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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.#EXECUTIVE#SUMMARY#

3#

2.#MARKETING#PROBLEM#

4#

3.#MARKETING#RESEARCH#OBJECTIVES#

4#

4.#CUSTOMER#SEGMENTATION#

5#

4.1#CURRENT#TARGET#SEGMENTS#
4.2#RECOMMENDED#TARGET#SEGMENTS#

5#
5#

5.#METHODS#OF#ACCESSING#DATA#

6#

5.1#PRIMARY#RESEARCH#
5.2#SECONDARY#RESEARCH#

6#
6#

6.#RESEARCH#DESIGN#

7#

6.1#EXPLORATORY#RESEARCH#
6.1.1!OBSERVATIONAL!STUDY!
6.1.2!IN6DEPTH!INTERVIEW!
6.1.3!FOCUS!GROUP!
6.2#DESCRIPTIVE#RESEARCH#
6.2.1!COMPUTER6ADMINISTERED!SURVEY!
6.2.1.1!DESIGNING!DATA!COLLECTION!FORMS!
6.2.1.2!SAMPLE!PLAN!AND!SAMPLE!SIZE!

7#
7!
7!
8!
9#
9!
9!
11!

7.#ANALYSIS#OF#RESULTS#

12#

7.1#EXPLORATORY#RESEARCH#
7.1.1!OBSERVATION!STUDY!FINDINGS!
7.1.2!IN6DEPTH!INTERVIEW!FINDINGS!
7.1.3!FOCUS!GROUP!FINDINGS!
7.2#DESCRIPTIVE#RESEARCH#
7.2.1!SURVEY!QUESTIONNAIRE!FINDINGS!
7.2.1.1!SPSS!ANALYSIS!

12#
12!
13!
13!
13#
14!
14!

8.#LIMITATIONS#

26#

9.#RECOMMENDATIONS#

27#

11.#REFERENCES#

30#

12.#APPENDICES#

31#

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1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Sheng! Siong! is! one! of! Singapore’s!
largest!
supermarkets,!
grossing!
revenue! of! about! S$637.3! million! for!
FY2012.! As! of! 31! December! 2012,! it!
has!33!stores!island!wide.!These!stores!
are! primarily! located! in! the! heartland!
areas! of! Singapore.! Currently,! it! is!
ranked! fourth! in! Singapore’s!
supermarket!industry,!behind!its!main!competitors!Giant,!Cold!Storage!and!NTUC!FairPrice1.!
Its! target! segment! is! heartlanders! and! middle6income! earners.! This! report! will! focus! on!
analysing! the! main! drivers! of! customer! satisfaction! in! the! supermarket! industry,! and!
evaluate!Sheng!Siong’s!performance!on!these!drivers!to!make!purposeful!recommendations!
that!will!enable!Sheng!Siong!to!improve!their!level!of!customer!satisfaction.!!
!
We!adopted!primary!and!secondary!research!methods!to!gain!a!better!understanding!of!the!
research! problem.! From! our! research,! it! was! revealed! that! there! are! three! key! drivers! for!
customer! satisfaction! –! internal! store! environment,! convenience,! and! products.! However,!
Sheng!Siong!is!not!performing!well!in!these!aspects!as!compared!to!its!competitors,!which!
results!in!their!poor!level!of!customer!satisfaction.!Hence,!Sheng!Siong!faces!challenges!in!
improving!customers’!perceptions!in!three!aspects.!!
!
To!address!these!main!challenges,!we!recommend!that!Sheng!Siong!improve!their!internal!
store!environment!in!terms!of!cleanliness!and!smell!by!separating!their!wet!market!segment!
from! their! dry! supermarket! segment.! Furthermore,! although! Sheng! Siong! has! over! 30!
outlets! across! the! island,! many! of! which! have! 246hour! operations,! this! is! not! widely!
acknowledged!by!the!public.!Hence,!Sheng!Siong!can!work!towards!increasing!awareness!of!
their!246hour!outlets!across!the!island!to!improve!customers’!perceptions!of!convenience.!In!
addition,! perceived! convenience! can! be! improved! if! Sheng! Siong! expands! beyond! the!
heartland! areas! by! opening! more! outlets! in! the! central! business! district! area.! In! terms! of!
product! variety,! Sheng! Siong! can! seek! offering! more! premium! products,! as! well! as! more!
brands!of!each!type!of!product.!!
!
In!conclusion,!we!foresee!an!improvement!in!Sheng!Siong’s!overall!customer!satisfaction!as!
our! various! recommendations! seek! to! deliver! better! customer! value.! Increasing! customer!
satisfaction! will! potentially! enhance! customer! loyalty! and! hence! business! performance,!
which!would!enable!Sheng!Siong!to!rise!to!the!top!of!the!supermarket!industry!and!overtake!
its!main!competitors.!!!

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
1

!Underdog(no(more:(Fairprice(and(dairy(farm(get(competition(from(Sheng(Siong.!(2012,!Jun!06).!Retrieved!
from!http://sbr.com.sg/retail/news/underdog6no6more6fairprice6and6dairy6farm6get6competition6sheng6siong!
2
!Refer!to!Section!11!–!References!!

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3

To!conduct!non6actionable!analysis!(Net!Promoter!Score!(NPS).! Giant! and! Cold! Storage!! 4.!Perceptual!mapping.!etc. To!understand!the!factors!that!drive!customer!satisfaction!for!supermarkets!in!Singapore! 2. MARKETING RESEARCH OBJECTIVES These!are!the!main!objectives!of!our!research:! 1.! NTUC! Fairprice.! 3.!! ! This! research! is! intended! to! rectify! the! low! levels! of! customer! satisfaction! situation! by! identifying!marketing!opportunities!and!problems!presented!during!our!marketing!research. MARKETING PROBLEM Across! all! supermarkets! in! Singapore. Benchmark! Sheng! Siong! against! major! competitors.e.!! ! ! 4 .`! 2. To! ascertain! actionable! data! through! the! use! of! statistical! research! (SPSS)! and! make! recommendations! to! improve! customer! satisfaction! for! Sheng! Siong! from! the! results! obtained.!recommendations!will!be!made!to!target!key!drivers!of!customer!satisfaction! that!Sheng!Siong!is!performing!poorly!in. To!understand!customers’!perceived!value!of!the!service!level!of!Sheng!Siong!! 3.!! Subsequently.)! to!gauge!the!current!perceptual!position!of!Sheng!Siong!relative!to!its!main!competitors! 5.! i.! our! team! will! be! focusing! on! Sheng! Siong! as! the! company!is!experiencing!low!levels!of!customer!satisfaction!in!this!particular!industry.

!Retaining!this!group!of!customers!would!be! beneficial!to!Sheng!Siong!in!the!long!run.2 RECOMMENDED TARGET SEGMENTS 4.! Understanding! that! students! have! a! higher! customer! lifetime! value.!Sheng! Siong!has!little!or!no!outlets!near!schools.! majority! of! their! staff! are! Mandarin6 speaking!and!this!eases!the!shopping!experience! for! traditional! old! folks! or! “aunties”! who! are! mainly!converse!in!Mandarin!or!Chinese!dialects.2.!! ! ! 5 .!which! could! deter! students! from! patronizing! it.! working!adults!may!have!deemed!Sheng!Siong!as! a! less! accessible! option! as! compared! to! supermarkets! in! the! CBDs.1.!especially!after!they!join! the!workforce!and!start!families!of!their!own.! Sheng! Siong! could! target! this! segment!due!to!their!higher!spending!power.2#WORKING#ADULTS# Perhaps! because! of! their! heartland! locations.! This!is!because!students’!purchasing!power!will!increase!over!time.! These! customers! frequent! Sheng! Siong! as! they! can! readily! approach! any! of! the! staff! and! know! that!they!would!be!able!to!understand!and!assist! them!appropriately.1 CURRENT TARGET SEGMENTS 4.1#HEARTLANDERS# With! Sheng! Siong’s! strategic! location! in! the! heartland!areas.! especially! housewives! and! aunties. CUSTOMER SEGMENTATION 4.2.! these! professional! working! adults! tend! to! enjoy! a! higher! standard! of! living! and! would! be! more! willing! to! spend.! Besides.! Sheng! Siong! does! not! attract! many!students!or!youth!as!they!associate!it!with! an!older!customer!segment.1#STUDENTS# At! the! moment.!its!outlets!are!more!accessible!to! heartlanders.! 4.!Furthermore.!! 4.`! 4.! However.! Sheng! Siong! could! expand! its! target! segment! to! include! students.

! annual! reports.! We! gathered! secondary! information! by! reviewing! academic! articles!on!customer!satisfaction!and!the!supermarket!industry.! 2013).2 SECONDARY RESEARCH For! secondary! research.! similar! to! Fazlzadeh!et!al.! online! databases! and! websites 2 .!Lu.!Guo!&!An! (2007)!considered!the!availability!of!car!park!spaces!for!the!convenience!construct.!Hence!this!project!could!also! serve!to!bridge!the!existing!research!gap!to!understand!and!analyze!customer!satisfaction! with! regards! to! supermarkets! in! Singapore.! Jayasankaraprasad! &! Kumar! (2012)! and! Sreedhara! &! Babu! (2010)! have! affirmed! our! six! identified!salient!constructs!of!supermarkets’!customer!satisfaction.!which!we!had!derived! from!our!focus!group.!also!recommended!future!studies!to!understand!the!demographics! of!customers!and!their!shopping!habits.! many! articles.!2008).!focus!group.`! 5.! we! conducted! a! focus! group.!! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2 ! !Refer!to!Section!11!–!References!! 6 .!2007)!and!India!(Ganguli!&!Kumar.!Guo!&!An.! prior! to! embarking! on! this! project.!there!was! no! specific! study! regarding! the! supermarket! industry! in! Singapore.!China!(Lu. METHODS OF ACCESSING DATA We! employed! both! primary! and! secondary! research! for! this! project.!Other!on6going!research!such!as!depth!interviews!and!online! databases! research! were! done! simultaneously! throughout! the! duration! of! the! data! collection!phase!of!the!project.!(2012).!For!instance.! ! 5.! Online! databases! such! as! MarketLine! were! used! to! obtain! relevant! information!regarding!the!supermarket!industry!as!a!whole.!depth!interviews!and! survey.!! ! In! addition.! ! 5.!This!is!a! factor!that!was!never!brought!up!during!our!focus!group!and!observational!study.! our! sources! included! marketing! journals.! performed! academic! research.!! ! We!also!looked!at!Sheng!Siong’s!annual!reports!to!gain!better!understanding!of!their!market! performance.!This!literary!process!offered! beneficial!ideas!and!reference!when!crafting!our!questionnaire.! Apart! from! these.! we! found! many! studies! on! customer! satisfaction!with!supermarkets!in!various!countries!like!Lithuania!(Pileliene!&!Grigaliunaite.! suggesting! that! the! Singapore!supermarket!industry!has!not!been!looked!into!yet.!Besides.! Executing! in! chronological! order.! drafted! and!fielded!our!questionnaire.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH Our!primary!research!comprises!of!observation!studies.!However.!The!first!three!methodologies!will!be!elaborated!under!exploratory!research!while! the!latter!will!be!discussed!later!in!descriptive!research.

! We! conducted! disguised! structured! observations! to! record! customers’! demographics.! The! observational! studies! were! carried! out! at! two! different! branches! of! Sheng! Siong.!while! the! intimacy! of! a! one6on6one! meeting! encouraged! each! respondent! to! share! his! or! her! experiences!in!supermarkets!freely!without!interruption.! and! whether! Sheng! Siong! staff!were!helpful!and!responsive!to!customers!who!required!assistance.! 6.!10!observations!were!made3.2#INEDEPTH#INTERVIEW## We! conducted! in6depth! interviews4!as! part! of! our! exploratory! research! to! obtain! a! more! comprehensive!view!of!the!habits!and!motives!behind!individual!customers’!behavior.! pricing! of! products.!This! gave! us! some! insights! on! what! customers! looked! for! when! they! visit! supermarkets.! and! how! these! perceptions! were! formed.1#OBSERVATIONAL#STUDY## We! conducted! 2! sets! of! observational! studies! to! observe! customers’! shopping! behaviors! and! various! factors! that! contribute! to! customer! satisfaction.! such! as! customer! service.`! 6.1.! ! Some!of!the!key!observations!that!we!took!note!of!were!the!waiting!time!at!the!checkout! counters.! their! current! perceptions! on! supermarkets.1.! we! conducted! exploratory! and! descriptive! research! to! gain! a! better! understanding!of!the!constructs!that!contribute!to!customer!satisfaction!in!supermarkets.!which!provided!the!advantage!of!additional!willingness!to!share.! we! found! 2! respondents! that! fit! the! criteria! above.!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 3 4 ! !Refer!to!Appendix!1! !Refer!to!Appendix!3! 7 .! Both! were! friends! of! the! interviewers.! The! first! study! was! conducted! on! a! weekday! and! the!second!was!conducted!on!a!weekend!to!have!a!better!representation!of!peak!and!non6 peak!periods!in!Sheng!Siong.! and! ensured! that! we! had!a!comprehensive!scope.! whether! they! actively! avoided! the! fresh! food! section.# 6.!! 6.! These! findings! contributed! to! the! vocabulary! used! in! our! perceptual! map.!One6on6one! meetings!were!conducted!with!2!respondents!in!a!Group!Study!Room!in!SMU!at!separate! times.! and! store! service. RESEARCH DESIGN As!we!had!little!knowledge!of!the!problems!faced!by!most!customers!regarding!shopping!at! supermarkets.! as! well! as! unstructured! observations! to! get! a! better! understanding! of! our! research! problem.!! ! We!had!the!following!requirements!for!the!two!respondents:! 1) Student!–!as!they!constitute!the!target!segment!for!our!recommendations! 2) Prior!shopping!experience!in!Sheng!Siong! Hence.!In!each!study.1 EXPLORATORY RESEARCH We!conducted!observational!studies!and!focus!groups!at!the!outset!of!our!research!project! to!establish!research!priorities!and!craft!our!survey!questions!for!descriptive!research.!The!meeting!place!provided!a!disturbance6free!and!comfortable!environment.

