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**For the design of a control system, it is important to understand how the system of interest
**

behaves and how it responds to different controller designs. The Laplace transform, as

discussed in the Laplace Transforms module, is a valuable tool that can be used to solve

differential equations and obtain the dynamic response of a system. Additionally, the Laplace

transform makes it possible to obtain information relating to the qualitative behavior of the

system response without actually solving for the dynamic response. The poles and zeros of a

system, which are the main focus of this module, provide information on the characteristic

terms that will compose the response. This is very useful because it allows a control system

designer to understand how the design parameters can be manipulated to obtain acceptable

response characteristics. Using a graphical trial and error approach called the root-locus

design method, the designer can alter the design parameters to values that lead to an

acceptable response and then verify the design by solving for the time response of the system.

This module is a continuation of the Laplace Transforms module and provides an introduction

to the concept of Transfer functions and the poles and zeros of a system.

(This command loads the functions required for computing Laplace and Inverse Laplace transforms)

Transfer Functions

A transfer function

is defined as the following relation between the output of the system

and the input to the system

.

... Eq. (1)

If the transfer function of a system is known then the response of the system

found by taking the inverse Laplace transform of

can be

. It is also important to note that

**a transfer function is only defined for linear time invariant systems with all initial conditions
**

set to zero.

If the input to the system is a unit impulse (

), then

... Eq. (2)

Therefore, the inverse Laplace transform of the Transfer function of a system is the unit

impulse response of the system. This can be thought of as the response to a brief external

disturbance.

**Example 1: Transfer function of a Spring-mass system with viscous
**

damping

**Problem Statement: The following differential
**

equation is the equation of motion for an ideal

spring-mass system with damping and an

external force

**Find the transfer function.
**

Fig. 1: Spring-mass system with damping

Solution

Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the equation of motion gives

This equation can be rearranged to get

Therefore, the transfer function for this system is

then the system response is (1.1.1. .1.1.The system response can be found be taking the inverse Laplace transform of . If and the input is a step function .2) Example 2: Transfer function of a DC Motor (with MapleSim) Problem Statement: A DC motor is modeled using the equivalent circuit shown in Fig.1) (1. 2.

It should be noted that the electric constant and the motor constant are equal to each other when . 2: DC Motor model This example demonstrates how to obtain the transfer function of a system using MapleSim. an inductor and a "back EMF" voltage source. The torque on the rotor is proportional to the armature current and can be expressed as where is a constant of proportionality called the torque constant.Find the transfer function relating the angular velocity of the shaft and the input voltage. Fig. The back EMF depends on the rate of rotation and can be expressed as where is a constant of proportionality called the electric constant and is the angular speed. Analytical Solution The equivalent circuit consists of a voltage source which is the input. a resistor.

The Laplace transform of this equation is .. (3) The dynamic equation for the rotor is where is the moment of inertia of the rotor and b is the damping constant.. Eq. The dynamic equation for the circuit is where is the input voltage. The Laplace transform of this equation is ... Eq. is the resistance of the resistor and is the inductance of the inductor. (3) and (4) and eliminating yields This equation can be rearranged to obtain the required transfer function: . (4) Combining Eqs.expressed in the same units ( .

Solution using MapleSim Constructing the model Step 1: Insert Component Drag the following components into the workspace: Table 1: Components and locations Compon ent Location Signal Blocks > Common Electrical > Analog > Sources > Voltage Electrical > Analog > Common Electrical > Analog > Common Electrical > Analog > Common Electrical > .

Analog > Common 1-D Mechanical > Rotational > Common 1-D Mechanical > Rotational > Common 1-D Mechanical > Rotational > Common 1-D Mechanical > Rotational > Sensors Step 2: Connect the components Connect the components as shown in the following diagram: .

Press Ctrl+G to create the subsystem. 2. Return to the subsystem component diagram and enter these variables for the corresponding parameters of the components. 3. Highlight all the components. 5. . For example. 4. click the Resistor component and enter for the Resistance ( ) in the Inspector tab. Click the output of the Angle Sensor component and connect it to the dashed line that represents the boundary of the subsystem. 3: Component diagram Step 3: Create a subsystem 1. Name the subsystem DCMotor and click OK. Create the parameters as shown below. excluding the Step component.Fig. 7. 4: Parameters 6. Fig. Double click the subsystem and click Add or Change Parameters in the inspector tab.

