-Getting new species
-Anagenesis: Organism that gets replaced by another over time (one form replaces another)
-Cladogenesis (branching): New Morphologies in a species that split off from original, branching into a
new species

Species Concepts
-Subspecies: Part of a species that is starting to diverge from main species (isolated from main species)
-Are still able to interbreed
-Ex: Rape seed -> breeding out the toxins -> Becomes the subspecies of rape seed (because rape
seed contains toxin) ‘Canola’ due to lack of toxin
-Biological: Group of interbreeding populations, swapping alleles, reproductively unified, no
reproductive isolation (Ernst Mayer)
-Ex: Canus Famillaris and Canus Lupus (house dog and wolf) are able to interbreed, therefore are
not reproductively isolated and shouldn’t be considered as a different species.
-House dog was now renamed Canus Lupus Familliaris (subspecies of wolf)
-Cannot use for prokaryotes (don’t reproduce sexually but through binary fission)
-Ecological: Using habitat to define species (each species lives in their own niche)
-Things can adapt and mess with their species definition
-Morphospecies: Organism can be defined morphologically and have different appearances (meaning
different species)
-Ex: Warblers different populations with 2 different colours.
-Species are still able to cross mate (normally just isolated from one another)
-Doesn’t distinguish 2 species that look similar from one and another
-Ex: Woodland and Grassland elephants (only protected the Grassland Elephants
because we thought they were the same specices)
-Ring Species (Parapatric Species): Places where different species mix (interbreed)
-Ex: Salamanders developing unique characteristics (adapting to their own
-Hybridization: Mating of 2 different species
-In the case of the salamanders, when they hybridize their offspring get shit camo for
their environement

Frogs in ponds) -Temporal: Animals reach maturity at different times in the year (Ie: Different mating times) -Behaviour: Different mating rituals (Ie: Frog singing mating calls) .-Second Contact – Hybriziation Outcomes -Reinforcement: Species stay isolated and keep fortifying their characteristics -Fusion of populations: Interbreeding -Hybrid zone: Each species get their own ‘zone’. they start to evolve into a new species (may have the same problems but can adapt differently) -Ex: Continental Drift (Pangea) -Dispersal: Part of a species that just dips to another place and adapts and over time becomes its own species -Ex: Ice cricket -> Dipped to cold environments -> Adapted to the cold -> Became its new species -Sympatric Speciation: In the same time and place -Ex: A bug that specialised into eating big seeds. In the center it is uniquely one species but near the border of their ‘territory’ they are able to mate -Extinction: One species completely destroys another -Creation of a new species: Basic adaptations that differ from what’s existing now -Allopatric Speciation: -Vicariance: Some kind of geological event and populations are separated from each other -Due to the genetic isolation. and a new crop with smaller seeds is introduced -Samller vesions of that bug are able to better feed (eating all the smaller seeds) and eventually the 2 sized bugs drift to become separate species. -Reproductive Isolation (primarily associated with animals) -Animals usually have a ‘built in NOPE’ mechanism -Prezygotic Isolation: Keep egg and sperm away from each other of species -Ecological: Places certain species are associated with (Ie: Tree frogs.

but the offspring are fertile (ie: Zebra and Ponies. the egg surface develops recognition proteins to identify their own species sperm -Plants also recognize pollen of the same species (developed later in evolutionary history) -Postzygotic Isolation: If they do mate. which characteristics were the ‘original’ characteristics -Evolutionary trees were based on the bias of the researchers -Henning creates Cladistics in an attempt to remove bias . their off spring is unable to breed/are not viable -Hybrid viability: Cells die during division of zygote -Genetic process is too strict. Lion and Tigers) -Must be of the same ‘family’ -Ex: Hybridizing of Polar Bears and Grizzly Bears are forming viable. and the chromosome do not complement each other therefore the cells die -Hybrid Sterility: Infertile and cannot pass their wack genes -People are cross ecologically isolated animals and crossing them.-Ex: Fireflies (different illumination patterns that are specie specific) -Mechanical: Doesn’t fit (Lock and Key type situation) -Plants become dependent on a specific species of insects (co-adapted) for pollination (insect has the perfect ‘tongue’ to feed off plant and plant but pollens on insect) -Ex: Darwin’s Comet Orchid and a certain moth -Gemetic: Shed reproductive organs (sperm and eggs) into the ocean hoping it spreads -Very 1st form of reproduction -Early in embryology and animal development. fertile young -Hybrid Breakdown: -Offspring (Hybrid) is not optimal for the environment (vulnerable) -Ex: The Newts whom had crappy camo Types of Taxonomy -Hennig bring a new taxonomy -Most made by taxonomic comparisons -Debate about what characteristics branched from which.

trait descendants have) -More synapomorphies mean further down tree you are Symplesiomorphies: Shared primitive characters that are shared between groups (ancient characteristics) Autapomorphy: Unique characteristic that a species Cladogram Construction -Build of 0s and 1s (apomorpies and plesiomorphies) -Assumes characteristics arrive only once -Parsimony (Auchoms Razor): KISS Principle (keep it simple stupid) -Take the path of most simplicity (least amount of changes) -Doesn’t mean path with more changes Is wrong Ex: Camera Eye -All Octopus and Vertebrates have pinhole camera. you get the evolutionary lineage (more characteristics = higher up on tree) -Works with gene sequences. Cladistics Apomorphies: Derived characters within a group (score of 1) Plesiomorphies: Primitive charaters within a group (score of 0) Synapomorphie: Derived characters shared between groups (change everyone inherits. morphology etc. therefore have a common decendant -Every other branch. we say this trait was lost -This theory involves 6 events in order to explain the origin of the pinhole eye OR -Pinhole eye was caused by convergence -The eye appeared (evolved) twice .-Classification that divides the world by grouping organisms with similar traits -Cladograms: Only 1 branch at a time -Groups start from general and specifies over a series of traits -When you organise the organisms in order of who has the most changes.

it must be the same species . metabolism etc) -When looking at molecular work. and see the exact same characteristics in a species. Insects) -Completely physically different from each other (intennas) -Completely different feeding structures -Weren’t able to specify to one common ancestor -Same Homeotic gene was found in all anthropods -Paraphyletic: -Have common ancestor and some of the descendants -Ex: Everyone thought birds were a distinct group -Because of flying their anatomy changed (teeth. but role of hybrids are fairly unknown -Morphospecies: -Things look different therefore separate species -Phylogenetic Species: .-This is the Cladistics view (least amount of steps) -The two eyes are built differently which proves that it evolved twice Anatomy of a Cladogram -Trying to create evolutionary trees where it shows descendants and common ancestors -Monophyletic: -Simple branching patterns breaking whole evolutionary sequence up -What we want -Polyphyletic: -Aren’t sure of a common ancestors (characteristics) -Ex: Arthropods containing 3 main groups (Lobsters. problems in fossils and prokaryotes -Ecological species:-Good for ecological isolation.If you have a set of derived characters. they are similar to reptiles but can fly -Mistakenly excluded a species from the tree (fixed by putting species back into appropriate group) *Polyphyletic and paraphyletic are resolved to become monophyletic through additional research -Biological Species: -Good for concepts of isolation and reproduction. Spiders/Ticks.