11/08/01

fibro13_en2

STEEL FIBRE-REINFORCED CONCRETE
PART II
TEST METHOD USED TO DETERMINE THE EARLY CRACK STRENGTH
AND DUCTILITY INDEXES

1. SCOPE
This standard specifies a method for the determination of both the first crack strength
fIf (Part I, clause 3.3.1) and the ductility indexes D0 and D1 (Part I, clause 3.3.3) of
test specimens of Steel Fibre-Reinforced Concrete (SFRC).
2. STANDARD REFERENCES
prEN 12350-1:1999.”Testing fresh concrete Part1: Sampling”
prEN 12390-1:1999.”Testing hardened concrete- Part 1: Shape, dimensions and other
requirements for specimens and moulds”
prEN 12390-2:1999.”Testing hardened concrete: Part2: Making and curing
specimens for strength tests”

3. PRINCIPLE
Prismatic test specimens with a central notch are loaded in a four point flexure; the
test shall be carried out at prescribed CMOD1 rate.
The first crack strength (fIf ) and the ductility indexes D0 and D1 are calculated on the
basis of load - CTODnet2 curve.
4. TEST SPECIMENS
The test specimens3 can be obtained either from basic concrete 4 and/or SFRC; they
can be cast or cut out.
The test specimens are not intended for aggregate with maximum nominal size of 32
mm.
4.1 Cast specimens
Concerning the making and curing of test specimens by casting of basic concrete
and/or SFRC, prEN 12390-2 shall apply. In addition the procedure of filling the
mould with SFRC must comply with the following items (Figure 1):
1. cast portion 1 in the centre of the mould;
2. cast portion (2) and making sure that portions (1) and (2) are properly covered;
1

Part I, clause 3.2.1
Part I, clause 3.2.5
3
Damaged specimens or specimens which are badly honeycombed should not be tested.
4
Part I, clause 3.1.1
2

1

4. the volume of portion (1) must be about twice that of portion (2). dimensions and tolerances The reference test specimens are square-base right prisms with nominal dimensions 150x150x600mm. on condition that the following terms are met: 2 .e. if necessary.2 Cut out test specimens The test specimens cut out from hardened SFRC can be tested only if they meet the requirements listed in clause 4.11/08/01 fibro13_en2 3. the test can be carried out on condition that such lack of data concerning curing and/or transport. q different from those specified in EN 12390-2. any known deviation from the EN 12390-2. If curing and/or transport procedures are: q unknown.4 after being suitably adjusted.. 4.3 Curing and transport The test specimens shall be cured and transported according to EN 12390-2 (reference procedure). 4. test specimens with different dimensions can be used just for the only purpose of having an indication. The SFRC must be compacted on a vibrating table.4 Shape. are recorded in the test report. i. compaction through internal vibrator is not allowed. 2 1 2 Figure 1 Filling procedure with SFRC The cast direction must be identified on the test specimen.

5. The notch width must range from 3 to 5 mm. 3 .1.1 Device for load application The load application device (Figure 2) shall consist of: • two upper rollers. The size tolerance of the test specimens shall comply with the prEN12390-1 specifications. • safety. • the shorter side of the specimen cross section must be at least 3.5 times the maximum size of the aggregate. • accuracy of the force indication. EQUIPMENT 5. • frequency of calibration. anyway it cannot be lower than 350 mm. 5.1 Test equipment With reference to the points below. • an articulated cross member able to equally divide the load applied by the testing machine between the two upper rollers. the test equipment must comply with EN 123904: • force measure. Figure 1). • two lower supporting rollers.01.5 Notch A notch shall be made in the central line of a test specimen face adjacent to the trowelled face by using a diamond saw down to a depth a0 so that a0/h = 0.3 ±0. The test equipment must be provided with a proper device which allows to carry out the tests under displacement control. The notch end must be V-shaped (Part I.11/08/01 fibro13_en2 • the specimen length (l) must be at least 3. 4.5 times the height (h).

