Mario Bunge: una introducción biográfica

Mario Bunge es uno de los filósofos de la ciencia más
prestigiosos a nivel mundial, así como el creador de uno de
los sistemas filosóficos más completos, elaborados,
coherentes y empíricamente fundados de los últimos
cincuenta años. Pero Bunge no es sólo un filósofo
extraordinario, sino asimismo un científico de alto nivel. Sus
publicaciones de física, filosofía, psicología, sociología y
fundamentos de biología son increíblemente numerosas, e
incluyen un enciclopédico Tratado de Filosofía Básica en
ocho volúmenes. El hilo unificador de su carrera académica
es el progreso constante y vigoroso del proyecto de la
Ilustración, y la crítica de los movimientos culturales y
académicos que niegan o devalúan los principales hitos de
ese proyecto: a saber, el naturalismo o materialismo, la
búsqueda de la verdad, la universalidad de la ciencia, la
racionalidad y el respeto por los individuos. En una época en que la especialización
estrecha es obligada y sus efectos deletéreos se hacen notar sobre la ciencia, la filosofía de
la ciencia, la investigación educativa y la enseñanza de la ciencia, es saludable y
reconfortante ver los frutos de la búsqueda emprendida por un sabio para construir una gran
cosmovisión científica y filosófica digna de nuestro tiempo.
Willard Van Orman Quine, en su autobiografía The Time of My Life (1985), menciona su
asistencia al Congreso Filosófico Sudamericano de 1956 en Santiago de Chile. Lo único de
la reunión que Quine pensó que valía la pena recordar fue su observación de que:

La estrella del congreso filosófico fue Mario Bunge, un joven argentino enérgico y
contundente, con una amplia formación y unos extensos, si no omniabarcadores, intereses
intelectuales. Bunge sentía que la carga de llevar al continente sudamericano hasta un nivel
científico e intelectual equiparable al del EEUU y Europa parecía descansar sobre sus
hombros. Intervino con elocuencia en la discusión de casi cada una de las ponencias.
El congreso se celebró hace casi cincuenta años, cuando Bunge estaba en la mitad de su
treintena; ahora Bunge ha sobrepasado el umbral de los 90 años con su energía intelectual
intacta. El hilo central de la vida académica de Bunge ha sido siempre estudiar y aprender
sobre la interacción entre ciencia y filosofía, y luego defender lo mejor de ambas. Su estilo
filosófico se caracteriza por la rigurosa atención al detalle, utilizando la lógica para alcanzar
la mayor claridad posible de pensamiento y eliminar el ruido de los argumentos poco
sólidos, y esforzándose por alcanzar una posición intelectual holista y coherente en la que
la ontología, la epistemología, la semántica y la psicobiología avancen todas juntas y se
refuercen mutuamente.
Carrera Académica
Bunge es Profesor Frothingham de Lógica y Metafísica en la Universidad McGill de

Montreal. Su carrera académica comenzó como profesor asistente de física experimental en
la Universidad de La Plata (1941). Como ayudante dio clases de física matemática en la
Universidad de Buenos Aires (1947-52). En 1956 fue nombrado profesor de física teórica
en las universidades de Buenos Aires y La Plata. En 1957 ganó la cátedra de filosofía de la
ciencia en la Universidad de Buenos Aires, y un año más tarde abandonó su cátedra de
física para centrarse en la filosofía. Sin embargo, volvió a la enseñanza tanto de la física
como de la filosofía durante una serie de breves estancias en EEUU. En 1966 se convirtió
en profesor de filosofía en la Universidad McGill de Montreal, y en 1969 llegó a ser Jefe
del Departamento de Fundamentos y Filosofía de la Ciencia. En McGill enseñó una docena
de cursos de filosofía diferentes. También hizo visitas como docente a Uruguay, México,
Alemania, Dinamarca, Suiza e Italia, y dio conferencias en una docena de países diferentes.
En 2001 fue profesor visitante en la Universidad de Nueva Gales del Sur.
Publicaciones
Bunge es autor o editor de más de 50 libros --incluyendo cuatro grandes libros en la última
década-- y de más 500 artículos científicos y filosóficos --incluyendo varios artículos de
filosofía, física y ciencia social publicados en los cinco últimos años. Sus artículos han
aparecido en las principales revistas de filosofía, filosofía de la ciencia, física teórica,
química, neurociencia, ciencia cognitiva, matemáticas, psicología y sociología.

Entre sus libros en lengua inglesa se encuentran: Causalidad: El Principio de Causalidad
en la Ciencia Moderna (1959), Intuición y Ciencia (1962), La Investigación Científica
(1967), Fundamentos de Física (1967), Filosofía de la Física (1973), El Problema MenteCuerpo (1980), Materialismo y Ciencia (1981), Filosofía de la Psicología (1987, con
Rubén Ardila), Tratado de Filosofía Básica (ocho volúmenes, 1974-1989), Buscar la
Filosofía en las Ciencias Sociales (1996), Fundamentos de Biofilosofía (con Martin
Mahner, 1997), Sistemas Sociales y Filosofía (1998), La Relación entre la Sociología y la
Filosofía (1999), Crisis y Reconstrucción de la Filosofía (2000), Emergencia y
Convergencia (2004), A la Caza de la Realidad (2006) y Filosofía Política (2008). Muchos
de estos libros han aparecido en español, portugués, alemán, italiano, francés, polaco, ruso
y húngaro. Asimismo, ha publicado otros libros que han aparecido en español y en otras
lenguas.

