Maney Publishing

The Andrews Great House Community: A Ceramic Chronometric Perspective
Author(s): Ruth M. Van Dyke
Source: Kiva, Vol. 63, No. 2 (Winter, 1997), pp. 137-154
Published by: Maney Publishing on behalf of the Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society
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D. group meanceramic andmultidimensional wereusedtodatesites dating.243 on Sun.Marshallet al. TheearlydatesforAndrews relatively earlyexample thatgreat housearchitecture inoutlying communities neednotsignify an suggest Chacoan expansionist presence. 900-1150. Thearealextent oftheChacoanphenomenon isdefined. scaling intheAndrews Chacoan intheRedMesaValleyofnorthwest New community Mexico.Powersetal.existing whereas communities. Temporal in and the basin communities should be assessed when ity among competing fortheoriginsandnatureoftheChacoansystem areevaluated explanations (e. others werefounded latein thePuebloII period. 2 Nov 2014 14:30:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . dating.Lekson1991.TheAndrews great ofa Chacoanstructure.Sebastian 1992. 1987. houseappears tobea 1000s. byChacoan outliers orgreathousecommunities theSanJuanBasinandborderthroughout thePuebloII period(Marshalletal.1991.Lekson1991). TheAndrews wasfound tohavebeenoccupied between the community lateA.Outliers exhibit considerable varitemporal in thegeneralChacoantimeframe ability ofA. Wilcox1993). VANDYKE ofAnthropology Department ofArizona University Arizona 85721 Tucson.58.c. 1983.No.Vol.D. 2. y escalas multidimensionales se datan sitios en la comunidadChacoana de Andrews en el ValleRedMesa del noroestede NuevoMixico. (1982:1231) termed theseancestral andscioncommunities.63.Por perifdricas degruposcercmicos.Judge1989.c. inpart..144. 1979. This content downloaded from 201. Las fechas tempranode una estructura enla comunidadAndrews degrancasas tempranas sugierenque la arquitectura no significanecesariamente una expansi6nde la presenciade Chaco hacia comunidades perifricas. ingareasduring Fowleretal.y hacia la mitadde los anios1000 d. variabilrespectively. La grancasa de Andrews parece ser un ejemplorelativamente Chacoana.Toll1985. 1997 THE ANDREWSGREATHOUSE COMMUNITY: A CERAMIC CHRONOMETRICPERSPECTIVE RUTHM.D. ABSTRACT inandamong Chacoan Anasazi outlier communities Temporal variability maybe assessedusingceramic chronometric Ceramic successfully techniques.g.Vivian1990.KIVA.fechamiento mediodefechamientos promediocerdmico.Somebasingreat houseswereestablished in themidstofolder. RESUMEN Se puede evaluarcon dxitola variabilidadtemporalentelas comunidades Chaco-Anasazisusandoticnicascronometricas de cerdmica.Estasdataciones muestran estuvoocupada entrelosfinalesdel 800s que la comunidadAndrews d.800sandthemid-A.

andprovided relative datesforthesites.andWindesand RedWaresarebasedon the McKenna(1989).grabsamples from on44middens ceramics weresystematically examined withsurface ceramic attheremaining sixsites.41 weredatedusingceramics(theother sitesaretworockartpanelsandoneNavajosweatlodge). community occupied relatively early andthegreathousewasconstructed LatePuebloI totheLatePuebloII period. scaling(MDS) are groupdating. groups.76/m2.5 sherds/m2.5 sherds/m2 all ceramic artifact ormore. Eachsampleprovenience foreachsherd.Inthispaper. CeramicDating conwereusedtoestablish Threeceramic chronometric temporal techniques to Theseincluded trolofthesitesin theAndrews communities. Sherddensities rangedfrom 0.Surface 35sites. Resultsofthethreemethods dating. setforth weretypedfollowing theguidelines andprocedures comprehensively of Cibola Wares Mills' definitions Goetze and Mills and (1993a).Doyel(1980).25/m2 sherds/m2. ofthevisibleceramics sitiesoffewer Field a discrete wasassigned midden wereexamined.144. corresponded closely strong This content downloaded from 201. during THE ANDREWSCOMMUNITY intheRedMesaValleyofnorthwest NewMexico TheAndrews community The documented wasoriginally byMarshalletal.Sherds witha fewWhiteMountain WaresandCibolaWhiteWares.definitions ofWhiteMountain studies byCarlson(1970).138 VANDYKE usedto andsuccessfully arefrequently Ceramicchronometric techniques datesforChacoanAnasazisites. the from was The Chacoan manifestations.Fowler(1988). theEarlyPuebloII period. wererecorded Thetypeandvesselform (FS) number. Great House theAndrews documented including cently andtwogreatkivas(VanDyke1996).243 on Sun.McKennaand Toll(1984). 5-by-5artifact denmareawereexamined.Ofthesesites. 2 Nov 2014 14:30:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .witha mean Sherdcountsforeachsampleprovenience rangedfrom withan averageof10 to28. community on theeastsideofa broadvalleydrained is at thebaseofan escarpment by reDraw.Sullivan(1984).TheAndrews Casamero Project Mapping Archaeological Community 44 sitesinthecommunity.Goetze by follow theworkofCrown(1981).Ofthe36middens wererecorded within a artifacts densities of2. (1979:117-129). of74. Specimen 46 to719.58.ceramic reliable relative provide andmultidimensional meanceramicdating. ceramic withsurface Ontheeightmiddens 100percent on the than2. assignment ceramic meanceramic andMDS.Mills(1987). in theRedMesa from the Andrews to date community employed assemblages its and Andrews Results indicate that the greathouseare community Valley.Windes(1984). ofCibolaGray TheAndrews arecomposed almost exclusively assemblages RedWares.

