Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Journal of Nanotechnology
Volume 2013, Article ID 906592, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/906592

Research Article
Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using
Averrhoa bilimbi Fruit Extract
R. S. Rimal Isaac, G. Sakthivel, and Ch.Murthy
Department of Nanotechnology, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education (N.I. University), Kumaracoil, Tamil Nadu
629 180, India
Correspondence should be addressed to R. S. Rimal Isaac; rimalisaac@gmail.com and Ch. Murthy;
chavalim@gmail.com
Received 10 July 2013; Revised 15 August 2013; Accepted 31 August 2013
Academic Editor: Carlos R. Cabrera
Copyright © 2013 R. S. Rimal Isaac et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons
Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is
properly
cited.
We report on rapid one-step green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using fruit extract of Averrhoa bilimbi
Linn. UV-Vis
absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the quantitative formation of gold and silver nanoparticles.The
characteristics of the
obtained gold and silver nanoparticles were studied using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (UV/Vis), Fourier
transform infrared
spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). UV/Vis
spectrum showed
Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) for both gold and silver nanoparticles at 540 and 420 nm. The EDX spectrum of
the solution
containing gold and silver nanoparticles confirmed the presence of elemental gold and silver signals. The average
diameter of the
prepared nanoparticles in solution was about 50–150 nm. Synthesized particles were either hexagonal or rhomboidal
in shape.This
synthesis approach of gold and silver nanoparticles is cost effective and can be widely used in biological systems.
The effect of fruit
extract and metal ion concentration was also studied.

1. Introduction
Nanotechnology is mainly concerned with the synthesis
of nanoparticles and their application in various fields of
medicine, chemistry, physics, materials science, and engineering.
Metal nanoparticles such as gold (Au) and silver
(Ag) have recognized importance in chemistry, physics, and
biology because of their unique optical, electrical, and photothermal
properties. Syntheses of nanoparticles are usually
carried out by various physical and chemical methods which
are not environmentally friendly. In recent years, researchers
in the field of nanotechnology are finding that there is an
expanding research in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles
due to the potential applications for the development of
novel technologies.Noblemetal nanoparticles are extensively
studied because of their wide applications [1–3]. Among
the various noble metal nanoparticles, gold and silver have
several applications in sensors, detectors, and antibacterial
agents [4–6]. In ancient Indian medical system (Ayurveda),
gold is used as medicine in the preparation of nano level
Swarna Bhasma to treat tuberculosis, anemia, and cough and
also believed to prevent ageing [7]. Silver has been described

Bilimbi fruits are very sour and used in the production of vinegar. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles gained lots of interest due to the use of mild experimental conditions such as temperature. and pimples scurvy and also as an antioxidant [16.as therapeutic agent for many diseases and an efficacious antibacterial and antifungal agent [8]. such as UV/Vis.Biologically synthesized gold and silver nanoparticles could be of immense use in medical and biomedical textiles for their efficient antibacterial and antimicrobial properties and also in other applications like spectrally-selective coatings for solar energy absorption and intercalation material for electrical batteries. Genus: Averrhoa Species: bilimbi L. and bacteria are reported [9–13]. In the presentwork. Recently. If the exact mechanism of biological synthesis is explained. bilimbi have been identified to include oxalic acid and vitamin C [16. 2 Journal of Nanotechnology Classification: Kingdom: Plantae-plants Subkingdom: Tracheobionta-vascular plants Super division: Spermatophyta-seed plants Division: Magnoliophyta-flowering plants Class: Dicotyledonae Subclass: Rosidae Order: Oxalidales Family: Oxalidaceae Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. Ltd. wine. bilimbi. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. Common name: Bilimbi) is a common plant in Asia growing up to 15m tall and 30 cm in diameter [16].Duringmaturity stage theweight and size of the fruit increase to the maximum. Materials. The chemical constituents of A. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various methods. (Figure 1) (Oxalidaceae. The mature fruits can be eaten as such or processed into jams and jellies. Mumbai) and . and SEM-EDX.1. 19–21]. algae. and their external green colour changes into light yellow [17]. Fruits are fairly cylindrical with five broad rounded longitudinal lobes and produced in clusters. in the synthesis of nanoparticles fruit extracts are used successfully [14. they also find use as optical receptors and as catalysts in chemical reactions. mumps. it could offer an extra advantage over the chemical methods by means of higher productivity andlower cost. fungi.During the past several years. pH and pressure. rheumatism. production ofmetallic nanoparticles using low cost biological resources such as plants. Materials and Methods 2. bilimbi was investigated. Figure 1: Snapshot showing the fruits of A. As an alternative to synthetic chemicals. 15]. All chemical reagents including chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) (LOBA Chemie Pvt. and greenmethod for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using the fruit extract of A. and pickles and preparation of traditional dishes. FTIR.. lowcost. 2. a simple. It is widely used in traditional medicine as cure for cough. the studies are focused towards greener methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles. 18].