Sus libros editados incluyen: The Critical Approach: Essays in Honor of Karl Popper (1964),
Quantum Theory and Reality (1967), Delaware Seminar in the Foundations of Physics
(1967), Exact Philosophy (1973), Problems in the Foundations of Physics (1971), y The
Methodological Unity of Science (1973).

Bunge es fundador de la Sociedad para la Filosofía Exacta; co-fundador de otras tres
sociedades académicas; miembro de la Sociedad Real de Canadá y de la Asociación
Americana para el Avance de la Ciencia; ha recibido las becas de investigación
Guggenheim y Killam, el Premio Príncipe de Asturias, y cinco doctorados honoris causa.

Educación Temprana
Mario Bunge nació en Buenos Aires en 1919, hijo único de Marie, que había sido
enfermera en Alemania, y de Augusto, médico, sociólogo, escritor y político. Su abuelo
había sido Presidente del Tribunal Supremo de Argentina. Su padre fue el primer senador
socialista de Argentina; encarcelado por apoyar el activismo sindical, murió algunos años
más tarde a consecuencia de una enfermedad contraída en la prisión. El padre deseó que
su hijo fuera un “ciudadano del mundo”. Desde temprana edad, Bunge fue sometido a un
exigente programa de lectura de obras literarias en seis lenguas: español, inglés, francés,
italiano, alemán y latín. Este temprano multilingüismo fue una ventaja inestimable para su
educación, permitiéndole leer directamente a los clásicos y los modernos. Ello también le
liberó de depender de los juicios comerciales e ideológicos que decidían qué los libros
serían traducidos y publicados en español --Argentina, en los años 1920 y 1930, no era
precisamente una sociedad abierta y progresista. Su lectura de Heisenberg no tuvo que
esperar a las traducciones españolas, ni tampoco su lectura de los principales filósofos
europeos y angloamericanos. El griego moderno y el portugués se añadieron más tarde a
su repertorio lingüístico.
Bunge siempre fue muy crítico con las limitaciones monolingües de la mayor parte de los
académicos angloamericanos, para los que el mero bilingüismo ya es un logro
considerable. En una reciente revisión de un importante libro sobre sociología de la
filosofía, Bunge se lamenta de que “todo lo que el autor cita es en inglés, aun cuando las
traducciones disponibles son evidentemente poco fiables --como ocurre con Kant, Hegel,
Frege, Husserl y Heidegger”. Bunge critica al autor porque, al hablar de Descartes, olvida
mencionar dos de sus obras más influyentes. Considerando la razón de esto, Bunge
escribe: “¡Quiero arriesgar una conjetura: no conoce su existencia porque hasta muy
recientemente no estaban disponibles en versión inglesa!”
En la educación secundaria, Bunge se interesó por la física, la filosofía y el psicoanálisis, y
escribió una extensa crítica de éste. En 1938 fue admitido en la Universidad Nacional de La
Plata, donde estudió física y matemáticas. Poco después fundó la Escuela Obrera, que fue
cerrada por el gobierno cinco años más tarde, cuando tenía 1.000 estudiantes
matriculados. Los estudiantes asistían a las clases al final de su jornada laboral. Bunge y
sus colegas daban clases de ciencia básica, historia del movimiento obrero, legislación
laboral, economía y economía política. Esto ocurría en una cultura donde una iglesia
conservadora y reaccionaria, y un gobierno correspondientemente conservador y
reaccionario (Argentina apoyaba el fascismo de Hitler, y mantuvo relaciones diplomáticas
con Alemania hasta 1944), estimulaba muy poco la ciencia y menos aún la educación de
los trabajadores o su emancipación. De 1942 a 1944, Bunge fue Secretario General de la
Federación Argentina de Sociedades Populares de Educación. Durante este tiempo
escribió su primer libro, Temas de Educación Popular (1943), que trata de los principios y
la práctica de la educación popular (de los trabajadores).

Durante los años de estudiante de Bunge, la filosofía argentina, y de hecho la mayor parte
de la filosofía latinoamericana, estaba dominada por la Escolástica y el neotomismo de
seminario, junto con la Fenomenología y otras corrientes idealistas, incluyendo el
Hegelianismo. Como Quine había observado, en aquel tiempo la filosofía sudamericana
iba muy por detrás de su homóloga americana y británica. Bunge estudió la filosofía
“moderna” de forma autodidacta, y a la edad de 20 años dio sus primeras conferencias
públicas sobre el tema. En 1943 comenzó a trabajar en los problemas de la física nuclear y
atómica bajo la dirección de Guido Beck (1903-1988), un refugiado austriaco alumno de
Heisenberg, inventor del modelo de capas del núcleo atómico, el primero en proponer la
existencia del positrón, y un profesor a quien Bunge siempre agradeció el “enseñarme a
no permitir que la política se entrometiera en el camino de la ciencia”. En 1944, Bunge
lanzó la revista filosófica Minerva, que tuvo seis números. Su misión era defender el
racionalismo contra las fuerzas irracionalistas y antiintelectuales predominantes en
Argentina durante el período de la Segunda Guerra. Nueve años más tarde, pasó varios
meses en la cárcel acusado de “apoyar una huelga ilegal”.