5: Subsystem Obtaining the system equations 1. 6. . 4.SV1_n_v(t). i(t) and u(t) respectively. Rename I2_phi(t). Scroll down to the bottom of the work sheet and execute the following commands to obtain the system transfer function. 7. Click Reassign Equations.Fig. This will launch a Maple window. 2. 5. v(t). In the launched worksheet. These are the dynamic equations for the subsystem and are assigned to the variable DAEs. Click the Create attachment from template icon ( ). Select Equations from the list and click Create Attachment. w(t). I2_w(t). select the DCMotor subsystem in the drop-down menu for Step 1: Subsystem Selection and then click Load Selected Subsystem. Scroll down to Step 2: View Equations. Under DAE Variables rename the variables to simplify the equations. emf1_p_i(t) and u1(t) as phi(t). 3.

(5) The zeros are and the poles are Identifying the poles and zeros of a transfer function aids in understanding the behavior of the system. This shows that the negative poles contribute exponential ..This function has three poles. For the generalized transfer function . Eq. 6: System Transfer Function This transfer function matches the one obtained analytically. two of which are negative integers and one of which is zero. For example. this transfer function can be written as and its time response (with a unit impulse input) can be found to be . consider the transfer function . Using the method of partial fractions. Poles and Zeros Zeros are defined as the roots of the polynomial of the numerator of a transfer function and poles are defined as the roots of the denominator of a transfer function..Fig.

however. These examples illustrate that the location of the poles on a complex plane can help obtain a qualitative understanding of characteristics of the time response. This allows us to further conclude that the response will be unstable because it will continuously grow with time due to the positive pole. This function also has three poles. two of these are complex. the negative pole will contribute a term that decays with time and the positive pole will contribute a term that grows with time. This shows that the complex poles contribute sinusoidal terms and result in oscillations in the system response.terms that decay with time and that the pole at 0 contributes a constant term. Using the method of partial fractions. and plotted on the complex plane (or the s- . The following plot shows the time response of . we can now conclude that the pole at 0 will contribute a constant term. If we take another transfer function. The following plot shows the poles of the transfer functions of plane). Response Plot Now consider the transfer function . without solving for the solution. this can be written as and the time response (with a unit impulse input) can be found to be . for example .

. The following plot shows the transient response of a system with two real poles for a unit-impulse input and a unit-step input.5 and the other can be dragged on the real axis to see the effect on the response.(2.1) The interactive plots given below can be used to better understand the effect of pole locations on a system's response. One of these poles is fixed at -0.

. These poles can be dragged on the s-plane to see the effect on the response. The poles and zero can be dragged on the s-plane to see the effect on the response.The following plot shows the transient response of a system with a real pole and a pair of complex poles for a unit-impulse input and a unit-step input. The response of the system without the zero is also included for comparison. The following plot shows the transient response of a system with a real zero and a pair of complex poles for a unit-impulse input and a unit-step input.

Unit impulse response plots for some different cases This subsection contains some more plots that show the effect of pole locations and help illustrate the general trends.The effect of zeros are not covered in detail in this module. Dynamic response plots Transfer function pole locations . it is important to note that the step response of a system with a pole is a combination of a step and an impulse response of the system without the pole: The step response of the transfer function can be written as This can be expanded to get The first term on the RHS is an impulse response and second term is a step response. however.

Comparison of: Response plot Poles plot Comparison of: Response Plot Poles plot .

Comparison of: Response Plot Poles plot Comparison of: .

Response Plot Poles plot Comparison of: Response Plot Poles plot .

Comparison of: Response Plot Poles plot .

7 shows the general rule of how the location of the poles on the s-plane effects the time response of a system.Fig. .

2006. 2008.F. 2. 3rd Edition. Franklin et al. Pearson Education. D. NJ. Upper Saddle River. Pearson Education. Inman. Inc. "Engineering Vibration". NJ. 7: The s-plane References: 1. J. . G. Inc.Fig. "Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems". 5th Edition. Upper Saddle River.

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