Transmission Media

Transmission Media
• Transmission is the process of transporting information 
p
y
between end points of a system or network.
• Transmission systems may use copper cable, optical cable, or 
radio channels to interconnect far‐end and near‐end 
equipment.
equipment

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Transmission Media
• Guided
– Twisted Pair
Twisted Pair
– Cable
– Fiber
– Medium more important than the signal

• Unguided
d d
– Atmosphere
– Outer Space
– Signal more important than the medium
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Spectrum for telecommunications
Spectrum for telecommunications

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Twisted Pair
Twisted Pair
Two insulated copper wires in a spiral
Number of pairs are bundled together
Number of pairs are bundled together
Twisting decreases crosstalk
Most common form for analog and digital
g
g
Used in telephone system
Subscriber loops
– From a person’s home to the local office of the phone 
company
• LANS
– 10Mbps with newer at 100Mbps






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Twisted pair
Twisted pair
• Long Distance
– 4 Mbps
4 Mbps
– ISDN – Integrated Services Digital Network

• Digital
– Repeaters required every 2 –3 kilometers
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kl

• Analog
– Amplifiers required every 5
Amplifiers required every 5‐6
6 kilometers
kilometers
– Bandwidth of 250KHz, carry a few voice channels

• Susceptible to noise, shielded (STP) and unshielded 
(UTP).
(UTP)
• Compared to optical and coax twisted pair is limited 
in bandwidth, distance, and data rate
,
,
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Parallel
P
ll l lilines are often
ft used
d as
part of antenna arrays. Ordinary
television twinlead, is an example
of a parallel transmission line;
Figure (a).
Parallel lines can be shielded to
reduce interference problems
problems, as
illustrated
in Figure (b).
6

Coaxial Cable
Coaxial Cable
• Hollow outer cylindrical conductor 
surrounding a single view
• Most versatile of mediums, used for TV, long 
,
,
g
distance telephone,and LAN’S

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Coaxial Cable
Coaxial Cable
Part of long distance telephone network
With FDM can carry over 10 000 voice channels
With FDM can carry over 10,000 voice channels
Transmits both analog and digital signals
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y
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p
Frequency characteristics superior to twisted pair
– Less susceptible to noise
• For long distance
– Amplifiers needed every few kilometers
– Repeaters needed every kilometer or so




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Coaxial Cable Applications

For coaxial cable, the characteristic
impedance is given by:

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Optical fiber
Optical fiber
• Thin
Thin, flexible light passing material made from 
flexible light passing material made from
glass or plastic
• Grouped into cables
Grouped into cables

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Optical fiber
Optical fiber
Better than coaxial cable or twisted pair
Data rates of 2Gbps over 10’s of Km
p
Light weight – good for buildings
Lower attenuation than coax or twisted
N t ff t d b
Not effected by extreme electromagnetic fields
t
l t
ti fi ld
– Crosstalk and impulse
• Very difficult to tap –
y
p ggood securityy
• Applications
– Long Haul trunks, metro trunks, rural exchange trunks, more 
recently beginning to displace twisted pair in subscriber
recently beginning to displace twisted pair in subscriber 
loops and in LANS





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Optical Fiber
Optical Fiber
• Operates in range 1014 to 1015 Hz
– Infrared and visible spectrum
Infrared and visible spectrum
• Multimode
– Variety of angles of light will reflect and propagate
• Single Mode
– Radius of the core = order of a wavelength
– Only single angle passes
Only single angle passes
– Superior performance
• Two different light sources – both emit light when voltage applied
– LED – Light Emitting Diode – less costly, longer life
– ILD ‐ Injection Laser Diode – greater data rate

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Wireless
• Antennae
– Directional
• Focused EM beam
• The higher frequency the more focused
– Omnidirectional
• Lower frequency
• Spreads out to multiple receivers
Spreads out to multiple receivers
• Three ranges of frequencies
– 26GHz – 40GHz ‐‐‐ microwave
– 30 MHz – 1GHz ‐‐‐ broadcast radio
– 3x10**11 to 2x10**14 Hz ‐‐‐ infrared

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Terrestrial Microwave
• P
Parabolic dish
b li di h
• Narrow beam – line of sight on towers to 
avoid obstacles
• Series of towers for long distance
• Applications:
– Long haul telephone
Long haul telephone
– Voice and TV
– Short point to point between buildings
• Main Source of loss
– Attentuation – especially with rainful
– Repeaters or amplifiers 10 to 100km
Repeaters or amplifiers 10 to 100km
– Interference with overlapping bands

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Satellite Microwave
• It is essentially a microwave relay 
station
• Uplink
– Receives transmission on one 
frequency
• Downlink
– Transmits on a second frequency
• Operates on a number of frequency 
bands known as transponders
bands known as transponders
• Point to Point
– Ground station to satellite to 
ground station
ground station
• Multipoint
– Ground station to satellite to 
multiple receiving stations
multiple receiving stations
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Satellite Microwave
• Satellite orbit
– 35,784 Km, to match earth rotation
– Stays fixed above the 
St
fi d b
th
transmitter/receiver station as 
earth rotates
• Satellites need to be separated by 
distance
– Avoid interference
Applications
TV long distance telephone
TV,
telephone, private business networks
Optimum frequency range 1 – 10 GHz
Below 1GHz results in noise, above 10GHz results in severe
attenuation
tt
ti
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Broadcast Radio
Broadcast Radio
• Omnidirectional unlike satellite
• Does not require dish like antennae
Does not require dish like antennae
• Frequency range
– Radio ‐ 3kHz to 300Ghz
– Broadcast radio – 30MHz to 1GHz
• Broadcast radio
– Transmission limited to line of sight
– Less sensitive to attenuation from rainfall than microwave
– Prime source of interference is multipath
Prime source of interference is multipath

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Infrared
• Tranceivers
Tranceivers must be within line of sight of 
must be within line of sight of
each other or via reflection
• Does not penetrate walls like microwave
Does not penetrate walls like microwave
• No frequency allocation or licensing

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