Bunge obtuvo su Doctorado en Física en 1952, en la Universidad de La Plata, con una
disertación sobre la cinemática del electrón relativista; la disertación fue publicada como
libro en 1960. Posteriormente, solo o conjuntamente con su ex-alumno Andrés J. Kalnay y
otros científicos, publicó varios artículos sobre diversos problemas de la mecánica
cuántica: el spin total de un sistema de partículas, el defecto de masa del átomo H, las
nuevas constantes del movimiento, la paradoja del Quantum Zeno, el proceso de
medición, etc.
Defensa del Proyecto de la Ilustración
La producción académica de Bunge es prodigiosa, y sus logros muy notables. Pero una
lectura ocasional de cualquiera de sus obras revela inmediatamente que Bunge no es sólo
un vasto erudito, al menos en el sentido de haberse limitado a estudiar una amplia
variedad de materias. Como Quine señaló, hay un aspecto “omniabarcador” en el trabajo
de Bunge, algo que se deriva de su compromiso con el proyecto de la Ilustración: un
proyecto que comenzó en el siglo XVII y floreció en el XVIII. En un ensayo titulado ‘La
Contrailustración en los Estudios Sociales Contemporáneos’ (recogido como capítulo en La
Relación entre la Sociología y la Filosofía, 1993), Bunge escribe:

La Ilustración nos dio la mayor parte de los valores básicos de la vida civilizada
contemporánea, tales como la confianza en la razón, la pasión por la investigación libre y
el igualitarismo. Desde luego, la Ilustración no lo hizo todo por nosotros: ningún
movimiento social puede hacerlo todo él solo por la posteridad --no hay ningún fin de la
historia. Por ejemplo, la Ilustración no previó los abusos de la industrialización, no acentuó
suficientemente la necesidad de la paz, exageró el individualismo, alabó la competencia a
costa de la cooperación, no fue lo bastante lejos en la reforma social, y no se preocupó
mucho por las mujeres o por los pueblos subdesarrollados. Sin embargo, realmente la

Ilustración perfeccionó, elogió y difundió los principales instrumentos conceptuales y
morales para avanzar más allá de sí misma.

Bunge cree (contra los constructivismos y relativismos contemporáneos) que la ciencia
puede darnos, y de hecho nos da, un conocimiento verdadero sobre el mundo natural y
social; y que este conocimiento es la única base sólida para la reforma social y política, así
como para la mejora personal. Por consiguiente, Bunge es un crítico, ciertamente mordaz,
de las fuerzas sociales y de los movimientos académicos que disminuyen la autoridad
intelectual de la razón y de la ciencia. Así, en sus libros Sistemas Sociales y Filosofía, Buscar
la Filosofía en las Ciencias Sociales y La Relación entre la Sociología y la Filosofía, pueden
encontrarse críticas detalladas de las siguientes escuelas:

Nueva Sociología de la Ciencia (NSS) - “... cualquiera que tenga una mínima formación
científica se verá obligado a considerar la mayor parte de la producción actual en este
campo como una caricatura grotesca de investigación científica”. “La NSS está infectada
de conductismo y pragmatismo. Como sabemos por la historia de la psicología, el primero
es una garantía de falta de profundidad psicológica, porque ignora por completo los
procesos mentales... Sabemos por la filosofía de la ciencia que [el pragmatismo] no valora
la investigación científica porque reduce al mínimo el papel de la teoría e identifica el
significado con el operacionalismo y la verdad con la eficacia. No hay nada de asombroso,
entonces, en que la NSS sea característicamente superficial” .
Etnometodología - “Pasan por alto el contexto macrosocial y no están interesados en
ninguna gran cuestión social”.
Teoría Feminista Radical - “Quieren minar la ciencia, no hacer que progrese. De este
modo, hacen un pobre servicio a la causa del feminismo político”.

Teoría Crítica - “Al rechazar el acercamiento científico a las cuestiones sociales, los
teóricos críticos [la Escuela de Frankfurt y sus seguidores] impiden la comprensión de tales
cuestiones así como cualquier tentativa de abordarlas racionalmente y, por lo tanto, con
eficacia”.
Fenomenología - “Se caracteriza por el espiritualismo y el subjetivismo, así como por el
individualismo (tanto ontológico como metodológico) y el conservadurismo --ético y
político—… no es una guía para ninguna política social que no sea el “orden público”.

Teoría de la Elección Racional - “La teoría de la elección racional ha sido un fracaso teórico
y práctico... no es bastante racional… adopta el individualismo ontológico y
metodológico... es demasiado ambiciosa... es triplemente ahistórica... sus hipótesis son
empíricamente incontrastables... su expansión académica es un episodio tragicómico”.

“Han declarado que no quieren quedar "atrapados dentro de la razón" --el reproche
tradicionalista--, sólo para quedar atrapados dentro de los dogmas individualistas y
utilitaristas, para invocar conceptos básicos borrosos y presuposiciones clave
incontrastables, para idealizar el libre mercado, y para fracasar a la hora de representar la
realidad”.