!One!of!them!was!in!charge!of!facilitating!the!discussion!while! the!other!took!down!the!participants’!responses!so!that!the!facilitator!could!concentrate!on! leading!the!discussion.!the!small!sample!size!of!the! focus! group! would! limit! the! representativeness! of! responses! had! we! asked! objective! questions.!store!service.! These! objective! questions! surfaced! later! in! our! questionnaire.2.! spontaneous! discussion! with! the! help! of! two! moderators!from!our!group.!! ! This!led!to!our!decision!to!look!at!six!factors.!price.! This! focus! group! also! served!to!provide!existing!customers’!vocabulary!of!Sheng!Siong!and!its!rival!competitors!for! our!perceptual!map.! building! a! sense! of! rapport! and! familiarity! to! increase! trust! within! the! focus! group.! We! then! asked! broad! questions! to! gain! general! insights! of! our! participants.!! ! We! began! our! session! with! a! round! of! introductions! amongst! the! participants.!The!purpose!of!our!focus!group!was!to!gain!information!relevant!to! our!research!problem!on!customers’!perceptions!with!regards!to!supermarkets.! Cold! Storage! and! Giant.!The!focus!group!lasted!for!an!hour.! which! will! be! further!elaborated!in!Section!6.! NTUC! Fairprice.! another!objective!was!to!gain!a!comprehensive!list!of!useful!and!relevant!problems!for!us!to! look! into.! we! ended! with! a! sharing! session! in! which! participants! were! asked! to! rank! the! four! supermarkets! according! to! their! preference! and! explain! the! reason! for! their! ranking.! products! as! well! as! the! internal! store! environment.! it!was!not!necessary!to!ask!objective!questions.`! 6.!In!addition.! We! gradually! progressed! to! more!intriguing!questions!relative!to!our!four!identified!supermarkets.3#FOCUS#GROUP## We!brought!8!participants!together5!(all!of!whom!are!frequent!shoppers!at!supermarkets)! and! guided! them! through! an! unstructured.! with! respect! to! the! reasons! behind! the! currently! low! levels! of! customer! satisfaction! at! Sheng! Siong.! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 5 ! !Refer!to!Appendix!2! 8 .1.! In! order! to! gain! a! better! understanding! of! customers’!motives.!namely!customer!service.!Furthermore.!The!later!half!of!the! session!was!devoted!to!more!specific!questions!regarding!each!person’s!likes!and!dislikes!on! the! supermarket! they! frequent! the! most.! Hearing!the!voices!of!existing!supermarket!customers!helped!us!scope!our!project!in!terms! of!identifying!aspects!of!supermarkets!to!delve!deeper!into.!we!also!used!projective!techniques!by!asking!them!to!describe!a!typical! customer! walking! into! Sheng! Siong.! We! conducted! our! focus! group! on! a! Monday! afternoon.! convenience.!and!we!provided!each!of!our!participants!with!light!refreshments! and!Sheng!Siong!$5!gift!vouchers!as!incentives!for!taking!part!in!our!focus!group!to!increase! perceived!benefit.! at! a! classroom!in!SMU.!which!was!a!relatively!short!time!to! decrease!perceived!loss.! Finally.1.!As!having!a!focus!group!was!simply!the!initial!research!for!this!project.

!This!meant!that!each!participant!only!had! to!answer!one!set!of!questions!regarding!one!supermarket.! 6.! There!was!also!the!reduction!of!interviewer!evaluation!concerns.! ! We!then!used!the!attribute!method!by!asking!respondents!to!rate!the!factor!on!a!scale!of!1! (least!applicable)!to!10!(most!applicable)!based!on!their!perception!in!order!to!find!out!the! derived!importance!of!various!factors!that!had!been!previously!identified!during!the!focus! group!through!participants’!“vocabulary”!with!regards!to!supermarkets.!To!garner!more!responses!for!our!main!survey.! When!respondents!missed!out!questions.#Measurement#Scale# A!76point!Modified!Likert!Scale!(1!being!“Strongly!Disagree”!and!7!being!“Strongly!Agree”)! was!used!to!balance!the!degree!of!fineness!between!a!56point!scale!and!a!96point!scale.!and!expectation!bias!was! also!minimized!through!the!use!of!the!attribute!method.!and! an!odd!scale!was!used!to!ensure!that!respondents!had!an!option!to!be!neutral.2 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH After!gaining!a!better!understanding!of!the!research!problem!through!exploratory!research.2.! The! purpose! is! to! expand!our!research!findings!to!a!larger!population.`! 6.g.1#DESIGNING#DATA#COLLECTION#FORMS# A.2.1.! which! falls! under! the! computer6 administered! category.!! C.!so!that!the!survey!could!be!objectively!interpreted.!they!would!be!prompted!to!complete!the!missed! question!before!moving!on.! Effort! was! also! taken! to! ensure! that! there! were! no! double6barreled! or! emotionally!loaded!questions.! The! overall! benefits! of! the! computer6administered! method! were! its! speed.! B.!This!also!allowed!us! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 6 ! !Refer!to!Appendix!4!for!our!survey!questions! 9 .#Wording# Questions! were! kept! brief! and! grammatically! simple! with! no! more! than! 15! words! per! sentence.1#COMPUTEREADMINISTERED#SURVEY6# We! conducted! an! online! survey! through! Qualtrics.! 6.!an!online!link!to! the! survey! was! sent! out! to! friends! and! family! via! social! media! platforms.!in!order!to!gather!more!representative! responses!regarding!customer!satisfaction!with!regards!to!supermarkets.! we! decided! to! split!the!survey!according!to!the!4!supermarkets.! In! order! to! prevent! confusion! and! increase! participants’! willingness! to! do! the! survey.! Respondents! completed! the! entire! survey! independently! online.!Respondents!were!able!to!complete!the!survey!at!their!own!pace.! the! question! on! the! participant’s! monthly! income)! near! the! end! of! the! survey.#Question#Order## We! took! note! of! the! question! order! and! placed! personal! and! sensitive! questions! (e.! a! 76point! Likert! scale! offers! sufficient! variation!in!results!for!the!examined!constructs.! we! conducted! descriptive! research! via! computer6administered! surveys.!As!concurred! by! Al6Hindawe! (1996)! and! James! &! Perla! (2007).! which! enabled! us! to! analyze! data! as! they! could! be! easily! exported! into! Microsoft!Excel!and!SPSS.! as! well! as! the! real6time! capture! of! data.

#Organization#of#Questions# ! Figure#1:#Constructs#of#Customer#Satisfaction#with#regards#to#Supermarkets# Based!on!the!findings!from!our!focus!group!and!secondary!research.!and! an!overall!satisfaction!question!based!on!that!construct.`! to! construct! a! perceptual! map! to! see! where! each! supermarket! stood! in! comparison! to! its! competitors!in!customers’!minds.! In! order! to! analyze! which! of! these! constructs! are! the! main! drivers! of! satisfaction.! The! Net! Promoter! Score! and! the! question! on! loyalty! reveal! insights!on!future!potential!sales.!An!overall!satisfaction!question!for! the! supermarket! was! also! included! at! the! end! to! elicit! a! thoughtful! response! after! having! the!respondents!review!the!various!aspects!of!the!prior!constructs.! We!also!measured!customer!loyalty!by!asking!respondents!if!they!would!continue!shopping! at! the! supermarket! in! future.!It!adopts!an!116point!scale.!! ! Furthermore.! we! measured! customer! satisfaction! with! regards! to! 6! latent! constructs.!Every!construct!had!3!to!7!questions.!Customers!who! rated!7!to!8!are!considered!to!be!“passives”!while!those!who!rated!9!to!10!are!“promoters”.!as!seen!in!Figure!1!above.! ! 10 .!! ! General! demographic! questions! and! purchaser! behavior! questions! were! also! included! to! allow! profiling! of! the! respondents! and! enhance! the! richness! of! our! data.!! D.!we!asked!respondents!for!their!Net!Promoter!Score!as!it!is!a!leading!indicator! of!customer!relationships!and!loyalty!towards!the!supermarket.! as! well! as! social! and! emotional! value.! on! a! 76point! Modified!Likert!Scale.! where!customers!who!rated!the!brand!0!to!6!are!regarded!as!“detractors”.! These! questions! allowed!us!to!use!descriptive!statistics!to!better!understand!our!sample.!we!identified!several! salient! attributes! of! supermarkets! that! matter! to! customers.

!The!SMU!logo!was!also!displayed!in!our!survey!to!show!that!our!survey!was! sanctioned!by!an!authority.! thereby! increasing! participation.! 30! responses! each! from! NTUC! Fairprice.`! The!survey!consisted!of!questions!ordered!in!a!logical!sequence:! 1) Customer!Service! 2) Store!Service! 3) Price! 4) Convenience! 5) Products! 6) Internal!Store!Environment! 7) Social!and!Emotional!Value! 8) Overall!Satisfaction! 9) Net!Promoter!Score! 10) Perceptual!Mapping!Question!(Attribute!Method)! 11) Demographic!Questions! E.!We!also!highlighted!that!responses!were!strictly!confidential.#PreETest# Prior! to! fielding! the! survey.! conducting! a! survey!on!local!supermarkets.! Furthermore.! F.!hence!increasing!trust.! we! gathered! 5! people! to! pre6test! the! survey.! and! the! same! survey! questions! were! repeated! for! all! 4! supermarkets.! Sample! units! were! identified! as! students.96)! in!our!results.e.! we! adopted! the! nonprobability! sampling! method! through! convenience! and! quota! sampling.2.#Formatting# We! also! adhered! to! the! Tailored! Design! Approach! by! increasing! the! perceived! rewards.2#SAMPLE#PLAN#AND#SAMPLE#SIZE# Due! to! time! and! resource! constraints.!we!estimated!sample!size!(n)!to!be!as!follows:! ! Thus.!Several! questions!were!re6worded!to!make!the!survey!more!straightforward!and!less!ambiguous.! we! did! not! mention! that! our! client! company! was! Sheng! Siong.! 6.! This! added!up!to!a!total!of!150!responses!collected.!was!7/6.! The! margin!of!error!(e)!was!held!to!be!±0.! so! as! to! reduce! social! desirability! bias.!which!allowed!for!purposeful!comparisons! to!be!made!between!the!various!supermarkets!in!our!analyses.! because! our! survey! asked! respondents! to! rate! satisfaction! on! a! 76point! Likert! scale.!The!sample!standard!deviation!(s).! Firstly.! We! used! the! confidence! interval! method! of! determining! sample! size! to! ensure! representativeness!of!our!convenience!sample.! we! included! one! of! our! members’! email! address! so! that! respondents! could! contact! us! if! they! had! any! enquires.!and!half!of!that!from!each!of! its! competitors! i.1.! ! 11 .!In!order!to!be!95%!confident!(z!=!1.! Cold! Storage! and! Giant.! so! as! to! understand!the!potential!difficulties!that!were!encountered!when!taking!the!survey.!we!obtained!60!responses!from!Sheng!Siong!customers.3!scale!points.! to! reduce! response! bias.! Lastly.! we! introduced! ourselves! as! students! from! Singapore! Management! University.! decreasing! the! perceived! costs! and! increasing! trust! for! doing! the! survey.

!time!taken!for!the!cashier!to!check!out!each!customer’s!items!was!very!short.! We! observed! many! customers! buying! at! least! two! packets! of! each! promotional! item.!Some!of!them!even!stopped!what!they!were!doing!to!assist! the!customers.!it!was!observed!that!the!prices!of!products!in!Sheng!Siong!are!on!average.#Customer#Service# It! was! observed! that! customers! generally! did! not! approach! the! supermarket! staff! for! assistance.!Sheng!Siong’s!staff!displayed!good!customer!service!and!willingness!to!help! customers.! Out! of! all! the! observations! made.!and!30!to!50!cents!cheaper!than! Cold!Storage.!and!there!were!also! announcements! made! over! the! Public! Announcement! (PA! system)! to! inform! customers! about! the! latest! promotions. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS 7.! such! as! cereal.!especially!that! of!the!fresh!food!section.!we!made!some!findings!about!the!various!constructs! that!contribute!to!customer!satisfaction.#Store#Service# In! general.! there! was! only! one! instance! in! which! a! customer! queued! for! 5! minutes! before! a! cashier! served!her.! Sheng! Siong’s! promotions! do! encourage! customers! to! purchase! more! products.! taking! a! maximum! of! 4! minutes.!10! to!20!cents!cheaper!than!its!competitor.! Hence.! A.!Also.!!We!also!observed!that!certain!aisles.!NTUC!FairPrice.!! B.! Another! key! observation! made! was! that! customers! tend! to! stockpile! items! that! were! on! promotion.! However.!were!rather!dirty.! instant! coffee.!! C.1 EXPLORATORY RESEARCH 7.! Furthermore.#Internal#Store#Environment# The!store!was!easy!to!navigate.! ! 12 .!Customers!generally!did!not!look!lost!and!were!able!to!navigate!their!way!around!the! supermarket!easily.!while!the! same!product!in!Cold!Storage!costs!S$1.1.#Price# It!was!observed!that!there!were!many!ongoing!promotions!in!the!store.! and! is! not! significantly! longer.! when! customers! approached! the! staff! on! some! occasions.! customers! did! not! face! long! queuing! times.! These! waiting! times! are! comparable! to! Sheng! Siong’s! competitors.!with!aisles!that!were!wide!enough!to!fit!two!trolleys!side!by! side.!All!other!customers!were!observed!to!have!less!than!5!minutes!of!queuing!time.! the! staff! were!more!than!willing!to!help.20.! We! also! noticed! that! majority! of! the! service! staff! conversed! with! their! colleagues!and!customers!in!Mandarin.`! 7.!and!customers!do!not!face!long!waiting!times!when!they!are!queuing!to!check!out! their!items.!the!smell!of!the!fresh!food!section!affected!a!small!portion!of! the!customers!observed!(5!out!of!20).!a!single!can!of!Coca!Cola!in!Sheng!Siong!costs!S$0.! This! shows! that! Sheng! Siong’s! store! service! is! not!poor.! fruit! juices! and! cheese.!However.!For!example.75.1#OBSERVATION#STUDY#FINDINGS# Based!on!the!two!observation!studies.!! D.

! while! Giant! is! visited! when!they!desire!a!wide!range!of!products.1.!the!respondents!visited!Cold!Storage!because!they!wanted!to! buy! premium! and! uncommon! items! like! quinoa! and! crème! fraîche.!! ! Another!area!of!concern!is!the!evaluation!of!Sheng!Siong’s!internal!environment.!Our!team!has!tailored!our! recommendations! mainly! to! the! younger! group! of! customers.! as! they! were! the! main! respondents!of!our!surveys!and!focus!group.!which!motivated!them!to!visit!these!supermarkets!despite!greater! inconvenience.! In! addition.!we!intend! to!include!internal!environment!and!store!service!level!in!the!scope!of!our!project.!As!such.! as! detailed! in! the! Appendix! 3.!store!service.!different!supermarkets!are!perceived!to! have!different!specialties.! ! A! particularly! striking! finding! was! the!discussion!of!the!unpleasant!smell!in!Sheng!Siong.! ! 13 .!which!is! perceived! as! unpleasant! due! to! its! smell! and! aisle! arrangement.! Furthermore.!products.!we!discovered!that!customers!frequented!supermarkets!near! their!homes.3#FOCUS#GROUP#FINDINGS# We! found! that! the! main! reasons! our! focus! group! participants! cited! for! re6visiting! the! supermarket!they!frequent!are!convenience.!This!indicated!the!need!for!questions!pertaining! to!a!supermarket’s!product!range.!which!significantly!affected!her!perception!of!the!supermarket.1.!Several!of!them!attributed!it!to!the! sale! of! live! seafood! produce.!For!example.!In! addition.!Positively.!Most!young!supermarket! shoppers!in!our!focus!group!shared!such!a!projected!impression.!This!prompted!us!to!delve!into!the!importance!of!convenience!in!our!report.!we!discovered!that!for!both!respondents.!Sheng!Siong!is!regarded!as!having!an! affordable! price! range.! products! and! internal! store! environment.!price.!emotional!attachment.! convenience.! one! of! the! respondents! described! her! experiences! interacting! with! the! staff! at! Fairprice! and! Cold! Storage.!we!subsequently!managed!to!comprehensively!gather!the!opinions!that!we!have! heard!and!summarized!them!into!six!key!constructs!–!customer!service.! promotions! and! loyal! rebates.`! 7.!internal!store! atmosphere.! an! interesting! revelation! was! that! Sheng! Siong! has!an!appeal!to.! As! listed! previously.! despite! its! relatively! lower! variety! of! international! and! premium! products.2#INEDEPTH#INTERVIEW#FINDINGS# From!the!in6depth!interviews.! ! 7.!and!a!strong!association!with!the!older!crowd.

