PRESENT SIMPLE

:

action in the present taking place once, never or several times

facts

actions taking place one after another

action set by a timetable or schedule

Signal words for Present Simple: always, every, never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes,
usually
Example:
A: He speaks.
N: He does not speak.
Q: Does he speak?

PRESENT CONTINUOUS:

action taking place in the moment of speaking

action taking place only for a limited period of time

action arranged for the future

Signal words for Present Continuous: at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, now, right
now
Example:
A: He is speaking.
N: He is not speaking.
Q: Is he speaking?

PAST SIMPLE:

action in the past taking place once, never or several times

actions taking place one after another

action taking place in the middle of another action

Signal words for Past Simple: yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
Example:
A: He spoke.
N: He did not speak.
Q: Did he speak?

PAST CONTINUOUS:

action going on at a certain time in the past

so far. just. N: He has not spoken. actions taking place at the same time  action in the past that is interrupted by another action Signal words for Past Continuous: when. N: He had not spoken. never or several times before the moment of speaking Signal words for Present Perfect: already. while. up to now Example: A: He has spoken. ever. not yet. just. till now. not yet. tomorrow Example: . once. Q: Has he spoken? PAST PERFECT:  action taking place before a certain time in the past  sometimes interchangeable with past perfect progressive  putting emphasis only on the fact (not the duration) Signal words for Past Perfect: already. Q: Was he speaking? PRESENT PERFECT:  putting emphasis on the result  action that is still going on  action that stopped recently  finished action that has an influence on the present  action that has taken place once. as long as Example: A: He was speaking. Q: Had he spoken? Future I Simple:  action in the future that cannot be influenced  spontaneous decision  assumption with regard to the future Signal words for Future I Simple: in a year. until that day Example: A: He had spoken. never. N: He was not speaking. next …. never.

Q: Will he speak? FUTURE I SIMPLE (going to):  decision made for the future  conclusion with regard to the future Signal words for Future I Simple (going to): in one year. N: He will not have spoken. Q: Will he have spoken? FUTURE II CONTINUOUS:  action taking place before a certain time in the future  putting emphasis on the course of an action Signal words for Future II Continuous: for …. next week.A: He will speak. all day long Example: . in a week Example: A: He will have spoken. the last couple of hours. N: He is not going to speak. N: He will not speak. Q: Will he be speaking? FUTURE II :  action that will be finished at a certain time in the future Signal words for Future II Simple: by Monday. Q: Is he going to speak? FUTURE I CONTINUOUS:  action that is going on at a certain time in the future  action that is sure to happen in the near future Signal words for Future Continuous: in one year. tomorrow Example: A: He will be speaking. next week. N: He will not be speaking. tomorrow Example: A: He is going to speak.

A: He will have been speaking. Q: Would he speak? Conditional I Progressive A: He would be  speaking.) action that might take place putting emphasis on the course /duration of the action Conditional II Simple A: He would have spoken. N: He would not speak. Q: Would he have been speaking?  action that might have taken place in the past  puts emphasis on the course / durationof the action if sentences type III (If I had seen that.) . Q: Would he be speaking? action that might take place Signal words: if sentences type II (If I were you. Q: Would he have spoken?  action that might have taken place in the past Conditional II Progressive A: He would have been speaking. N: He would not have been speaking. Q: Will he have been speaking? Example: Description:  Conditional I Simple A: He would speak. N: He would not be  speaking. I would have helped. N: He would not have spoken. I would gohome. N: He will not have been speaking.