Probabilidades Subjetivas Bayesianas - “Cuando se enfrentan a la ignorancia o la
incertidumbre, utilizan la probabilidad –-o, más bien, su propia versión de la misma. Ello
les permite asignar probabilidades previas a los hechos y proposiciones de una manera
arbitraria --lo que es un modo de hacer pasar la mera intuición, el presentimiento o la
conjetura por hipótesis científica”.

Conductismo - “Al desechar la motivación, el afecto y la ideación, el conductista ofrece
una descripción superficial y, en consecuencia, poco instructiva del comportamiento; se
parece a una película muda y sin subtítulos” .

Sociología Hermenéutica - “Desalienta la observación objetiva, la medida y los modelos
matemáticos en los estudios sociales. Además, esta metáfora es patéticamente
inadecuada, ya que los grupos sociales no tienen propiedades sintácticas, ni semánticas, ni
fonológicas, ni literarias. Su popularidad se debe únicamente al hecho de que no exige
ninguna investigación empírica ni la elaboración de modelos matemáticos”.

Bunge siente simpatía por Marx y Engels, y en Sistemas Sociales y Filosofía escribe:
“Fueron científicos sociales serios e importantes; empujaron al liberalismo hacia la
izquierda; fueron materialistas coherentes; y escribieron con claridad sobre todo, excepto
sobre dialéctica”. “Pero aprendieron de Hegel unas cuantas lecciones que viciaron su
sistema entero”. Bunge no ve ningún aspecto rescatable en el neomarxismo ni en el
marxismo estructuralista. Tampoco ve más que ofuscamiento intelectual en el
movimiento neorromántico que “comenzó con la fenomenología de Husserl, fue seguido
por el existencialismo de Heidegger y culminó en "el postmodernismo" y en el movimiento
de la anticiencia y la antitecnología contemporáneas. Algunos de los nombres mejor
conocidos de este movimiento son... Spengler, Althusser... Gadamer, Foucault, Derrida...
Latour”. Bunge reconoce que la última lista comprende un grupo heterogéneo, pero:

comparten todos o casi todos los rasgos típicamente románticos. Éstos son: (1) la
desconfianza en la razón y, en particular, en la lógica y la ciencia; (2) el subjetivismo, o la
doctrina de que el mundo es nuestra representación; (3) el relativismo, o la negación de la
existencia de verdades universales; (4) una obsesión con el símbolo, el mito, la metáfora y

la retórica; y (5) el pesimismo, o la negación de la posibilidad de progreso --en particular
en los asuntos de conocimiento.

En la tradición de la Ilustración, Bunge considera que la buena educación es esencial para
el bienestar humano y la reforma social; sin embargo, gran parte de la educación que ve a
su alrededor le desespera. Sobre las facultades universitarias de Humanidades, Bunge
escribe lo siguiente en Sistemas Sociales y Filosofía:

Aquí encontrarás otro mundo, en el que las falsedades y las mentiras son toleradas, e
incluso fabricadas en cantidades industriales. El estudiante imprudente puede
matricularse en cursos sobre toda clase de fraudes y tonterías. Aquí algunos profesores
son contratados, promovidos o habilitados para enseñar que la razón no tiene valor, que
la evidencia empírica es innecesaria, que la verdad objetiva es inexistente, que la ciencia
básica es un instrumento de dominación capitalista o masculina, o algo parecido... Éste es
un lugar donde los estudiantes pueden obtener créditos aprendiendo viejas y nuevas
supersticiones de casi todas clases, y donde pueden desaprender a escribir para sonar
como fenomenólogos, existencialistas, deconstruccionistas, etnometodólogos o
psicoanalistas.”
Crítica de la Ciencia
Lo anterior permite hacerse una idea de contra qué está Mario Bunge: a saber, contra la
mayor parte de las modas en la filosofía y la ciencia social contemporáneas. Pero Bunge
no es un simple fanático de la ciencia, en el sentido de apoyar siempre de manera
incondicional todo lo que sea la actual ortodoxia, todo lo defendido por el establishment
científico y académico en cualquier campo y en cualquier momento o situación. Bunge es
igualmente crítico con las tendencias existentes dentro de la ciencia que él considera
filosóficamente ingenuas, inconsistentes, incoherentes o completamente despreocupadas
por completar el gran cuadro ontológico y epistemológico que es el objetivo de la buena
ciencia.

Karl Popper, en su autobiografía Unended Quest (Búsqueda Inacabada, 1976), menciona a
Bunge como uno de los “varios disidentes importantes que, después de la Segunda Guerra
Mundial, se opusieron a la interpretación dominante de la teoría cuántica propuesta por
Bohr y sus colegas de Copenhague”. El desacuerdo de Bunge se deriva de su oposición a
los programas que aceptan la limitación positivista de la posibilidad del conocimiento de
los mecanismos explicativos no visibles, y que insisten dogmáticamente en que el objeto
del conocimiento es la experiencia antes que la realidad.

Bunge se opone a todos los programas científicos que aceptan el modelo empirista de la

causalidad. Uno de los libros principales de Bunge, Causalidad: el Principio de Causalidad
en la Ciencia Moderna (1959), traducido a numerosos idiomas, es una rigurosa demolición
de la concepción empirista de la causalidad inspirada por Hume, de la cual afirma que "ha
sido tan errónea como célebre". En el mencionado libro, Bunge propone su propia
concepción sistemática de la causalidad, que reconoce la ubicuidad del azar y la
espontaneidad, pero "lejos de volvernos indeterministas, hemos enriquecido el
determinismo mediante nuevas categorías de determinación no causal".