5.11/08/01 fibro13_en2 1 1 h 2 3 h h l=3h l≥3.2 Force gauge The load shall be measured with a load cell. The distance between the lower rollers (l) shall be equal to 3·h and in any case it cannot be shorter than 300 mm. The distance between the two upper rollers shall be equal to h. All rollers shall be manufactured from steel and shall have a circular cross-section with a diameter of 20 mm to 40 mm. Each upper roller shall be free to rotate around its axis with a rotation (± 3°) within the plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the specimen. The upper rollers shall be equally spaced between the lower rollers. with the required accuracy (Table 1). support cylinder (capable of rotating around their axis and of being inclined (± 3°)). they shall be at least 10 mm longer than the width of test specimen.4) with the metrologic tolerance given in Table 1. supporting roller. Arrangement of loading of test specimen Key: 1 2 3 loading rollers (capable of rotating around their axis and of being inclined (± 3°)). 4 . the load shall be shown by a digital and/or analogic display. Each roller shall be positioned to the indicated location (Figure 2) with an accuracy of ±1 mm. as shown in Figure 1.5h h b(=h) Figure 2. The system shall allow the read value to be recorded by a special device (clause 5.

2 0. 5.4 Recording system The load and displacement values shall be measured by a suitable analogic or digital data acquisition system. if required. Metrologic tolerance allowed for load measurement 5. EN 10002 – 2:1998. 5 .0 ±0. 5. part I).2 Gauges for the displacement measurement of the load application points (optional) The displacement of the load application points.3. Figure 3 shows an example of displacement gauge consisting of two metal thin plates constrained at one end (clip-gauge) applied to the gauge holders (Figure 1.3. shall be measured by means of a gauge having a measurement range ≥ 10 mm.11/08/01 fibro13_en2 Relative accuracy Relative Zero relative error Machine resolution 6 error repeatability error %5 (% of full scale) 5 %5 %5 1.5 ±1 Table 1. Example of full bridge resistive gauge for CMOD and CTOD measurement. The use of a full bridge resistive gauge is recommended. See the definition given in clause 5.5 mV/mm.3. The data shall be recorded on a magnetic support 5 6 This percentage is the maximum admitted for the testing machine.3 Displacement gauges 5. CMOD or CTOD gauge Gauge holders d d d≤ 10 mm Figure 3.1 Gauges for CTOD and CMOD measurement The displacement value at the notch tip shall be measured by a gauge with a range ≥5mm and a sensitivity which not lower 2.

Figure 3). 6. The indicated resolution must be guaranteed on an input signal range equal to that of the amplified signal output of the load and displacement gauges. The gauge-holders relevant to the CTOD must be glued on the two opposite faces of the test specimen at the height of notch tip (a0).1.1. Layout for the application of the gauge-holders and the relevant CTOD and CMOD gauges. The maximum width of the gauge-holder surface glued on the test specimen must not be greater than 25 mm (clause 5. The gauge-holders shall be glued with a stiff glue at hardened state.5 h b (=h) Section A-A’ a0 h CTOD gauges CMOD gauges Figure 4. a data acquisition system provided with an analogic/digital converter with resolution ≥12 bit is recommended.1.11/08/01 fibro13_en2 Taking into account the numeric computations required by the present standard. 6.1 Test specimen instrumentation 6. 6 .1 Instrumentation for CTOD and CMOD measurement. they shall be symmetrical as to the notch tip (Figure 4). Figure 4 shows a layout for the application of gauge-holders and the relevant gauges. h A A’ l = 3•h L≥ 3. The two gauge-holders for the CMOD measurement shall be glued along the lower edges of the notch (Figure 4). Procedure The test specimens shall be checked before being tested and any anomaly be recorded.

