CHAPTER I – INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study
Clay is a type of soil when wet becomes plastic and sticky but permanently hard
when baked or fired. For some people, clay is a blessing because clay has economic uses
to human; they earn money like by making pot, kitchen utensils and vases. But still, other
people treat it as their enemy because clay is common to compaction and water clogging.
Organic materials found on the clay particles that are essential to plants are calcium,
magnesium, sodium, potassium, and many others.
One of 2008’s primary issues is the rise of electric bill. MERALCO, a company
distributing electricity, implemented “system loss charge” to the public to regain billions
of money being stolen by illegal jumpers. Electricity is very important to man. It helps us
to do some activities which were hard to perform. Without electricity, the appliances, like
television, refrigerator, computer and radio, won’t work and would be helpless.
Due to technology and modernity, this study aims the possibility of generating
electricity from clay. It will also seek the possibility of using this technology as one of
the non-renewable resources of electricity.
This study finds out if there would be an environmental effect on using clay as a
source of electricity. It would also help us understand more about electricity and clay, to
inform the public on how to conserve electricity, and help those people who cannot
afford to pay their electricity bills and those who consume large amount of electricity.
B. Main Problem/s
This study aims to know if clay could be a source of electricity. Specifically, the
study seeks to answer the following questions:
1. How much voltage can be obtained in the clay?

vases. 2. firm earthy material that is plastic when wet and hardens when heated.thefreedictionary. There is no significant difference between the amounts of electricity generated on clay to the electricity generated from the vegetable (e.g. potato)? 3. Significance of the Study This study is all about generating electricity on clay.g. tiles. Clay A finegrained. E. The study will help those people who consume large amount of electricity. pots. Hypothesis 1.2.merriam-webster. it can be a new source of electricity aside of using it in making bricks. Clay could serve as emergency candle or flash light when there is brown out. Definition of terms 1. and pottery. Is there a significant difference between the amounts of electricity generated on clay to the electricity generated from the vegetable (e. D. consistingprimarily of hydrated silicates of aluminum and widely u sed in making bricks. If clay will be used to generate electricity. There are no voltages that can be obtained in the clay. and many others. potato). 3.com/Clay) 2.com/dictionary/electricity) . if proven it could generate electricity. (http://www. There is no significant difference between the periods of time the clay light up the bulb than in the vegetable. (http://www. Is there a significant difference between the periods of time the clay light up the bulb than in the vegetable? C. Electricity A fundamental form of energy observable in positive and negative forms that occurs naturally (as in lightning) or is produced (as in a generator) and that is expressed in terms of the movement and interaction of electrons.

Because copper is very ductile. Clays that contain various amounts of carbon compounds may be different shades of gray. Volume#4. Chemical Properties of Copper The symbol of copper is Cu. copper is second only to iron in amounts used today. The principal uses are electrical. 6. atomic number 29.com/dictionary/electricity) 4. Physical Properties of Clay Geologists define clay as extremely small particles of soil that measures less than four micrometers in diameter. its resistance to corrosion.3. malleability.3 7.: World Book International. magnesium. are calcium. and atomic weight 63. it can be drawn into wires of any diameter from about 0. potassium. etc. (http://www. 69-70 5. The word clay also refers to the earthly material composed of certain kinds of silicate minerals that have been broken down by weathering. because of the extremely high conductivity of pure copper. Voltage The force of an electrical current that is measured in volts.2 Organic materials found on the clay that could help generate electricity. (U.546. It has many desirable properties such as its conductivity of electricity and heat.merriam-webster.1 1 World Book Encyclopedia.S. Physical Properties of Copper Among the metals. There are two general types of clay. and essential to plants.A.4 . pp. and ductility. sodium. Chemical Properties of Clay Iron oxide may color the clay red.025mm upward. Expandable clay becomes liquid when so much water is added to it while nonexpendable clay becomes soft then mixed with water. 1996).

p.8. 3 Funk and Wagnalls New Encyclopedia. pp. . 1996).: Rand McNally and Co.A. (U. ibid. 5 World Book Encyclopedia..A.: World Book International. Volume#7.S. Physical Properties of Zinc Zinc is most often seen as a green light grey metal surface that is galvanized (coated) onto water buckets and many other articles made of iron or steel. (U.S. The shiny yellow alloy called brass is a mixture of copper and zinc. ibid. Zinc also is used in flashlight batteries and in most paints.5 2 World Book. 370 6 World Book. ibid. 200-201 4 Funk and Wagnalls. Volume#20. 1995).

