10/2/2010

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1

10/2/2010

Introduction
RF people work in either

RF Planning
Responsibilities

RF Optimization
Responsibilities

‰ Nominal Plan Design
‰ Sites Survey
‰ Validation from field
‰ Set RF design (Structure, Azimuth,
Height, Tilt, Cables type)
‰ Frequency
q
y Plan
‰ Sites Acceptance

‰ Maintain the Network‘s Accessibility KPIs
‰ Maintain the Network’s Retain ability KPIs
‰ Maintain the Network’s Service Integrity KPIs
‰ Study and Apply new features
‰ Try to think of innovative solutions to
maximize the Network capacity
p y

¾They have to provide the coverage either
outdoor or indoor.

¾They have to maintain the performance of
the Network as good as possible.

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10/2/2010

‰ Course Outlines
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Planning Process and Procedures.
Di
Dimensioning
i i P
Process.
Site Tuning.
Technical Site Survey.
Neighbors and Frequency Planning.

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3

10/2/2010

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GSM System Survey Revision
‰ GSM stands for “ Global System for Mobile Communication”

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Second Generation for Mobile System.
System
Digital System.
Efficient Use of the Spectrum.
Speech privacy and security.
Better resistance to interference (Introducing the frequency Hopping)
Efficient use of the power battery (Introducing the power control)
GSM Networks are called “PLMN: Public Land Mobile Networks” i.e. the
Radio
ad o Sites
S tes are
a e located
ocated on
o land,
a d, not
ot using
us g satellites.
sate tes

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10/2/2010

GSM System Survey Revision

GSM System can work in different bands as follows:
Frequency Band-Down Link

Frequency Band-Up Link

GSM 800

869 Æ 894 MHz

824 Æ 849 MHz

E-GSM (Extended GSM)

925 Æ 935 MHz

880 Æ 890 MHz

P-GSM 900

935 Æ 960 MHz

890 Æ 915 MHz

GSM 1800 (DCS)

1805 Æ 1880 MHz

1710 Æ 1785 MHz

GSM 1900 (PCS)

1930 Æ 1990 MHz

1850 Æ 1910 MHz

– DCS: Digital Cellular System


PCS: Personal Communication Services.

But what do we mean by frequency Band?
What is the DL and UL?
Why DL is higher than UL band?

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GSM System Survey Revision

Frequency Band
– The range of frequencies which the operator is allowed to use for transmission
and reception.

Down Link and Up link bands
– DL band is the range of frequencies used by the Base station when
transmitting to the MS while the UL band is the range of frequencies used by
the Mobile station when transmitting to the Base Station.

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GSM System Survey Revision

Why DL band is higher than the UL band?
– As freq then attenuation with air
– Since Power BaseStation
then it is wise to configure the higher
B
St ti > Power MobileStation
M bil St ti
frequencies that will be attenuated fast to the side that is using higher power.

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GSM System Survey Revision
• Access Techniques
Æ What do we mean by Access techniques?
These are the Techniques through which many MSs can access the shared media
which is the air interface.
interface
i.
FDMA ( Frequency Division Multiple Access)
‰ Each MS is assigned a dedicated frequency through which he can talk.
ii.

TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
‰ All MSs are using the same frequency but each of them will be utilizing
it only over a certain period of time called Time Slot (TS)
Æ In GSM System we’re using TDMA over FDMA where the frequency band
is divided into no. of frequencies each of which is shared among no. of
MSs, where each MS will be assigned a certain TS on certain
frequency.

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10/2/2010

GSM System Survey Revision

For PP-GSM (GSM 900
900))
– UL Band 890MHz Æ 915MHz, DL Band 935MHz Æ 960MHz
– Each Band is 25 MHz
– Guard Band between DL and UL is 20 MHz
– Duplex Distance = 45 MHz
– Carrier separation = 200 KHz
– No. of frequencies = 124
Downlink 935 – 960 MHz

Uplink 890 – 915 MHz
200 KHz
890 2
890.2

1

2

890
1

890 6
890.6
3

4

121
121 122 123 124
915

890.4

935.2
2

935

U li k
Uplink

935.6
3

Downlink

4

F (MHz)

121 122 123 124
121

960

935.4

F (MHz)

GSM 900 Frequency Allocation
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GSM System Survey Revision

For the all GSM Bands
System

P-GSM 900

E-GSM 900

GSM(DCS)
1800

GSM(PCS)
1900

Uplink (MS Æ BS)
Downlink(BSÆ MS)

890 – 915 MHz
935 – 960 MHz

880 – 915 MHz
925 - 960 MHz

1710 – 1785 MHz
1805 - 1880 MHz

1850 – 1910 MHz
1930 - 1990 MHz

Wavelength

≅ 33 cm

≅ 33 cm

≅ 17 cm

≅ 16 cm

Bandwidth

25 MHz

35 MHz

75 MHz

60 MHz

Duplex distance

45 MHz

45 MHz

95 MHz

80 MHz

Carrier separation

200 kHz

200 kHz

200 kHz

200 kHz

No. of carriers

124

174

374

299

Channel rate

270.8 kbps

270.8 kbps

270.8 kbps

270.8 kbps

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10/2/2010

GSM System Survey Revision

GSM Network Architecture

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GSM System Survey Revision
• Core Network (NSS:
NSS: Network Switching System)
System
Æ MSC (Mobile Switching Center)
‰ Routing/Switching
R ti /S it hi off calls
ll b
between
t
2 end
d users within
ithi th
the GSM N
Network.
t
k
‰ Charging & Billing.
‰ Service Provision.
‰ Access to PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network)
‰ Act as a Gateway for other networks
‰ Controls no. of BSCs connected to it.

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GSM System Survey Revision
Æ HLR (Home Location Register)
‰ Centralized Network data base stores and manages all mobile subscriptions.
‰ Example: IMSI, MSISDN, MSRN, Services subscribed/restricted for that user.
Æ VLR (Visitor Location Register)
‰ It is co-located with the MSC.
‰ Stored in it a copy of the user’s profile on temporary basis.
Æ AUC (Authentication Center)
‰ Provides the HLR with the authentication parameters and ciphering Keys used
by the
t e MSC/VLR
SC/
to authenticate
aut e t cate center
ce te user.
use (Triplets:
( p ets RAND,, SRES,
S S, Kc)
c)
Æ EIR (Equipment Identification Register)
‰ Used to authenticate the user equipment through the IMEI.
IMEI = International Mobile Equipment Identification
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GSM System Survey Revision
• BSS (Base Station System)
Æ BSC (Base Station Controller)
‰ It controls the air interface, it takes the decisions based on the reports came
from the MS and BTS
BTS.
‰ Channel Allocation.
‰ Controls the Handover Process.
‰ Dynamic Power Control.
‰ Frequency Hopping.
Æ BTS (Base Transceiver Station)
‰ It is the Hardware equipment needed to provide the radio coverage
coverage.
‰ Speech Coding/Channel Coding/Interleaving/Ciphering/Burst
formatting/Modulation all these are done within the BTS (RBS=Radio Base
Station)
‰ Equipment: Cabinet, jumpers, feeders, combiners, antennas.

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GSM System Survey Revision
• MS (Mobile Station)
Æ Mobile Equipment
‰ Transmit the radio waves.
‰ Speech
S
h coding
di and
dd
decoding.
di
‰ Call control.
‰ Performance measurement of radio link.
Æ SIM card (Subscriber Identification Module)
‰ Stores user addresses (IMSI, MSISDN, TMSI).
‰ Stores authentication key Ki, authentication algorithm A3 and ciphering
algorithm A8&A5
‰ Stores the subscribed services.