Bunge se opone a los programas científicos que son inadecuadamente reduccionistas, al
ignorar la emergencia de las propiedades y cualidades de los elementos existentes, o al
insistir en reducir lo irreductible. Distingue la reducción, como operación epistémica, del
reduccionismo, como programa de investigación. En cuanto a la reducción, decir que A es
reductible a B significa que Todas las As son B, o que A está incluida en B, o que A es una
especie del género B. Por ejemplo, "los cuerpos celestes son cuerpos ordinarios que
satisfacen las leyes de la mecánica", "el calor es el movimiento molecular azaroso", "los
rayos de luz son paquetes de rayos electromagnéticos", etc. En contraste, el
reduccionismo es un programa de investigación o un principio metodológico según el cual
la reducción es en todos los casos necesaria y suficiente para explicar un conjunto y todas
sus propiedades (Materialismo y Ciencia, 1981). Aunque el reduccionismo deba
promoverse en la medida de lo posible, nunca puede ser completamente exitoso porque
todas las cosas reales están integradas en algún sistema de nivel superior e interactúan
con los elementos de dicho sistema.

Los dos puntos principales en el acercamiento crítico a la ciencia propuesto por Mario
Bunge son los siguientes: primero, no toda ciencia es buena ciencia; segundo, hacer buena
ciencia no garantiza la capacidad de articular una buena filosofía. En un artículo sobre el
concepto de “energía”, escrito para la revista Science & Education (2001), Bunge escribe:

Los escritorzuelos de la New Age no tienen el monopolio de las tonterías que se dicen
sobre la energía. Los físicos descuidados han producido muchas de esas tonterías. De
hecho, la energía se confunde a menudo con la radiación, y la materia con la masa.

A continuación, Bunge discute una serie de errores conceptuales sobre la energía que se
encuentran en muchos manuales de física universitarios. Bunge cree que las declaraciones
filosóficas y los argumentos de los grandes científicos, y más aún de quienes no son tan
grandes, necesitan ser examinados y evaluados con atención. Los científicos son tan
filosóficamente falibles como cualquier otra persona. Lo anterior fue demostrado hace
sesenta años por Susan Stebbing, en su crítica clásica del idealismo de dos físicos
británicos enormemente populares, James Jean y Arthur Eddington. En su libro Filosofía

de la Física (1975), Bunge escribió de forma similar sobre la crítica que el gran físico Ernst
Mach hiciera de la mecánica newtoniana:

Los errores de Mach en su crítica de la mecánica newtoniana --su contribución más
distinguida a la investigación de los fundamentos de esta ciencia-- pueden corregirse con
la ayuda de un poco de lógica, un poco de semántica y una dosis de realismo. Un estudio
crítico del trabajo de Mach acerca de los fundamentos de la mecánica sería provechoso,
aunque sólo fuera para no repetir sus errores, que fueron los característicos de una
filosofía que desconfía totalmente de las ideas. Si usted ignora toda la filosofía, será
esclavo de una mala filosofía.
Estilo Argumentativo
Joseph Agassi y Robert Cohen, en su introducción al libro Scientific Philosophy Today:
Essays in Honor of Mario Bunge (1982), dicen de Bunge que "apoya la filosofía exacta, la
filosofía clásica liberal social, el racionalismo y la Ilustración", y asimismo comentan que
“es propenso a llegar a conclusiones decisivas y aceleradas sobre la base de aquellos
argumentos que le parecen válidos... es enérgicamente autónomo en su juicio".
“Exactitud” y “aceleramiento” son términos recurrentemente utilizados para describir el
estilo de Bunge. En 1978 se produjo una famosa escena que ocupó la primera página de
un periódico de la ciudad. En el Congreso Internacional de Filosofía celebrado en
Düsseldorf, Alemania, Sir John Eccles --famoso neurofisiólogo que había colaborado con
Karl Popper en la articulación de una teoría dualista e interaccionista de la mente, y que a
la sazón acababa de recibir el Premio Nobel-- fue invitado a pronunciar la conferencia de
apertura. En vez de la deferencia habitual que podría esperarse hacia un recién laureado
con el Premio Nobel, Bunge, que se hallaba entre el público, se levantó y acusó a Eccles de
incoherencia filosófica y de obstaculizar el progreso del estudio científico de la mente.
Muchos filósofos, incluyendo los que estaban de acuerdo con la crítica de Bunge,
pensaron que aquélla no era la ocasión de airear tales argumentos. Pero Bunge tenía un
estilo diferente.

Todas las personas que han tratado a Mario Bunge señalan que, en las transacciones
personales, Bunge se muestra cortés, atento y preocupado por el bienestar de los que le
rodean; sin embargo, en lo referente al debate académico, Bunge cree que los
argumentos deben expresarse con tanta claridad y exactitud como sea posible, y que
deben ser sostenidos con vehemencia siempre que su veracidad esté garantizada. No
parece sentir ningún respeto por los escritos y argumentos de “tono suave”. En vez de
decir "se podría pensar que hay una debilidad en su argumento", prefiere el más directo
"su argumento es débil". En vez del consenso cálido y amable acerca de afirmaciones que
no pueden ser contrastadas, Bunge busca hipótesis claras y específicas que pueden ser
contrastadas mediante la evidencia disponible. Este estilo ha tenido su precio profesional:
probablemente tenga algo que ver con el hecho de que su extenso e informado corpus
académico no haya sido tan bien recibido como cabría esperar.