28 proveniences proveniences at 14 siteswere siteswereassignedto EarlyPuebloII.71.Windes1977. 2 Nov 2014 14:30:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This content downloaded from 201.1990. Four fortheAndrews are summarized assignments proveniences atfoursiteswereassigned at23 toLatePuebloI.1987). dating including Gomolak(1980).Douglass 1987.GoetzeandMills1993b. inghistoric (1) ceramic niqueis basedonthefollowing assumptions: typeshaveunimodal curvesoverlap. realassemblages "match" possible tively againsttheideal. curves. IntheSouthwest. especially surface assemblages general chronological way areoflittleutility whereabsolutedatingtechniques (Ambler1985. he concluded thatmean usinga tree-ring ceramic can be as accurate as dating nearly tree-ring dating.Meanceramic hasbeenusedbya number ofresearchers.instead variability. particularly production spansfor ceramic have established with been correlation many types through tree-ring dates. ontheColorado Plateau.144. Middens attwosites. periods MeanCeramicDating Thetechnique of meanceramic absolute dateestimates for dating provides ceramic oftypes withknown Mean assemblages composed rangesofproduction.Mills(1988.(2) thesefrequency (3) thedateofa typecan frequency be represented and(4) themeanceramicdate(MCD) ofan byitsmidrange.Mills1988. Forexample.243 on Sun.GoetzeandMills testedthetechnique 1993b).73)andaresummarized group in Table2.multiple multiple wereidentified within a singlemidden.takingintoaccount toward curated vesselsmaymisleadtheanalyst distortion factors.Ceramic 248)andMills(1988:68.andGraves(1990).GreatHouseCommunity TheAndrews 139 CeramicGroups IntheAnasaziarea. canbe calculated assemblage usingthemeandatesforeachtypeweighted by frequency.atLA 17208. (1983). ranges temporal orcollection carddiffer. ceramic wasdeveloped sitescontaindating bySouth(1977)foruseathistoric Thetechceramics whosemanufacturing daterangeswereknown.58.Ceramic groups there area a giventimeperiod. presence inOther an be heirloom vessel and should ignored.Kincaidet al. and 16 proveniences toLatePuebloII. number ofpotential problems itis uptotheanalyst tosubjeceredtoberepresented byan is themostcommon bymeansofceramic groups for to establish control.However. broadchronological control.Christenson (1994) recently datedKayenta Anasaziassemblage. nience. problems likely represents and disfor ceramic the fact that the clude manufacture. differences sitefunction mayreflect proveAssemblage is generally oftemporal thetechnique Nevertheless. veryusefulforestablishing Ceramic arebasedonthosedefined (1987:244byWindes group assemblages inTable1. in earlier sherds a discrete area a small number of anearlier the of date.werefound periods. use. thatpredominate contain during types Eachtimeperiodis considwiththetechnique.LA 111167andLA 17218(the assigned torepresent greathouse).