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GSM System Survey Revision
• Over the Air Interface
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Frequency Band is divided into no. of frequencies.
Each frequency is divided into 8 Time slots (TS)
E h user will
Each
ill b
be assigned
i
d 1 TS.
TS
One time slot =156.25 bits
1 Bit duration=3.69 µsec
Time slot duration =156.25x3.69 µsec= 0.577 msec
1 Frame = 8 TSs
Frame duration=0.577x8= 4.615 msec
Bit rate on the air interface is 270 Kbps, but for each user it is 33.8 Kbps

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10/2/2010

GSM System Survey Revision
• Physical Channels vs. Logical Channels
Æ Physical channel: Time slot is called the physical channel.
Æ Logical
L i l channel:
h
l It is
i the
th content
t t that
th t will
ill be
b sentt over the
th physical
h i l channel.
h
l

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GSM System Survey Revision
• Logical Channels
Logical Channels

Control Channels

Traffic Channels
Half Rate

Full Rate

Broadcast

Common

Dedicated
Fast Associated Control Channel

Frequency Correction Control Channel

Paging Channel

S
Synchronization
Channel
C

A
Access
Grant
G t Channel
Ch
l

Cell Broadcast Control Channel

Broadcast Control Channel

Random Access Channel

Slow Associated Control Channel
Standalone Dedicated Control Channel

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10/2/2010

GSM System Survey Revision
• Traffic Channels
Æ Full Rate Channels (FR)
‰ Carries user’s speech traffic or user data DL and UL.
‰ Each user is assigned 1 TS.
TS
‰ Transmission rate is 13 Kbit/s.
Æ Half Rate Channels (HR)
‰ Carries user’s speech traffic or user data DL and UL.
‰ 2 users will share 1 TS (physical channel), each of them will be utilizing it
each frame.
‰ Transmission rate is 6.5
6 5 Kbit/s
Logical Channels

Control Channels

Traffic Channels
Half Rate

Full Rate

Broadcast

Dedicated

Common

Fast Associated Control Channel

Frequency Correction Control Channel Paging Channel
Access Grant Channel
Synchronization Channel
Broadcast Control Channel

Cell Broadcast Control Channel

Random Access Channel

Slow Associated Control Channel
Standalone Dedicated Control Channel

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GSM System Survey Revision
• Control Channels
Æ These are used to carry signaling or synchronization data, they’re divided into
three types:
‰ Broad Cast Channels (BCH)
‰ Common Control Channels (CCCH)
‰ Dedicated Control Channels (DCCH)

Logical Channels

Control Channels

Traffic Channels
Half Rate

Full Rate

Broadcast

Common

Frequency Correction Control Channel Paging Channel
Access Grant Channel

Synchronization Channel
Broadcast Control Channel

Random Access Channel

Dedicated
Fast Associated Control Channel
Cell Broadcast Control Channel
Slow Associated Control Channel
Standalone Dedicated Control Channel

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10/2/2010

GSM System Survey Revision

i.

BCH (Broad Cast Control Channels)
Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH)
‰ Pure signal is transmitted to help the MS to lock on the frequency of the BTS
and synchronize
y
to its frequency.
q
y ((DL channel))
ii. Synchronization Channel (SCH)
‰ Carries the TDMA frame number.
‰ BSIC (Base Station Identification Code) of the cell. (DL Channel)
iii. BCCH (Broad Cast Control Channel)
‰ LAI (Location Area Identity)
‰ Cell parameters (used power, Idle mode parameters,…..etc)
‰ List
st o
of BCCH
CC ca
carries
es o
of tthe
e neighbor
e g bo ce
cells.
s ((DL C
Channel)
a e)
Logical Channels

Control Channels

Traffic Channels
Half Rate

Full Rate

Broadcast

Dedicated

Common

Fast Associated Control Channel

Frequency Correction Control Channel Paging Channel
Access Grant Channel
Synchronization Channel
Broadcast Control Channel

Cell Broadcast Control Channel

Random Access Channel

Slow Associated Control Channel
Standalone Dedicated Control Channel

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GSM System Survey Revision

i.

CCCH (Common Control Channels)
Paging Channel (PCH)
‰ Used to inform the MS of an incoming call or sms, where the MS’s IMSI/TMSI
will be sent over it. ((DL channel))
ii. Random Access Channel (RACH)
‰ Used by the MS to ask for an SDCCH to respond to the request send on the
paging channel /initiate a call/location update/IMSI attach-detach. (UL
Channel)
iii. AGCH (Access Grant Channel)
‰ Used by the network to assign an SDCCH sub-channel for the MS. (DL
channel)
Logical Channels

Control Channels

Traffic Channels
Half Rate

Full Rate

Broadcast

Common

Frequency Correction Control Channel Paging Channel
Access Grant Channel

Synchronization Channel
Broadcast Control Channel

Random Access Channel

Dedicated
Fast Associated Control Channel
Cell Broadcast Control Channel
Slow Associated Control Channel
Standalone Dedicated Control Channel

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GSM System Survey Revision

i.

DCCH (Dedicated Control Channels)
Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH)
‰ Used for signaling purposes: call setup, location update, IMSI attach-detach.
‰ Used to send/receive SMSs in idle mode
mode. (DL/UL channel)
channel).
ii. Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH)
‰ Always allocated in conjunction with traffic channel/SDCCH channel to
transmit measurement reports.
‰ DL measurement reports will include commands from the network to the MS
to adjust its power level and info about the Time Advance.
‰ UL measurement reports will include information about the MS own power,
received SS & Quality from serving cell and SS from neighbor cells.
‰ Used to send SMSs in active mode Logical Channels
(DL/UL channel).
Control Channels

Traffic Channels
Half Rate

Full Rate

Broadcast

Dedicated

Common

Fast Associated Control Channel

Frequency Correction Control Channel Paging Channel
Access Grant Channel
Synchronization Channel
Broadcast Control Channel

Cell Broadcast Control Channel

Random Access Channel

Slow Associated Control Channel
Standalone Dedicated Control Channel

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GSM System Survey Revision
iii.

Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH)
‰ Used to send necessary Handover information . (DL/UL channel)

iv
iv.

Cell Broad Cast Channel (CBCH)
‰ It is sent point to multi point i.e. from the cell to the mobiles attached to it, this
channel may carry information about the traffic, weather reports,…etc. (DL
channel)

Logical Channels

Control Channels

Traffic Channels
Half Rate

Full Rate

Broadcast

Common

Frequency Correction Control Channel Paging Channel
Access Grant Channel

Synchronization Channel
Broadcast Control Channel

Random Access Channel

Dedicated
Fast Associated Control Channel
Cell Broadcast Control Channel
Slow Associated Control Channel
Standalone Dedicated Control Channel

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10/2/2010

GSM System Survey Revision
• Mapping of Logical Channels on the Physical channels
Æ Mapping on TS0/BCCH carrier (DL)

Æ 51 consecutive control frames = 1 Control multi frame

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GSM System Survey Revision
• Mapping of Logical Channels on the Physical channels
Æ Mapping on TS0/BCCH carrier (UL)

Æ TS0 in UL is reserved for the RACH, for the MS to access the system.

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GSM System Survey Revision
• Mapping of Logical Channels on the Physical channels
Æ Mapping on TS1/BCCH carrier (DL)

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GSM System Survey Revision
• Mapping of Logical Channels on the Physical channels
Æ Mapping on TS1/BCCH carrier (UL)

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GSM System Survey Revision
• Mapping of Logical Channels on the Physical channels
Æ Mapping on TS2/BCCH carrier (DL/UL) if it will be used by certain MS in active
mode

26 consecutive Traffic frames = 1 Traffic multi frame
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GSM System Survey Revision
• TDMA Multi Frames Structure
¾ Traffic Multi Frames
‰ Traffic Multi Frame = 26 consecutive traffic frames (4.61msec x 26 =120msec)
¾ Control
C t lM
Multi
lti Frames
F
‰ Control Multi Frame = 51 consecutive Control frames (4.61msec x 51
=235msec)
¾ Super Frame
51 consecutive Traffic Multi Frames or 26 consecutive Control Multi Frames
‰ Super Frame = 6.12 seconds
¾ Hyper Frame
2048 consecutive super Frames
‰ Hyper Frame = 3 hours and 29 minutes nearly.

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Cell Planning Process
• Cell Planning Process
‰ Cell Planning can be described briefly as all the activities involved in
determining the number of sites that shall be used, type of equipments and
g
in order to ensure continuous coverage
g and g
good q
quality.
y
their configuration

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Cell Planning Process
• Traffic and Coverage Analysis
‰ The cell planning process starts with a traffic and coverage analysis. The
analysis should produce information about the geographical area and the
expected
p
capacity
p
y needed.
‰ The types of data collected are:
Cost, Coverage, Traffic demand and its distribution, GoS, Available Frequencies.
‰ The traffic distribution can be estimated based on:
Population distribution, car usage distribution, income level distribution,
Telephone usage.