! we! made! the! assumption!that!our!questions!possess!discriminant!validity.#Reliability# Using! SPSS.! as! can! be! seen! from! Table! 5.! ! Discriminant!validity!ensures!that!variables!that!should!not!be!related!to!each!other!are!in! fact!observed!to!not!be!related!to!each!other.7! (Table! 1).! the! measures! do! display! convergent!validity!such!that!measures!that!should!be!related!to!each!other!are!observed!to! have! relations! with! each! other.!For!example.966! Table#1:#Reliability# B.886! Internal!Store!Environment! 0.!! ! CONSTRUCT# CRONBACH#ALPHA# Customer!Service! Store!Service! Prices! 0.765! 0.! and! hence! there! is! convergent! validity.1#SURVEY#QUESTIONNAIRE#FINDINGS# 7.!Most!of!our!questions!are!adapted!from!secondary!research.! For! all! constructs.941! 0.897! 0.!“The!products!are!affordable”!and!“The!products!offer! value!for!money”!are!clearly!measuring!the!price!of!products!within!the!supermarket.#Validity# We! conducted! face! validity! tests! and! found! that! each! of! the! measures! within! a! construct! displayed!face!validity.!Discriminant!validity!between!the!‘Price’!and! ‘Customer!Service’!constructs!is!shown!in!Table!5.!Since!they! have! been! published! and! hence! already! tested! for! discriminant! validity.3!in!Appendix!5.! ! ! ! 14 .!! ! We!carried!out!a!bi6variate!correlation!between!the!independent!variables!to!measure!the! convergent! validity! of! the! measures.! we! measured! the! reliability! of! our! questionnaire.!where!items!in!the!‘Price’! construct!have!a!higher!correlation!within!the!‘Price’!construct!than!items!in!the!Customer! Service!construct.! hence! showing! that! there! is! internal!consistency!within!each!construct!that!we!were!measuring.942! Social!value! Emotional!value! 0.! From! the! results! gathered.913! Convenience! Products! 0.2 DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH 7.1#SPSS#ANALYSIS# A.! All! measures! in! a! construct! are! correlated! and! highly! significant.2.`! 7.2! in! Appendix!5.910! 0.2.! the! Cronbach! Alpha! was! calculated! to! be! above! 0.1.

! all! independent! variables! had! VIF! values! below! 5. We have derived the equation of satisfaction from the unstandardized beta coefficient values.! ‘Price’.!‘Social!Value’!and!‘Emotional!Value’.392!shows!that!it!was!not! significant! in! driving! satisfaction! for! supermarkets.! ‘Convenience’.! Therefore! we! can! safely! conclude! that! multi6collinearity!was!not!a!problem.909! 0.007! 0.! As! seen! from! VIF.597! 1.396! 2.!a!p6value!of!0.648! 1.024! 0.000! 0.002! 0.! ‘Internal!Store!Environment’.137! 0. ! ! 15 .208 product + 0.175 convenience + 0.! The! independent! variables! were:! ‘Customer! Service’.! ‘Store! Service’.174! Price# SIG.007! 0.141! 0.0.149! 0.973# Emotional# Value# 0.239! 0.! Although! there! was! a! sign! reversal!for!the!Beta!value!for!‘Customer!Service’.438! 2.186! 0. our overall satisfaction for the supermarket served as the dependent variable. This equation would be useful for Sheng Siong to improve on its customer satisfaction level and guide its decisions to improve the stores.367! 2.174 store service + 0.507! 1.309! 0.167# 0.522# #Table#2:#Regression# For the regression model.462! 2.! we! checked! for! problems! of! multi6collinearity! because! we! had! many! independent! variables.137 social value + 0.!Giant:!30)!from!the!online!survey.! NTUC! Fairprice:! 30.115 pricing of products + 0.! ‘Products’.175! 0.722# Internal#Store# Environment# 0.! ! First.! as! shown! in! Table! 2! below.674# Products# 0. where Satisfaction = 0.115! 0.`! C.392! 0.282# 0.059 customer service + 0.! Cold!Storage:!30.008! 0.007 emotional value.542# Convenience# 0.59! ! 6!0.437! 2.!! ! Linear!regression!analysis!in!SPSS!was!conducted!to!determine!which!independent!variables! were! the! most! important! drivers! of! satisfaction! for! supermarkets.290# Social#Value# 0.015! 0.#Regression#–#Fit#of#the#Model# We! collected! data! from! a! total! of! 151! respondents! (Sheng! Siong:! 61.306 .! and! this! could! be! determined! from! the! Variance! Inflation! Values! (VIF).210! 0.# COLLINEARITY# STATISTICS# Tolerance# VIF# 0.016! 0.239 internal store environment + 0.!! ! INDEPENDENT# VARIABLES# UNSTANDARDIZED# STANDARDIZED# COEFFICIENTS# COEFFICIENTS# Beta# Beta# Customer# Service# 6!0.169! 0.!It!was!important!for!us!to!check!that!all!items!were!more!closely!correlated!to!the! construct! that! we! were! measuring! compared! to! other! constructs.060! Store#Service# 0.208! 0.

831a! .024!respectively.!However.!overall!satisfaction!in!the!latent! construct!will!be!the!dependent!variable.!This!will!allow!us!to!determine!the!drivers!of!these!constructs!and!specify!the! key!areas!of!improvement!for!Sheng!Siong.!we!will!determine!drivers!of!all!significant!(p6value! ≤!0.! ‘Price’! and! ‘Social! Value’.!In!this!analysis.!our!recommendations!will!target!the!key!drivers!of!the!most! important!constructs!(based!on!beta!values!–!highlighted!in!blue!in!Figure!2).05)!constructs.! 0.!while!the!questions!pertaining!to!the!construct!are! the!independent!variables.! they! have! very! significant! p6values! of! less! than! 0.186.673# .01.#Error#of#the#Estimate# 1! .673.691! .!Subsequently.! ! 16 .210! and! 0.! ! Model# R# R#Square# Adjusted#R#Square# Std.! 0.!This!means! that!the!independent!variables!account!for!67.! with! p6values! of! 0.!adjusted!R!squared!value!was!0.3%!of!satisfaction.!‘Products’!and!‘Internal!Store!Environment’!were!the!most!important! drivers! of! satisfaction! as! they! have! the! largest! beta! values! of! 0.! Furthermore.015.!‘Convenience’.! Judging! from! the! p6 values.309! respectively.`! From!the!SPSS!results.!as!shown!in!Table!3.572! Table#3:#Adjusted#R#Squared#Value# Figure! 2! below! shows! the! drivers! of! satisfaction! for! supermarkets.! we! performed! additional! regression! analysis! on! the! latent! constructs! that! contributed! significantly! to! customer! satisfaction.! ! Figure#2:#Drivers#of#Satisfaction# ! Based! on! the! results! from! the! regression! of! the! overall! model.! Other! significant! drivers! were! ‘Store! Service’.016!and!0.

379.! a! sizable!part!of!the!variation!in!overall!satisfaction!of!convenience!depends!on!the!questions! asked.05.5!(refer!to!Appendix!7.!as!well!as!investing!in! larger!aisle!space.01.386! respectively.!Among!them.363!respectively.5!(refer!to!Appendix!7.! Products! that! are! value! for! money! and! price! promotions!are!the!highest!contributors!to!satisfaction.!Accessibility!had!a!beta!of!0.!Table!7.! ! v)#Key#drivers#of#overall#satisfaction#of#convenience# Based! on! the! adjusted! R! square! value! that! exceeds! 0.! with! p6values! less! than! 0.! Sheng!Siong!should!advertise!its!246hour!outlets!more!vigorously.! The! most! important! contributor! to! overall! satisfaction!of!store!service!is!a!short!check!out!time.! Having! fresh! perishable! goods.!As!such.6).!In!particular.!accessibility!and!generous!opening!hours!were!highly!significant.! # iii)#Key#drivers#of#overall#satisfaction#of#products# Adjusted! R! square! in! the! model! for! products! is! more! than! 0.`! i)#Key#drivers#of#overall#satisfaction#of#store#service! The!adjusted!R!Square!of!the!model!is!more!than!0.! Table! 7.!which! indicates!that!the!items!have!a!considerable!impact!on!price.1).!A!pleasant!smell!and!sufficient!room!for!navigation!in!the!supermarket!were! highly! significant.5!(refer!to!Appendix!7.2).!Table!7.! offer! value! for! money.4).!! ! iv)#Key#drivers#of#overall#satisfaction#of#internal#environment# The!adjusted!R!square!value!of!the!model!is!larger!than!0.!to!improve!customer!satisfaction!in!this!area.430.! Sheng! Siong! should! continue! enhancing! its! products’! value6for6money! and! conduct!promotions!to!retain!customer!satisfaction!and!behavioral!loyalty!in!this!area.!having!many!brands!available!and!always!having!products! in6stock!have!the!highest!beta!values.! Reorganization! of! the! store!layout!of!its!fresh!seafood!and!other!products!to!reduce!smell.! hence! the! model! is! a! good! fit! in! measuring! in! overall! satisfaction! of! internal! store! environment.267! and! 0.5).! indicating! that! the! model! is! a! good! fit.!will!improve!customer!satisfaction.! telling! people! that! they! shop! at! the! store! and! shopping! together! with! friends! and! family! at! the! ! 17 .!as!their!p6values! are!less!than!0.! attractive! price! promotions! and! loyalty! point! system! are! highly! significant.!with!beta!values!of!0.! carrying! premium! products.! Table! 7.! with! beta! values! of! 0.!with!p6 values!less!than!0.!Sheng!Siong!should!focus!on!decreasing!check!out!time.!while!opening!hours!that!catered!to! people’s!needs!had!a!beta!of!0.!with!a!beta!value!of!0.5!(refer!to!Appendix!7.!0.5! (refer! to! Appendix! 7.3).! indicating! that! the! model! is! a! good! fit.! Having! people! see! them! shop! at! the! store.01.! having! large! variety! of! brands! for! all! products! and! always! having! products!in6stock!are!highly!significant!to!satisfaction!of!products!offered.! ! ii)#Key#drivers#of#overall#satisfaction#of#pricing# The!adjusted!R!square!for!pricing!is!more!than!0.!Table!7.5! (refer! to! Appendix! 7.305!and!0.344!and!0.!To!improve! store!service.! ! vi)#Key#drivers#of#overall#satisfaction#of#social#value# The!adjusted!R!square!value!of!the!model!is!larger!than!0.!Products!that!are!affordable.01.!It!can!be!deduced!that! always!having!stocks!available!is!very!important!to!customers.377! respectively.!which! implies!that!the!model!is!a!good!fit.!Only!checkout!time!and!multiple!modes!of!payment!are! significant! as! their! p6values! are! less! than! 0.!Table!7.483.

2#PERCEPTUAL#MAP# Figure#3:#Perceptual#Map# ! The! perceptual! map! above! is! a! visual! representation! of! respondents’! perception! of! the! 4! main!competitors!in!the!supermarket!industry.! Thus.! FairPrice.`! store!are!important!contributing!factors!contributing!to!high!level!of!social!value.! Giant! and! Sheng! Siong! are! positioned! closer! to! one! another! as! compared! to! Cold! Storage.!0.!with!beta! values!of!0.430.!Therefore!Sheng!Siong!should!consider!ways! in!which!customers!will!experience!high!social!value!when!they!shop!at!the!store.1.434!respectively.!! ! 18 .! Based! on! the! relative! distances! between! each! supermarket.! products! and!convenience!as!the!top!3!determinants!of!overall!customer!satisfaction.!It!shows!which!supermarkets!are!perceived! to! be! similar! and! which! compete! against! each! other.!! ! 7.383.!and!0.! and! are! considered! to! be! direct! competitors.! brand!switching!is!more!likely!to!occur!between!products!offered!by!these!3!supermarkets.! ! vii)#Overall#recommended#improvements# Given! that! the! first! round! of! regression! has! yielded! internal! store! environment.2.!we!recommend! that! Sheng! Siong! focus! on! the! key! drivers! of! satisfaction! in! these! 2! latent! constructs! to! achieve!the!most!increase!in!satisfaction!with!resources!spent.

!it!is!positioned!closest!to!the!origin!on!all!the!other!5!dimensions.! convenience! and! internal!store!environment!(“Clean”!and!“Well6lit”).! quality! (“Fresh”).! good! service! and! well6lit! suggest! that! these! attributes! are! highly! related!i.! However.! This! is! reflected! in! our! focus! group! where! participants! noted! that! Sheng! Siong’s!products!were!relatively!cheaper!than!that!of!other!supermarkets.!as!compared!to!its!competitors.!which!indicates! that! customers! perceive! it! to! be! lacking! in! service.!we! also!noticed!from!our!observational!studies!that!Sheng!Siong!offers!household!appliances.! and! also! more! house! brands! than! its! competitors.!!! ! The!table!below!shows!a!summary!of!customers’!strength!of!perception!of!the!7!important! dimensions:! ! ! The! angle! between! attribute! lines! also! contains! important! information.! Sheng! Siong! is! viewed! by! customers! as! the! supermarket!that!provides!the!most!value!for!money!for!its!products!and!widest!variety!of! products! because! it! is! the! furthest! from! the! origin! of! the! “Value! for! Money”! and! “Wide! Variety”! lines.! clean.!attributes!contributing!to!the!internal!store!environment!are!important!factors! that!affect!customer!satisfaction.!Furthermore.! live! seafood.! The! small! angles! between! fresh.! For! instance.!! ! ! 19 .e.! which! suggests! that! they! have!a!wide!variety!of!products.`! ! One!important!insight!that!the!map!illustrates!is!that!it!identifies!how!every!supermarket!is! perceived! on! each! attribute.

