martedì 21 agosto 2001

fibro13_en1

STEEL FIBRE-REINFORCED CONCRETE
PART I
DEFINITIONS, CLASSIFICATION, SPECIFICATION AND CONFORMITY
1. Scope
This standard aims at defining the characteristics and the conditions required for Steel FibreReinforced Concrete (SFRC).
This standard applies to the following types of SFRC:
• batched at site
• ready-mixed
• manufactured at pre-casting plant
• manufactured in the laboratory.
The SFRC can be used as unreinforced, reinforced and prestressed concrete.

2. Normative references
EN 206
pr E16.11.442.0 (UNSIDER)
................

3. Definitions
For the purposes of this standard the following definitions apply:
3.1 Materials
3.1.1 Basic concrete:
concrete as defined in EN 206 and without fibre reinforcement (see clause 3.1.6).
3.1.2 Steel fibre:
see pr E16.11.442.0 (UNSIDER)
3.1.3 Equivalent diameter of the fibre (d):
see pr E16.11.442.0 (UNSIDER)
3.1.4 l/d ratio:
see pr E16.11.442.0 (UNSIDER)
3.1.5 Fibre reinforcement:
set of discontinuous discrete steel fibres dispersed into the fresh mix.
3.1.6 Steel Fibre-Reinforced Concrete (SFRC) :

1

2. 1 The composition of the basic concrete can be modified by adding plasticising or superplasticising admixtures (EN 934-2) on the condition that the air content at the green state (prEN 12350-7) does not differ from that of the basic concrete without admixtures by more than 0.2.2. section A-A’). Scheme of the notch and position of the gauge holders for CTOD and CMOD measurement. 3.2 Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) Displacement detected between two points belonging to a test specimen face and located at the same height as to the notch tip and in a symmetrical position as to its vertical axis (Figure 1). clause 7 for its detection.3 Mean value of Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTODm) Mean value of the two CTOD values measured on the two opposite faces of the test specimen (Figure1. A-À gauge holder for the CMOD measurement a0: notch depth. 2 .2 Displacements 3. Ì A notch tip CTOD a0 gauge holder for the CTOD measurement gauge holder for the CTOD measurement gauge holder for the CTOD measurement notch gauge holder for the CMOD measurement gauge holder for the CTOD measurement b CMOD A’ Sez. 3.5% 2 The notch is made in the centre line of the test specimen in order to force the cracking process ina preestablished zone of it.martedì 21 agosto 2001 fibro13_en1 composite material constituted by basic concrete1 in which a homogeneously distributed fibre reinforcement is incorporated in the mix. Figure 1. see Part II.4 Basic Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD0) Value of the CTODm corresponding to the conventional onset of the cracking process in the basic concrete (First Crack). 3. b: test specimen width. 3.2.1 Crack Mouth Opening Displacement (CMOD) Displacement detected between two points belonging to the lower end of the two notch edges2 (Figure 1).

6 mm3. 3.6 and 3mm.3 mm) of the integration range varying from 0 to 0.3. 3.3.1 First crack strength (fIf) It is the conventional flexural strength of the SFRC calculated on the basis of the load value corresponding to the CTOD0 value. It characterises the SFRC ductility in the range of CTODnet between 0 and 0.3mm.4 3.6 .6) . Classification The SFRC is classified on the basis of the following characteristics: 3 The value of CTODnet in the middle (0.6mm.6 mm corresponds to the crack opening allowed by Eurocode 2 under service conditions.3.3.3. It characterises the SFRC ductility in the range of CTODnet between 0. it is given by the ratio between the equivalent strengths feq(0. 3.3.3 Ductility It indicates the capability of the specimen to keep its strength characteristics as the crack process develops (for CTODnet > 0).3.2 Equivalent strength It is the integral mean value of the conventional flexural strength of the SFRC calculated in a prescribed CTODnet range.3. 4.6-3) It is the equivalent strength calculated in the range of CTODnet between 0.6) It is the equivalent strength calculated in the range of CTODnet between 0 .6) and the first crack strength (fIf).3 Ductility index D1. it is given by the ratio between the equivalent strength feq(0-0. Part II.2.0. 3.martedì 21 agosto 2001 fibro13_en1 3.2.3.3.2.2 Equivalent strength feq(0. The equivalent strengths shall be calculated according to clause 7.3. 3 .5 Mean Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTODnet): Mean value of the two CTOD values measured on the two opposite faces of the specimen starting from CTOD0 value. 4 Ductility refers to the structural behaviour of the specimen and it depend on the material toughness (resistance opposed by the material to the development cracking process due to its capability of dissipating deformation energy in cracked regime).1 Ductility index It characterises the SFRC ductility in a prescribed range of CTODnet .3 Properties 3.1 Equivalent strength feq(0-0.2. 3. Part II.2 Ductility index D0. 3.6-3) and feq(0-0.3. The first crack strength shall be determined according to clause 7. 3.