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Cell Planning Process
• Nominal Cell Plan
‰ After compilation of the data received from the traffic and coverage analysis, a
coverage and capacity dimensioning will be done to produce the nominal cell
p
plan.
‰ The Nominal Cell Plan is a graphical representation of the network which
simply looks like a cell pattern on a map.

• Sites Surveys
‰ The sites where the radio equipment will be placed are visited, it is necessary
to assess the real environment to determine whether it is a suitable location or
not.

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Cell Planning Process
• System Design
‰ After the surveys from field are performed the design for each site is done
including: Site Structure, Height, Azimuth, Tilts, Types of Cabinets, Antennas
and Feeders.

• Implementation
‰ This includes sites installation, commissioning testing the hardware and drive
testing to ensure that the sites are behaving well.

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Cell Planning Process
• System Tuning
‰ After the system has been installed it is continuously monitored and evaluated
to determine how well it meets the demand. This is called System Tuning and
it involves:
• Checking that the final plan has been successfully implemented.
• Evaluating the customer complaints.
• Checking the network performance and parameters settings.
‰ The system needs constant retuning due to the fact that the traffic and the
number of subscribers continuously increase.
‰ The network may reach the point where it must be expanded so that it can
manage the increasing load and new traffic and now the coverage and traffic
analysis is performed and the cell planning cycle is repeated.

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Site Types and Hardware Equipment
‰ We have many types for RF sites having different structures and design.
‰ The choice of the RF site used will be during the validation phase, where the
planner will be responsible to choose the proper site type and structure based
on his target for coverage.

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Site Types
Site Types

Micro Site

Indoor

Macro Site

Street Level
Roof Top
Stup tower

Poles

COW

Green Field
Tower

Monopole

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10/2/2010

RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Site Types
Macro Sites
– Macro Sites are those which utilize cabinets that generates high power
( 47dB = 50W) and
(~47dBm
d used
d tto provide
id outdoor
td
and
d iindoor
d
coverage over
relatively medium and large distances in cities and on roads.

Site Types

Micro Site

Indoor

Macro Site

Street Level

Roof Top
Stup tower

COW
Poles

Green Field
Tower

Monopole

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Site Types
Macro Sites
Æ Roof Top Sites:
Sites: The antennas are placed on the roof of the buildings, used in
urban
b and
dd
dense urban
b clutters
l tt
ex: IInside
id the
th cities.
iti

Stub Tower

Poles
Site Types

Micro Site

Indoor

Street Level

Macro Site

Roof Top
Stup tower

COW
Poles

Green Field
Tower

Monopole

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10/2/2010

RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Site Types
Macro Sites
Æ COW Sites
Sites:: COW stands for a “ Cell On Wheel”, these are temporary sites
used
d iin events
t tto maximize
i i th
the capacity
it ex: exhibitions/Stadiums.
hibiti
/St di

Site Types

Micro Site

Indoor

Street Level

Macro Site

Roof Top
Stuptower

COW
Poles

Green Field
Tower

Monopole

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Site Types
Macro Sites
Æ Green Field Sites:
Sites: These sites are standalone sites used mainly on roads
and
d hi
high
h ways tto provide
id coverage ffor llong di
distances.
t

G
Green
Fi
Field
ld T
Tower

M
Monopole
l

P l T
Palm
Trees
Site Types

Micro Site

Indoor

Street Level

Macro Site

Roof Top
Stuptower

COW
Poles

Green Field
Tower

Monopole

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10/2/2010

RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Site Types
Micro Sites
– Micro Sites are those which utilize cabinets that generate low power (~ 34
dB = 2W) used
dBm
d iin outdoor
td
streets
t t for
f capacity
it issues
i
in
i the
th hot
h t spott areas
(ex: Abdel Aziz St.) and used in Indoor buildings for both coverage and
capacity issues (Malls, Hotels)

Site Types

Street Level-Micro Outdoor

Micro Indoor
Micro Site

Indoor

Street Level

Macro Site

Roof Top
Stuptower

COW
Poles

Green Field
Tower

Monopole

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
– The Hardware Equipments of the RF sites are those used to provide the radio
coverage over the air interface and can be seen as below:






BTS Cabinet ( Including DTRUs, Duplexers and Combiners)
Feeders, Jumpers and Connectors
Diplexers (In some cases)
TMA
BTS Antenna
Repeaters

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ BTS (Cabinet)
‰ “Outdoor Cabinet”
Cabinet”
Typical Macro Outdoor Cabinet
Frequency Band
Tx
Rx
Number of Transceivers
Dimension (WxDxH)
Weight
Output Power
Combined, Uncombined)
Receiver Sensitivity

P-GSM 900, E-GSM 900, GSM 1800
935-960MHz, 925-960MHz, 1805-1880MHz
890-915MHz, 880-915MHz, 1710-1785MHz
12
650x888x1380 mm
270 Kg
900MHz: 42.5/46 dBm
1800MHz: 42.0/45.5 dBm
−110
110.55 dBm

H

W

D

Cabinet
– This type of cabinets is used with Macro sites, it has built-in air conditions, it
doesn’t need shelters and able to resist the different environmental conditions.

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ BTS (Cabinet)

Cabinet

‰ “Indoor Cabinet”
Cabinet”
Typical Macro Indoor Cabinet
Frequency Band
Tx
Rx
Number of Transceivers
Dimension (WxDxH)
Weight
Output Power
Combined, Uncombined)
Receiver Sensitivity

P-GSM 900, E-GSM 900, GSM 1800
935-960MHz, 925-960MHz, 1805-1880MHz
890-915MHz, 880-915MHz, 1710-1785MHz
12
600x400x900 mm
150 Kg
900MHz: 42.5/46 dBm
1800MHz: 42.0/45.5 dBm
−110
110 .5dBm
5dBm

Shelter

− This type of cabinets is used with Macro sites,
external air conditions should be used,
it needs a shelter to prevent the equipment from
the different environmental conditions (rain, heat,…)
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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ BTS (Cabinet)
Typical Micro Cabinet
Frequency Band
Tx
Rx
Number of Transceivers
Dimension (WxDxH)
Weight
Output Power
Combined, Uncombined)
Receiver Sensitivity

P-GSM 900, E-GSM 900, GSM 1800
935-960MHz, 925-960MHz, 1805-1880MHz
890-915MHz, 880-915MHz, 1710-1785MHz
4
433x270x610 mm
41 Kg
900MHz: 34/32 dBm
1800MHz: 33.5/31.5 dBm
−109
109 dBm

− This type of cabinets is used with Micro sites.

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Duplexer
− Duplexers are devices make us able to transmit and receive on the same
cable.
bl
− External Duplexers have typical losses = 0.5 dBs
− DTRUs have internal Duplexers that have nearly zero losses.

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ DTRU (Dual Transceiver Unit)
− It is the hardware unit on which the frequencies are configured.
TX1

TX1/RX1

Duplexer

RX1
RXD1

TX1/RX1

Hybrid
Combiner

Combined
Mode

Un Combined
Mode

RXD2
TX2
Duplexer

RX2

TX2/RX2

TX2/RX2

− If the internal combiner is used then this will result in 3dB losses in the output
signal.
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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Combiner
− The internal combiner in the DTRU is used to combine two signals from the
b d tto b
itt d on th
bl
same band
be ttransmitted
the same cable.
− The combiner is a broadband one that doesn’t need tuning.
− The combining stage will result in 3 dB loss in the output signal.
− If we need to make expansion ( connect 2 DTRUs = 4 frequencies to be
connected to the same antenna) then the combiner should be used.
TX1
RX1

Duplexer
RXD1
RXD2

TX2
RX2

Duplexer

Duplexer

TX3
RX3
RXD1
TX4
RX4

RXD2

TX1/RX1

Hybrid
Combiner

DTRU1

TX2/RX2
TX1/RX1
Hybrid
Combiner

DTRU2

Duplexer
TX2/RX2

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Feeders, Jumpers and Connectors
− Feeders, jumpers and connectors are responsible
to carry the electrical signal from the BTS to the antenna.
Feeder

jumper

BTS

jumper

− Jumpers are flexible and used as a connection between Feeder-BTS
and Feeder-Antenna.
− Typically, Jumper losses=0.5dB while connector losses=0.1dB
− Feeder losses will differ based on the feeder’s diameter as below.
Feeder Type