Dominant Lino Kana-a NarrowNeck Chaco Indented guidelines. Types Types.D.D. B/W Banded. B/W Kiatuthlanna B/W.Banded. Not Fugitive Stylistic Corrugated.D. as Stylistic only presented Associated Phase Phase Phase and Bonito Bonito Bonitoassemblages.144. B/W. Escavada White Mesa Red White B/W. Neck Neck B/W Corrugated. B/W Mound Plata La Puerco B/W. Red.D.Early Early Ceramic (A. Late (A.58. 2 Nov 2014 14:30:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .40 40 40 B/W B/W. Chaco Gallup B/W. NarrowNeck Gallup minority Indented all Banded. Chaco-McElmo Escavada B/W. Note: Table This content downloaded from 201.Late (A.Early (A. Mound B/W. types Corrugated. 700-800) 800-900) These 900-1040) Pueblo Pueblo Pueblo (A.D.243 on Sun. listed. Groups I I ideal II/EarlyII/Classic III/Late are Group Ceramic 1040-1100) Pueblo Pueblo 1100-1140) 1. Neck B/W. Gray. Puercoare Corrugated.

Site/Provenience FS No.Midden3 28 LA 111161 42 LA 17196 19 LA 17202.Midden2 3 LA 111167.Midden1 35 LA 17214 LA 17215 *LA 17218.144.243 on Sun. 2 Nov 2014 14:30:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 951 c 58 971 c 55 971 c 96 . Group MCD (A.Midden4 LA 111172 44 EarlyPuebloII EarlyPuebloII 920 c 83 LA 111156 8 LA 17217 15 *LA 17218.58.Midden3 920 c 52 922 c 60 EarlyPuebloII EarlyPuebloII 924 c 60 927 c 59 13 EarlyPuebloII EarlyPuebloII 5 EarlyPuebloII 930 c 69 4 EarlyPuebloII EarlyPuebloII 930 c 70 LA 111157 10 LA 17205 32 LA 111165 39 LA 111159 12 LA 17207 16 LA 17211 40 LA 17202.Midden2 29 LA 17208 17 925 c 60 929 c 67 931 c 60 EarlyPuebloII EarlyPuebloII 931 c 62 EarlyPuebloII EarlyPuebloII 935 c 65 933 c 50 941 c 74 EarlyPuebloII EarlyPuebloII 948 c 41 EarlyPuebloII EarlyPuebloII 953 c 48 EarlyPuebloII LatePuebloI. CeramicGroupsand Mean CeramicDates (MCD) forSites inthe AndrewsCommunity (Page 1 of 2).) LA 17210 47 LatePuebloI 882 c 33 LA 17213 11 LatePuebloI 889 c 53 LA 17216 9 LatePuebloI - LA 111171 51 LatePuebloI - *LA 17218.141 GreatHouseCommunity TheAndrews Table 2.Late 971 c 58 This content downloaded from 201.Midden5 7 6 EarlyPuebloII EarlyPuebloII 919 c 56 *LA 17218.D.

2 Nov 2014 14:30:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .58.Midden2 25 LatePuebloII LA 17199.243 on Sun.144.142 VANDYKE Table 2.Midden1 24 LatePuebloII LA 17203 31 LatePuebloII LA 17206 18 LatePuebloII 993 c 93 995 c 80 995 c 82 - - 1016c 81 1017c 90 1029c 102 1034c 74 1039c 75 1042c 67 1042c 75 1049c 57 1050c 54 1054c 72 1056c 81 1057c 64 LA 17212 21 LatePuebloII LA 111167.D.Midden4 38 LatePuebloII LA 17199.) EarlyPuebloII EarlyPuebloII 978 c 65 988 c 72 EarlyPuebloII EarlyPuebloII LA 111158 48 EarlyPuebloII EarlyPuebloII LA 111166 49 EarlyPuebloII LA 111170 50 LA 111169 43 EarlyPuebloII LatePuebloII *LA 17218. CeramicGroupsand Mean CeramicDates (MCD) forSites inthe AndrewsCommunity (Page 2 of 2).Midden1 2 LatePuebloII LA 17195 20 LatePuebloII LA 17197 23 LatePuebloII LA 17200 26 LatePuebloII LA 17204 33 LatePuebloII LA 17199.Midden2 36 LatePuebloII 1057c 67 LA 111162 34 LatePuebloII LA 111168 37 LatePuebloII 1076c 40 LA 111163 45 LatePuebloII - *Andrews GreatHouse This content downloaded from 201.Midden1 30 LA 17201 27 LA 17194 14 LA 111160 41 LA 17198 22 Group MCD (A. Site/Provenience FS No. LA 17202.