stated that other substances also have this power. when rubbed.CHAPTER II – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. In 1600 English physician William Gilbert published a book in which he noted that many substances beside amber could be charged by rubbing. The fact that electricity can flow through a substance was discovered by 17TH-century German physicist Otto von Guericke. Von Guericke also described the first the first machine for producing an electric charge in 1672. who observed conduction in a linen thread. 7 Microsoft Encarta Premium 2009 . another Greek philosopher. Conduction was rediscovered independently by Englishman Stephen Gray during the early 1700. a charge was induced on the sphere.C. little progression was made in the study of electricity. About 600 B. Gray also noted that substances are good conductors while others are insulators. Theophrastus. attracted small light objects.000 years later after Theophrastus. Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus held that amber had a soul. which is derived from the Greek word electron (which means “amber”). When a hand was held against the sphere. He gave the substances the Latin name electrica. In a treatise written about three centuries later. Frenchman Charles Dufay observed that electric charges are of two kinds. History of Electricity7 The ancient Greece observed that amber. the machine consisted of a sulfur sphere turned by a crank. For almost 2. since it could make other objects move. The word electricity was first used by English writer and physician Sir Thomas Browne in 1646. He found out that opposite kinds attract each other while similar kinds repel. Also during the early 1700’s. Dufay called one kind vitreous and the other kind resinous.

the surroundings do work on the system. are dipped into an electrolyte. Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change. In the cell reaction. C. and silver. 8 http://electronics. In the cell reaction.howstuffworks.B. (USA:McGraw-Hill. To create his battery he made a stack by alternating layers of zinc. Note that the two types of cell have certain features in common. Voltaic and Electrolytic Cells9 A voltaic cell uses a spontaneous reaction to generate electrical energy. All batteries contain voltaic cells. Thus. The top and bottom layers of the pile must be different metals.com/battery1. and each layer will increase the voltage by a fixed amount. electrical energy from an external power supply converts lower energy reactants into higher energy products. blotting papers soaked in salt water. car starter motor. Two electrodes. CD player.html 9 Silberber. 292 . An external circuit provides the means for electrons to flow between them. p. History of Battery8 The first battery was created by Alessandro Volta in 1800. a mixture of ions (usually in aqueous solution) that are involved in the reaction or that carry the charge. The pile can be stacked as high as you like. This arrangement was known as a voltaic pile. which conduct the electricity between cell and surroundings. the system does work on the surroundings. In other words. the difference in chemical potential between higher energy reactants and lower energy products is converted into electrical energy. If you attach a wire to the top and bottom of the pile. 2003). This energy is used to operate the load−flashlight bulb. you can measure a voltage and a current from the pile. or other electrical device. An electrolytic cell uses electrical energy to drive a nonspontaneous reaction. Martin.

it lit up the LED as substitute for the bulb. third.html 12 http://www.gov/projects/lemon. Results and findings showed that it generated 1.12 Another study is conducted by using lemon as a source of electricity.miniscience. 101 hours and 20 minutes. energyquest.com/projects/battery 13 http://www.2V bulb. Energizer and BA 30 “army batteries”. Eveready. and last but not the least. Copper and steel electrodes were put on the squeezed lemon.11 Another study is conducted by determining which battery lasts longer.2V. The batteries used are Duracell.13 10 http://www. 99 hours and 17 minutes.miniscience. Still. second.7 volts of electricity. The power of the different brands of batteries was tested on a light bulb. juices generate electricity.ca. Through copper and zinc electrodes.10 Another study is conducted by using Copper Sulfate as electrolyte.html .com/link/make_electricity. BA 30 batteries. 28 hours and 30 minutes. that didn’t light a 1.D.miniscience. Eveready battery. Results and findings showed that the Duracell battery lasted the longest. Other Studies A study is conducted by using potato as a source of electricity. Energizer battery. 25 hours and 58 minutes.7V. Results and findings showed that the solution generated 0. the electrodes used are copper and zinc. There were two batteries from each brand. instead. Results and findings showed that it generated 0.com/projects/potatoelectricity 11 http://www. But it didn’t light up the miniature bulb.

Then. Salt and water are also needed to enhance the electrolyte level of the clay. Potato is also needed since it is the control.CHAPTER III – METHODOLOGY A. copper metal will be used as the anode. mold the clay to compact it. Inserting electrodes and measuring voltage Insert the copper and zinc electrodes. Procedure 1. and zinc metal will be used as the cathode instead of using carbon metal because zinc metal is more accessible and cheaper. Then. Then. B. 2. and to compact it. Beaker would help to hold the salt solution to be mixed. close but not touching each other. BaguioCity 2. miniature sockets. to increase its electrolyte level of the clay. Electrodes and other Materials In the experiment. along with the miniature bulb having 1. the solution will be mixed to the clay. . Materials 1. This two. LED (in case the clay would not light the bulb) and the alligator clips will be bought at the electric shops. Irisan. Clay The clay were got in any anthills in San Carlos Heights. The multimeter will be also borrowed at the electric shop. and to compact the clay. connect the copper and zinc electrodes to the multimeter through the use of alligator clips. Mixing and molding Salt and water are to be mixed with different concentrations.2V.

The table below shows the amount of solution to be mixed per treatment. Treatment The control group of this study is the potato generating 1.C. S2 contains 150mL of water and 3 tablespoon of salt mixed with 650g of clay. and S4 is the control group. S3 contains 100mL of water and 2 tablespoon of salt mixed with 600g of clay. Treatment Amount of Salt (tbsp) Amount of Water (mL) Amount of Clay (g) S1 4 200 700 S2 3 150 650 S3 2 100 600 . There are four treatments in this study: S1 contains 200mL of water and 4 tablespoon of salt mixed with 700g of clay.2 volts.