800/900 (dB/100m)

1800/1900 (dB/100m)

LCF 1/2"
LCF 7/8"
LCF 1-1/4"
LCF 1-5/8"

7.0/7.2
4
3.3
2.6

10.5
6.5
5.3
4.2

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Diplexers
− Diplexers are used to combine two signals from different bands.
− Typically, Diplexer losses=0.3dB
− Typically with 4 port antennas, the output from the 1800-DTRU is mixed with
the output from the 3G cabinet via the diplexers.
2G Cabinet
DTRU-900

DTRU-1800
Diplexer
3G Cabinet

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ TMA (Tower Mounted Amplifier)
− The TMA is installed direct after the BTS antenna.
− It is used to enhance the uplink signal received by the antenna before being
deteriorated through the feeders.
− The use of TMAs is important due to the fact that the output signal from the
MSs are transmitting in the uplink with low power.
− With TMAs the received signal will be amplified so even when it is attenuated
through the cables it will reach the BTS with acceptable level.
− In the downlink, the TMA will add 0.3 dB losses, while in the uplink it will add
gain nearly = 2Æ4 dB.
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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Antenna
− It is the device used to convert the electrical signal from the cables to an
electromagnetic
l t
ti radiations
di ti
propagating
ti on the
th air
i iinterface.
t f
− Isotropic Antenna: Is a theoretical/reference model for an antenna propagating
equally in all directions.
− Omni Antennas: Propagates equally in one plan.
− Directive Antennas: Propagates in certain direction.

Isotropic Antenna

Omni Antenna

Directive Antenna

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Antenna
− Antenna Gain:
• Since Antennas are passive elements, then the only way to have gain in
any direction is to increase the directivity by concentrating the radiations
in the desired direction.
• Now the Antenna gain can be defined as the ratio between the power of
the max direction of the antenna to the power obtained by an isotropic
antenna in the same direction.
• Gain for Typical directive antennas = 18 dBi and for Omni antennas = 11
dBi

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Antenna
− Beam Width:
• Defined as the angel between the max direction to the direction where the
power is reduced to the half in the max direction.

Direction of
the max
power

Horizontal Beam
width =65

3dB

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Antenna
− Beam Width:
• The standard antenna has a horizontal beam width of 65deg, this means
that the gain at 32.5deg is 3 dB less than the maximum gain ( i.e. half the
power)
• Typically the vertical beam width is 7 degrees.

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Antenna
− Tilting:
• Normally when the antenna is correctly mounted, then the vertical beam
of the antenna is pointing towards the horizon.
• Lowering the beam below the horizon is known as “Down tilt”, and when
the beam is directed above the horizon then it is called “Up tilt”

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Antenna
− Tilting:
• According to how the tilt is implemented; we have two types: Mechanical
tilting and Electrical tilting.
• Mechanical tilting: the physical body of the antenna is tilted, which cause
tilting in the main beam.
• Electrical titling: we change the phase of the current fed the internal
dipoles which will result in tilting the main beam.

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Antenna
− Tilting:
• With mechanical down tilting the main beam will be down tilted which is
useful but this will result in up tilting the back lobe which may interfere on
another cells.
• With antennas support mechanical tilting only, we won’t be able to have
different tilting for different bands if needed.

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Antenna
− Diversity:
• Defined as the redundancy in receiving or transmitting the signal.
• The purpose is to overcome the attenuation and fading that may
encounter the signal while propagating in air.
• Typically the antenna diversity results in a 3.5 dB gain.
• We have two types of diversity: Space Diversity and Polarization Diversity.

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Antenna
− Diversity:
• With Space diversity we’ll use 2 antennas that should have separation =
12-18λ
(λ=0.33m for GSM900 and λ=0.17m for GSM1800) in order to obtain the
desired gain.
1

2

SS 1

2

Space
Diversity

Time

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Antenna
− Diversity:
• With Polarization diversity, the antenna will be manufactured with internal
arrays have dual polarizations, either Horizontal & Vertical or +45/-45

Dual Polarized
Antenna

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Antenna
− Diversity:
• The polarization is the direction of oscillation of the electric field with
respect to ground.
• Vertically polarized antennas: Transmit electromagnetic waves where the
electric field component oscillate in direction perpendicular to the ground.
• Horizontal polarized antennas: Transmit electromagnetic waves where the
electric field component oscillate in direction parallel to the ground
ground.

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Antenna Diversity:
Diversity:

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Repeaters
− A repeater can cover areas that otherwise would have been blocked by
obstacles.
b t l
− Fields of application are roads in hilly terrain, tunnels or other obstructed low
capacity areas.
− The signal is typically amplified by 50-80 dB.

Road

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RF Sites and Hardware Equipments
• Hardware Equipments
Æ Repeaters
− Repeaters can also been used for indoor applications, like offices and
undergrounds.
d
d

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Sites Surveys and Validation
‰ The cell planning process results in a cell plan with nominal site positions.
‰ If the operator has access to existing locations (ex: deal with TE, Police,..etc)
p the cell p
plan according
g to these locations.
then it is necessaryy to adapt
‰ The proposed network design shows only approximate site locations but the
exact site position depends on the possibilities of constructing a site on the
suggested location.

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Sites Surveys and Validation
‰ Non technical issues may contribute in preferring one location than the other
provided that both of them verify the radio requirements:
g the p
permits from the different authorities like civil aviation and
¾ Obtaining
military authorities.
¾ Lease contract should be agreed upon with the owner of the site.
¾ Access roads: the site must be accessible for material transport and
installation.
¾ Space requirements for the shelter and passes for the feeders.
¾ Space to construct the antenna supports.
¾ AC power Source.

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Sites Surveys and Validation
‰ Technical RF requirements based on which we select the best candidate:
¾ Distance from the nominal.
¾ Strategic location to fulfill coverage objects
objects.

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Sites Surveys and Validation
‰ Technical requirements based on which we select the best candidate:

• Distance from the nominal:
¾ The initial study of a cell system often results in a theoretical cell pattern
with nominal positions for the site locations
locations.
¾ The existing buildings must then be adapted in such a way that the real
positions are established and replace the nominal positions.
¾ For each nominal point the RF planner will choose a search area such
that the nominal shouldn’t be moved out of it.

Search Area, ex: 50m

Nominal Cell Location

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Sites Surveys and Validation
‰ Technical RF requirements based on which we select the best candidate:

• Strategic location to fulfill coverage objects:
¾ Clear of present and upcoming obstructions.

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Sites Surveys and Validation
‰ Technical RF requirements based on which we select the best candidate:

• Strategic location to fulfill coverage objects:
¾ The proper designed height can be achieved with the used tower
structure
structure.
¾ Typically the common structures are Poles: 6/9m poles, Stub towers:
9/12/15/18/21m Green Field Towers: 30/40/60 m
¾ If the required antenna’s height as per the design is 35m and the
building’s height is 25m then the proper structure is 12m stub tower.

12 m

25 m

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Sites Surveys and Validation
‰ Technical RF requirements based on which we select the best candidate:

• Strategic location to fulfill coverage objects:
¾ The proper tilting as per the design and simulation can be implemented
without shadowing on the roof
roof.

β= tilt angle

H

D=Cell Range

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Sites Surveys and Validation
‰ Technical RF requirements based on which we select the best candidate:

• Strategic location to fulfill coverage objects:
¾ Ex: If H=35m and we need theoretical Cell range=500 m what will be the
proper tilting?
¾ Tilt angle β = 90 – α = 90 – ( tan-1 (D/H)) = 90 – ( tan-1 (500/35)) = 90 – 86
= 4 degrees, then the proper tilting = 4 degrees
β= tilt angle

α
H

D=Cell Range

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Sites Surveys and Validation
‰ Technical RF requirements based on which we select the best candidate:

• Strategic location to fulfill coverage objects:
¾ It is better to install the antennas on the edges of the roof.
¾ When the antenna is placed at the mid of the roof then we have to
calculate the minimum height of the antenna in order to not have any
shadowing on the roof edge.