11/08/01 fibro13_en2 6. The displacement is measured by four displacement gauges fixed to a reference bar constrained to the test specimen as shown in Figure 5. with an acceleration ≤ 1 mm/min. the notch depth to the nearest 0. 7 Expression of results 7 Main crack stands for the trace of the cracking plane on a side face of the test specimen. The actual displacement of the load application points on the test specimen shall be measured by excluding of any spurious displacements such as those caused by local settlements near the supporting and loading rollers or due to rotations of the specimen along its longitudinal axis.01mm/min.2 Load application The four point flexural test shall be carried out by CMOD control. The loading rollers shall be carefully approached to the test specimen and impacts must be avoided.05±0. 7 .5 mm shall be taken as the maximum value of three measures carried out in the centre and at the two ends of the test specimen section. At the end of the test. Layout for the application of the gauge-holders and the relevant gauges for the measurement of the displacement of the load application points 6.2 Instrumentation for displacement measurement of the load application points (optional).5±0. These gauges are placed along the load application direction with reference to the two side faces of the test specimen. For CMOD values over 0.02mm/min. it shall be recorded in the test report and the CTODm-CMOD diagram shall be also reported. The load. Suitable stiff metal plates shall be glued on the test specimen lower faces in order to match the sensing probe of the gauges for the whole duration of the test. The CMOD must be constantly increased at a speed of 0.2. the two CTOD values and the displacement of the load application points (if required) shall be continuously recorded on a magnetic support. If the beginning of the main crack 7 falls outside the V-shaped upper edge of the notch in at least one of the side faces of the specimen. Reference bar Displacement gauge Hinge Displacement gauge Carriage Sensing pin Figure 5.65 mm the displacement rate can be progressively increased up to 0.1.

1) is calculated on the basis of the load maximum value (P If) resulting from the Load .1. 7.1. 8 The maximum load value P max cannot be taken into consideration for the calculation of the flexural strength.1. 7.2 Calculation of SFRC first crack strength (fIf) The first crack strength (fIf. The CTOD0 value is detected for each test specimen undergoing the flexural test. clause 3.2.1.2). 8 .3. clause 3.11/08/01 fibro13_en2 7.1) or indirectly. This value corresponds to the max load (Pmax)8 taken from the Load-CTOD curve (Figure 6).1 CTOD0 detection– direct method Basic concrete specimens (3 at least are recommended) having the same dimensions and notch depth as the SFRC specimens and instrumented as shown in clause 6. 9 CTOD0 mean value measured on a set of 45 samples of basic concrete whose compressive strength ranges from 20 to 90 MPa.1 CTOD0 detection The CTOD0 can be detected either directly (reference method) on basic concrete test specimens (Part I. Part I. clause 7.CTODm diagram for CTODm values falling between 0 and CTOD0 (Figure 7). Pmax Load Load-CTODm diagram for basic concrete CTOD0 CTODm Figure 6. are subjected to flexural test according to the provisions given in clause 6.1. Direct detection of CTOD0 The mean of the CTOD0 values measured for each test specimen is used to calculate the first crack strength (fIf. 7. it is possible to take the conventional value 25 µm9 for the CTOD0.2 CTOD0 detection – indirect method If basic concrete test specimens are not available.

The ductility indexes D0 and D1 are calculated according to the following formulas: 9 .11/08/01 fibro13_en2 PIf shall be calculated by linear interpolation between two recorded couples of experimental contiguous points having abscissas CTODm1 and CTODm2 such as: CTODm1≤ CTOD0≤ CTODm2 PIf PIf Load Load If the CTODm value corresponding to the maximum load point in the Load-CTODm diagram is lower than 10 µm. l = interaxial distance between the axis of the lower rollers [mm]. b = specimen width [mm].3 Calculation of the ductility indexes D0 and D1. a0 = measured notch depth [mm]. it shall be reported in the test report. CTOD0 CTODm CTOD0 CTODm Figure 7. 7. h = specimen height [mm]. Examples of first crack load PIf detection The first crack strength (fIf) is given by the following formula f If = PIf l b(h − a 0 ) 2 [MPa] where: PIf = first crack load [N].