2 mL..silver nitrate (AgNO3) (Sd fine-chem Ltd. Spectra were collected at room temperature under atmospheric pressure. background spectra were measured. FTIR samples were prepared by drying ABE and ABE with nanoparticles at 60∘C.The pH of the extract was found to be approximately 2. and 3mM).5 mL). In all experiments. such as deuterated. metal ion concentration (1 mM.). Ultrapure water was used for all the experiments (Milli–Q System. FTIR spectroscopy measurements were carried out to recognize the biogroups that are attached on the surface of gold and silver nanoparticles from the ABE used for the synthesis.1mL of A.2. Aqueous solution (1mM) of AgNO3 and HAuCl4 was prepared. Characterization. an intermediate lens with its own electromagnetic centering system. The extract was used as obtained in all the experiments unless otherwise stated.3. Nanoparticle Synthesis. an electromagnetic beam centering system belowthe anode. The A.25 0. and then centrifuged to remove any cell debris. Fresh A.4 mL. All the chemicals used were of the highest purity available. at an average of 64 scans with a resolution of 4cm−1 resolution in ATR mode from 400 to 5000 cm−1. 2. The UV/Vis spectra of samples were analyzed using Systronics (India) double beam spectrophotometer (Model no. The Vega column consists of a high brightness tungsten electron gun. M2202) operated at a resolution of 2nm with quartz cells with path length of 10mm. bilimbi fruits used in these experiments were fresh and collected from a household garden and identified. sliced (100 g). and 5mL of these solutions were reduced using 0.). ground in an agate mortar. 2. 0. 0. Mumbai) were obtained and used as received. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) used was a Vega line (TESCAN) of scanning electronmicroscopes (TESCAN. and 0. 2 mM.4. bilimbi fruits were cleaned.50 0. Millipore Corp. L-alanine doped triglycine sulfate (DLaTGS) premium performance Pyroelectric detector. 2. Extract Preparation.3 mL. bilimbi extract (ABE) at room temperature. The dried samples were subjected to FTIRmeasurement. filtered through a mesh. and reaction time were studied. a doublet condenser lens systemwith a spray aperture. Karlsruhe. and a low-aberration conical objective lens with integrated scanning and stigmator coils. VEGA3 SBU-EasyProbe compact SEM) from Czech Republic.1 mL. Germany) equipped with a mid-infrared (MIR) source (SiC) and a thermal detector. Vega SEM is fully integrated with a selected energy dispersive X-ray Journal of Nanotechnology 3 1. The effects of various parameters such as the amount of extract (0. The ATR-FTIR measurements were performed on a Bruker Eco Alpha-T FTIR spectrometer (Bruker.00 .3. 0.2 0. Blanks were prepared with distilled and deionized (DI) water using a Milli-Q water purification system (Millipore Corp.

6 0.8 0.8 0.) 1mM 2mM .4 0.4mL 0.50 0.u.0 0.u.4 1.0 0.2 1.8 2.4mL 0.4 400 600 800 Wavelength (nm) 1000 Absorbance (a.2 1.6 0.) Absorbance (420 nm) 0.u.4 0.4 400 600 800 Wavelength (nm) 1000 Absorbance (a.0 400 600 800 Wavelength (nm) 1000 Absorbance (a.1mL (a) 1.6 0.2mL 0.8 0.25 0.6 1.2mL 0.5mL (c) 400 600 800 Wavelength (nm) 1000 1.2 0.0 Absorbance (a.2 0.1mL 0.u.) Absorbance (540nm) 0.0 250 500 0.3mL 0.0 1.6 0.5mL 0.0 Time (min) 1.0 0.) 1mM 2mM 3mM (b) 0.00 0 Time (min) 250 500 1.8 0.3mL 0.