Filosofía de la Física
Uno de los primeros libros importantes de Bunge fue Fundamentos de Física (Bunge
1967), escrito en Friburgo bajo los auspicios de la Fundación Alexander von Humboldt.
Este libro expone un nuevo tipo de Física axiomática, en el que cada fórmula es
acompañada por una asunción semántica que aclara el significado físico de los conceptos
básicos (primitivos). Este trabajo ha sido puesto al día en años recientes por el mexicano
Guillermo González Covarrubias y el argentino Héctor Vucetich.

En 1953, Bunge trabajó sobre los problemas del realismo y la causalidad en la teoría
cuántica, durante una estancia de seis meses en Brasil con David Bohm (Bohm era
entonces un fugitivo de la Comisión McCarthy de los EEUU). En 1951 Bohm trató de
reintroducir los conceptos clásicos de posición y velocidad en la teoría cuántica,
presentándolos como "variables ocultas, que son variables dinámicas con dispersión
cero". Durante un tiempo, Bunge adoptó y enseñó la teoría de Bohm. Pero finalmente
llegó a la conclusión de que aunque Bohm, igual que Einstein y de Broglie, tenía razón en
la defensa del realismo, se equivocó al sostener que el realismo exige que toda variable
dinámica tenga un valor preciso en cualquier circunstancia y en cualquier momento.
Bunge adoptó la postura de que la ocurrencia misma de la extensiones de la dispersión en
Ap (momento) y Ax (posición) sugiere que la mecánica cuántica trata con entidades sui
generis, que no son ni partículas clásicas ni ondas clásicas. Al ser sui generis, Bunge pensó
que estas cosas merecían un nombre propio, y sugirió el de

cuantón

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. Los cuantones
son peculiares, en el sentido de que no son entidades clásicas, pero ello no significa que
sean fantasmales o erráticos; y tampoco significa que la mecánica cuántica nos ofrezca
una imagen subjetivista, indeterminista e inmaterial del mundo.

En 1966 y 1969, Bunge debatió en persona sobre física cuántica con el mismísimo Werner
Heisenberg, y más tarde contribuyó a un libro colectivo en homenaje a Heisenberg. Un
aspecto que Bunge hace notar una y otra vez acerca de Heisenberg es que su
merecidamente famoso “Principio” --Ap.Ax> h/47r (el producto de las dispersiones en los
valores del momento (y por tanto de la velocidad) y la posición de una micropartícula es al
menos h/47r, donde h es la constante de Planck)-- no es en absoluto un principio sino más
bien un teorema. Se trata de una fórmula derivada que se sigue rigurosamente de los
axiomas y las definiciones de la mecánica cuántica. Puesto que la fórmula es un teorema,
para interpretarlo correctamente hay que examinar las premisas de las cuales se deriva.
Bunge mantiene que dicho examen demuestra que la fórmula es bastante general. En
particular, no se refiere a una partícula bajo observación, sino que es una ley de la
naturaleza, igual que la ecuación de Schrödinger, que es la fórmula básica de la mecánica
cuántica no relativista. Así pues, el popular nombre “Principio de Incertidumbre” es
incorrecto. Como Bunge advierte, la incertidumbre es un estado de ánimo, y la mecánica

cuántica no trata sobre mentes sino sobre cosas físicas, la mayor parte de las cuales están
más allá del alcance del experimentador.

En su libro de 1967, Bunge rechazó tanto la interpretación de Copenhague como la teoría
cuántica de Bohm, y propuso su propia interpretación realista. Ésta mantiene el
formalismo matemático, pero modifica la interpretación positivista propuesta por Bohr,
Heisenberg, Pauli y Born. Por ejemplo, Bunge interpreta el cuadrado del valor absoluto de
la función de estado no como la probabilidad de descubrir el objeto en cuestión en una
unidad de volumen (una noción intrínsecamente subjetiva), sino como la probabilidad de
que el objeto esté ahí (una noción objetiva). Bunge argumenta que los electrones y
entidades similares no son ni partículas ni ondas, aunque se aparezcan como tales en
circunstancias especiales. Hablar de ondas y de partículas es algo metafórico, una alusión
a las nociones clásicas de las cuales surgió la mecánica cuántica. Bunge acuñó el término

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cuantón

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para denotar estas entidades no clásicas, y mantuvo que la teoría cuántica
madura no tiene ninguna necesidad de las metáforas clásicas, del mismo modo que la
electrodinámica madura no tiene ninguna necesidad de análogos mecánicos.
Un Sistema y un Programa Filosófico
Bunge ha desarrollado un sistema filosófico que puede ser caracterizado como
materialista (o naturalista), pero emergentista y no reduccionista; sistémico y no holista ni
individualista; racioempirista y no racionalista ni empirista; basado en la ciencia; y exacto,
es decir, construido con la ayuda de instrumentos lógicos y matemáticos en vez de
depender de una formulación puramente verbal. En Crisis y Reconstrucción de la Filosofía
(2000) Bunge mantiene que:

La física no puede prescindir de la filosofía, del mismo modo que ésta no puede progresar
si ignora la física y las demás ciencias. En otras palabras, la ciencia y la filosofía sólida (i.e.,
científica) se solapan parcialmente y, por consiguiente, pueden interactuar de manera
fructífera. Sin la filosofía, la ciencia pierde profundidad; y, sin la ciencia, la filosofía se
estanca.