! For! instance.33 5.8 5.62 4.7)!showed!that!the!difference!in!means!on!satisfaction!scores!for!products!and! internal! store! environment! were! indeed! very! significantly! different.!when!compared!to!other!supermarkets.98 4.! 4.2 5.3 5.!but!we! can!control!the!smell!in!the!supermarket!to!create!a!more!pleasant!experience.!We!did!not!benchmark!the!social!and! emotional!value!constructs!as!these!involve!how!customers!perceive!others!to!judge!them! and! how! they! feel! about! shopping! at! supermarkets.! with! very! close! performance! scores!except!for!the!satisfaction!of!products!and!internal!store!environment.! which! are! beyond! our! control.23 CS 5.85 4.85! for! ‘Convenient’.!Sheng!Siong’s!ratings!are! generally!lower!than!the!other!supermarkets!in!all!aspects.3#BENCHMARKING# ! From!our!SPSS!regression!analysis.3 5.2.17 5.13 4.!As!seen.67 4.!Hence.11 GIANT 4.! while! the! rest! of! the! ! 20 .!! ! ! SS 4.!More!importantly.62! ‘Products’!and!4.!To!see!how!well!Sheng!Siong!is! doing!for!all!the!drivers!as!compared!to!its!competitors.97 5.3 5.!Sheng!Siong!is! seen!to!be!underperforming!on!these!two!aspects.`! 7.17 5.! The! results! (refer! to! Appendix!7.!we!came!up!with!the!benchmarking! chart!in!Chart!1.!‘Products’!and!‘Internal!Store!Environment’.1.13 4.! 4.!Sheng!Siong! fared! the! lowest! for! all! three! main! drivers! of! satisfaction.33 5.7 4.!We!conducted!means!testing!for!these! two! supermarkets! based! on! the! independent! samples! test! on! SPSS.57 Chart#1:#Benchmarking#Chart# The! chart! depicts! Giant! as! Sheng! Siong’s! closest! competitor.77 NTUC 5.!we!discovered!that!the!main!drivers!of!satisfaction!were! ‘Convenience’.!our! benchmarking!chart!only!includes!constructs!that!are!within!our!control.11!for!‘Internal!Store!Environment’.17 5.47 5.46 4.!we!cannot!control!whether!an!individual!enjoys!shopping!in!supermarkets.

! The! average! score! from! Sheng!Siong’s!performance!on!the!76point!Likert!scale!were!used!to!plot!the!corresponding! value!on!the!x6axis!of!‘Performance’.`! constructs! were! not! significantly! different.01.!However.!Sheng!Siong!must!improve!in!these!two!aspects.! 7.!Giant.! ! 21 .! a! comparison! to! competitors! in! the! industry! reveals!that!Sheng!Siong!lags!behind!other!supermarkets!in!this!aspect.2.#Overall#Performance#Importance#Chart## ! Chart#2:#Performance#Importance#Chart#for#Overall#Satisfaction# From! Chart! 1.!as!seen!from!both!the!benchmarking!chart!and!its!performance!compared! to!the!rest!of!the!constructs.!Beta!values!from!overall!drivers!of!customer!satisfaction! of! all! 4! supermarkets! were! used! for! the! y6axis! of! ‘Importance’.!our!group!plotted!the!overall!performance!importance!chart!for!Sheng! Siong!as!seen!in!the!figure!below.1.! we! see! that! ‘Internal! Store! Environment’! is! a! very! significant! driver! of! satisfaction!and!is!of!high!importance.4#PERFORMANCE#IMPORTANCE#CHART# ! For!further!analysis.05!and!those!that!are!‘Very!Significant’!where!p6value!is!less!than!0.!To!help!Sheng!Siong! achieve!targeted!improvement.! ! The! horizontal! dotted! lines! are! used! to! distinguish! factors! that! are! ‘Significant’! where! p6 value!is!less!than!0.!we!delve!into!further!analysis!to!evaluate!specific!areas!in! these!constructs.!! A.! we! can! conclude! that! in! order! to! be! better!than!its!closest!competitor.! As! such.!! ! Although! Sheng! Siong’s! performance! for! the! constructs! ‘Products’! and! ‘Convenience’! is! relatively! higher! than! the! other! constructs.!Sheng!Siong!is!seen!to!be!underperforming! in!this!construct.

#Internal#Store#Environment## ! ! Chart#2:#Performance#Importance#Chart#for#Internal#Store#Environment# (See#Appendix#6#for#table#of#values)# ! As! seen! from! Chart! 2.! The! cleanliness! and! smell! of! a! store! often! comes! hand! in! hand.! ! ! 22 .! ‘Pleasant! smell’! is! the! main! contributing! factor! as! to! why! Sheng! Siong’s!poor!performance!in!internal!store!environment.!Consequently.!Sheng!Siong!is!underperforming!for! this!highly!important!and!very!significant!item.! hence! Sheng! Siong! should! also! work! on! the! store’s! cleanliness.`! B.! which! is! also! not! performing!well!despite!being!significant!and!relatively!important.!this!attribute!will!be!the!main! focus! in! our! recommendations.

!Sheng!Siong!can!work!on!bringing!in!greater!variety!of!brand!selections!in!order! to!remain!competitive.!its!performance!for!premium! products! is! very! low! despite! it! being! a! highly! significant! area.! such! as! having! a! wide! variety! of! brands.!However.!it!can!be!inferred! that! it! is!performing! well!in! areas! of! importance.! high!in6stock!probability!and!supplying!fresh!goods.! ! ! 23 .`! C.!At!the! same!time.! Although! it! is! not! rated! as! highly! as! the! other! areas! in! terms! of! importance.#Products## ! Chart#3:#Performance#Importance#Chart#for#Products## (See#Appendix#6#for#table#of#values)# ! Based!on!the!performance!importance!chart!for!products!in!Sheng!Siong.! premium! products! nevertheless! have! a! significant!impact!on!the!perception!of!its!product!range!and!customer!satisfaction.

! This!has!resulted!in!a!dip!in!overall!customer!satisfaction!in!convenience.`! D.#Convenience## ! ! Chart#4:#Performance#Importance#Chart#for#Convenience# (See#appendix#6#for#table#of#values)# ! The! performance! importance! chart! for! convenience! of! Sheng! Siong! reveals! that! people! value! opening! hours! that! are! catered! to! their! needs.! It! is! evident! that! Sheng! Siong! understands!the!importance!of!this!area.! However.!since!it!is!currently!increasing!its!range!of!246hour! outlets! around! Singapore.!! ! ! 24 .! Sheng! Siong! has! neglected! two! very! significant! and! relatively!important!areas:!high!accessibility!and!convenient!entrance!and!exits!to!car!parks.

!Cold!Storage!has!the!highest!NPS!of!20%.! the! Promoters! and! Passives! have! 100%! loyalty! towards! Sheng! Siong.!Also.! which!is!a!good!sign.! This! suggests! that! customers! of! Sheng! Siong! may! spread! negative! word6of6 mouth.!This!is!worrying!because! bulk! of! the! Sheng! Siong! customers! are! unlikely! to! promote! the! store.!which!make!up!more!than!half! (51%)!of!the!respondents.1.2.!only!16%!of!the!Detractors.! Below!are!the!results!for!Sheng!Siong.! ! Since!NPS!is!a!leading!indicator!of!future!performance.!This!shows!that!Cold!Storage! customers!will!be!more!willing!to!recommend!Cold!Storage!to!their!friends!and!family.! It! is! a! leading! indicator! of! how! well!the!supermarket!will!perform!in!future.!Sheng!Siong!definitely!has!much!to! work! on! in! creating! customer! loyalty! and! retaining! regular! shoppers! so! as! to! improve! its! current!performance!in!the!industry.!! ! 25 .!which!is!an!indication!that!Sheng!Siong!may!not!perform!as!well!as!its!competitors!in! future.5#NET#PROMOTER#SCORE#(NPS)# ! # SHENG#SIONG# NTUC#FAIRPRICE# COLD#STORAGE# GIANT# Promoters# 34%! 47%! 50%! 30%! Passives# 15%! 17%! 20%! 30%! Detractors# 51%! 37%! 30%! 40%! NPS## (%#Promoters#E# %#Detractors)# E17%# 10%# 20%# E10%# Table#4:#Net#Promoter#Score# Table!4!shows!the!results!of!the!Net!Promoter!Score!(NPS)!from!our!survey!question!“I!will! recommend! ____! Supermarket! to! my! friends! and! family”.! it!is!an!indication!that!Cold!Storage!shoppers!are!more!loyal!to!the!store!and!will!continue!to! shop!there!in!the!future.!and!it!has!more!detractors!than! promoters.!However.! ! To!further!analyze.`! 7.! and! even! more! unlikely!to!shop!at!Sheng!Siong!in!the!future.!! ! On!the!other!hand.!are!willing!to!stay!loyal!to!Sheng!Siong.!Sheng!Siong!has!the!lowest!NPS!of!617%.! ! # NPS# Loyalty# Promoters# 34%! 100%! Passives# 15%! 100%! Detractors# 51%! 16%! Table#5:#Customer#Loyalty# As! seen! in! Table! 5.! ! Based!on!the!results.!we!had!a!question!to!assess!customer!loyalty!by!asking!respondents!in! the! survey! if! they! would! continue! to! shop! at! the! respective! supermarkets! in! the! future.

! Because! our! sample! is! not! randomized.! For! respondents! who! have! not! been! to! Sheng! Siong! for! an! extended! period! of! time.! which! might! become! more! severe! with! time.! At! the! end! of! each! survey.# ! 26 .! their! responses! lack! comparison.2 NON-SAMPLING ERROR ! We!have!identified!four!types!of!response!bias!that!might!be!present!in!our!survey!results!as! follows:! ! 1.!a! respondent! who! strongly! favours! Sheng! Siong! will! hold! the! opinion! that! Sheng! Siong! excels!in!all!constructs!that!contribute!to!customer!satisfaction.1 SAMPLING ERROR Since!we!used!convenience!sampling!in!the!collection!of!our!survey!responses. ChoiceEsupportive#bias#(Halo#Effect)# Such!bias!might!occur!when!respondents!already!have!a!preference!for!and!loyalty!to!a! certain!supermarket!and!therefore!hold!the!impression!that!their!preferred!supermarket! is!superior!to!its!competitors!in!all!aspects.! participants! may! be! embarassed! to! admit! that! they! enjoy! visiting! Sheng!Siong!as!Sheng!Siong!is!generally!associated!with!heartlanders!or!aunties.!For!example.!! 8.! With! this! additional! reference! points.!even!if!the!reality!is!not!so.! 8.! and! are! therefore! not! relative! in! any! way.! where! respondents! were! asked! to! compare! Sheng! Siong! with! the! other! supermarkets! (comparison! is! present).! 2.!the!sample! that!we!obtained!for!our!survey!may!not!be!representative!of!the!population.! their! responses! might! introduce!inaccuracies!into!the!results.! there! is! the! possibility!that!a!systematic!bias!exists!in!our!data. LIMITATIONS 8.! As! the! respondents!only!complete!the!survey!on!one!out!of!the!four!supermarkets!in!the!research.! the! responses! may! be! affected! and! can! be! different! from! the! responses! that! were! provided! in! the! earlier! part! of! the! survey! (the! parts! without! comparisons).!which!could! have! affected! our! sample! accuracy.! when! we! conducted! our! in6depth! interviews! and! focus! group.3 OTHER LIMITATIONS One! other! limitation! can! arise! from! the! way! the! surveys! were! conducted.! there! are! attribute6modeling! questions. Recall#error# Such! bias! might! occur! when! respondents! have! forgotten! their! true! impression! of! the! supermarket.`! ! 8.! For! instance. Social#desirability#bias# Such! bias! might! occur! when! respondents! respond! favourably! according! to! what! they! think! the! researchers! want.!! 3.

!(2011.!Retrieved!from! http://news.discovery.! Hence.!Currently.! different!coloured!LED!lights!can!be!used!to!enhance!the!perception!of!freshness!of!the!food! –!for!example.!which!can!be!pungent!to!some!customers.!some!of!Sheng!Siong’s!stores!have!segmented! their! wet! market! and! supermarket! segments! by! placing! them! on! different! floors! of! the! supermarket.! The!usage!of!LED!light!will!be!able!to!address!this!problem!as!LED!light!is!brighter.! customers’! negative! perception! of! Sheng! Siong’s! fresh! products! might! be! due! to! its! dirty! internal! store! environment.!customers!perceive!Sheng!Siong!to!be!not!as!well6lit!as!compared!to!its!competitors.! this! layout! does! not! apply! to! all! of! Sheng! Siong’s! outlets.`! 9.! Sheng! Siong! can! better! manage! the! internal! store! environment.!as!the!smell!of! fresh!seafood!will!not!be!lingering!in!every!corner!of!the!Sheng!Siong!stores.com/human/led6lights6grocery6shopping6110308.!and!yellow!or!green!lights!for!fruits!and!vegetables.! However.!For!displays!of!fresh!foods.!Mar!08).!red!lights!for!red!meats.!Sheng!Siong’s!stores!are!fitted!with!dim!white!lights.!As!shown!in!our!perceptual! map.!! ! 2.!we!recommend!for!Sheng!Siong! to! use! transparent! covers! to! mask! the! smell! from! the! fresh! seafood! segment! of! the! supermarket.! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 7 !LED!lighting!makes!food!look!more!appetizing. RECOMMENDATIONS 8.1 INTERNAL STORE ENVIRONMENT Based! on! our! performance! importance! chart.! The! original! practice! of! keeping! the! food! fresh! need! not! be! changed! –! an! additional!measure!should!be!in!place!to!prevent!the!smell!of!fresh!seafood!from!engulfing! the!store.!Secondary! research! has! suggested! that! different! coloured! LED! lightings! have! the! ability! to! lure! customers!and!give!the!impression!of!a!cleaner!environment7.!! ! In!order!to!further!improve!the!internal!store!environment.! Sheng! Siong! should! increase! the! consistency! of! their! store! layouts! and! segment! their! wet! market!and!supermarket!segments!for!all!stores.!but!only!in!the! wet!market!segment!of!the!stores.! and! more! importantly! keep! the! supermarket! segment! cleaner! for! young! adults! who! frequent! Sheng! Siong! for! convenience! goods! and! not! fresh! seafood.htm! ! 27 .! This! can! greatly!improve!the!perception!of!cleanliness!in!the!minds!of!younger!adults.#SEPARATE#THE#WET#MARKET#SEGMENT#AND#THE#SUPERMARKET#SEGMENT## By! separating! the! two! segments.! We! have! identified!two!options!that!Sheng!Siong!can!explore!to!improve!this!perception:! ! 1.#REPLACE#CURRENT#STORE#LIGHTINGS#WITH#BRIGHT#LED#LIGHT# Currently.