β= tilt angle

σ
V/2

h
H

Half the vertical
beam width

d

D=Cell Range
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Sites Surveys and Validation
‰ Technical RF requirements based on which we select the best candidate:

• Strategic location to fulfill coverage objects:
¾ If the distance to the roof d = 50m and we’re going to apply tilt = 4
degrees then we want to calculate the minimum tower height to not have
degrees,
shadowing on the roof.
¾ σ=90 - (β +V/2) = 90 – (4+3.5) = 90 - 7.5 = 82.5 degrees
¾ Tan σ = ( d/h), then Tan (82.5) = (50/h) = 7.5
then h = 50/7.5 = 6.7meters (min. tower height to not have shadowing with 4
deg down tilt)
β= tilt angle

σ
V/2

h
H

Half the vertical
beam width

d

D=Cell Range
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Sites Surveys and Validation
Some Planning Tips
ƒ The First Fresnel zone: The area around the visual line-of-sight that radio
waves spread out into after they leave the antenna. This area must be
clear or else signal strength will weaken.
ƒ Double Structure sites.
ƒ Roads coverage.
ƒ Obstacles like Bill Boards.
ƒ Terrain difference.
ƒ Sites near water.
ƒ Tunnels coverage.

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Coverage Dimensioning
‰ The sensitivity of the BTS and MS is defined as the minimum required
received input level in order to decode the signal correctly.
p
g a system
y
it is not sufficient to use this sensitivity
y level
‰ However,, when planning
as a planning criterion.
‰ Various margins must be added to compensate for the degradation in the
signal level during its propagation in air.

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Coverage Dimensioning
ƒ These margins will include:
¾ Rayleigh Fading Margin (Fast Fading Margin) RFmargin
¾ Interference Margin IFmargin
¾ Body Loss Margin BL
¾ Outdoor Log Normal Fading Margin LNFmarg(o)
¾ Outdoor + Indoor Log Normal Fading Margin LNFmarg(o+i)
¾ Car Penetration Loss CPL
¾ Mean Building Penetration Loss BPLmean

ƒ
¾
¾
¾

Now the design level can be calculated as follows:
SSdesign = MSsens + RFmargin + IFmargin + BLmargin + LNFmarg(o)
(MS Outdoor)
SSdesign = MSsens + RFmargin + IFmargin + BLmargin + LNFmarg(o) + CPL
(MS in Car)
SSdesign = MSsens + RFmargin + IFmargin + BLmargin + LNFmarg(o+i) + BPLmean (MS Indoor)

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Coverage Dimensioning
‰ Rayleigh Fading Margin (Fast Fading Margin):
Margin):
ƒ Due to multipath reflection from the surrounding buildings some fading
dips may occur.
y g Fading
g Margin
g of 3dB is adequate
q
ƒ Based on measurements a Rayleigh
i.e. RFmargin = 3dB
‰ Interference Margin:
Margin:
ƒ Since the frequencies are reused, then the received carrier power must be
large enough in order to compensate for the interference from
surroundings.
ƒ The interference margin depends on the frequency reuse, traffic load and
the desired percentage of area coverage
coverage. Based on measurements in
normal system an Interference Margin of 2dB is adequate i.e. IFmargin =
2dB

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Coverage Dimensioning
‰ Body Loss:
Loss:
ƒ Since the human’s body absorbs some of the energy, then a body loss
margin is used to compensate for this power dissipation
ƒ The recommended Bodyy Loss byy the GSM standards is:
BL = 5dB (800/900 MHz Band) , BL = 3dB (1800/1900 MHz Band)
‰ Car Penetration Loss:
Loss:
ƒ When the MS is situated in a car without an external antenna (which is the
typical case) an extra margin should be added to cope with the
penetration loss of the car body.
ƒ The recommended Body Loss by the standard is: CPL = 6dB

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Coverage Dimensioning
‰ Log Normal Fading (Slow Fading):
Fading):
ƒ The signal strength fluctuates around a mean value while the MS is
moving.
yp of fading
g is due to the terrain structure and the obstacles like
ƒ This type
hills and trees in the path between the BTS and MS.

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Coverage Dimensioning
‰ Log Normal Fading (Slow Fading):
Fading):
ƒ The log normal fading LNFmarg will differ based on the environment and
the coverage area.
ƒ LNFmarg will be calculated from a g
graph
p relates environment ((Standard
Deviation:σLNF ) with the coverage percentage needed.

These values were
obtained from field
measurements

¾ N.B: (σLNF marg(o+i) )2 = (σLNF marg(o)) 2 +(σLNF marg(i) ) 2

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Coverage Dimensioning
‰ Log Normal Fading (Slow Fading):
Fading):
• LNFmarg will be calculated from a graph relates environment (σLNF ) with
the coverage.

Example:
Example:
For an Urban area Outdoor,
then σLNF =8 dB and with
98% coverage, then we can get
from the graph LNFmarg(o) = 8 dB

σLNF

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Coverage Dimensioning
Example
Example:
Get SSdesign for a MS-Outdoor in different
clutters with different required percentage
off coverage.

¾ SSdesign = MSsens + RFmargin + IFmargin + BLmargin + LNFmarg(o)
Then SSdesign = -104 + 3 + 2 + 5 + LNFmarg(o) = -94 dBm + LNFmarg(o)

(MS Outdoor)
(MS Outdoor)

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Coverage Dimensioning
Example:
Example:
then we can calculate SSdesign for
MS-Outdoor in different clutters as follows:
¾ SSdesign = -94 dBm + LNFmarg(o)

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Coverage Dimensioning
Example:
Example:
Get SSdesign for a MS-In Car in different
clutters with different required percentage
off coverage.

¾ SSdesign = MSsens + RFmargin + IFmargin + BLmargin + CPL+ LNFmarg(o)
Then SSdesign = -104 + 3 + 2 + 5+ 6 + LNFmarg(o) = -88 dBm + LNFmarg(o)

(MS in Car)
(MS in Car)

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Coverage Dimensioning
Example:
Example:
Get SSdesign for a MS-Indoor in different
clutters with different required percentage
off coverage.

¾ SSdesign = MSsens + RFmargin + IFmargin + BLmargin + BPL+ LNFmarg(o+i)
(MS Indoor)
Then SSdesign = -104+3+2+5+BPL+LNFmarg(o+i) = -94 dBm + BPL+ LNFmarg(o+i)

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Coverage Dimensioning
Example:
Example:
then we can calculate SSdesign for
MS-Indoor in different clutters as follows:

¾ Then SSdesign= -94 dBm + BPL+ LNFmarg(o+i)

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Coverage Dimensioning
Æ Down Link Budget
• Now, we’re going to calculate the cell radius where the PinMS will be the
SSdesign which was computed previously based on the clutter type and
coverage percentage.
Pout BTS

PinMS =SSdesign

Pout BTS : Output
p ppower from the Base Station Cabinet
Lf BTS : Losses in Feeders, Jumpers and connectors
Ga BTS : BTS antenna gain Gd BTS : BTS antenna diversity gain
Lp
: Path Loss
Pin MS : Input power at the MS Station

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Coverage Dimensioning
Æ Down Link Budget

Example:
for Urban clutter with required outdoor coverage= 95% (GSM900-Band) then
Pi MS = SSdesign= -89.1
89 1 dBm
dB andd given
i
th t Pout
P t BTS = 46 dBm,
dB Lf BTS = 2.6
2 6 dB
¾ Pin
that:
¾ Ga BTS = 18 dBi Gd BTS = 3.5 dB , then we can calculate the path loss as follows:
¾ Lp = (Pout BTS - Lf BTS + Ga BTS + Gd BTS ) - Pin MS
¾ Lp = 46-2.6+18+3.5-(-89.1)= 154 dB
Then the maximum allowed path loss is Lp is 154 dB and through which we are going to
calculate the cell range “d”
N.B:
d
d= Cell Range
d
Inter Site-distance =1.5d
Area ≈ 1.9 d2

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Coverage Dimensioning
‰ Path Loss Lp
I. Free Space Model:
Model:
ƒ
Theoretical Model not commonly used, it assumed Line Of Sight (LOS)
direct rayy between the Transmitter and Receiver.
ƒ
The Path Loss will be calculated as follows:
ƒ
Lp = 32.44 + 20 log f (MHz) + 20 log d (Km), where f: frequency and
d:cell range
II. Two Path Model
Model::
ƒ
Assumes two paths: direct path and a ground reflected path.
ƒ
It suits the road sites.
ƒ
Lp = 20 log HBS + 20 log HMS +40 log d (Km) where d:cell range

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Coverage Dimensioning
‰ Path Loss Lp
III. Multi Path Propagation Model:
Model:
ƒ
As stated before, the signal travelling in air will follow different paths
due to reflections from the surroundings
g where each individual p
path
affects the signal causing attenuation, delay and phase shift.
ƒ

The received signals is therefore a result of direct rays, reflected rays
and shadowing or any combination of these signals.