therefore. inherent theMCD Therearefivepotential First.anddatesforSan JuanRedWarearefrom Carlson(1970) andMills(1988). (1983)found rangeof50yearswerecounted I chosetoweight andnonweighted datestobecomparable.Second.simple linearweighting wasaccomplished a type'srangefrom a large bysubtracting number sherds witha rangeof200years (300) anddividing by100. include Narrow ramicdating.243 on Sun. inthetechnique.D.Thisproblem MCDs for separate bycalculating Andfifth.975) tendsto 900s. ceramics of functional Variable use-lives different not types stylistic. areaddedtogether. contained ofKiatuthlanna BlackManyAndrews assemblages highfrequencies and Red Mesa Black-on-white. on-white with Assemblages relatively equal ofthesetwotypes amounts wouldintuitively beexpected todatetotheearlyA. MCDsderived from surface eachcomponent.Mills(1988. theAndrews weighted datasothattypes withshorter counted more than those with broad ranges ranges. mediandates. ifpossible. 1990). result functional types contributing might is circumvented tosomedegreebytheelimination ofmostplain Thisproblem meanceramic doesnotworkwithmultiple wares.GreatHouseCommunity 143 TheAndrews sincemany reliesprimarily Meanceramic ceramics. proveniences This content downloaded from 201. componentsdating thecomponent withthehighest number of theMCD willmerely trend toward can be circumvented sherds.Themediandatesforeach suchas LinoGrayandFugitive arepresent.Following Christenson (1994:304). 2 Nov 2014 14:30:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . functional.144.D. andCasamero as is thecasefortheAndrews data. upondecorated dating spansandhencearenotusefulformeanceplainwareshavelongproduction NeckBandedandKana-aNeckBanded. Fora thorough to Goetzeand Mills cons of meanceramicdating. relative.thereaderis referred andChristenson (1993b:102-104) (1994).andweight factors usedtocalculate Thetypes.5 times.whilethosewitha (equivalent groupperiod)werecounted 2.andWindes(1984.Although Kincaidetal. thendivided of sherdintheassemblage bythetotalnumber sherds togetthemeandatefortheassemblage. in Table3. the aretreated as Third.1987). problems from remains derived thatinsomecasesspan200yearsormore.butusingtheunweighted thisproblem. tooneceramic once. mediandateforRedMesa(A. ranges a singledate. types. dateranges.itis thetechnique Itmustberemembered thatalthough produces inoccupation toa singleyear. themeanofa range. thedataameliorated pushtheMCDs forward.fewsitesarelimited thetimeofvesselmanufacture anddiscardmayresult thediscrepancy between inanMCD thatis lateinthesite'soccupation. Weighting MCDswerecalculated for42 proveniences at33 sitesintheAndrews com10 MCDs calculated for nine with fewer than were not munity. community arelessaccurate oftheprosand from discussion thanassemblages excavation.58. inparticular moreheavily totheMCD. Exceptions wherefewdecorated ceramics andplainwaresthatappearinearlyassemblages Red.Fourth. DatesforCibolaWhite dataarepresented MCDs fortheAndrews WareandCibolaGrayWarearefrom McKennaandToll(1984). assemblages.

) Ceramic Date 688 688 700 850 900 775 875 975 1025108810881090111311251150 Mean in Median Used Types (A.58.5 1. 0.144.25 1. 40. (A.75 0.40.D.5 1 1. 2 Nov 2014 14:30:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .25 2 2.D.243 on Sun.25 1.5 2.) Ceramic for Range 575-800 575-800 800-900 850-950 650-750 850-900 700-850 900-1050 925-1125 1000-1175 1000-1175 1040-1140 1075-1150 1050-1200 1100-1200 Date Factors Weight and Dates. Gray Mesa Plata TypeLino Fugitive La Kana-a White Kiatuthlanna Narrow Red Escavada Puerco Puerco Gallup Chaco Wingate Chaco-McElmo Table This content downloaded from 201.5 2 Dating. Median Black-on-white Black-on-white Banded Banded Black-on-white Black-on-white Black-on-white Red Black-on-white Black-on-red Ranges.75 Weight 2 2 2 40. NeckNeckMound Black-on-white Black-on-red Black-on-white Black-on-white 3. 1.

