HEMATITE

Algonquian
Delaware.

use.

POLISHED STONE ARTIFACTS
Paint Stone
In the summer of 1948 the writer found on the surface of the BellPhilhower Site a thin rectangular piece of hematite with concave
surfaces on each side exhibiting the marks of abrasion
(Plate 1, No.
4). The obvious conclusion is that this object was used as a
source
of pigment, probably for personal adornment. While its
occurrence
on the surface gives rise to a certain element of doubt
concerning
its cultural affiliation, it is almost certainly of Minsi
origin
(Leslie 1951:13).
Caddoan
Pawnee. use.
SCENARIO ON BUCKSKIN
Fig. 46. The Skidi star chart and pole with buffalo scalp attached
(Chamberlain 1982:186).
Polarized light microscopy was used to identify all of the pigment
samples. The black samples were all composed of a dark brown to
black
lignite (brown coal), a color similar to Van Dyke Brown. The red
pigments were made from hematite (Fe2O3), a natural ironearth. The
yellow material was found to be composed of one or more
hydrated iron
oxides, a yellow iron earth, like yellow ochre (Chamberlain
1982:188).
MATERIAL CULTURE/WORK IN STONE
FIGURE 9.—Incised tablets ("molds") of stone from the Hill site (Hill
collection). They vary in length from 2 to 5 inches, in width from
1
1 /2 to 3
inches, and are oval in cross section. The width is greatest
at the blade and
tends to taper toward the opposite end; the butt is generally
rounded and in
several instances appears to have been used as a pecking
stone. Black
diorite or other porphyritic materials were used for this type
of celt, and
invariably they have been well ground down and polished.
A few small
hematite celts have been found at the Linwood site,
whence have come
most of the polished celts as well (Wedel 1936:78).
The apparent concentration of this type of tool at the eastern edge of the
Pawnee area, and in the early sites particularly, suggests that the

Page: 1

striped with hematite and with miniature False Faces. many of which were written around the beginning of the twentieth century. 1922. University of Maryland. Snorer has heard that it was derived from a rock (possibly hematite) which was found in a certain face-paint mine.tribe was formerly in much closer and more direct contact with tribes east of the Missouri and farther to the southeast. as late as a generation ago. This is a study of Pawnee ethnoastronomy. Ballena Press. hematite occurs very rarely in Nebraska as a working material for primitive man. Los Altos . usually hematite. He-strikes-the-rushes mentioned it. 424-427). It was a powdered rock which they used extensively. Iroquoian Iroquois. pp. one person wearing a pig mask crawls in the foreground. 1. In general the book attempts to consolidate materials written about Pawnee ethnoastronomy scattered through various sources . the Skidi earth lodge as a model of Page: 2 . and tobacco bags attached (Tooker 1978:461). Husk Faces. Rites of Community Status False Face wearers approach a house on the Cattaraugus Reservation during the spring or fall circuit of the community to prevent illness and renew the powers of the False Faces. Save as paint. an annotated list of sky objects referred to in the records. ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Chamberlain. occurs in old Iroquois graves (Parker. College Park. 2 leaders carry hickory canes. Each masker carries a rattle (turtle rattles and one bark rattle). social category. Von Del 1982 When Stars Came Down to Earth: Cosmology of the Skidi Pawnee Indians of North America. The work attempts to describe the objects and phenomena of the sky as they were perceived by the Nebraska Skidi (Skiri) Pawnee. but only Snorer had any knowledge of its provenience. the signal pole. Other ethnographic topics deal with native concepts relating to sky phenomena. and the striking stick (Fenton 1953:133-134). and to the historic Pawnee at least was apparently almost unknown (Wedel 1936:78). vol. Red paint. 2 Husk Faces accompany them. at Cattaraugus for striping fan handles. and the effect that they had on religious beliefs and practices. Center for Archaeoastronomy. use ORIGIN LEGENDS The Seneca stripe their sacred religious paraphernalia with a rare red pigment.