ƒ

Experimental measurements in different places led to the conclusion
that there is a necessity to make different models for different urban
environments having different civil structures: dense urban
urban, urban
urban,
suburban and rural.

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Coverage Dimensioning
‰ Path Loss Lp
III. Multi Path Propagation Model:
Model: (A) Hata Okumura Model

¾

Lp = A – 13.82 log HBS + (44.9-6.55 log HBS ) log d(km) – a (HMS )
Clutter Type
yp

HBS = Base Station antenna height
HMS = Mobile Station antenna height
d= Cell Range in Km
a(HMS)= 3.2(log 11.75HMS)2-4.97

Dense Urban and Urban Areas

Sub Urban Areas

Rural Areas

Open Areas

Frequency
q
y Value of A
800
900
1800
1900
800
900
1800
1900
800
900
1800
1900
800
900
1800
1900

146.2
146.8
153.8
154.3
136.4
136.9
146.2
146.9
127.1
127.5
134.1
134.6
117.9
118.3
124.3
124.8

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Coverage Dimensioning
‰ Path Loss Lp
III. Multi Path Propagation Model:
Model: (A) Hata Okumura Model

In our previous example for Urban clutter ( GSM 900MHz- band),
Lp=154 dB
Assuming HBS=35m and HMS=1.5m
ƒ
Lp = A – 13.82 log HBS + (44.9-6.55 log HBS ) log d(km) – a (HMS )
ƒ
Lp = 146.8 – 13.82 log 35 + (44.9-6.55 log 35 ) log d(km) – [ 3.2(log
11.75*1.5)2-4.97]
ƒ
Lp = 146.8 – 21.34 + 34.786 log d(km) + ( 0.001)
¾ Then logg d(km)
( ) = 0.76 Æ then d = 6.6 km

¾

‰

Hata Okumura’s mode doesn’t give accurate values with Dense Urban
and Urban areas when the typical cell radius is less than 1 km, so it is
used with rural and open areas only.

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Coverage Dimensioning
‰ Path Loss Lp
III. Multi Path Propagation Model:
Model: (B) Walfish-Ikegami Model

¾

Lp = K +38 log d + 18 log (HBS -17)
HBS = Base Station antenna height
d= Cell Range in Km

¾

Cl tt Type
Clutter
T

F
Frequency

V l off K
Value

Dense Urban, Urban and Sub
Urban Areas

800
900
1800
1900

142.4
143.2
153.2
154.1

Concerning our previous example, in Urban clutter (GSM 900-Band), Lp=154 dB
Assuming HBS =35m, then
ƒ
Lp = 143.2 + 38 log d + 18 log (35
(35-17)
17) = 154
ƒ
Log d = - 0.3 Æ then d = 0.5 Km = 500 m
‰

Walfish-Ikegami Model is more suitable for estimating the cell range in
Dense Urban and Urban clutters.

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Coverage Dimensioning
Æ Up Link Budget
• Now, we’re going to calculate the cell radius where the PinBTS will be

PinBTS = BTSsensitivity + RFmargin + IFmargin + BLmargin + LNFmarg(o)
PoutMS

Pin BTS
TMA
GTMA-UL

Pout MS : Output power from the Mobile Station.
Lf BTS : Losses in Feeders, Jumpers and connectors
Ga BTS : BTS antenna gain Gd BTS : BTS antenna diversity gain
Lp
: Path Loss
Pin BTS : Input power at the Base Station
GTMA-UL : TMA UL gain
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Coverage Dimensioning
Æ Up Link Budget

Example:
Given that: Pout MS = 33 dBm, Lf BTS = 2.6 dB, G TMA-UL = 4 dB ,
110 dBm
dB , Ga
G BTS = 18 dBi Gd BTS = 3.5
3 5 dB , then
th we can calculate
l l t th
¾ BTSsensitivity = -110
the
path loss as follows:
¾ Lp = (Pout MS + G TMA-UL - Lf BTS + Ga BTS + Gd BTS ) – PinBTS
¾ PinBTS = BTSsensitivity + RFmargin + IFmargin + BLmargin + LNFmarg(o)
= -110+3+2+5+4.9=-95.1
¾ Lp = 33 + 4 – 2.6 + 18 + 3.5 – (-95.1) = 151 dB
‰ Based on Walfish-Ikegami, we can calculate the maximum cell range on the
path loss calculated in the UL

Assuming HBS =35m, then
ƒ
Lp = 143.2 + 38 log d + 18 log (35-17) = 151 dB
ƒ
Log d = - 0.38 Æ then d ~ 0.42 Km = 420 m
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Coverage Dimensioning
‰ Now
from downlink budget calculations dDL = 500m
while
from the uplink budget calculations dUL = 420m,
420m
then we’re going to design on the lower value
value.

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Coverage Dimensioning
Æ Power Balance
‰ Now in order to guarantee that there is a power balance between the DL and the UL
paths, we’ve to recalculate the BTS output power that will achieve this balance.

¾ Lp
p = ((Pout BTS - Lf BTS + Ga BTS + Gd BTS ) - Pin MS
¾ Lp = Pout BTS - 2.6+18+3.5-(-89.1) = Pout BTS + 108 = 151 dB
¾ Pout BTS = 43 dBm and this is the BTS o/p power for power balance.

DL Coverage

UL Coverage

If the DL and UL coverage are not balanced as in
figure, then in the shaded area in between, the MSs
will receive a good DL signal but their UL signal won’t
reach the BTS.

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Capacity Dimensioning

¾ The Capacity in cellular system depends on:
ƒ The number of channels available.
ƒ The Grade Of Service (GOS) the subscribers are encountering in the
system
¾ Traffic Theory attempts to obtain useful estimates, for example the number of
channels needed in a cell these estimates will depend on the selected system
and the assumed or real behavior of the subscribers.

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Capacity Dimensioning
‰ Traffic?
Traffic? Traffic refers to the usage of channels and is usually thought of as
the holding time per time unit.
g ((Er),
), a traffic of 1 Er means that this channel
‰ Traffic: is measured in Erlangs
was busy for 1 complete hour.
‰ Traffic (Er) =

Number of calls/hr X Average call holding time (Sec)
3600

¾ How much traffic can one cell carry?
This will depend on:
ƒ Number of traffic channels available.
ƒ Amount of congestion which is the GOS

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Capacity Dimensioning
‰ ErlangErlang-B table: is used to calculate how much traffic a cell can bear given
certain no. of Traffic Channels and certain GOS.
Erlang‰ The Erlang
g-B table: was formed based on certain assumptions:
p
ƒ Poisson distribution (random) traffic
ƒ Blocked calls leave the call.

Example::
Example
With a cell configured with 4 frequencies, then the number of available TCH
channels = 4*8 – 2 =30 TCHs, with GOS=2% then using Erlang-B we can
calculate
traffic
l l the
h maximum
i
ffi on this
hi cellll = 21.932
21 932 Er
E
¾ If the average traffic/user = 30 mEr (i.e. average call/user = 108 seconds= 1.8
minutes) then at peak (busy) hour this cell can support 21.932/30m = 730 users

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Capacity Dimensioning
Erlang B
B--Table
N.B:
The numerical
headings
g indicate
blocking probability %

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Capacity Dimensioning
Example:
Example:
If we have input from the marketing team that in a certain city each 100meters we’ll have
in the busy hour 150 users each will talk for 108 seconds = 1.8 minutes (i.e. each
30mE) calculate the cell range if each cell will be configured with 4
user generates 30mE),
frequencies.
Solution:
¾ For each cell, no. of TCHs = 4*8 – 2 =30 TCHs, with GOS=2% then using “Erlang-B
Table” we can find that each cell can bear up to 21.932 Er
¾ But each user generates 30mE, then this cell can serve (21.9/30e-3) = 732
subscriber.
¾ According
the user’s
distribution,
then eachh 100 m we hhave 150 subscriber,
then
A
di tto th
’ di
t ib ti th
b ib th
for each cell the 732 subscriber will be distributed on 100*(732/150) = 487 meters.
d= 487m
0