8 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 88 1 2222222333333 4455 7777 8999 11 233 44455555 7 meanceramic dates.Ithas beensuccessfully intheSouthwest usedforceramicseriation of bya number researchers Durand and Hurst Goetze and Mills (Drennan1976. thebiggerdifference between thedata greater sets.Themeandatesrangedbestandard deviations represent tweenA. Figure1.144.Whalley1980. 2 Nov 2014 14:30:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . comparability.corresponding EarlyandLatePueblo in in of the MCDs presented II.243 on Sun. andbetween sponding withthebreakbetween A.D.Windes1987). GoetzeandMills(1993b)expanded sucuponWindes'study. 1076c40. with the break between Late Pueblo I and EarlyPuebloII.GreatHouseCommunity TheAndrews 145 usablesherds.D. by MDS produces geometric plotsonwhicheachpointis a singledataset. 1991. GoetzeandMills(1993b:113-115) usedtheSYSTATMDS To ensure maximum the Andrews seriation usedthe program. StemandleafplotofAndrews Multidimensional Scaling statistical usedto identify thevariables MDS is a multivariate technique behind measures ofdistance between datasets(Kruskal andWish1978).D.The thedistance between thepoints.Thepat- This content downloaded from 201.correNatural appeared groups. Rangeslistedin Table2 foreachmeandate.889 and919. sameprogram andfollowed thesamestepsoutlined Goetze and Mills.The results are included in Table2.thencombined themwithunpreviously datedceramics. seriations Windes'datawithassemblages from cessfully producing integrating theENRONproject.A successful MDS runshouldresultina horseshoe-shaped plot. 1993b. Millsetal.58. 995and1016.D.882c33andA.Washburn andMatson1985. 1992.He seriated datedassemblages from PuebloAlto. Thebreaksareillustrateda stemandleafplot Figure1.corresponding closelywiththeceramic breaks in the data between A. Windes(1987)has refined thetechnique fortheSan JuanBasin.

andChacoBlack-on-white. GallupBlack-on-white. andindented groupplacement. Thenumbers correspond the in Figure2 bytriangles.I employed data. Theresults and oftheceramicgrouping the withtheresults plotcanbe easilycompared listedinTable3. 2 Nov 2014 14:30:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . FS number. ofthe 2 in in TheMDS plot Dimensions 1 and is shown Figure2. nifya degenerate Windes(1987) amount ofvariation. EarlyPuebloII groupbysquares. analysis Types EscavadaBlack-onRedMesaBlack-on-white.15 or loweris desired(Kachigan 1. caserepresented Multicomponent by designated LA 17208 datasetfrom sothemulticomponent cannot beseriated. corrugated) clapboard wasclassified thelatter decorated FS 14andFS 43 hadsimilar typefrequencies. ofindented as LatePuebloII becauseofitshighfrequency corrugated.Goetze stress thelowest found thatfivedimensions produced with werecompatible thatthreedimensions andMills(1993b:115)ascertained theirdata.Proveniences earlyA. withpositions respectively. gramshouldbe a smooth number ofdimenThegoalis tohavethesmallest solution. of31 sitesis represented bytheseproveniences. sionsto accountforthelargest Although valueinhisdataset. TheLatePuebloI ceramicgroupis represented A total andtheLatePuebloII group bycircles. oneprovenience. Twoslight withtheceramic TheMDS seriation groups. than10usablesherds.groupings.243 on Sun. problems withfewer I arbitrarily eliminated fromtheMDS analysisanyproveniences BecauseplainwareswerenotusedintheMDS analysis. (Kruskal dia49. assemblages from smallsamples. Thesedifthatseemedtobereversed.Proveniences withMCDs in nearthehorseshoe'sapex. (exright withMCDsinthe ceptforFS 44) withMCDsinthelateA. The not exceed and should shoulddeclinesmoothly Shepard figuration orbendssigcurveorstraight line. however. proveniences.D.A stressvalueapproaching mayindicate reach the finalcontaken to Iterations Wish and solution 1978:51).prove- This content downloaded from 201.58. unstandardized datasets. Kiatuthlanna Black-on-white.Finally.D. Each andfrequency Variables included (inpercentages). type. ofthemeanceThepatterning also corresponded closelywiththeresults ofproveniences wascomposed Thehorseshoe's branch ramicdating.146 VANDYKE the between nototherwise fordifferences ternofpoints apparent maybestudied Euclideandistance. ofusableproveniences reduced thenumber thisfurther Mound in White included used the MDS Black-on-white.D. 900s werestrungalongthehorseshoe'sleftbranch. Toavoidpossible resulting (FS 17)waseliminated. oftheinclusion ofplainwarefrequencies weretheresult ferences (particularly inceramic Forexample.800s. 1986:418). white. totheFS numbers MDS in Table3. Puerco Black-on-white. provenience. to40. 900s clustered thelateA.144.Thegoodness stressvalueof0. A finalconfiguration a degenerate 0. closely corresponded two between FS 44 wasanEarlyPuebloII assemblage anomalies wereapparent: andFS 14 and43 wereEarlyandLatePuebloII LatePuebloI proveniences.steps.andnonmetric ona scaleof0is measured offitofthesolution bystress scaling.