#START#AN#ONLINE#AND#MOBILE#SHOPPING#PLATFORM# Sheng! Siong! can! consider! following! in! the! footsteps! of! their! competitors.!the!items!that!are!on!promotion.!! 8.! 3.!As!such.#PROPER#DRAINAGE# In! addition.!Sheng!Siong!can!therefore!consider!opening!outlets! ! 28 .! However.3 CONVENIENCE Convenience! is! one! of! the! most! important! drivers! for! satisfaction! for! supermarkets.! However.! hence! increasing!overall!customer!satisfaction.!Sheng!Siong!is!not!doing!well!in!this!aspect!and!can!improve!in!many!areas.! proper! drainage! can! be! built! around! the! fresh! seafood! segment! to! prevent! spillage!of!water.! Sheng! Siong! is! not! performing! well! in! this! aspect! as! shown! in! the! performance! importance! chart! (Chart! 3).!They!have!few! or!no!outlets!in!urban!and!CBD!areas.! ! 8.!but!will!also!prevent!the!shop! front!from!being!soiled!–!improving!the!store!overall.!Sheng!Siong’s!outlets!are!primarily!in!the!heartlands!of!Singapore.!a!mobile!shopping!application!for!smartphone!users!will! be! well! received.! Fairprice.!as!this!will!allow! Sheng! Siong! to! improve! their! performance! with! regards! to! products.! and! start! an! online! shopping! system! for! customers! in! order! to! increase! their!level!of!convenience.! Having! this! mobile! application! will! enhance! convenience! for! working! adults! and! young! people.! as! it! enables! customers! to! plan! their! purchases! beforehand!and!save!time!shopping!in!the!store.`! 3.!! ! As!smart!phones!are!widely!used.! 1.!This!would!not!only!demarcate!the!displays.2 PRODUCTS Our! survey! showed! that! premium! product! offerings! significantly! contribute! to! customer! satisfaction! in! the! product! construct.!! 2.!By!having!an!online!store!coupled!with!delivery!services.#INCREASE#THE#NUMBER#OF#STORES#IN#URBAN/CBD#AREAS# Currently.! a! list! of! Sheng! Siong!outlets.#INCREASE#AWARENESS#OF#EXISTING#24EHOUR#STORES# Although! almost! all! of! Sheng! Siong’s! stores! operate! 246hours.! We! recommend! Sheng! Siong!to!increase!their!variety!of!product!offerings!of!premium!products.!and!also!allow!customers!to!plan!and!create! their! own! shopping! list.!Sheng!Siong!should!promote!their!246hour!stores!more! actively!such!that!more!people!are!aware!of!their!246hour!operations.! thereby! improving! customers’!overall!customer!satisfaction.!which!affects!customers’!perceptions!of!convenience! because!people!who!spend!most!of!their!time!in!urban!or!CBD!areas!will!find!Sheng!Siong! hard!to!locate!and!hence!inconvenient.!Sheng! Siong! would! definitely! improve! its! performance! with! regards! to! convenience.! this! is! not! widely! known! amongst!their!customers.! This! mobile! application! can! include! a! product! catalogue.! Giant! and! Cold! Storage.

#INTRODUCE#EXPRESS#STORES# ! Sheng! Siong! can! also! move! into! new! retail! formats! by! introducing! Sheng! Siong! “expreSS”! stores! to! focus! on! convenience! and! cater! to! people! on! the! go.! Sheng! Siong! can! change! their! tagline! to! “246 Hour!Freshness”.!to!increase!awareness!of!their!246hour!operations!and!fresh!products.! ! ! 29 .! ! 8.! we!should!ensure!that!the!self!checkout!trolley!enable!a!variety!of!payment!modes.!! 1.!However.! such! as! a! self6checkout! trolley! to! check! products!out!as!the!customer!places!the!item!in!the!trolley!to!reduce!checkout!timings.5 TAGLINE To! emphasize! our! earlier! recommendations.!In! addition.! new! technology! can! be! implemented.`! in!more!urban/CBD!areas!to!cater!to!our!target!segment!of!youths.4 STORE SERVICE Based! on! our! regression! results! on! store! service.! ! 8.!since!the!number!of!modes!of!payment!is!a!key!driver!of!store!service!satisfaction.!this!may!be!because!our!survey!respondents!are!all! students.!and!this!may!skew!our!results.!which!are!not!Sheng!Siong’s!current!target!market.! having! short! check! out! time! is! the! main! driver!of!store!service!satisfaction.! In! these! expreSS! branches.! These! branches! can! be! located! in! urban! and! CBD! areas! to! boost! Sheng! Siong’s! convenience.!The!results!that!we!have! gathered! from! our! survey! showed! that! Sheng! Siong! fared! poorly! in! convenience! as! compared!to!its!competitors.

discovery.!Determination!of!Customer!Satisfaction!with! Supermarkets!in!Lithuania.! ! Sheng!Siong!(2011).!(2007).7! ! Sreedhara.!Antecedents!and!Consequences!of! Customer!Satisfaction!in!Food!&!Grocery!Retailing:!An!Empirical!Analysis.! ! Ganguli.2013.!Ten!Common!Misunderstandings.!&!Vijaya!Kumar.!V.com.!(2012).!45656.!S.! Dissertation:!Linguistics!Program!at!La!Trobe!University.!3(3).!60673.!J.!A.!Factors!Influencing!Store!Loyalty!6!A!Conceptual! Approach!On!Supermarkets.! IUP!Journal!Of!Marketing!Management.!&!Kumar..! 3(3).!11(4).!Key!Factors!Affecting!Customer! Satisfaction!with!Iranian!Retailer!Stores:!Evidence!from!Hypermarkets!and!Supermarkets.!(2010).!Considerations!When!Constructing!A!Semantic!Differential!Scale.!P.!J.!Misconceptions.!(2008).! ! Pileliene.!Global!Management!Review.`! 11.htm! ! Lu.!B.!4(2).!(2012).!doi:10.!Q.139261142.!B.!Retrieved!from! http://news.!Management!Of!Organizations:!Systematic!Research.!&!A.!S. REFERENCES Al6Hindawe!(1996).!S.!Persistent! Myths!and!Urban!Legends!about!Liker!Scales!and!Liker!Response!Formats!and!their! Antidotes.!Mar!08).!Decision!(03046 0941).com/human/led6lights6grocery6shopping6110308.!39(3).!About!Us..!&!Grigaliunaite.! ! LED!lighting!makes!food!look!more!appetizing.!Retrieved!from! http://www.!(2013).!Sahebalzamani.!International!Management!Review.!L..!C.7720/MOSR.!R.!1016140.!&!Perla.!(2007).!&!Sarabi.shengsiong.!1066116.!R.! ! Carifio.html! ! ! 30 ..!(2011.! ! Fazlzadeh.!K.!ICFAI!Journal!Of!Management!Research.! ! Jayasankaraprasad..!Guo.!Driving!Factors!behind!Consumer!Satisfaction:!a!Comparative! Study!on!Chinese!and!Foreign!Supermarkets!in!China..!7633.!7(12).!Journal!Of!Social!Sciences!(15493652).!X..!&!Babu.!996 114.sg/pages/About6Us.!37642...66.!Drivers!of!Customer!Satisfaction!and!Loyalty!in!Indian!Retail! Supermarkets:!An!Exploratory!Study.!(66).!R.

! Probably!doing!stocktaking! ! 31 .!! o At!the!daily!necessities!corner.!even!though!the!staff!was!busy!arranging!the!stocks.! the! staff! also! recommended!other!brands!of!facial!foams!that!were!on!promotion!to!her.! ! Staff#Service# • Whether!the!staff!is!happy!when!they!attend!to!people!who!ask!them!question! o Observed!3!staffs!that!were!being!approached!by!customers.!Generally!all!were! polite!when!attending!to!customers.! But! only! a! minority! of! them! approaches! the!staffs!(2!out!of!10!people!observed).!! o At!the!fresh!food!corner.!Most!staffs!were!packing!and!arranging!the!stocks.! Not! only! that.!the!staff!was!showing!the!customer!the!location! of! the! facial! foam! that! she! was! looking! for.!! o At!the!dry!goods!corner.!the!staff!was!explaining!to!the!customer!different!types! of!fish!that!were!available!and!how!to!cook!it.`! 12.#OBSERVATIONAL#STUDY#1# Date:!24!October!2013!(Thursday)! Location:!Commonwealth!Sheng!Siong! Unstructured! Customer#Service# • Whether!customers!approach!the!staff!! o Yes.OBSERVATION STUDY ! A.!! o Store!was!a!little!messy.! customers! do! approach! the! staff.! o Majority!of!the!customers!prefer!to!shop!slowly!and!look!around!for!items!from! the!shelves!on!their!own. APPENDICES APPENDIX 1 .!! ! Price#of#Products# • Whether!they!will!buy!more!of!products!on!promotion! o Many! customers! do! stop! and! look! at! the! promotion! signs! –! it! is! probable! that! they!make!purchases!based!on!promotions!available! ! Shop#Layout# • Whether!they!look!lost!when!shopping!in!the!store!! o Most!of!them!just!roam!around!slowly!to!look!for!items.!he! stopped!what!he!was!doing!immediately!when!the!customer!approached!him.

%% 2:21<30.%% 3:31<40.! Time%of% observation% 6:02!PM! 6:06!PM! 6:09!PM! 6:13!PM! 6:17!PM! 6:22!PM! 6:32!PM! 6:35!PM! 6:41!PM! 6:45!PM! 6:50!PM! Date%of% observation% 10/24/13! 10/24/13! 10/24/13! 10/24/13! 10/24/13! 10/24/13! 10/24/13! 10/24/13! 10/24/13! 10/24/13! 10/24/13! ! Structured F! F! M! F! M! F! F! F! M! F! F! Gender% (M/F)% 4! 3! 1! 2! 5! 5! 5! 3! 4! 4! 2! Age%% (1:%15<20.% %2:%casual)% 6:02!PM! 6:06!PM! 6:09!PM! 6:13!PM! 6:17!PM! 6:22!PM! 6:32!PM! 6:35!PM! 6:41!PM! 6:45!PM! 6:50!PM! Time%when% start%queuing% 6:05!PM! 6:08!PM! 6:11!PM! 6:15!PM! 6:21!PM! 6:27!PM! 6:33!PM! 6:39!PM! 6:42!PM! 6:48!PM! 6:53!PM! Time% before% payment% Table#6:#Observational#Study#1# N! N! Y! N! Y! N! N! Y! Y! Y! N! Pinch% their% nose?% (Y/N)% 6:06!PM! 6:09!PM! 6:13!PM! 6:17!PM! 6:22!PM! 6:29!PM! 6:35!PM! 6:40!PM! 6:45!PM! 6:49!PM! 6:54!PM! Time%done% with% payment% 3! 2! 2! 2! 4! 5! 1! 4! 1! 3! 3! Waiting%time% before% payment% (mins)% 1! 1! 2! 2! 1! 2! 2! 2! 3! 1! 1! Time%taken% to%check%out% (mins)% `! 32 .% 5:above%50)% 2! 2! 2! 2! 1! 2! 2! 2! 2! 2! 2! Attire% (1:formal.%% 4:41<50.

!! ! Shop#Layout# • Whether!they!look!lost!when!shopping!in!the!store!! o Customers!did!not!look!lost!in!the!store!and!they!were!able!to!locate!the!items! they!were!looking!for!quite!quickly.! but! when! they! do.#OBSERVATIONAL#STUDY#2# ! Date:!3!November!2013!(Sunday)! Location:!Bedok!Central!Sheng!Siong! ! Unstructured! Customer#Service# • Whether!customers!approach!the!staff!! o Customers! generally! do! not! approach! the! staff.! Only!1!customer!was!observed!to!be!having!difficulties!maneuvering!through!the! aisle!with!a!trolley.!Upon!entering!the!supermarket.! ! Price#of#Products# • Whether!they!will!buy!more!of!products!on!promotion! o 7!out!of!10!customers!observed!bought!multiple!packs!(at!least!2)!of!items!that! were!on!promotion.!the!staff!was!very!friendly!and!helpful!! o The! staff! at! the! fish! station! was! also! very! helpful.! answering! any! queries! that! customers!had!about!the!types!of!fish!without!hesitating.!! o The! aisles! were! wide! enough! to! fit! 2! trolleys! side! by! side! at! any! point! of! time.!2!customers! immediately! zoomed! in! on! their! desired! section! and! picked! up! the! items! that! they!were!looking!for.!! ! Staff#Service# • Whether!the!staff!is!happy!when!they!attend!to!people!who!ask!them!question! o At!the!vegetables!weighing!counter.! the! staff! is! more!than!happy!to!answer!the!queries!of!the!customers.`! B.! ! 33 .!such!as!cereal.!instant!coffee!and!fruit!juice.

%% 2:21<30.% %2:%casual)% 1:24!PM! 1:30!PM! 1:35!PM! 1:40!PM! 1:47!PM! 1:52!PM! 1:57!PM! 2:03!PM! 2:08!PM! 2:15!PM! 1:24!PM! Time%when% start%queuing% 1:28!PM! 1:32!PM! 1:38!PM! 1:43!PM! 1:50!PM! 1:55!PM! 1:59!PM! 2:05!PM! 2:12!PM! 2:17!PM! 1:28!PM! Time% before% payment% Table#7:#Observational#Study#2# N! N! N! N! N! N! N! N! N! N! N! Pinch% their% nose?% (Y/N)% 1:30!PM! 1:35!PM! 1:40!PM! 1:47!PM! 1:52!PM! 1:57!PM! 2:03!PM! 2:08!PM! 2:15!PM! 2:20!PM! 1:30!PM! Time%done% with% payment% 4! 2! 3! 2! 3! 3! 2! 2! 4! 2! 4! Waiting%time% before% payment% (mins)% 2! 3! 2! 4! 2! 2! 4! 3! 3! 3! 2! Time%taken% to%check%out% (mins)% `! 34 .%% 3:31<40.%% 4:41<50.! Time%of% observation% 1:24!PM! 1:30!PM! 1:35!PM! 1:40!PM! 1:47!PM! 1:52!PM! 1:57!PM! 2:03!PM! 2:08!PM! 2:15!PM! 1:24!PM! Date%of% observation% 11/03/13! 11/03/13! 11/03/13! 11/03/13! 11/03/13! 11/03/13! 11/03/13! 11/03/13! 11/03/13! 11/03/13! 11/03/13! ! Structured M! F! M! F! M! F! M! F! M! F! M! Gender% (M/F)% 5! 3! 4! 2! 2! 5! 4! 3! 4! 5! 5! Age%% (1:%15<20.% 5:above%50)% 2! 2! 2! 2! 1! 2! 2! 2! 1! 2! 2! Attire% (1:formal.