3. colour of the solutions changed to yellow and violet. (b) In synthesis of gold nanoparticles. there is an increase in the UV/Vis absorbance spectrum for both Au and Ag nanoparticles (Figures 2(a) and 2(c)). it was absorbed that there is a shift in wavelength from 534 to 545 nm for gold nanoparticles and from 418 to 422 nm for silver nanoparticles indicating a redshift with increase in ABE concentration.3mM (d) Figure 2: Effect of ABE extract with 1mM metal salt concentration. this indicates a fast reaction as theABE concentration is increased [25]. it can be concluded that with increase in ABE the size of Au and Ag nanoparticles increases [26].5mL in 5mL of 1mM metal ion solution. and after that the absorbance is constant showing the completion of the reaction.and nanoanalysis was integrated with TESCAN SEM to record the morphology (operated at 10 kV) and chemical composition of samples using QUANTAX EDX. Accordingly. this shows the formation of gold and silver nanoparticles.The inset (Figures 2(a) and 2(c)) shows the rate of gold and silver nanoparticles formation. 24]. The absorption band in the region of 620–1100 is a result if in-plane dipole resonance [23. whereas anisotropic particles will show 2 to 3 SPRbands [23]. (a) In synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The SPR of gold and silver nanoparticles remained close to 540 nm and 420 nm (Figure 2). The same phenomenon is observed with increase in metal ion concentration (Figures 2(b) and 2(d)). According toMie theory. Due to the reaction of the metal salt and ABE. shows the change in SPR intensity over time for gold and silver nanoparticles synthesis. From theUV/vis absorption spectrum(Figures 2(a) and 2(c)). With increasing the ABE quantity from 0. . The rate of formation of silver and gold nanoparticles was found to be slow at lowest concentration. microanalyser (EDX) for automatic quantitative elemental analysis and EasySEM software interface with One-Touch EDX toolbox. spherical nanoparticle of gold and silver will exhibit a single SPR band. Effect of metal ion concentration. respectively. Inset of (a) and (c). and hence absorbance is also less. (d) In synthesis of silver nanoparticles. indicating the formation of silver and gold 4 Journal of Nanotechnology nanoparticles. QUANTAX (Bruker AXS) energy dispersive X-ray micro. the absorbance increased with increase in metal ion concentration (Figures 2(b) and 2(d)). Both silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized using ABE extract at room temperature. the reaction is completewithin 5 hrs for gold and 8 hrs for silver nanoparticles. The SPR band of Au nanoparticle shows an absorption peak at 540 nm resulting in out-of-plane quadrupole resonance. The SPR wavelength of Au and Ag nanoparticles synthesized under different conditions varies with their size and shape. Experiment was carried out with varying ABE and salt concentrations. (c) In synthesis of silver nanoparticles. respectively [15. Results and Discussion This work is focused on the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using an environmentally friendly biosynthetic method.1 to 0. In the experiment carried out with varying metal ion concentration. 22].

C=O stretching vibration of tertiary amides. and thereby neutralize.u. Bilimbi. The IR spectra of gold nanoparticles showed bands at 3270.The FTIR bands are indexed in the figure. and 1225 cm −1 assigned to O–H stretching vibration of alcohols and phenols [27]. This free electron reduces the Ag+ or Au+ ions to Ag0 or Au0. The mechanism is shown in Figure 3.The FTIR spectra of the extract showed strong bands at 3353. Ascorbic acid is a reducing agent and can reduce. and C–O stretching of aromatic ethers [29]. Transmittance (a. C=O stretching vibration of Tertiary amides. the silver showed bands at 3285. reactive oxygen species leading to the formation of ascorbate radical and an electron.The mechanism for the reduction of Ag or Au ions to silver or gold could be due to the presence of water-soluble antioxidative substances like ascorbic acid which is present in the fruits of A. C=O stretching vibration of tertiary amines [28]. The IR spectra (Figure 4) were recorded before and after adding the ABE extract solution. and C–OH stretching of primary alcohols. and 1025 cm−1 assigned to O–H stretching vibration of alcohols and phenols. 1633. 1633.) 4000 3285 2933 1722 1633 1531 1415 1336 1226 1025 917 864 816 3270 . The amines and alcohols present in the sample along with ascorbic acid may HO O O HO OH H OO O HO HO OH H AgNO3 e− + Ag+ 2HAuCl4 Ag+ + NO3 − Ag0 2Au+ + HCl e− + Au+ −H+ H+ −O Au0 Ascorbic acid Ascorbate radical Figure 3: Ascorbic acid reduction of gold and silver ions to Au 0 and Ag0 nanoparticles. and 1023 cm −1 corresponding to O–H stretching vibration of alcohols and phenols. and C–OH stretching of primary alcohols. 1651.