Su sistema es presentado con todo detalle en su monumental Tratado de Filosofía Básica
(1974-1989), en ocho volúmenes (de los cuales sólo dos se han traducido hasta ahora al
español), y cuyos tomos individuales están dedicados a la Semántica, la Ontología, la
Epistemología, la Filosofía de la Ciencia y la Ética. Bunge ha aplicado su enfoque
sistemático a los problemas de la física, la biología, la psicología, las ciencias sociales, los
estudios de tecnología y la ciencia política. Una fuente accesible para conocer su posición
es la colección de ensayos titulada Scientific Realism: Selected Essays of Mario Bunge
(Mahner, 2001): los ensayos recorren más de nueve campos de la filosofía --la Metafísica
u Ontología, la Metodología y la Filosofía de Ciencia, la Filosofía de las Matemáticas, la

Filosofía de la Psicología, la Filosofía de la Ciencia Social, la Filosofía de la Tecnología, la
Filosofía Moral, y la Filosofía Social y Política.

Bunge cree que las lecciones aprendidas a raíz de los éxitos obtenidos con gran esfuerzo
en las ciencias naturales deberían ser aplicables a la ciencia social; el esquema de
investigación forjado por lo mejor de las ciencias naturales puede y debe ser aplicado a los
ámbitos sociales y psicológicos.

Junto con la insuficiente financiación, Bunge considera que la mala filosofía es el obstáculo
principal para el avance de las ciencias sociales. Bunge ve en la investigación social
profundas carencias filosóficas de carácter lógico, ontológico, epistemológico y ético. Los
defectos lógicos son la falta de claridad conceptual y la inferencia inválida; los culpables
ontológicos son el individualismo y el holismo; los errores epistemológicos son el
sectoralismo o la visión en túnel, el subjetivismo, el apriorismo, el pragmatismo y el
irracionalismo. Asimismo, hay dos grandes estigmas morales que contribuyen al atraso de
la ciencia social, según escribe Bunge en Sistemas Sociales y Filosofía (1998):
Uno es la violación frecuente del ethos de la ciencia, estudiado por primera vez por
Merton (1938). Dicha violación ocurre, en particular, cuando se niega la universalidad del
conocimiento científico, cuando el dogmatismo sustituye al

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escepticismo organizado

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...
y cuando se desechan las pruebas rigurosas, o al menos la contrastación empírica. El
segundo culpable moral es la tentativa de hacer pasar la ideología (de izquierda, de centro
o de derecha) por ciencia en la investigación básica, asumiendo a la vez el pretexto de la
neutralidad moral o política cuando se abordan cuestiones prácticas.
La
Filosofía
y
la
Enseñanza
de
la
Física
Cuántica
Para Bunge, los aspectos ontológicos, epistemológicos, semánticos y culturales de la
teoría cuántica deben ser explicados con todo detalle y claridad en la enseñanza
académica. A cualquier estudiante inquisitivo que aprenda física cuántica se le ocurrirán
numerosas preguntas filosóficas, que a su vez tendrán mucho que ver con la historia de la
investigación y con los intereses filosóficos de los gigantes de la física moderna --Einstein,
Bohr, Planck, Heisenberg, Schrodinger, Born y Dirac. Como un célebre físico/filósofo, F.
Rohrlich, ha escrito:
El desarrollo de la mecánica cuántica ha conducido a la mayor revolución conceptual de
nuestro siglo, y tal vez a la mayor revolución que haya experimentado nunca la
humanidad. Probablemente ha superado a las grandes revoluciones de nuestro
pensamiento causadas por la revolución copernicana, la revolución darwiniana, y la teoría
especial y general de la relatividad. La mecánica cuántica nos ha obligado a reconsiderar
nuestras convicciones más profundas sobre la realidad de la naturaleza.

Bunge sostiene que la adecuada enseñanza de la teoría cuántica exige la incorporación de
la historia y la filosofía de la ciencia en los currículos académicos. El profesor necesita
conocer la historia y la filosofía de su materia para responder a las preguntas de los
estudiantes más reflexivos y para despertar la curiosidad de los estudiantes menos
inquisitivos. Sin lo anterior, dice Bunge, enseñar y aprender la teoría cuántica se convierte
en un rutinario encadenamiento de lecciones de matemáticas avanzadas, mezcladas con
historias extrañas de gatos que están mitad vivos mitad muertos, y de entidades
diminutas que cambian de orientación en un lado del mundo porque sus entidades
“hermanas” del otro lado del mundo han cambiado de orientación. La necesidad de una
sólida perspectiva histórica y filosófica para comprender adecuadamente la física cuántica
es uno de los mensajes centrales del profesor Bunge.
Conclusión
Bunge es uno de los pocos eruditos capaces de abarcar de manera competente disciplinas
tan diversas como la física, la biología, la psicología, las ciencias sociales, la historia de la
ciencia y la filosofía. Tal competencia interdisciplinar está hoy desapareciendo
lentamente. Desde los años de licenciatura y doctorado, existen enormes presiones sobre
los académicos para que se especialicen y, como dice el cliché, para que aprendan cada
vez más sobre cada vez menos. Bunge considera que esto es una desgracia para el futuro
de la ciencia ya que, entre otras cosas, limita gravemente la fertilización interdisciplinaria
y los programas de investigación. Y es asimismo una desgracia para la educación científica
desde la Educación Primaria hasta la Universidad, donde una serie de modas filosóficas y
pedagógicas desfasadas --por ejemplo, el conductismo en los años 1960 y 70, y el
constructivismo en los años 1980 y 90-- entorpecen, si es que no hacen descarrilar
completamente, la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de los contenidos científicos.