These data are marshaled in such a way as to show their bearing on the ethnological problem of individual variation in behavior. the author discusses the concept of the Minsi culture horizon. Pennsylvania Archaeologist. Leslie. During the first two decades of the nineteenth century. Sections of the monograph discuss the Seneca Eagle Dance at Allegany and Tonawanda Reservations. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 156. organization. Fenton. This is a descriptive listing of the various elements comprising Minsi material culture. Trigger. In Handbook of North American Indians: Northeast. U.. dream experiences. including a large number who had been loyal to the British.15. Smithsonian Institution. ritual equipment. Government Printing Office. moved to reserves in Canada. Vernon 1951 A Tentative Catalogue of Minsi Material Culture. Ontario. northeastern Pennsylvania and adjacent New York. The monograph concludes with a long section on the documentary history of the Eagle Dance including a survey of the literature and a distribution and comparative study. The Iroquois Eagle Dance is then discussed as a cultural phenomenon.S. the various social. the Skidi observational system. and political consequences of the Iroquois defeat by the Americans in the Revolution. Washington. Tooker. were apparent. that the author feels will be of value and interest to the amateur as well as a professional archaeologist digging in the Minsi area of Upper Delaware Valley. 1953 The Iroquois Eagle Dance: An Offshoot of the Calumet Dance. the Onondaga Condor Dance. Prior to the above artifact description. especially the Seneca. as derived form his own fieldwork and the works of other authors. The author believes that by using these listings the archaeologist could get as tentative idea of which artifacts could be assigned to the Minsi horizon and which to an earlier time period.Pawnee cosmology. 449-465. while others remained in their old homelands which were now part of the United States of America. William N. This work describes and analyzes the variations of the Eagle Dance at different Iroquois communities between 1933 and 1950 in New York State and Canada. 21(1-2):9-20. Washington. This monograph is a reworking of Fenton's doctoral dissertation at Yale. and the unique star chart inscribed on buckskin used by the Pawnee over the ages in their study of the heavens. Many Iroquois. sacrifices. and pattern. and the Eagle Dance and Six Nations Reserve. Elisabeth 1978 Iroquois since 1820. edited by Bruce G. including data on origin legends. v. such as the of Cattaraugus Reservation in New York.g. economic. By 1820 it was clear to the Iroquois that in order to deal with whites as neighbors they would have to change their whole economic base of existence (e. from a hunting-gathering society to one based essentially on sedendary Page: 3 . Grand River. pp.

missionization. economic. Wedel. The monograph is divided into four major parts. and religious structures. 1936 An Introduction to Pawnee Archaeology. the third with Pawnee archaeology as viewed through the various bits of evidence obtained from the excavation of prehistoric. the material culture of the early Pawnees as derived from a study of the artifacts themselves. Chawi. changes in political. Waldo R. and the fourth. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 112. This 1930 monograph is a study of the Skidi (Skiri). Artifacts come from the Hill Collection at the Hastings Museum in Nebraska that were excavated from the thirteen archaeological sites. curing practices. Sites are described and interpreted from the journals and records of early explorers and adventurers to the region. the second.agriculture). Washington. Pages 94-102 contain a summary of all data presented in the monograph. the establishment of reservations. U. the historical information and analysis of material culture make this document a useful addition to an understanding of the Pawnee. medicine societies. the first of which is introductory. Page: 4 . 1970s). and Kitkahahki bands of Pawnee in northern Kansas and Nebraska from protohistoric archaeological sites. and early historic sites. dealing in detail with the historical background of the Pawnee. and ethnography. history.S. and modern (ca. Tooker describes the loss of Indian lands. This article traces the various changes that took place in the society from the early nineteenth to the late twentieth century (ca. Government Printing Office. 1970s) reservation life. Although new archaeological fieldwork makes the archaeological data described in this monograph outdated.