0 0.5 1. (b) FTIR spectra of gold nanoparticles after synthesis. we have demonstrated a low-cost and one-pot green synthesis approach for preparation of stable gold and silver Journal of Nanotechnology 5 200nm (a) 200nm (b) 3.5 0. The sizes of the silver nanoparticles were in the range of 50 to 175 nm.1mL ABE and 1mM salt concentration) and silver nanoparticles (0. SEM image (Figures 5(a) and 5(b)) of biosynthesized gold (0.5 2. (c)FTIRspectra of silver nanoparticles after synthesis.u.) 3.0 O Au Al Au Au 1.0 2. 4. Conclusion Here.2931 1728 1651 1415 1345 1229 1023 916 864 815 773 3353 2925 1965 1714 1633 1538 1415 1225 (c) (b) (a) 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 Wavenumber (cm−1) Figure 4: (a) FTIR spectra of ABE.1mL ABE and 1mM salt concentration) showed the presence of hexagonal or rhomboidal nanoparticles. be responsible for the reduction and capping of gold and silver nanoparticles [30].u.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 (keV) (c) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Intensity (a. EDX spectrum (Figures 5(c) and 5(d)) shows peaks for gold and silver which reveals the presence of gold and silver nanoparticles along with aluminum (Al) as impurities coming fromthe sample substrate.5 Intensity (a.) . The sizes of gold nanoparticles were 75 to 150 nm.

Dr. Department of Nanotechnology. green route) process using Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. Li et al. (c) EDX spectrum of gold nanoparticles. Majeed Khan for providing research facilities. Rimal Isaac thank Mr. India. vol.pp. B.Chen. biology.. (d) EDX spectrum of silver nanoparticles. antibacterial and antiviral activity. X. Jain. El-Sayed. “Goldnanostructures: engineering their plasmonic properties for biomedical applications. and Energydispersive spectroscopy (EDX). P. K. pp. The EDX spectrum of the solution containing gold and silver nanoparticles confirmed the presence of elemental gold and silver signals along with aluminum (Al) as impurities coming from the sample substrate. J.” Chemical Society Reviews. gene therapy. S.Theaverage diameter of the prepared nanoparticles in solution was about 50–150 nm. Systems Analyst. fruit extract as a reducing agent. 41. I. S. and phenols present in the fruit extract might have caused the reduction and capping of the nanoparticles. amines. 2008. drug delivery. vol. Acknowledgments The authors thank Chairman. 1084–1094. (b) SEM micrographs of silver nanoparticles. Hu. Conflict of Interests The authors do not have any conflict of interests with the content of the paper. sensing. [2] M. . 11. 2006. The present method eludes the use of toxic chemicals for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles so it can be used for biological applications.O Ag Al Ag 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 (keV) (d) Figure 5: (a) SEM micrographs of gold nanoparticles. 12. Y. Huang. El-Sayed. Nanoparticles of free metals have been extensively researched because of their unique physical properties. This synthesis approach of gold and silver nanoparticles is cost effective and can be widely used in biological systems. Hyderabad. References [1] P. biological labeling. andmedicine. The alcohols. Authors also acknowledge Mr. and M. Ltd. 35. A. The characteristics of the obtained gold and silver nanoparticles were studied using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (UV/Vis). 1578–1586. for helping in identification of the fruit. no. detection of genetic disorders. nanoparticles.” Accounts of Chemical Research..com/) for their support towards SEM-EDX analysis. Synthesized particles were either hexagonal or rhomboidal in shape.Gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized by a rapid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). “Noble metals on the nanoscale: optical and photothermal properties and some applications in imaging. Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A.advscientific. chemical reactivity and potential applications in catalysis. eco-friendly (biogenic. Sanjith. biosensing. S. R. 6 Journal of Nanotechnology (http://www. and DNA sequencing. Rama Krishna Murthy of Advance Scientific Equipment Pvt.no. Pratap Goud and Mr. H. Z.

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