4.
5E
r

10
0

4.
5E
r

20
0

4.
5E
r

30
0

4.
5E
r

40
0

4.
5E
r

50
0

Distance
(meters)

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Capacity Dimensioning
‰ Channel Utilization (Trunking Efficiency)
ƒ One of the factors that should be taken into consideration in dimensioning,
and it shows how efficient the resources are utilized.
ƒ It is calculated as ηT = 100* ((Traffic ((Er)) / No. of channels )
ƒ If we have an area generates a traffic of 20 Erlang, so under GOS=2% is
it better to use 1 cell or to split the traffic between 2 cell each of which to
carry 10 Er ?
• For 1 cell to carry 20 Erlang with GOS=2%,
then no. of TCHs needed = 28, then we
should have at least 4 frequencies.
q = 30 available TCHs
• 4 freq
• Now Trunking efficiency
ηT = 100* (20/ 30) = 66.67%

• For 2 cells each to carry 10 Erlang with
GOS=2%, then no. of TCHs needed/cell = 17 ,
then we should have at least 3 frequencies.
q
• 3 freq/cell
= 22 available TCHs/ cell,, i.e. both
cells will have now 44 available TCHs
• Now Trunking efficiency
ηT = 100* (20/ 44) = 45.5 %

• It is apparent from the above that using 1 cell will be more efficient than
splitting the traffic between 2 cells.
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Capacity Dimensioning
‰ SDCCH Dimensioning
¾ The load on the SDCCH channel is affected by:
ƒ Mobility Management procedures, that is, Normal Location Updating,
g
and IMSI attach/detach.
Periodic Registration
ƒ Connection Management procedures, that is, Call set-up, SMSs.
¾ The Typical GOS of SDCCH channel will depend either combined or noncombined modes are used:
ƒ Non-Combined: GOS = 0.5% ( SDCCH/8)
ƒ Combined: GOS = 1% (SDCCH/4)

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Capacity Dimensioning
‰ SDCCH Dimensioning
¾ Two models are used to estimate the SDCCH load
ƒ BAS
BAS1
1 Model: Typical model for SDCCH load estimations in average
network.
ƒ ERA
ERA5
5 Model: More aggressive model may be used when the subscribers
behavior in the network is not known.
¾ The SDCCH load estimations, three types of cells are considered:
ƒ Border Cell (BC): Cell lies on a location area border and will be subjected
to heavy location updating.
ƒ Inner Cell (IC): Cell lies in the core of the location area and will never
subjected to location updating.
ƒ Average Cell (AC): Cell having average no. of location updating.

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Capacity Dimensioning
‰ SDCCH Dimensioning
¾ The SDCCH load estimations based on the two models can be seen as
below:
The 1st model:
BAS1 Model
Event
Location Updating
IMSI Attach/detach
Periodic Registration
Call set-up
SMS
Total
20% Traffic Margin added

Average Cell Inner Cell Border Cell
0.5
0.4
0.2
0.8
0.3
22
2.2
2.6

0
0.4
0.2
0.8
0.3
17
1.7
2

1.5
0.4
0.2
0.8
0.3
32
3.2
3.8

mE/subscriber
mE/subscriber
mE/subscriber
mE/subscriber
mE/subscriber
mE/subscriber
mE/subscriber

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Capacity Dimensioning
‰ SDCCH Dimensioning
¾ The SDCCH load estimations based on the two models can be seen as
below:
The 2nd model:
ERA5 Model
Event
Location Updating
IMSI Attach/detach
Periodic Registration
Call set-up
SMS
Total
20% Traffic Margin added

Average Cell Inner Cell Border Cell
1
1.8
0.5
0.9
1.7
59
5.9
7.1

0
1.8
0.5
0.9
1.7
49
4.9
5.9

3
1.8
0.5
0.9
1.7
79
7.9
9.5

mE/subscriber
mE/subscriber
mE/subscriber
mE/subscriber
mE/subscriber
mE/subscriber
mE/subscriber

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Frequency Planning

‰ A Cellular system is based upon reuse of the same set of carriers
(frequencies).
‰ The same set of frequencies will be reused every cluster, where the cluster is
formed of defined no. of cells.
‰ When applying certain frequency plan strategy, some issues should be taken
into consideration like: Available frequency spectrum, Subscribers distribution,
required Carrier to Interference ratio (C/I) and Carrier to Adjacent ratio (C/A).
‰ It is recommended to keep C/I
C/ > 12 dB, while maintaining C/A
C/ > -3 dB

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Frequency Planning

Frequency Assignment Strategies
(I) Fixed Frequency Groups
(A)
4/12 Reuse
Pattern

(II) Multiple Reuse Pattern

(B)
3/9 Reuse
Pattern

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(I) Fixed Frequency Groups
‰ It is the traditional way of assigning frequencies, it is accomplished by dividing
the frequency spectrum into groups each of which has the same no. of
frequencies and each cell will be assigned a certain group.
‰ The advantage with this method is that once the BCCH plan is finished, all
other frequencies will be mapped in the same way.
‰ The disadvantage is that it is not spectrum efficient and doesn’t
doesn t make use of
the fact that not all cells have the same number of TRUs.

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(I) Fixed Frequency Groups
(I--A) 4/12 Reuse Pattern
(I
¾ The Cluster will be formed of 4 Sites =12
cells on which the frequency spectrum
will be divided.
¾ The cluster will be then repeated
every where all over the network.

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(I) Fixed Frequency Groups
(I--A) 4/12 Reuse Pattern
(I
ƒ

Using this pattern then:
¾ D= 3.46 R
– D= Reuse distance
– R= hexagon radius
‰ C/I = 10log(D/R) 4 = 21.58 dB

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(I) Fixed Frequency Groups
(I--A) 4/12 Reuse Pattern
(I

Example::
Example
If the frequency spectrum is made up of 36 freq, then
what’ll be the distribution of these frequencies/cluster?
9 Strategy#1: Block Distribution
‰ The frequency band will be divided into blocks
formed of consecutive frequencies, block for the
BCCH frequencies and block for the TCH frequencies.
frequencies
‰ Then we’ll form 12 groups each group will be
assigned to a cell within the cluster
( 1 BCCH freq. + 2 TCHs frequencies)
f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7 f8 f9 f10 f11 f12 f13 f14 f15 f16 f17 f18 f19 f20 f21 f22 f23 f24 f25 f26 f27 f28 f29 f30 f31 f32 f33 f34 f35 f36

BCCH Block

TCH Block 1

TCH Block 2

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(I) Fixed Frequency Groups
(I--A) 4/12 Reuse Pattern
(I

9 Strategy#1: Block Distribution
Cell A1: Group1 = f1(BCCH), f13(TCH1), f25(TCH2)
Cell B1: Group2 = f2(BCCH), f14(TCH1), f26(TCH2)
Cell C1: Group3 = f3(BCCH), f15(TCH1), f27(TCH2)
Cell D3: Group12 = f12(BCCH), f24(TCH1), f36(TCH2)
A1

B1

C1

D1

A2

B2

C2

D2

A3

B3

C3

D3

f1

f2

f3

f4

f5

f6

f7

f8

f9

f10

f11

f12

Frequencies from the BCCH Block

f13

f14

f15

f16

f17

f18

f19

f20

f21

f22

f23

f24

Frequencies from TCH Block 1

f25

f26

f27

f28

f29

f30

f31

f32

f33

f34

f35

f36

Frequencies from TCH Block 2

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(I) Fixed Frequency Groups
(I--A) 4/12 Reuse Pattern
(I

9 Strategy#2: Scattered Distribution
¾ The frequencies assigned for both BCCH and TCH
bands will be chosen in a scattered manner and not as
block.
¾ Then we’ll form 12 groups each group will be
assigned to a cell within the cluster
( 1 BCCH freq. + 2 TCHs frequencies)
BCCH Frequencies
TCH Frequencies 1
TCH Frequencies 2
f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7 f8 f9 f10 f11f12f13f14f15f16 f17f18f19f20f21f22 f23f24f25f26f27f28 f29f30f31f32f33f34 f35f36
f1 f4 f7 f10f13f16f19f22 f25f28f31f34f35 f2 f5 f8 f11f14f17f20f23 f26f29f32f33f36 f3 f6 f9 f12f15f18f21f24 f27f30

