11 Wireless LANs


• 802.11b

IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs
• 802.11g

– 2.4 GHz unlicensed band
– 2.4 GHz unlicensed band
– Bit-rates 1-54 Mbps
– Bit-rates 1-11 Mbps
– direct sequence spread spectrum – Extended-Rate PHY (ERP) in
physical layer
(DSSS) in physical layer

• 802.11a

• 802.11n (MIMO)

– 2.4 and 5 GHz unlicensed bands
– 5 GHz unlicensed band
– up to 600 Mbps
– Bit-rates 6-54 Mbps
– Uses advanced signal processing
and modulation techniques at
– Orthogonal Frequency Division
physical layer to exploit multiple
Multiplexing (OFDM) in physical
antennas and wider channels
• All use CSMA/CA for multiple access
• All have multi-rate support for link adaptation
• All allow both infrastructure-mode and ad-hoc mode
• All have same frame structure

4GHz standard.11c.11a.11a (5 GHz) for European compatibility (2004) 802.11n High throughput improvements using MIMO (multiple input. b. Since the only product was a correction.11e Quality-of-service (QoS) extensions. backwards compatible with b (2003) 802.11a to conform to Japanese radio emission regulations (2004) 802. TGc Task group that produced a correction to the example encoding in 802.11x Standards IEEE standard Notes 802.11g 54Mbps. 802.11y 3650-3700 MHz operation in the US (2008) 802. 2.802. but products not released until late 2000.11r Fast roaming (2008) 802.11a Second physical layer standard (1999).11w Protected management frames (Sep 2009) 3 . g. Specified the MAC and the original slower frequency-hopping and directsequence modulation techniques.11-2007 A new release of the standard that includes amendments a. d. multiple output antennas) (Sep 2009) 802.11F Inter-access point protocol to improve roaming between directly attached access points (2003) 802.11b Third physical layer standard (1999). h. there is no 802.11j Enhancements to 802.11 First standard (1997). i & j.11d International roaming extensions (2001) 802. including packet bursting (2005) 802. 802. but second wave of products. (July 2007) 802.11i Improvements to security at the link layer (2004) 802.11h Spectrum managed 802.11k Radio resource measurement enhancements (2008) 802. 802. e.

11p: WAVE—Wireless Access for the Vehicular Environment (such as ambulances and passenger cars) (July 2010) IEEE 802.802.11ac: Very High Throughput <6 GHz. Will become 802. multi user MIMO.11x Standards in the Making • • • • • • • • • • • • IEEE 802.11ah: Sub 1Ghz (~ July 2013) Source: http://en.11-2011.11ae: QoS Management (~ Dec 2011) IEEE 802.11 4 . potential improvements over 802.wikipedia.11z: Extensions to Direct Link Setup (DLS) (September 2010) IEEE 802.11n: better modulation scheme (expected ~10% throughput increase). Extended Service Set (ESS) (~ June 2011) IEEE 802.11u: Interworking with non-802 networks (for example.11mb: Maintenance of the standard.org/wiki/IEEE_802. cellular) (~ Dec 2010) IEEE 802. (~ Dec 2011) IEEE 802.11v: Wireless network management (~ Dec 2010) IEEE 802. wider channels (80 or even 160 MHz).11af: TV Whitespace (~ Mar 2012) IEEE 802.11s: Mesh Networking. (~ Dec 2012) IEEE 802.11aa: Robust streaming of Audio Video Transport Streams (~ Mar 2012) IEEE 802.11ad: Very High Throughput 60 GHz (~ Dec 2012) IEEE 802.

802.11 5 .11 in the Big Picture MAC: Medium Access Control PLCP: Physical Layer Convergence Procedure PMD: Physical Medium Dependent FHSS: Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum DSSS: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum HR/DSSS: High-Rate DSSS OFDM: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ERP: Extended-Rate PHY 802.

similar to a cell in cellular networks • Extended Service Set (ESS) – All APs in ESS share the same network name. Ethernet) Basic Service Set (BSS) – Group of communicating stations in a basic service area.11 Architecture – Similar to base stations in cellular networks – Perform wireless-to-wired bridging • • Distribution System.• Access Points (APs) 802. or backbone network (typically. Service Set IDentifier (SSID) ESS 6 Ad-hoc mode Infrastructure mode .

11 Network Services Service Station or distribution service? Distribution Distribution Service used in frame delivery to determine destination address in infrastructure networks Integration Distribution Frame delivery to an IEEE 802 LAN outside the wireless network Association Distribution Used to establish the AP which serves as the gateway to a particular mobile station Reassociation Distribution Used to change the AP which serves as the gateway to a particular mobile station Disassociation Distribution Removes the wireless station from the network Authentication Station Establishes station identity (MAC address) prior to establishing association Deauthentication Station Used to terminate authentication. association Confidentiality Station Provides protection against eavesdropping MSDU delivery Station Delivers data to the recipient Transmit Power Control (TPC) Station/spectrum management Reduces interference by minimizing station transmit power Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) Station/spectrum management Avoids interfering with radar operation in the 5 GHz 7 band Description .802. and by extension.

802.11 Channels (UK) 10mW/10dBm EIRP limit 200mW/23dBm EIRP limit 1W/30dBm EIRP limit 8 .

Transmit Spectrum Mask • To limit power leakage into adjacent channels Transmit spectrum mask for 802.11a 9 .