DP: DH0. Rck ≥ 25 MPa is recommended for structural applications.0 F3.2 Compressive strength classes Where the SFRC is classified according to the compressive strength.5 6. Specification Considering that the efficiency of the fibre reinforcement increases as Rck of concrete increases.3 ≥0. the classes given in clause 4. 7 Classes DH1 and DH2 of the D1 index are typical of very high performance SFRCs whose mix design requires the use of special fibre reinforcements and suitable basic concretes.5 are typical of a concrete which is not steel fibre reinforced.5 7. First crack strength classes.5 3 3.5 ≥0. 4. Ductility indexes (Min characteristic values) D0 D1 Ductility classes DS0 DS1 DS2 (6) ≥0.7 F9.1 Consistency classes Where the SFRC is classified according to the compressive strength. ♦ first crack strength (fIf) and ductility indexes (D0 and D1). characteristic strength fIf [MPa] F2. “hardening” behaviour. DS1.0 2 2. 5.5 F7. DS2 : “softening” behaviour. characterised by a load increase as the CTODnet increases.5 F5.9 Plastic behaviour DH0 DH1 DH2 ≥1.55 7 ≥1. 6 Ductility index values D0 < 0.9 ≥0. Ductility classes Key of table B: DS0. 4.2.3 ≥1. characterised by an almost constant load as the CTODnet increases. shall apply. both table A and B shall apply.3 First crack strength (fIf) and ductility indexes (D0 and D1) Where the SFRC is classified with respect to the first crack strength (fIf) and the ductility indexes D0 and D1.3 ≥1.5 F6.H2:: “plastic” behaviour. the classes given in clause 4.martedì 21 agosto 2001 fibro13_en1 ♦ consistency.7 ≥0.5 5.5 F3.1 of EN 2065.5 ≥0.1 of EN 206. Class Min.1 ≥1.5510 Hardening behaviour Table B.7 Softening behaviour DP ≥0. ♦ compressive strength.1 ≥1. shall apply.H1. 5 4 . characterised by a load decrease as the CTODnet increases.3. 4.7 4.7 F4.0 Table A.0 F2.7 9.

3mm) as indicated in Table b. • the ductility class in the CTODnet ranges (0 . • the consistency class according to clause 4.6 .37. 5 . • consistency class S4. • the first crack strength class as indicated in Ttable a. • ductility index D1 belonging to the class Ds2. C30/37 S4 20 XC2 F3.5 DP DS2 Table C – Example of SFRC specification 6. • exposure class XC2.martedì 21 agosto 2001 fibro13_en1 The SFRC specification must include the following: • the exposure class according to clause 4.2 Cement type and composition of basic concrete The cement to be used must be selected among those listed in EN-UNI 197. 6.2. Considering the SFRC specificity. The steel fibres must comply with the requirements of UNSIDER … The SFRC shall be designed in such a way that the steel fibres shall be homogeneosly and randomly dispersed in its own mass. aggregates.6mm) and (0. in particular in the surface layer of the concrete which may be subjected to carbonation. • the maximum nominal upper size of aggregate according to clause 4. water. any admixtures and/or additives) must meet the requirements provided for in EN 206 and in this standard.4 Minimum fibre content 8 Steel fibres may be corroded when exposed to the same environmental actions responsible for the corrosion of the reinforcing steel. • ductility index D0 belonging to the class DP. The limiting values for composition of concrete related to exposure classes given in clause 5. the minimum cement content shall not be lower than 330 kg/m3. 6.2. 6.1 General Composition and constituents of the basic concrete of the SFRC (cement. Basic requirements for SFRC composition.3.5 MPa. • the compressive strength class according to clause 4.1 of EN 206.2 of EN 206. • class of first crack strength equal to 3.1 of EN 206. • maximum nominal upper size of aggregate (=20 mm). Prospect C gives an example of specification of SFRC having the following characteristics: • compressive strength class C30.3 of EN 206 shall apply8.1 of EN 206.0.

5 ≥ fI. preliminary tests have to be carried out in order to check if the requirements for SFRC are satisfied.2 Conformity control for SFRC 8.1. 9 For the definition of initial and continuous production.72σ Criterion 2 Every single test result (fI.1 Sampling and test program As far as the sampling and testing plan.j) [MPa] ≥ fI. Lower fibre contents are allowed in the following cases: q for fibre aspect ratios (Clause 3. 8.2.f .2. 7 Steel fibres in the SFRC To determine the weight content of steel fibres in the SFRC at fresh and hardened state.3 of EN 206.2 Conformity criteria for first crack strength and ductility indexes Conformity assessment shall be made on test results taken during the assessment period established in clause 8.f .f + 1.0. UNI 10834 “Sprayed concrete”.2 of EN 206.2.m) [MPa] ≥ fI.5 ≥ fI. 8.f + 0. 9 Production Initial Continuous Number “n” of test results 3 6 7 8 Criterion 1 Mean of “n” results (fI.1 of EN 206 shall apply. The compliance with fIf characteristic values is confirmed if the test results meet the two criteria given in Table D. q for special applications for instance for structural elements whose minimum thickness is similar to that of the fibre length. 8 Conformity control and conformity criteria 8.f + 1.5 8 The conformity of first crack strength and of ductility indexes is assessed at different ages only if explicitly specified. The conformity of first crack strength and of ductility indexes is assessed on test specimens after 28 days8 of curing.2.1.2.4 Part I) > 60. refer to clause 8.87σ ≥ fI.1. 6 .martedì 21 agosto 2001 fibro13_en1 The minimum fibre content must not be less than 25 kg/m3. clause 8.1.2 of EN 206 shall apply. In this case.0. refer to Appendix D.f + 1.1 General For the general conditions clause 8.77σ ≥ fI.