BCCH Frequencies

TCH Frequencies 1

TCH Frequencies 2

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(I) Fixed Frequency Groups
(I--A) 4/12 Reuse Pattern
(I

9 Strategy#2: Scattered Distribution
Cell A1: Group1 = f1(BCCH), f35(TCH1), f33(TCH2)
Cell B1: Group2 = f4(BCCH), f2(TCH1), f36(TCH2)
Cell C1: Group3 = f7(BCCH), f5(TCH1), f3(TCH2)
Cell D3: Group12 = f34(BCCH), f32(TCH1), f30(TCH2)
A1

B1

C1

D1

A2

B2

C2

D2

A3

B3

C3

D3

f1

f4

f7

f10

f13

f16

f19

f22

f25

f28

f31

f34

BCCH Frequencies

f35

f2

f5

f8

f11

f14

f17

f20

f23

f26

f29

f32

TCH Frequencies 1

f33

f36

f3

f6

f9

f12

f15

f18

f21

f24

f27

f30

TCH Frequencies 2

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(I) Fixed Frequency Groups
(I--A) 4/12 Reuse Pattern
(I
ƒ For this example whatever the strategy used either
Blocked or scattered, the no. of frequencies/cell = 3.
ƒ

We can calculate the trunking efficiency as below:

¾ No. of TCHs/Cell = (3*8 – 2 )= 22 Traffic channels,
with GOS=2% then Traffic = 14.9 Er
¾ ηT = 100* (14.9/ 22) = 66.72%

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(I) Fixed Frequency Groups
(I--B) 3/9 Reuse Pattern
(I
¾ The Cluster will be formed of 3 Sites = 9 cells
on which the frequency spectrum will be divided.
¾ The cluster will be then repeated every where
all over the network.

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(I) Fixed Frequency Groups
(I--B) 3/9 Reuse Pattern
(I
ƒ

Using this pattern then:

¾ D= 3R
– D= Reuse distance
– R= hexagon radius
‰ C/I = 10log(D/R) 4 = 19.1 dB

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(I) Fixed Frequency Groups
(I--B) 3/9 Reuse Pattern
(I

Example:
If the frequency spectrum is made up of 36 freq,
then what’ll be the distribution of these frequencies/Cluster?
9 Strategy#1: Block Distribution
‰ The frequency band will be divided into blocks
formed of consecutive frequencies, block for the BCCH
frequencies and block for the TCH frequencies.
frequencies
‰ Then we’ll form 9 groups each group will be
assigned to a cell within the cluster
( 1 BCCH freq. + 3 TCHs frequencies)
f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7 f8 f9 f10 f11 f12 f13 f14 f15 f16 f17 f18 f19 f20 f21 f22 f23 f24 f25 f26 f27 f28 f29 f30 f31 f32 f33 f34 f35 f36

BCCH Block

TCH Block 1

TCH Block 2

TCH Block 3

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(I) Fixed Frequency Groups
(I--B) 3/9 Reuse Pattern
(I

9 Strategy#1: Block Distribution
Cell A1: Group1 = f1(BCCH), f10TCH1), f19(TCH2), f28(TCH3)
Cell B1: Group2 = f2 (BCCH), f11(TCH1), f20(TCH2), f29(TCH3)
Cell C1: Group3 = f3(BCCH), f12(TCH1), f21(TCH2), f30(TCH3)
Cell C3: Group9 = f9 (BCCH), f18(TCH1), f27(TCH2), f36(TCH3)
A1
1
10
19
28

B1
2
11
20
29

C1
3
12
21
30

A2
4
13
22
31

B2
5
14
23
32

C2
6
15
24
33

A3
7
16
25
34

B3
8
17
26
35

C3
9
18
27
36

Frequencies from the BCCH Block
Frequencies from TCH Block 1
Frequencies from TCH Block 2
Frequencies from TCH Block 3

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(I) Fixed Frequency Groups
(I--B) 3/9 Reuse Pattern
(I

9 Strategy#2: Scattered Distribution
‰ The frequencies assigned for both BCCH and TCH bands
will be chosen in a scattered manner and not as block.
‰ Then we’ll form 9 groups each group will be assigned to a
cell within the cluster ( 1 BCCH freq. + 3 TCHs frequencies)
BCCH Frequencies
TCH Frequencies 1
TCH Frequencies 2
TCH Frequencies 3
f1 f2 f3 f4 f5 f6 f7 f8 f9 f10 f11f12 f13 f14f15 f16 f17 f18f19 f20 f21f22 f23 f24f25 f26 f27f28 f29 f30f31 f32 f33f34 f35 f36
f1 f5 f9 f13f17f21f25f29 f33f34 f2 f6 f10 f14f18f22f26f30f31 f35 f3 f7 f11f15 f19f23f27f28f32f36 f4 f8 f12f16f20 f24
BCCH Block

TCH Block 1

TCH Block 2

TCH Block 3

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(I) Fixed Frequency Groups
(I--B) 3/9 Reuse Pattern
(I

9 Strategy#2: Scattered Distribution
Cell A1: Group1 = f1(BCCH), f34(TCH1), f31(TCH2), f28(TCH3)
Cell B1: Group2 = f5(BCCH), f2(TCH1), f35(TCH2), f32(TCH3)
Cell C1: Group3 = f9(BCCH), f6(TCH1), f3(TCH2), f36(TCH3)
Cell C3: Group9 = f33(BCCH), f30(TCH1), f27(TCH2), f24(TCH3)
A1
f1
f34
f31

B1
f5
f2
f35

C1
f9
f6
f3

A2
f13
f10
f7

B2
f17
f14
f11

C2
f21
f18
f15

A3
f25
f22
f19

B3
f29
f26
f23

C3
f33
f30
f27

f28

f32

f36

f4

f8

f12

f16

f20

f24

BCCH Frequencies
TCH Frequencies 1
TCH Frequencies 2
TCH Frequencies 3

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(I) Fixed Frequency Groups
(I--B) 3/9 Reuse Pattern
(I
ƒ For this example whatever the strategy used either
Blocked or scattered, the no. of frequencies/cell = 4.
ƒ

We can calculate the trunking efficiency as below:

¾ No. of TCHs/Cell = (4*8 – 2 )= 30 Traffic channels,
with GOS=2% then Traffic = 21.93 Er
‰ ηT = 100* (21.93/ 30) = 73.1%

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(II) Multiple Reuse Pattern
‰ It is more spectrum efficient than fixed frequency groups for non-uniform
configurations.
‰ The frequency assignment is done according to layered frequency planning
where each band is individually planned.
‰ That is due to the fact that the load on each cell differs according to the
serving area.

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(II) Multiple Reuse Pattern
ƒ Assume a frequency bandwidth of 7.2MHz (36 frequency) and configuration
with
ith maximum
i
4 frequencies
f
i per cellll iis allowed.
ll
d
ƒ The frequencies are then divided into four bands, one band for the BCCH
frequencies and three bands for the TCH frequencies as below:

BCCH Frequencies
f9 f11 f13 f15

12 BCCH Frequencies

f1

f3

f5

f7

10 TCH Frequencies in the 1st TCH band

f2

f4

f6

TCH Frequencies 1
q
f8 f10 f12 f14

TCH Frequencies 2
f26 f28 f30 f32

8 TCH Frequencies in the 2nd TCH band

f22

f24

6 TCH Frequencies in the 3rd TCH band

f25

TCH Frequencies 3
f27 f29 f31 f33

f34

f16

f17
f18

f19

f21

f23

f20

f36

f35

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Frequency Planning
ƒ Frequency Assignment Strategies
(II) Multiple Reuse Pattern
ƒ Assume that cell A is serving in an area where high traffic is expected, while
cellll B iis serving
i iin a normall ttraffic
ffi area.
ƒ The frequency allocation for both cells may be as below:
¾ Cell A: f1 (BCCH), f6 (1st TCH Band), f22 (2nd TCH Band), f25 (3rd TCH Band)
¾ Cell B: f3 (BCCH), f8 (1st TCH Band)
A
B

C

ƒ It can b
be seen th
thatt cells
ll won’t’t experience
i
the
th same frequency
f
reuse pattern
tt
as each of which is configured with different no. of TRXs.

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74