! ! A!summary!of!our!focus!group!responses!can!be!found!in!Table!8.!There!were!5! females!and!3!males.`! APPENDIX 2 .! emotional!attachment.! ! 35 .FOCUS GROUP RESPONSES Date:!23!September!2013.!promotions!and!loyal!rebates.! products.!internal!store!atmosphere.! ! Supermarkets!that!they!usually!frequent:! • NTUC!! • Cold!Storage! • Sheng!Siong! • Giant! Reasons! for! re6visiting! the! supermarket! they! frequent! included! convenience.!Monday! Time:!4!pm!–!5!pm! Venue:!Lee!Kong!Chian!School!of!Business!Class!Room!361!! Number#of#Participants:!8!! Description# of# Participants:! All! of! the! 8! participants! were! full6time! undergraduates! of! Singapore!Management!University!enrolled!in!varying!Bachelor!programmes.

checkout*counters* One.stop*shopping* GIANT! `! ! ! ! 36 .checkout*counters* Fresh** • Clean* Good* product* range.perishable* food*items* SHENG!SIONG! Description! of! shopping! • experience! • • • • ! • • • • • • • • • • • • • Youth* Expatriates* Caucasian** Presentably* customers* Fresh* Expensive* High.end* Premium* Quality** dressed* • • • • • • Has* express* queue* and* • self.fashioned* Sheng*Siong*Show* Chinese.checkout*counters* Fresh** Clean* Convenient* One.! Elderly* • Foreign*workers* • People* who* stay* in* the* • heartland*areas* Associated! consumer! • groups! with! regard! to! • each!supermarket! • * Elderly* Old.* especially* baking* and* more* sophisticated* goods* COLD!STORAGE! Fathers* Customers* who* would* prefer* to* stock* up* on* food*and*other*supplies* Wide*variety* Huge* Early*expiry*dates* Price*competitive* * * Has* express* queue* and* self.oriented* Traditional* Cheap* Homely* • Housewives* Aunties* Families*with*younger* children* Extensively* commercialized* Convenient* Fair*price* For*the*masses* Has*express*queue*and* self.stop*shopping* Reputable*name* NTUC!FAIRPRICE! Table#8:#Focus#Group#Findings# • • • • • • • • • Impression! of! the! • respective!supermarkets! • • • • • • • Encounters* Chinese* speaking*staff* Unpleasant*fish*smell* Dirty** Dim*lighting* Relatively* lower* price* range* Cheaper* non.

`! APPENDIX 3 – IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW ! Name:!Delilah! Age:!21! Occupation:!Student!in!SMU.! I!visit!7611!if!other!stores!are!closed.! I! normally! have! to! ask! for! directions!if!I!look!for!special!items. What#are#the#drivers#that#lead#you#to#visit#convenience#stores?# I!normally!visit!the!Cheers!that’s!outside!School!of!Business!since!it’s!the!nearest!place!that!I! can!find!snacks!(especially!since!break!is!15!mins).!and!always!get!their!cinnamon!rolls.!I!always!buy!the!Meiji!milk!as!it!always! has!a!price!promotion.!Accounting!student! Hobbies:!watching!drama.! such! as! different! kinds! of! cheese! and! smoked! salmon.!drives! Cold!Storage!–!seeks!premium!brands. Can#you#describe#this#person#(4#pictures#of#a#person#walking#into#Sheng#Siong.! ! My! family! and! I! go! to! Giant! in! Tampines! when! there! a! lot! of! groceries! to! be! bought.!family!person.! ! I!used!to!go!NTUC!frequently!with!my!parents.!I!recently!bought!an!umbrella! from!7611!at!Cathay!because!it!was!raining!and!I!could!not!get!to!school.!I!quite!like!their!selection!of!baked!goods.!values!fresh!food.!but!now!I!pop!in!only!when!I!need!to!buy! basic!goods!like!milk.# Giant.!or!when!I!am!in!a!rush.#and#Cold#Storage)# Sheng!Siong!–!economical.! ! 2.!playing!badminton.!the!second!level!is!quite!clean!but!the!aisles!are!narrow.! The! cold! area! smells! like! fish! as! well. What#are#the#first#2#words#that#come#into#your#mind#when#you#hear#“Sheng#Siong”?# Cheap! Auntie! ! 4.!buys!groceries.!lives!around!the!corner! Giant!–!looking!for!variety.! ! 3.!heartlander.! which!are!normally!not!available!at!the!other!supermarkets.! ! I! normally! shop! at! Cold! Storage! when! I! need! special! baking! items! such! as! crème! fraîche.!baking.#NTUC.!and!it!is!very!likely!that!we!can!find!the!goods!we!want!there.!looking!for!fresh!food! ! ! ! 37 .! We! normally!buy!non6perishable!items.! the! surroundings! are! quite! dirty. What#is#your#shopping#experience#in#SS/NTUC/Giant/Cold#Storage#like?#What#do#you# like#and#dislike#about#SS/NTUC/Giant/Cold#storage?# I’ve!only!gone!to!Sheng!Siong!in!Bedok!once!or!twice.!auntie.!enjoys!promotions! NTUC!–!budget.!and!the!staff!are!always!polite.!since!they!provide!delivery!if!the!total!bill!comes!up!to! around!$250.!reading!and!hanging!out!with!friends! # 1.!heartlander.!and!feel!that!while!there!are!quite!a! lot! of! promotions.! However.! It!is!very!big!as!well.!They!often!have!more!premium! items.

! which!is!also!near!my!house!but!more!expensive.! but! I! think! their! products! are! really! cheap! and! they! always! have! so! many! promotions!! My! mum! always! shops! at! Sheng! Siong! because! they! have! a! wider! variety! of! fresh! seafood! and! vegetables! compared! to! other! supermarkets.`! Name:!Sylvester! Age:!23! Occupation:!Student!in!SMU.!whereas!I!live!in!the! central!urban!area!of!Singapore.!If!it!is!located! nearer!to!my!house.! ! I’ve! only! been! to! Sheng! Siong! a! few! times! with! my! family! because! it’s! quite! far! from! my! house.!I!asked!one!staff!member!if!they!sold!a!particular!item!and!he! didn’t!even!know!what!product!I!was!referring!to.! he! discovered! that! it! was! not! in! stock! but! he! got! his! manager! to! explain!to!me!that!the!product!was!in!low!supply!due!to!the!monsoon!season.! When! I’m! in! school.! My! family! only! goes! there! when! they! want! to! do! heavy! grocery! shopping! for! specific! occasions.!I!would!definitely!visit!it!more!often.! ! I!shop!at!Cold!Storage!quite!often!too!because!even!though!it!is!more!expensive.!What!I!dislike!about!Fairprice!is!that!the! staff! is! not! very! knowledgeable! about! where! the! products! are! located! or! whether! the! products!are!in!stock.!Products!there!are!relatively!cheap!compared!to!Cold!Storage.! pots! and! pans.!I!also!have!the!nEbO!NTUC!card!which!gives!me!rebates.! ! 2.!I!also!visit!convenience!stores!more!often!because!they!are!closer!to!school/within! ! 38 .! They! also! sell! stuff! like! stationery! and! household! appliances! like! fans.! Even! thought! the! products! are! more! expensive! and! have! less! variety.!What!I!don’t!like!about!Giant!is!that!it’s!not!very!convenient!for!me.!as!he!did!not!understand!English.!it!has!an! organic!food!section!where!I!purchase!premium!items!such!as!quinoa!and!beans.!cooking. What#are#the#drivers#that#lead#you#to#visit#convenience#stores?# I!usually!visit!convenience!stores!when!supermarkets!have!not!opened!yet!or!are!closed!for! the! day.! which! is! quite! unhygienic.! They! also! have! the! Sheng! Siong! Show! which! my! mum! always! watches.!When!I!asked!the!staff!if!a!particular! product! was! in! stock.! But! I! find! that! Sheng! Siong! is! quite! dirty! and! smelly! because! they! place! the! vegetables! near! the! fish.! and! it! makes!my!shopping!experience!rather!unpleasant.!Once. What#is#your#shopping#experience#in#SS/NTUC/Giant/Cold#Storage#like?#What#do#you# like#and#dislike#about#SS/NTUC/Giant/Cold#storage?# I!shop!at!Fairprice!at!Novena!most!frequently!as!it!is!the!supermarket!closest!to!my!house.!shopping! # 1.!and!advised! me!to!come!back!in!a!few!weeks!time!to!purchase!it.! it! is! more! convenient! and! the! queues! are! usually! much! shorter! than! supermarkets.!they!have!a!rather!wide!variety!of!products!too!and!they!even!sell!bicycles.!so!I!use!it! everytime!I!shop!at!Fairprice.!Business!student! Hobbies:!running.! so!it’s!very!convenient.! ! I!hardly!visit!Giant!because!they!are!located!mostly!in!the!heartlands.!The!staff!is! also!more!knowledgeable!about!their!variety!of!items.!Based!on!my!impression!on!a!recent!visit!to!the!IMM!outlet! with!my!family.!I!felt!that!this!was!very!good!customer! service!that!I!have!not!seen!in!other!supermarkets.

#NTUC.!concerned!about!organic!food! ! ! ! ! 39 .`! school.!heartlander! Cold!Storage!–!city!dweller.!mothers.# Giant.!people!who!want!to!buy!live!seafood! Fairprice!–!the!average!person!who!wants!to!do!normal!grocery!shopping! Giant!–!someone!who!wants!to!do!heavy!grocery!shopping.#and#Cold#Storage)# Sheng!Siong!–!aunties. What#are#the#first#2#words#that#come#into#your#mind#when#you#hear#“Sheng#Siong”?# Heartlands.! ! 3.!cheap! 4. Can#you#describe#this#person#(4#pictures#of#a#person#walking#into#Sheng#Siong.! Majority! of! them! are! also! opened!246hours.! as! compared! to! supermarkets! which! are! further! away.!heartlander.

! ! Q1!The!staff!are!friendly! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! o ! o ! o ! ! Q2!The!staff!are!approachable! 1!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! 4! o ! o ! o ! 5! o ! o ! o ! ! o ! ! 7!(Strongly! Agree)! 6! o o o ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q3!The!staff!are!familiar!with!the!supermarket's!array!of!products! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! Q4!It!is!easy!to!communicate!with!the!staff! 1!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! o ! o ! o ! o ! o 7!(Strongly! Agree)! 6! ! o ! ! Q5!The!cashiers!are!efficient!in!checking6out!the!items! 1!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! 7!(Strongly! Agree)! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q6!Overall.!We!seek!your!participation!in!our!survey!on! local!supermarkets.!Thank!you!very!much.!Should!you! have!any!questions.!doing!a!project! for!our!MKTG103!Marketing!Research!module.! ! ! Customer#Service## Please!rate!the!following!items!with!respect!to!___________!Supermarket's!customer! service!on!a!76point!scale.!I!am!satisfied!with!the!supermarket’s!customer!service! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! ! 40 .`! APPENDIX 4 – SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Hello.!Your!valuable!inputs!will!be!of!great!assistance!to!us.!we!are!a!group!of!students!from!Singapore!Management!University.sg.2011@business.!and!7!indicates!Strongly! Agree.ng.!where!1!indicates!Strongly!Disagree.edu.smu.!please!do!not!hesitate!to!contact!Ng!Jing!Ying!at! jingying.!!This!survey!will! only!take!up!10!minutes!of!your!time!and!your!response!is!strictly!confidential.

!I!am!satisfied!with!the!supermarket's!store!service! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! ! ! 41 .!where!1!indicates!Strongly!Disagree.! ! Q7!The!supermarket!offers!multiple!modes!of!payment!at!checkout! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q8!Time!to!check!out!items!is!short! 1!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! 5! ! ! Q9!A!self6service!counter!is!available! 1!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! o o o ! o ! ! ! o ! ! o ! ! o ! 7!(Strongly! Agree)! 6! o o 7!(Strongly! Agree)! 6! 5! o o o ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q10!Overall.!and!7!indicates!Strongly!Agree.`! Store#Service## Please!rate!the!following!items!with!respect!to!___________!Supermarket's!store!service!on! a!76point!scale.

! ! Q11!The!products!are!affordable! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q12!The!products!offer!value!for!money! 1!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! 5! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! 7!(Strongly! Agree)! 6! o o o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q13!I!am!happy!with!the!supermarket's!price!promotions!(e.!where!1!indicates!Strongly!Disagree.`! Prices## Please!rate!the!following!items!with!respect!to!___________!Supermarket's!prices!on!a!76 point!scale.!and!7!indicates!Strongly!Agree.g.!I!am!satisfied!with!the!supermarket’s!pricing!of!products! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! # ! 42 .!sales/bundle!deals)! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! Q14!I!am!happy!with!the!supermarket's!rebates!programme! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! Q15!I!am!happy!with!the!supermarket's!loyalty!points!system! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! Q16!Overall.

!the!supermarket!is!convenient! 1!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! ! ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o 7!(Strongly! Agree)! 6! ! o ! o ! 43 .!and!7!indicates!Strongly!Agree.!where!1!indicates!Strongly!Disagree.`! Convenience## Please!rate!the!following!items!with!respect!to!___________!Supermarket's!convenience!on! a!76point!scale.! ! Q17!The!supermarket!is!easily!accessible! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q18!The!supermarket!has!convenient!entrance!and!exit!to!carparks! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! Q19!The!supermarket's!opening!hours!caters!to!my!needs! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! Q20!Overall.

!and!7!indicates!Strongly!Agree! ! Q21!The!supermarket!offers!fresh!perishable!goods! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q22!The!supermarket!carries!premium!products! 1!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! o ! o ! ! 7!(Strongly! Agree)! 6! o o o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q23!There!are!many!different!types!of!products!available!(e.!where!1!indicates!Strongly!Disagree.!electronics.!personal! care.!food.`! Products## Please!rate!the!following!items!with!respect!to!___________!Supermarket’s!products!on!a! 76point!scale.!I!am!satisfied!with!the!supermarket's!products! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! ! 44 .!etc.)! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! Q24!There!are!many!brands!available!for!all!types!of!products!in!the!supermarket! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! Q25!Products!are!always!in6stock! 1!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! o ! o ! o ! o ! 4! o ! o ! 5! o ! o ! 7!(Strongly! Agree)! 6! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q26!Overall.g.

!I!am!satisfied!with!the!supermarket's!internal!store!environment! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! ! 45 .! ! Q27!It!is!easy!to!navigate!in!the!supermarket! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q28!Products!are!easy!to!locate!in!the!supermarket! 1!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q30!The!supermarket!is!clean! 1!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! o ! o ! o o ! 4! ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q32!The!supermarket!is!well6lit! 1!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! o ! o ! ! o ! o ! ! o ! o ! o ! o ! 7!(Strongly! Agree)! ! o ! 7!(Strongly! Agree)! 6! o ! 7!(Strongly! Agree)! 6! 5! o o o 7!(Strongly! Agree)! 6! 5! 4! o ! 5! ! Q31!The!supermarket!smells!pleasant! 1!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! o o ! 7!(Strongly! Agree)! ! Q29!Products!are!displayed!in!an!orderly!manner.`! Internal#Store#Environment## Please!rate!the!following!items!with!respect!to!___________!Supermarket's!internal!store! environment!on!a!76point!scale.! 1!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! o o o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q33!There!is!sufficient!room!for!movement!within!the!supermarket! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! Q34!Overall.!where!1!indicates!Strongly!Disagree.!and!7!indicates! Strongly!Agree.

!the!supermarket!gives!me!a!high!social!value.!! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! ! 46 .! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q36!I!feel!good!when!I!tell!people!that!I!shop!at!the!supermarket.! ! Q35!I!feel!good!when!people!see!me!shop!at!the!supermarket.!and!7!indicates!Strongly!Agree.! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! Q37!I!shop!with!my!friends!and!family!at!the!supermarket.! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! Q38!Overall.!where!1!indicates!Strongly!Disagree.`! Social#Value## Please!rate!the!following!items!with!respect!to!___________!Supermarket's!social!value!on! a!76point!scale.

