allowed values —– ————– minute 0-59 hour 0-23 day of month 1-31 month 1-12 day of week 0-7 (both 0 and 7 are Sunday) user Valid OS user command Valid command or script ? ? ? ? ? command | | | | |_________day of the week (0-6. 0=Sunday) | | | |___________month (1-12) | | |_____________day of the month (1-31) | |_______________hour (0-23) .

How to find operating system (OS) version? Ans: uname –a 6. How to find out the run level of the user? Ans: uname –r 7. What is paging? . 8. How to get 10th line of a file (by using grep)? 9.|_________________minute (0-59) 5.trc –mtime +7 –exec rm {} \./trace –name *. How to delete 7 days old trace files? Ans: find . (In Solaris) how to find out whether it’s 32bit or 64bit? 10.

What is the default value of umask? Ans: 022 .11. How to find out number of arguments passed to a shell script? Ans: $# 14. it will display top processes which are taking high cpu and memory. How to find out the status of last command executed? Ans: $? 13. What is top command? Ans: top is a operating system command. 12.

Query of Data Dictionary). The physical data blocks as well as data dictionary blocks are shared across this interconnect. synchronization/locking of the data blocks does not take place and blocks may be overwritten by others in the cluster. What is the interconnect used for? It is a private network which is used to ship data blocks from one instance to another for cache fusion. in order to fulfill the requirements for a transaction (DML.15. How do you determine what protocol is being used for Interconnect traffic? One of the ways is to look at the database alert log for the time period when the database was started up. Cluster Time Synchronization Service (CTSS) can be used. they may continue to process and modify the data blocks independently. What methods are available to keep the time synchronized on all nodes in the cluster? Either the Network Time Protocol(NTP) can be configured or in 11gr2. it is the combining of data blocks. How to add user in Solaris/Linux? Ans: useradd command RAC Interview Questions What is cache fusion? In a RAC environment. In a RAC enviornment the same recovery for an instance is performed by the surviving nodes called Instance recovery. What is split brain? When database nodes in a cluster are unable to communicate with each other. . which are shipped across the interconnect from remote database caches (SGA) to the local node. This state is called split brain. If the same block is modified by more than one instance. What is the difference between Crash recovery and Instance recovery? When an instance crashes in a single node database on startup a crash recovery takes place.

If your OCR is corrupted what options do have to resolve this? You can use either the logical or the physical OCR backup copy to restore the Repository.g. . This information can later be retrieved and used to troubleshoot and identify any cluster related issues. How do you find out what object has its blocks being shipped across the instance the most? You can use the dba_hist_seg_stats. network and other OS data. During a node failure the VIP of the failed node moves to the surviving node and relays to the application that the node has gone down. What would be the possible performance impact in a cluster if a less powerful node (e. memory. ControlFiles. What is a VIP in RAC use for? The VIP is an alternate Virtual IP address assigned to each node in a cluster. What is OCLUMON used for in a cluster environment? The Cluster Health Monitor (CHM) stores operating system metrics in the CHM repository for all nodes in a RAC cluster. Without VIP. It is a default component of the 11gr2 grid install. How do we know which database instances are part of a RAC cluster? You can query the V$ACTIVE_INSTANCES view to determine the member instances of the RAC cluster.What files components in RAC must reside on shared storage? Spfiles. The data is stored in the master repository and replicated to a standby repository on a different node. Where does the Clusterware write when there is a network or Storage missed heartbeat? The network ping failure is written in $CRS_HOME/log How do you find out what OCR backups are available? The ocrconfig -showbackup can be run to find out the automatic and manually run backups. slower CPU’s) is added to the cluster? All processing will show down to the CPU speed of the slowest server. the application will wait for TCP timeout and then find out that the session is no longer live due to the failure. Datafiles and Redolog files should be created on shared storage. It stores information on CPU. process.

What are some of the RAC specific parameters? Some of the RAC parameters are: ● CLUSTER_DATABASE ● CLUSTER_DATABASE_INSTANCE . one by one.3 the default value is 11 however it has been changed to unlimited in later versions.0. In ASM versions less than 11. What is a rolling upgrade? A patch is considered a rolling if it is can be applied to the cluster binaries without having to shutting down the database in a RAC environment. Since the ASM file system is unavailable until the Grid processes are started up a local copy of the contents of the OCR is required which is stored in the OLR. What is the default memory allocation for ASM? In 10g the default SGA size is 1G in 11g it is set to 256M and in 12c ASM it is set back to 1G. What files can be stored in the ASM diskgroup? In 11g the following files can be stored in ASM diskgroups. with only the node which is being patched unavailable while all other instance open.What is the purpose of OLR? Oracle Local repository contains information that allows the cluster processes to be started up with the OCR being in the ASM storage ssytem. ● Datafiles ● Redo logfiles ● Spfiles In 12c the files below can also new be stored in the ASM Diskgroup ● Password file What it the ASM POWER_LIMIT? This is the parameter which controls the number of Allocation units the ASM instance will try to rebalance at any given time. How do you backup ASM Metadata? You can use md_backup to restore the ASM diskgroup configuration in-case of ASM diskgroup storage loss.2. All nodes in the cluster are patched in a rolling manner.

● Goldengate Interview Questions ● Exadata Interview Questions .● INSTANCE_TYPE (RDBMS or ASM) ● ACTIVE_INSTANCE_COUNT ● UNDO_MANAGEMENT Additional Resources Interview Questions To prepare for your Oracle DBA interview here are some additional questions focusing on other database areas.