havetwoormorecomponents. MDS plotforAndrews intwodimensions. components.243 on Sun.weredeter- This content downloaded from 201. A singlemidden at ingtheAndrews greathouse. 15 and II sites have Late Pueblo Threesites. LA 17208wasassigned totheLatePuebloI-Late PuebloII groups.includII components.144.58.D. Andrews SiteTemporal Affiliations Theresults oftheceramic indicate thatfivesitesinthe datingtechniques Andrews I have 24 Late Pueblo sites haveEarlyPueblo community components. 2 Nov 2014 14:30:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Figure proveniences niences withMCDs intheA.TheAndrews GreatHouseCommunity Circles= Late Pueblo II Sites Numbers= FS Numbers(See Table 2) Triangles= Late Pueblo I Sites Squares = EarlyPueblo II Sites 29 S19 0 0 z Fn z w 23 * 018 349 36oe 310 210 260 33 4127 014 943 27 *25 147 30 22 m42 8 .10 32M 1 1"039 12M3 07 1335 02160 40 6 4151 Al11 -44 -20 -2 A47 -1 0 1 2 DIMENSION1 2.LA 111167andLA 17218(theAndrews GreatHouse). 1000sclustered attheendofthehorseshoe's left branch. Theother twosites.

AttheAndrews weresampled. (1979:123-129). 1032c67). and was tothe of (Midden1) great assigned fouradditional withthe LatePuebloII period.D.919c56and930c70. (compare andtemporal as indicated affiliation.D.919c56and930c70. withMCDs ranging A.butceramic didnotindicate chronometry multiple temporal components. bythedates from Midden1 (EarlyPuebloII.allthree middens were as Pueblo sampled grouped Early between A.nearest greathouse.951c58and978c65. thesoutheast.EarlyPuebloII occupation nearthegreathouse appearstohaveclustered andthetwogreatkivasalongtheedgeoftheescarpment. Midden1.Multiple between middens werealso sampled at LA 17199andLA 17202.D.148 VANDYKE minedtohavemultiple onthebasisofsampling atmultemporal components LA 11167hastwotemporal as indicated tiplemiddens. shoe. middensassociated theEarlyPuebloII period. with MCDs the halfof Pueblo sites latter Early thetenth on the MDS the left branch of the horsecentury. clustering Therearethreegreatkivasin theAndrews one ofwhichis community.However.D. andtheMCDs clustered Sitetemporal withthegroups to placements corresponded closely assigned 23 oftheAndrews sitesbyMarshalletal. 1979:257).D. house.58. EarlyPuebloII sitesarefound throughoutthecommunity.Late This content downloaded from 201. 1000s.arescattered throughout Exceptforthegreathouse.D.AtLA 17202.D. butthere is a pattern from ofexpansion northwest tosoutheast. 2 Nov 2014 14:30:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .all threesampledmiddens a Late represented PuebloII component.D. niencescompose theapexofthehorseshoe ontheMDS plot(Figure2).243 on Sun. 927c59)andMidden2 (LatePuebloII. During andmoved thelatter halfofthetenth thepopulation century. At LA 17199. Figure3 depictsthelocation byceramicgroup. withan MCD ofA. MostEarlyPuebloII sitessurrounding thegreathouse(LA 17218)andthetwogreat kivas(LA 17207 andLA 17217)haveMCDs inthefirst halfofthetenth Theseprovecentury. associated withthegreat 450mto house. foreachsiteintheAndrews The of dates from community.144.D. 1042c75 MCDs forthemiddens from A. range middens associated withthegreathousesuggests inthe thatitwasconstructed nearest the earlyA. to ranged 1050c54. gradually expanded in II southward intothevalley. withmean datesintheearlyhalfofthetenth century.fivemiddens thegreat was classified as Late Pueblo and has MCD 1017c90. BothLA (17207)is an additional 17217andLA 17207weregrouped in theEarlyPuebloII period. withanMCD ofA.A second(LA 17217)is approximately A third 300mtothesoutheast. 900sandoccupiedintotheearlyA. an II ofA. Most community weretheresultofdifferent discrepancies groupdaterangesusedbythetwo studies Table1 withMarshall etal.withMCDs greathouse(Middens2-5) represent between A. LatePuebloI sitestendtobelocatedonridgesatthebaseofthetalusslope inthenorthern partofthecommunity. components. represented plotby thecommunity. II.D. 5 weregrouped Middens2 through Pueblo as Early II.Themidden house 1017c90 had an MCD A.