!and!7!indicates!Strongly!Agree.! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q40!I!enjoy!shopping!at!___________!Supermarket.`! Emotional#Value## Please!rate!the!following!items!with!respect!to!___________!Supermarket's!emotional!value! on!a!76point!scale.! 1!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q41!Overall.!where!1!indicates!Strongly!Disagree.! 0! 1! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! 7! 8! (Strongly! disagree)! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! 9! o ! 10! (Strongly! Agree)! o ! ! Q45!Will!you!continue!shopping!at!______!Supermarket?! o o Yes! No! ! ! 47 .! ! Q39!I!feel!relaxed!when!I!shop!at!___________!Supermarket.!I!am!emotionally!satisfied!with!! 1!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! o ! ! 7!(Strongly! Agree)! ! o ! 7!(Strongly! Agree)! 6! o o o ! o ! o ! o ! ! Q42!Overall.!I!am!satisfied!with!___________!Supermarket! 1!(Strongly! 7!(Strongly! Disagree)! 2! 3! 4! 5! 6! Agree)! ! Q44!I!will!recommend!______!Supermarket!to!my!friends!and!family.

`!

Q46!On!a!scale!of!1!to!10!(1=least!applicable,!10=most!applicable),!rate!the!following!
supermarkets!based!on!the!attributes.!
!
Sheng!Siong!
Cold!Storage!
Fair!Price!
Giant!
!
!
!
!
Clean!
!
!
!
!
Convenient!
!
!
!
!
Fresh!
!
!
!
!
Well6lit!
!
!
!
!
Value!for!money!
!
!
!
!
Good!service!
!
!
!
!
Wide!variety!
!
Q47!What!is!your!gender?!

o
o

Male!
Female!

!
Q48!What!age!group!do!you!belong!to?!

o
o
o
o
o

15620!
21630!
31640!
41650!
Above!50!

!
Q49!What!is!your!monthly!income!range?!

o
o
o
o

Less!than!$300!
$300!6!$600!
$600!6!$1000!
More!than!$1000!

!
Q50!How!often!have!you!visited!a!supermarket!in!the!past!1!month?!

o
o
o
o
!
!

!

0!times!
162!times!
365!times!
More!than!5!times!

!

48

`!

APPENDIX 5 – RELIABILITY & VALIDITY
!
Table#5.1:#Reliability#
!
Reliability#Statistics#(Customer#Service)!
Cronbach's!Alpha!

Cronbach's!

Alpha! N!of!Items!

Based!

on!

Standardized!Items!
.941#

.941!

6!

!
ItemETotal#Statistics#(Customer#Service)!
!
Scale! Mean! if! Scale! Variance! Corrected!
Item!Deleted!

if!

Item! Item6Total!

Squared!

Cronbach's!

Multiple!

Alpha! if! Item!

Deleted!

Correlation!

Correlation!

Deleted!

23.21!

22.870!

.785!

.716!

.934!

are! 23.20!

21.694!

.881!

.819!

.923!

The!staff!are!familiar!with! 22.89!

22.770!

.733!

.621!

.940!

20.489!

.868!

.764!

.924!

21.584!

.786!

.711!

.934!

21.248!

.888!

.820!

.921!

The!staff!are!friendly!
The!

staff!

approachable!
the! supermarket's! array!
of!products!
It!is!easy!to!communicate! 23.25!
with!the!staff!
The! cashiers! are! efficient! 23.18!
in!checking6out!the!items!
Overall,! I! am! satisfied! 23.05!
with! the! supermarket’s!
customer!service!
!

!

!

!

49

`!

Reliability#Statistics#(Store#Service)#
Cronbach's!Alpha! Cronbach's!

N!of!Items!

Alpha! Based! on!
Standardized!
Items!
.765#

.792!

4!

#
ItemETotal#Statistics#(Store#Service)#
!
Scale! Mean! Scale! Variance! Corrected! Item6 Squared!
if!

Item! if!Item!Deleted! Total!Correlation! Multiple!

Deleted!
The! supermarket! offers! 11.77!
multiple!

modes!

Cronbach's!
Alpha! if! Item!

Correlation!

Deleted!

9.180!

.601!

.422!

.689!

9.568!

.651!

.516!

.666!

9.461!

.410!

.183!

.818!

10.481!

.697!

.527!

.668!

of!

payment!at!checkout!
Time! to! check! out! items! 12.36!
is!short!
A! self6service! counter! is! 13.15!
available!
Overall,! I! am! satisfied! 11.95!
with! the! supermarket's!
store!service!
!
Reliability#Statistics#(Prices)!
Cronbach's!Alpha!

Cronbach's!Alpha!

N!of!Items!

Based!on!
Standardized!Items!
.913!

.913!

6!

!
ItemETotal#Statistics#(Prices)!
!
Scale!Mean!if! Scale!Variance!
Item!Deleted!
The!products!are!

Corrected!

Squared!

Cronbach's!

if!Item!

Item6Total!

Multiple!

Alpha!if!Item!

Deleted!

Correlation!

Correlation!

Deleted!

23.39!

29.476!

.781!

.795!

.894!

23.57!

28.115!

.806!

.851!

.890!

23.79!

28.204!

.852!

.806!

.883!

affordable!
The!products!offer!value!
for!money!
I!am!happy!with!the!the!
supermarket's!price!
promotions!(e.g.!
sales/bundle!deals)!

!

50

666! accessible! The!supermarket!has! 14.847! .394! .546! .912! .030! .976! .886# .677! .830! .902! 4! ! ItemETotal#Statistics#(Convenience)# Scale!Mean!if! Scale!Variance!if!Corrected!Item6 Item!Deleted! Item!Deleted! Total! Correlation! The!supermarket!is!easily! 14.541! .282! .!the!supermarket!is! 14.818! .890! 6! ! ItemETotal#Statistics#(Products)! ! Scale! Mean! if! Scale! Variance! Corrected! Item!Deleted! The! supermarket! offers! 21.`! I!am!happy!with!the! 24.869! .858! .804! convenient!entrance!and! exit!to!carparks! The!supermarket's! 14.908! 24.20! 9.80! 27.562! Cronbach's! Alpha!if!Item! Deleted! .926! 23.885! .734! .43! 10.64! 30.774! .816! .877! convenient! ! Squared! Multiple! Correlation! .597! .827! .560! .149! .832! Reliability#Statistics#(Products)! Cronbach's!Alpha! Cronbach's! Based! Alpha! N!of!Items! on! Standardized!Items! .685! .39! 9.890! 23.26! if! Item! Item6Total! Squared! Cronbach's! Multiple! Alpha! if! Item! Deleted! Correlation! Correlation! Deleted! 26.878! supermarket's!rebates! programme! I!am!happy!with!the! supermarket's!loyalty! points!system! Overall.769! opening!hours!caters!to! my!needs! Overall.650! .855! .74! 31.!I!am!satisfied! with!the!supermarket?s! pricing!of!products! ! ! Reliability!Statistics#(Convenience)! Cronbach's!Alpha! Cronbach's!Alpha! N!of!Items! Based!on! Standardized!Items! .870! fresh!perishable!goods! The! supermarket! carries! 22.13! 9.550! .57! premium!products! ! 51 .897! .

315! .! The!supermarket!is!clean! 29.89! types! of! available! .852! .723! .819! .732! .985! .767! .570! food.828! movement!within!the! supermarket! Overall.783! in!the!supermarket! Products!are!displayed!in! 28.! I! am! satisfied! 21.87! 66.705! .677! There!is!sufficient!room!for!28.549! .851! products! (e.942! .48! 64.!I!am!satisfied!with! 28.943! 8! ! ItemETotal#Statistics#(Internal#Store#Environment)# Scale!Mean!if! Scale!Variance!if!Corrected!Item6 Item!Deleted! Item!Deleted! Total! Correlation! It!is!easy!to!navigate!in!the! 28.80! 65.186! .928! ! ! ! ! ! # ! 52 .863! 22.! electronics.770! .57! 70.942! .766! an!orderly!manner.930! .861! .46! 69.987! .884! .882! .67! 62.932! .606! .935! .79! available! for! all! types! of! products! in! the! supermarket! Products! are! always! in6 21.933! .609! .31! stock! Overall.824! pleasant! The!supermarket!is!well6lit! 28.725! .482! .! personal! care.652! .884! the!supermarket's!internal! store!environment! Squared! Multiple! Correlation! .855! 24.`! There! are! many! different! 21.891! .43! with! the! supermarket's! products! ! ! Reliability#Statistics#(Internal#Store#Environment)# Cronbach's!Alpha! Cronbach's!Alpha! N!of!Items! Based!on! Standardized!Items! .g.)! There! are! many! brands! 21.57! 68.880! .846! The!supermarket!smells! 29.937! .836! .416! .!etc.! 22.744! supermarket! Products!are!easy!to!locate! 28.46! 69.866! 24.864! Cronbach's! Alpha!if!Item! Deleted! .737! .822! .936! .

755! .836! Squared! Multiple! Correlation! .908! ! # Reliability#Statistics#(Emotional#Value)# Cronbach's!Alpha! Cronbach's!Alpha! Based!on! Standardized!Items! .236! .902! 13.970! .967! .! I!enjoy!shopping!at!the! 8.967! N!of!Items! 3! ! # ItemETotal#Statistics#(Emotional#Value)# Scale!Mean!if! Item!Deleted! I!feel!relaxed!when!I!shop! 9.20! family!at!the!supermarket.! Overall.485! .930! 11.88! supermarket.03! gives!me!a!high!level!social! value.952! .13! at!the!supermarket.634! .257! .! ! 53 .!I!am!emotionally! 8.914! N!of!Items! 4! ! # ItemETotal#Statistics#(Social#Value)# Scale!Mean!if! Item!Deleted! I!feel!good!when!people! 13.974! 6.826! Scale!Variance!if!Corrected!Item6 Item!Deleted! Total! Correlation! 7.`! ! # Reliability#Statistics#(Social#Value)# Cronbach's!Alpha! Cronbach's!Alpha! Based!on! Standardized!Items! .832! Cronbach's! Alpha!if!Item! Deleted! .! Overall.757! .! Scale!Variance!if!Corrected!Item6 Item!Deleted! Total! Correlation! 12.656! .795! .37! see!me!shop!at!the! supermarket.910! .40! people!I!shop!at!the! supermarket.72! satisfied!with!the!store.894! Squared! Multiple! Correlation! .768! .983! .! I!shop!with!my!friends!and! 12.895! Cronbach's! Alpha!if!Item! Deleted! .912! .944! .966! .926! .870! 11.948! .964! 7.! I!feel!good!when!I!tell! 13.!the!supermarket! 13.

000! 61! ** .687 ! .000! 61! .325 ! .000! 61! ** .674 ! .!I!am! are! approachable!familiar!with! communicate!cashiers! satisfied!with! friendly! the! with!the!staff! are! the! supermarket's! efficient! supermarket’s! array!of! in! customer! products! checking6 service! out!the! items! ** ** ** ** 1! .820 ! .000! 61! .820 ! ! Correlations#(Store#Service)# The!supermarket!offers! Pearson!Correlation! multiple!modes!of! Sig.000! 61! ** .411 ! .000! 61! ** .820 ! .000! 61! ** .674 ! .839 ! .!(26tailed)! array!of!products! N! Pearson! It!is!easy!to! Correlation! communicate! Sig.000! 61! .597 ! .!(26tailed)! N! Pearson! The!staff!are! Correlation! approachable! Sig.800! .687 ! .000! 61! ** .549 ! .654! .597 ! 1! .000! 61! ** .000! 61! ** .340 ! .742 ! .549 ! 61! ** .000 61! ** 1 ! .000! 61! 1! .340 ! .000! 61! ** .000! 61! ** 1 ! .!I!am! satisfied!with!the! Correlation! supermarket’s! Sig.804 ! .411 ! ** .000! 61! ** .742 ! .000! 61! 1! .000! 61! .000! 61! 61! * ** .000! 61! 1! .000! 61! ** .325 ! .000! 61! ** .000! 61! ! 61! 61! ** .001! 61! 1! .721 ! .011! 61! ** .000! 61! ** .!I!am!satisfied! Pearson!Correlation! The! Time!to!check! supermarket! out!items!is! offers!multiple! short! modes!of! payment!at! checkout! ** 1! .!(26tailed)! available! N! Overall.!(26tailed)! short! N! Pearson!Correlation! A!self6service!counter!is! Sig.721 ! .733 ! .000! 61! .011! .000! 61! 61! ** .!(26tailed)! payment!at!checkout! N! Pearson!Correlation! Time!to!check!out!items!is! Sig.591 ! 61! ** .!I!am! counter!is! satisfied!with! available! the! supermarket's! store!service! * .007! 61! 1! 61! ** .000! 61! ** .721 ! .000! 61! ** .000 61! ** .671 ! .584 ! .000! 61! ** .000! 61! ** .000! 61! ** .Table#5.!(26tailed)! N! The!staff!are! Pearson! familiar!with!the! Correlation! supermarket's! Sig.804 ! ! 61! ** .!(26tailed)! items! N! Pearson! Overall.754 ! .671 ! A!self6service! Overall.007! 61! 61! ** ** .!(26tailed)! with!the!staff! N! The!cashiers!are! Pearson! efficient!in! Correlation! checking6out!the! Sig.721 ! .820 ! 61! ** .584 ! .733 ! .591 ! .!(26tailed)! customer!service! N! # # The!staff! The!staff!are! The!staff!are! It!is!easy!to! The! Overall.800 ! .000! 61! ** .2:#Convergent#Validity# Correlations#(Customer#Service)# Pearson! Correlation! The!staff!are! friendly! Sig.754 ! .000! 61! ** .654 ! .839 ! .

901 .000 .000 61 61 61 * * ** . (2- .438 ** . (2- promotions tailed) (e.001 . I with the with the with the am satisfied are s offer supermarke supermarke supermarke with the affordabl value t's price t's rebates t's loyalty supermarket e for promotions programme points ’s pricing of money (e.299 * .428 .868 ** .326 .019 .010 .000 .428 .825 ** Correlati on Sig.000 .437 ** .000 61 61 61 ** 1 tailed) N I am happy Pearson with the Correlati .000 .437 .000 61 61 61 61 ** 1 N e deals) I am happy with the supermarket 's rebates programme Pearson .000 .000 .000 61 61 61 61 1 ** ** . (2- for money tailed) N I am happy Pearson with the the Correlati 61 .000 61 61 .438 ** . system products sales/bundl e deals) Pearson The products are affordable 1 .000! 61! .299 . sales/bundl .g.544 .568 Correlati on Sig.884 ** .000! 61! .g.544 .845 .`! with!the!supermarket's! Sig.482 supermarket on ! ** 55 ** .868 ** supermarket on 's price Sig.845 .000 .000 61 61 61 61 61 1 ** ** * tailed) N Pearson The Correlati products on offer value Sig. (2- .001! 61! 61! ! Correlations (Prices) The The products product I am happy I am happy I am happy Overall.868 ** .828 .000 61 61 ** ** .901 ** .326 .000 .828 ** .!(26tailed)! store!service! N! .000 .000 .