a0 = measured notch height [mm]. clause 3.2. 6) where: feq(0-0. clause3.8 ⋅ f eq. h = specimen height [mm].6 ) fI f feq .6-3mm (Part I.2) The equivalent strengths are calculated through the following formulas: f eq.6 −3) f eq. feq(0. (0 − 0.6) = l U1 b(h − a0 )2 0. the U1 and U2 values are obtained with the following formulas: U1 = ∫ U1 = ∫ 0. ( 0− 0.6 P (CTOD )d (CTOD ) P(CTOD )d (CTOD ) 10 The equivalent strength in the CTODnet range between 0 and 3 mm is given by: f eq. ( 0− 3) = 0 . ( 0. (0.6)= equivalent strength [MPa] in the CTODnet range 0-0.6mm (Part I.2. (0.4 ⋅ where: l = distance between the axis of the lower cylinders [mm].2 ⋅ f eq.5) 0 to 0.2.3. ( 0 − 0.1). U1.6-3)= equivalent strength [MPa] in the CTODnet 0. U2 = areas [10-3 joule] subtended to the Load-CTODm curve (Figure 8)10 in the CTODnet (Part I.6 to 3mm 11 respectively.11/08/01 D0 = D1 = fibro13_en2 feq .6 ⋅ f eq. 6− 3) 11 The U1 and U2 values are approximately proportional to the energy dissipated in the CTODnet ranges taken into consideration. b = specimen width [mm].3. clause 3. 6 0 3 0. 10 .6mm and 0. 6) + 0.6 − 3) = l U2 b(h − a0 )2 2. (0 −0 .

m) test date. Test report The test report must mention the following: a) reference to this standard. h) ductility indexes D0 and D1 to the nearest 0. Example of Load-CTODm curve in which are highlighted the areas corresponding to crack openings (CTODnet ) up to 0. 8. j) detected notch depth (clause 6. f) test specimen making method (cast or cut out).1 MPa.6 mm CTOD0 + 3 mm CTODm Figure 8.2).6 and 3 mm. c) CTOD0 detection method (direct or indirect). d2) mean value of the maximum load obtained from the Load-CTODm curve. The test report can also include: 11 . g) first crack strength to the nearest 0. d3) CTOD0 value to the nearest 1 µm. l) concrete aspect. i) indication of the main crack starting point when found outside the V-shaped upper edge of the notch (in this case the CTODm-CMOD diagram referred to in clause 5. if unusual.01. b) identification of the SFRC test specimen and of any basic concrete test specimens.fibro13_en2 LOAD 11/08/01 PIf U1 U2 CTOD0 CTOD0 + 0. d) if the direct method is used: d1) number of basic concrete test specimens tested. e) if the indirect method is used: CTODm value corresponding to the maximum load if lower than10 µm.4 shall be attached). k) any deviation from this standard.

3 0. Tables 3a and 3b give the precision data for the first crack strength fIf and the ductility indexes D0 and D1 in terms of repeatability standard deviation (sr) and repeatability limit (r) referred to the mean values.25 0.11 0.09 0.15 e clause 3.3 0.16) for the SFRC and basic concrete respectively.3 “Repeatability conditions” for basic concrete according to prEN 12390-5 r fmax [MPa] sr ( r = 2 2 s r2 ) 0.23 0. clause 3.1 0. Absolute values fIf [MPa] D0 D1 Prospect 2 Absolute values “Repeatability Conditions” for SFRC r sr ( r = 2 2 s r2 ) Direct Indirect Direct Indirect method method method method 0.3 0.11/08/01 fibro13_en2 n) specimen age at the test time (if known).8 0.11 “Repeatability conditions” for basic concrete r fmax [MPa] Absolute values sr ( r = 2 2 s r2 ) 0. p) magnetic support where test data are recorded.04 0.08 0. Precision Tables 2a and 2b contain the precision data for the first crack strength fIf and the ductility indexes D0 and D1 in terms of repeatability standard deviation (sr) and repeatability limit (r) (ISO 5725-1:1994. 9.8 0.04 0.8 12 . o) curing and/or transport conditions (if known).

0 18.1 14.0 Indirect method 6 6.11/08/01 Relative values fibro13_en2 “Repeatability conditions” for SFRC r [%] sr [%] fIf D0 D1 Relative values Direct method 6 6.1 “Repeatability conditions” for basic concrete r [%] fmax [MPa] Relative values sr [%] ( r = 2 2 s r2 ) 2.0 5.0 ( r = 2 2 s r2 ) Direct Indirect method method 17 17 17.5 18.7 14.3 “Repeatability conditions” for basic concrete according to prEN 12390-5 r [%] fmax [MPa] sr [%] ( r = 2 2 s r2 ) 6.6 7.4 13 .6 5.