111168 USGS 7.GreatHouseCommunity TheAndrews 149 0 17216 A 111158 111172 m 111156 17215 17214 111157 111159 111160 17213 A 111161 117217 17211. ANDREWSCOMMUNITY ANASAZISITE LOCATIONS T14N. 2 Nov 2014 14:30:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Section 33 0 200 400m ContourInterval= 5 m Elevations in M Above Sea Level V AndrewsGreatHouse ALate Pueblo I Sites EarlyPueblo II Sites C EarlyPueblo II Late Pueblo II Sites Late Pueblo 11Sites 3.17202 m17201 .58.243 on Sun.5' Quadrangles: ThoreauNE Goot Mt. 17204c 111163 S17200 17205 .R11W. A111171 17194 17196 17212 17195* +17208 17209 *1111165 17207 *17206 4O9U 17197* 17199e 111166 m 1111700 *111169 17203 17198 111162* 111167.144. This content downloaded from 201. Andrews ceramic sitesandassociated Figure community groups.

The ceramicdatesfortheAndrews greathousesuggestthatthenature. inChacoCanyon Greathouseconstruction beganintheEarlyBonitophase andescalated the Classic Bonito during phase(Lekson1984). 1983.Guadalupe (Durand andEl Llano-Escalon (GoetzeandMills1993b).243 on Sun.Mostgreathouses inthecentral SanJuanBasinareceramically datedtotheClassicBonitophase et al.58. be re-evaluated. Powers et al. 919c56and1017c90. 1983. in andrelationships toChacoCanyon. variability origins. west. outlier Thecommunity ancestral may intheRedMesaValley withothers be considered generally contemporaneous etal.However. outlying signify expansionist presence. thevalleyfloor. (Marshall 1990:234).Anintensive comparison the ceramicchronometric information from Chacoancommunities throughout San JuanBasincouldrevealpatterns usefulforevaluating competing explanationsofthenature andorigins oftheChacoansystem.who conductedthein-field ceramicanalysisat the Acknowledgments. ofgreathousearchitecture Thepresence communities need not an Chacoan Rather. withitsLatePuebloI-Early PuebloII substrate. qualifies inMarshalletal.150 VANDYKE ortothe PuebloII sitestendtobelocatedinthesouthern partofthecommunity.nearer THE ANDREWSCOMMUNITYIN A LARGERCHACOANCONTEXT Mostoutliers documented thegreater SanJuanBasinhavebeen throughout ceramic based assigned temporal rangesusing grouping onsurface assemblages et al. (Marshall indeveloping forcommunities suchas alsohavebeenemployed chronometries Rock Casamero andHurst1991).Thistemporal patthatoutlying intothe ternsuggests houses Chacoanexpansion great represent San JuanBasin. 1987). 2 Nov 2014 14:30:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Vivian 1979. differences Temporal amongChacoangreathousesthroughout inthestructures' theSan JuanBasinmayreflect functions. Andrews hertechnical andforproviding usefulcomments sites.'s (1982:1231)scheme.MCD andMDS 1979. ceramic datesfortheAndrews greathouseindicate thatthisstructure is contemporaneous withtheearlygreat housesofChacoCanyon.andStanding (Mills1988). theCasamero andCoolidge houseshave great singleLatePuebloII orClassicBonitophasecomponents.Fowleretal. greathouseis seento fallattheearlyendofthe A.However.forsharing expertise This content downloaded from 201.andBarbaraMills.D. andpurpose ofChacoanarchitectural influences atoutlying sitesshould direction. Chacoantemporal withfivemiddenMCDs ranging between spectrum.Incontrast. Powers et al. I wishto thankSarahHerr.144. 1988)andCoolidge(Marshall (Harper theAndrews 144). ofindigenous someoutlier emulation greathousearchitecture maybetheresult reflect a pan-Anasazi of ormaysimply ethnicstyle. 1979:141suchas Casamero etal. as an Andrews.