!(26tailed)! accessible! N! The!supermarket!has! Pearson!Correlation! convenient!entrance!and! Sig.857 ! .884 .000 .000! 61! 61! 61! .014! 61! .000! 61! 61! 61! ** ** ** .!(26tailed)! perishable!goods! N! 61! ! The! The! The! supermarket!is! supermarket! supermarket's! easily! has!convenient! opening!hours! accessible! entrance!and! caters!to!my! exit!to!carparks!needs! ** ** 1! .000! 61! 56 . Correlation is significant at the 0.000! 61! ** .000 .!food.01 level (2-tailed).000! .000 .000 . # Correlations#(Convenience)# Pearson!Correlation! The!supermarket!is!easily! Sig.`! 's loyalty Sig.000 61 61 61 61 61 61 **.680 ! .010 .748 ! .000! 61! ** .000! 61! 1! 61! # The! The! There!are! There!are! Products! supermarket!supermarket!many! many! are! offers!fresh! carries! different! brands! always! perishable! premium! types!of! available!for! in6stock! goods! products! products! all!types!of! available! products!in! (e.000! .000! 61! 61! 61! ** ** .373 ! .!I!am! satisfied!with! the! supermarket's! products! * .748 ! .000 .!supermarket! personal! care.05 level (2-tailed).868 .000! .568 .726 ! 1! .343 ! . (2’s pricing of tailed) products N .!etc.482 am satisfied Correlati on with the supermarket Sig.857 ! .g.003! 61! .628 ! .!(26tailed)! my!needs! N! Pearson!Correlation! Overall.315 ! .000! .)! * ** ** 1! .508 ! .665 ! . (2- points tailed) system N Overall.000! .825 .!the!supermarket! Sig.!the! supermarket!is! convenient! ** .000! 61! # Overall.!(26tailed)! exit!to!carparks! N! The!supermarket's! Pearson!Correlation! opening!hours!caters!to! Sig.000! 61! 61! 61! ** ** .! the! electronics. I Pearson .508 ! .007! 61! .680 ! . *. Correlation is significant at the 0.000 61 61 61 61 61 61 ** ** ** ** ** 1 .665 ! 1! .726 ! .019 .689! Pearson! The!supermarket! Correlation! offers!fresh! Sig.!(26tailed)! is!convenient! N! # # # Correlations#(Products)# Overall.001 .

000! 61! ** .511 ! 1 ! .! supermark environmen et! t! ** ** ** ** ** Pearson! 1! .000! .000! 61! .000! .745 ! .000! 61! ** ** ** ** ** .000! 61! .000! 61! ** .000! an!orderly! tailed)! manner.! N! personal!care.003! 61! .343 ! .000! the! .000! .000! supermarke tailed)! 61! 61! 61! 61! t! N! 61! 61! 61! 61! ** ** ** Pearson! .511 ! .601! .014! 61! ** .689 ! .`! Pearson! The!supermarket! Correlation! carries!premium! Sig.784 ! .744 ! ! 61! ** .378 ! .! etc.784 ! 1! .921 ! .000! .!(26 .647 ! .000! .!(26tailed)! products! N! There!are!many! Pearson! different!types!of! Correlation! products!available! Sig.315 ! 1! .!(26tailed)! (e.!(26 .686 ! .000! 61! ** .000! .600 ! .000! 61! ** .! 61! 61! 61! 61! N! 61! 61! 61! 61! ! 57 .000! .000! .611**! It!is!easy!to! Correlati navigate!in! on! the! Sig.601! .603 ! .000! .660**! Products! Correlati are! on! displayed!in! Sig.000! .000! 61! .603 ! .541**! .628 ! .567**! .000! .000! 61! .000! 61! .000! 61! 61! .682! .!I!am! satisfied!with!the! Correlation! supermarket's! Sig.000! .000! .000! 61! ! 61! # Correlations#(Internal#Store#Environment)# # # # # It!is!easy! Products! Product The! The! The! There!is! Overall.! electronics.000! 61! ** ** ** ** ** ** .679 ! Products! Pearson! .003! .493 ! .000! 61! ** .000! 61! .655 ! .373 ! 61! ** .!(26tailed)! products!in!the! N! supermarket! Pearson! Products!are! Correlation! always!in6stock! Sig.601 ! .007! 61! .000! .493 ! .455! .000! 61! 1! .579 ! .624 ! .!(26tailed)! N! Pearson! Overall.000! 61! 61! .520 ! .000! supermarke tailed)! t! 61! 61! 61! 61! N! 61! 61! 61! 61! ** ** ** ** ** 1! .744 ! .000! .745 ! 1! .620**! are!easy!to! Correlati locate!in! on! Sig.000! 61! .000! 61! ** .g.697 ! .000! 61! ** .744 ! .655 ! .000! .697 ! .000! 61! .744 ! .520 ! .627 ! .)! There!are!many! Pearson! brands!available! Correlation! for!all!types!of! Sig.!food.!I! to! are!easy! s!are! supermark supermark supermark sufficient! am!satisfied! navigate! to!locate! display et!is!clean! et!smells! et!is!well6 room!for! with!the! in!the! in!the! ed!in!an! pleasant! lit! movemen supermarke supermark supermark orderly! t!within! t's!internal! et! et! manner the! store! .!(26 .921 ! .!(26tailed)! products! N! * ** ** * .000! 61! ** 1 ! .686 ! .

000! .! supermarket.000! .604**! 61! 1**! 61! .624 ! 1! .000! 60! 60! ** .000! 60! 60! ** ** .000! .893 ! .000! .611 ! .000! 60! 60! ** ** .000! .707**! .`! Pearson! Correlati The! on! supermarke Sig.000! ! .863**! .! N! I!feel!good!when!I!tell! Pearson!Correlation! people!I!shop!at!the! Sig.000! 60! 60! ** 1! .000! .000 61! ** .833 ! .! ** 1! .000! 61! ** .000! 61! 61! 61! 61! 61! 61! 61! 61! ** ** .000! .627 ! 61! 61! ** ** .! level!social! value.584 ! 61! .833 ! .000! .000! .788 ! 1! .!the!supermarket! Pearson!Correlation! gives!me!a!high!level! Sig.000 .000! .000! .693 ! 61! .865**! .865**! .759 ! 1! .000! .! N! I!feel!good! I!feel!good! when!people! when!I!tell! see!me!shop!at!people!I!shop! the! at!the! supermarket.!(26 t's!internal! tailed)! store! environmen N! t! ** ** ** .759 ! .898 ! 61! 1**! 61! .604**! 61! .000! 60! 60! I!shop!with!my! Overall.000! 61! ** .703**! 61! .679 ! .703**! 61! .000! .000! .!I! Pearson! am!satisfied!Correlati with!the! on! supermarke Sig.778**! 61! 1**! 61! .596 ! .003! .!(26tailed)! supermarket.778**! 61! .584**! .! N! I!shop!with!my!friends! Pearson!Correlation! and!family!at!the! Sig.693**! .596 ! .000! .660 ! .000 .567 ! .!(26 t!is!clean! tailed)! N! Pearson! Correlati The! supermarke on! Sig.494 ! .000! ** ** .000! ! 61! 61! 61! 61! 61! 61! 61! 61! # Correlations#(Social#Value)# I!feel!good!when!people! Pearson!Correlation! see!me!shop!at!the! Sig.814! .! ** ** .620 ! .!(26tailed)! supermarket.000! .000! .000! .000! .!(26 t!smells! pleasant! tailed)! N! Pearson! Correlati The! on! supermarke Sig.601 ! 61! ** .788 ! .000! .000! 60! 60! ** .! N! Overall.!(26tailed)! social!value.000! .000! .000! .647 ! .000! 60! 60! # ! 58 .000! .000 .814 ! .000! .541 ! .378 ! 61! ** .!(26tailed)! supermarket.600 ! 61! 61! ** ** .455 ! 61! 61! ** ** .000! ! .707**! .579 ! 61! ** .898**! .!the! friends!and! supermarket! family!at!the! gives!me!a!high! supermarket.494 ! .893 ! .!(26 within!the! tailed)! supermarke N! t! Overall.!(26 t!is!well6lit! tailed)! N! There!is! Pearson! sufficient! Correlati room!for! on! movement! Sig.000! 60! 60! ** ** .000! .682 ! .000! ! .863**! 1**! .

952 ! .! supermarket.000! .! N! Pearson!Correlation! Overall.952 ! 1! .`! Correlations#(Emotional#Value)# Pearson!Correlation! I!feel!relaxed!when!I!shop!at! Sig.000! 60! 60! 60! ** ** .932 ! .! N! ! ! I!feel!relaxed! I!enjoy!shopping! Overall.000! .000! 60! 60! 60! ** ** .!I!am!emotionally! Sig.!(26tailed)! the!supermarket.000! 60! 60! 60! ! 59 .! ** ** 1! .838 ! 1! .838 ! .! N! Pearson!Correlation! I!enjoy!shopping!at!the! Sig.000! .!(26tailed)! supermarket.!I!am! when!I!shop!at! at!the! emotionally! the!supermarket.!(26tailed)! satisfied!with!the!store.932 ! .! satisfied!with!the! store.

49 ** ** ** .019 .544 .484 .000 .464 .00 (2- . progra system of array -out er produc of the service ts produc item ney sales/b mme undle y deals) Pear 1 son The produc ts are afforda ble .491 .000 0 money tailed ) N I am Pear happy son with Corr 61 .396 .828 61 * .000 .000 .002 .438 ** .828 ** king custom ts .642 .825 ** ** .428 . for (2- .868 61 61 61 61 61 1 ** ** * ** .000 61 61 61 61 61 . I am e staff staff easy cash .`! Table#5.44 ** ** ** .000 61 61 61 61 61 .845 .326 .000 .656 ** the the elatio super ! n 60 ** .000 .004 .549 .00 .000 . .605 61 .000 .868 9 ** .493 ** s . I am ucts duc with with with satisfie sta are are to iers satisfie are ts the the the the d with are d with affor offe super super super the dabl r e market market market valu 's price 's 's super ff approa familiar comm are chable with unicat effici the frie the e with ent super super the in market market staff chec ’s market ndl e promot rebate loyalty ’s for ions s points pricing 's mo (e.619 ** ** Corr elatio n Sig.360 ** .00 0 .516 ** 61 .000 0 tailed ) N Pear 61 .534 ** ** .000 .000 .010 .g.86 8 .53 8 .000 .884 * son The * 1 .622 ** ** Corr produc elatio ts offer n value Sig.583 .84 * 5 ** 61 61 61 61 1 ** ** ** .3:#Discriminant#Validity# Correlations The The I am I am I am Overall Th The The It is The Overall prod pro happy happy happy .437 .299 * .000 .

000 .019 61 .616 ** ** .001 .615 0 61 .000 .52 61 61 ** .000 0 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 produc N ts ! .001 61 61 61 61 61 1 .000 .000 61 61 .00 0 . sales/b undle 61 61 * .001 .432 .702 ** ** satisfie Corr d with elatio the n super Sig.32 .00 0 61 61 .344 ** .000 .000 .000 1 61 61 61 61 * . s (2- loyalty tailed points ) system N Overall Pear .427 .415 0 * .000 61 61 * .01 ** ** .568 .000 market’ (2s tailed pricing ) of .415 ** 61 61 ** .g.532 .000 61 61 .000 .00 8 .530 ** ** .006 .88 ** ** ** * 4 .568 ** .901 ** .000 0 promot tailed ions ) (e.53 ** ** ** .000 .001 . s (2- rebate tailed s ) progra mme N I am Pear happy son with Corr the elatio super n market' Sig.001 .000 .000 .00 .868 .299 6 .000 61 61 .438 .43 * 7 61 61 ** 1 61 61 61 ** . .00 .000 .345 ** .590 ** 61 .000 .000 . I am son .000 .000 .000 .504 .478 . s price .00 0 .901 61 61 ** .`! market' Sig.007 .43 .825 ** .482 61 ** 3 .000 (2- .00 .000 .482 0 .001 61 61 .000 .000 61 .584 61 N deals) I am Pear happy son with Corr the elatio super n market' Sig.428 ** 61 61 ** 1 .544 .

004 .491 .534 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 62 .721 ** ** .605 ** .430 ** .000 .493 son The staff are approa chable 61 61 61 61 61 * .000 .820 ** .549 ** .742 ** 1 .674 ** ** familiar elatio with n the Sig.721 ** .000 61 61 61 61 1 ** ** .000 .46 ** ** ** ** * 4 .000 .733 61 61 61 1 ** .001 .590 ** 1 .000 .000 . .000 .427 ** .804 ** ** Corr elatio n Sig.00 2 .001 .51 * 6 61 61 61 61 61 ** .532 ** 61 .007 .00 .533 ** 1 .39 ** ** ** ** * 6 .000 .000 .654 . super (2- .006 .000 0 tailed ) N Pear 61 .72 61 61 61 61 61 produc N ts Pear It is easy to commu nicate with the staff son .000 0 market' tailed s array ) of 61 61 * .687 .528 ** .742 ** 61 . .00 0 .800 ** ** Corr elatio n Sig.360 61 61 61 61 61 * .449 ** .478 ** 61 61 .000 .000 61 61 0 tailed ) N ! .000 .000 (2- .001 .000 .733 .54 ** 9 .345 .415 .344 ** .001 .000 61 61 .000 .000 .49 * 1 .820 ** .00 .000 .000 .00 . .432 .415 .00 0 .000 friendly (2- .000 .000 0 tailed ) N The Pear staff son are Corr 61 .754 ** ** Corr The elatio staff n are Sig.000 .000 .82 0 .001 .591 .`! Pear .538 son * .000 .00 .820 ** 61 .484 .000 (2- .

000 .05 level (2-tailed).615 ** ** .000 (2- . *.674 .000 .62 ** ** ** ** * ** 2 .000 .839 ** ** Corr elatio n Sig.504 ** .01 level (2-tailed).702 4 .000 .800 . Correlation is significant at the 0.000 .530 .839 1 0 tailed ) N Overall Pear .00 .58 * 3 .000 0 tailed custom ) er service N 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 61 **.00 .549 son 61 .75 ** ** ** .000 61 61 61 61 61 61 . ! 63 61 .00 0 .00 0 . .619 61 61 61 61 61 * . I am .000 .804 ** ** satisfie Corr d with elatio the n super Sig.`! The cashier s are efficien t in checki ng-out the items Pear son * . Correlation is significant at the 0.000 .616 .000 .642 ** .000 . .656 .000 market’ (2s .65 4 .000 .591 ** .000 61 61 .000 .584 ** .721 ** 1 .000 .000 .687 ** .