802. listening for beacon frames containing AP’s SSID and MAC address – Selects an AP to associate with (left unspecified in the standard) – May perform authentication – Associate with the selected AP – Will typically run DHCP to get IP address in AP’s subnet 10 .11 Association • AP channel determined automatically or assigned by AP admin • Interference possible: channel can be same as that chosen by neighboring AP! • Host: must associate with an AP – Scans channels.

11: Passive/Active Scanning BSS 1 AP 1 BSS 1 BSS 2 1 1 2 AP 1 AP 2 BSS 2 AP 2 1 2 3 2 3 4 H1 H1 Passive Scanning: Active Scanning: (1) Beacon frames sent from APs (2) Association Request frame sent: H1 to selected AP (3) Association Response frame sent: Selected AP to H1 (1) Probe Request frame broadcast from H1 (2) Probe response frames sent from APs (3) Association Request frame sent: H1 to selected AP (4) Association Response frame sent: Selected AP to H1 11 .802.

11: no collision detection! – Difficult to receive (sense collisions) when transmitting due to weak received signals (fading) – Can’t sense all collisions in any case: hidden terminal.IEEE 802.11: CSMA . fading – Goal: avoid collisions: CSMA/C(ollision)A(voidance) • Uses a link-layer ACK/Retry (ARQ) scheme A C A B C’s signal strength A’s signal strength B 12 C space .11: Multiple Access • Avoid collisions: 2+ nodes transmitting at same time • 802.sense before transmitting – Don’t collide with ongoing transmission by other node • 802.

11 MAC Protocol: CSMA/CA 802.11 receiver receiver data SIFS ACK If frame received OK Return ACK after SIFS (ACK needed due to hidden terminal problem) 13 .IEEE 802.11 sender 1 If sense channel idle for DIFS then sender Transmit entire frame (no CD) If no ACK. increase random backoff interval.DIFS repeat 2 2 If sense channel busy then Start random backoff time Timer counts down while channel idle Transmit when timer expires 802.

Avoiding Collisions (more) Idea: allow sender to “reserve” channel rather than random access • • • of data frames: avoid collisions of long data frames Sender first transmits small request-to-send (RTS) packets to receiver using CSMA – RTSs may still collide with each other (but they are short) Receiver broadcasts clear-to-send CTS in response to RTS CTS heard by all nodes – Sender transmits data frame – Other stations defer transmissions Avoid data frame collisions completely using small reservation packets! 14 .

Collision Avoidance: RTS-CTS Exchange A B AP reservation collision DATA (A) defer time 15 .

2312 4 payload CRC Address 4: used only in ad hoc mode Address 3: MAC address of router interface to which AP is attached 16 .11 Frame: Addressing 6 2 2 6 6 6 2 frame address address address seq address duration control 1 2 3 4 control Address 1: MAC address of wireless host or AP to receive this frame Address 2: MAC address of wireless host or AP transmitting this frame 0 .802.

11 frame 17 . address source address 802.3 frame AP MAC addr H1 MAC addr R1 MAC addr address 1 address 2 address 3 802.11 Frame: Addressing R1 router H1 Internet AP R1 MAC addr H1 MAC addr dest.802.

ACK. CTS.2312 4 payload CRC 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 From More Power More Retry WEP Rsvd AP frag mgt data frame type (RTS. data) 18 .802.11 Frame: More duration of reserved transmission time (RTS/CTS/DATA) frame seq # (for duplicate filtering) 6 2 2 6 6 6 2 frame address address address seq address duration control 1 2 3 4 control 2 Protocol version 2 4 Type Subtype 1 To AP 0 .

11 Mobility Support BSS Transition ESS Transition 19 .802.

802.11: Mobility Within Same Subnet • H1 remains in same IP subnet: IP address can remain same • Switch: H1 associated with which AP? router hub or switch BSS 1 – self-learning: switch will see frame from H1 and “remember” which switch port can be used to reach H1 AP 1 AP 2 H1 20 BSS 2 .

11 Handoff Procedure and Latency 21 .802.

switch to lower transmission rate but with lower BER 22 . as node moves away from AP).g. so is received SNR • AP and stations dynamically adapt transmission rate (modulation and coding scheme used) to track SNR variations • Issues: – Responsiveness in dynamic environments – Separating channel related losses from interference losses BER 10-1 10-2 QAM256 (8 Mbps) QAM16 (4 Mbps) BPSK (1 Mbps) 10-3 operating point 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10 20 30 SNR(dB) 40 1.802. When BER becomes too high. SNR decreases (e.11 Rate Adaptation • Wireless channel timevarying.. BER increases 2.

) Office Environment Home Environment 23 .802.11 Rate Adaptation (Contd.

otherwise can sleep again until next beacon frame 24 . buffers them instead – Station wakes up before next beacon frame • Beacon frame from AP: contains list of stations with AP-to-station frames buffered – Station will stay awake as long as there are AP-tostation frames to be received.11 Power Management • Station-to-AP: “I am going to sleep until next beacon frame” (by setting power management bit in frame header) – AP knows not to transmit frames to that station during that period.802.

802.11 Network Interface Implementation A Schematic Amplifier Frequency conversion Shielding (De)modulation Physical carrier sensing 25 .

Mishra. “802.11 MAC Layer Handoff Process.11 Wireless Networks. Kurose and K. M. • A.” 5th edition. Shin and W. Pearson Education. S.References • J. • M. 2010. “An Empirical Analysis of the IEEE 802.” O’Reilly. “License-Exempt Wireless Communication Systems. 26 . W. April 2007. Ross. Hodgkinson. “Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach. • S. April 2003.” ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communications Review (CCR). F. Arbaugh. Gast. 2005. Kawade and T.” BT Technology Journal.