intheaboveare.NewMexico. inspired atAndrews is funded Grant from theNational Research bya Dissertation Improvement community. 1987 Prehistoric TheLittle andSociopolitical ColoradoWhite Exchange Development: WareProduction-Distribution Ph. Adaptation Stress: RioPuercoValley. Antiquity B. byPhilR. Program Report 250.Tucson. andRogerAnyon Fowler.ofcourse.pp.John'sProject. Arizona StateMuseum Series No. Westfall. Andrew R. Christenson.Northern Archaeological No. Doyel. 19.University ofArizona Anthropological Papers Andrew L. andWestern 1970 Mountain Redware: APottery Tradition White ofEast-CentralArizona No.PuebloofZuni. 153.Flagstaff Carlson. City. 233-255.Geib.Kiva Kayenta DatingusingWell-Dated 59:297-317. In Archaeological 1985 Northern near KayentaCeramicChronology.J. Debowski.Christine and E. 1981 TheCeramic In ThePrehistory Assemblage.Richard Ambler.Mills Goetze. American 41:290-302. Fowler. oftheSt.Richard Martha M.Report on file.BureauofLandManagement.144. ZuniArchaeology No.Zuni Indian NewMexico. inDead Valley.Officeof Cultural Albuquerque.D. Series Archaeological Robert D. 1988 Archaeological Testingof Site NM:12:K3:263at Blackrock. 1980 andTechnological oftheDeadValleyCeramic In Stylistic Analysis Assemblages.dissertation. 576. AmyA. Andrew P. Reservation.JimWalker. editedandassembled S. East-Central Arizona:TheTG&ESpringerville Prehistory Report.Mills.andBarbara 1993a Classification Criteria forWaresand Types. 2 Nov 2014 14:30:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Tucson.16: Anthropological fortheTranswestern Pipeline Expansion Project. 1976 A Refinement ofChronological Seriation Nonmetric Multidimensional Using Scaling. Christine J.Tucson. E. DoyelandSharon pp. Anyerrors myownresponsibility. Albuquerque. Stein. 144. Project.In Acrossthe ColoradoPlateau: Studies vol. Investigations and Rainbow edited Utah.233-290.28-68. A. NavajoMountain. REFERENCES J. Interpretation ofCeramic Artifacts. Unpublished Department ofAnthropology. Patricia L. metoworkontheAndrews Steintogether ChrisGoetze. System. Hurst Durand. RoyL. Archaeological Douglass. edited Irwin-Williams Prehistory oftheMiddle byCynthia andLarryL. byDavidE. Drennan. Arizona StateMuseum No.East-Central Arizona:TheTEPSt.John 1987 AnArchaeological Reconnaissance NewMexico:TheAnasazi of West-Central Monuments Historic Preservation Affairs. John andJohn Roney. 1994 A TestofMeanCeramic AnasaziSites. Goetze. Arizona University Report pp. ScienceFoundation.58. J.DavidE. Ambler. NewMexico. Baker... P. Callahan.GreatHouseCommunity TheAndrews 151 Thepaper from madebyWolky Tolland onanearlier draft ofthis hasalsobenefited suggestions paper. Tempe..243 on Sun. byBarbara This content downloaded from 201. edited byDeborah pp. Arizona StateUniversity.andWinston Stephen 1991 ARefinement ofAnasazi Cultural intheMiddle RioPuerco Chronology ValleyUsing Multidimensional InAnasaziPuebloan inResponse toClimatic Scaling.John'sArea. 141-188. Division. McKinley County. Crown. R.

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Department Interior. ofthe No.S. Hantman.andPeter Windes.76-90. Investigations in Publications Volume I and Volume II.USDAForest Symposium.McKenna Thomas C. ChacoCanyonStudies SantaFe. Albuquerque. atthePueblo 1987 1975-1979.279-358. ParkService. Sullivanand Jeffrey pp.onfile.U.18F. Archeology J. Research Papers Anthropological ChacoCanyonNew AltoComplex.ArizonaStateUniversity No. National ParkService. University InRegionalAnalysis from AViewofCibola Whiteware 1984 ChacoCanyon. No. Reher. Contemporary L. Malville edited pp. This content downloaded from 201.243 on Sun. Service General Technical Report C. Parts1 and 2.RM-227.144. Mexico. ofPrehistoric edited Studies Ceramic Variation: byAlan oftheCibolaWhitewares.McKim FortCollins. RockArchaeological of theChacoanPolity.58. Wilcox.Paperpresented CibolaWhiteware 1989 andCibolaGrayware: Northwestern NewMexico Council Ceramics NewMexicoArchaeological Workshop.. SantaFe. ofAnasazi andTechnology 1977 along Typology edited theLowerChacoRiver:TheCGPSurvey. byJ. pp.154 VANDYKE DavidR. 94-119. andSubsistence InSettlement Ceramics.31. 2 Nov 2014 14:30:35 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Tempe. Thomas Windes. byCharles ofNewMexicoPress. National Ms. atthe TheChacoSeries.In The Chimney The Evolution 1993 andGaryMatlock. Region. P.