Bunge insiste en que la falta de competencia interdisciplinaria es un obstáculo para la
buena enseñanza académica de la ciencia. La interconexión de las diversas ramas de la
ciencia se ha perdido, y asimismo se ignora ampliamente el rico impacto de la ciencia
sobre la historia de la cultura. Diez años después de que Bunge naciera, se publicó un
texto titulado Science Teaching para la preparación de los profesores de ciencias
británicos, el cual llegó a ser muy popular. El autor, F.W. Westaway, había tenido
formación científica y escrito varios libros sobre metodología e historia de la ciencia. Al
inicio de su manual, Westaway caracterizó al buen profesor de ciencias como alguien
que:conoce su propio objeto de estudio... ha leído mucho sobre otras ramas de la
ciencia... sabe cómo enseñar... puede expresarse con claridad... es hábil en la
manipulación... es inventivo tanto en la pizarra de clase como en el laboratorio... es un
lógico de los pies a la cabeza... tiene algo de filósofo... tiene tanto de historiador que
puede sentarse con una multitud [de estudiantes] y hablarles sobre los intereses
personales, las vidas y la obra de genios como Galileo, Newton, Faraday y Darwin. Más
aún, es un entusiasta, lleno de fe hacia su propio trabajo. Westaway tenía expectativas
muy altas hacia los profesores de ciencias. Mario Bunge las compartiría.

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. Los cuantones
son peculiares, en el sentido de que no son entidades clásicas, pero ello no significa que
sean fantasmales o erráticos; y tampoco significa que la mecánica cuántica nos ofrezca
una imagen subjetivista, indeterminista e inmaterial del mundo.

En 1966 y 1969, Bunge debatió en persona sobre física cuántica con el mismísimo Werner
Heisenberg, y más tarde contribuyó a un libro colectivo en homenaje a Heisenberg. Un
aspecto que Bunge hace notar una y otra vez acerca de Heisenberg es que su
merecidamente famoso “Principio” --Ap.Ax> h/47r (el producto de las dispersiones en los
valores del momento (y por tanto de la velocidad) y la posición de una micropartícula es al
menos h/47r, donde h es la constante de Planck)-- no es en absoluto un principio sino más
bien un teorema. Se trata de una fórmula derivada que se sigue rigurosamente de los
axiomas y las definiciones de la mecánica cuántica. Puesto que la fórmula es un teorema,
para interpretarlo correctamente hay que examinar las premisas de las cuales se deriva.
Bunge mantiene que dicho examen demuestra que la fórmula es bastante general. En
particular, no se refiere a una partícula bajo observación, sino que es una ley de la
naturaleza, igual que la ecuación de Schrödinger, que es la fórmula básica de la mecánica
cuántica no relativista. Así pues, el popular nombre “Principio de Incertidumbre” es
incorrecto. Como Bunge advierte, la incertidumbre es un estado de ánimo, y la mecánica

cuántica no trata sobre mentes sino sobre cosas físicas, la mayor parte de las cuales están
más allá del alcance del experimentador.

En su libro de 1967, Bunge rechazó tanto la interpretación de Copenhague como la teoría
cuántica de Bohm, y propuso su propia interpretación realista. Ésta mantiene el
formalismo matemático, pero modifica la interpretación positivista propuesta por Bohr,
Heisenberg, Pauli y Born. Por ejemplo, Bunge interpreta el cuadrado del valor absoluto de
la función de estado no como la probabilidad de descubrir el objeto en cuestión en una
unidad de volumen (una noción intrínsecamente subjetiva), sino como la probabilidad de
que el objeto esté ahí (una noción objetiva). Bunge argumenta que los electrones y
entidades similares no son ni partículas ni ondas, aunque se aparezcan como tales en
circunstancias especiales. Hablar de ondas y de partículas es algo metafórico, una alusión
a las nociones clásicas de las cuales surgió la mecánica cuántica. Bunge acuñó el término
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para denotar estas entidades no clásicas, y mantuvo que la teoría cuántica
madura no tiene ninguna necesidad de las metáforas clásicas, del mismo modo que la
electrodinámica madura no tiene ninguna necesidad de análogos mecánicos.
Un Sistema y un Programa Filosófico
Bunge ha desarrollado un sistema filosófico que puede ser caracterizado como
materialista (o naturalista), pero emergentista y no reduccionista; sistémico y no holista ni
individualista; racioempirista y no racionalista ni empirista; basado en la ciencia; y exacto,
es decir, construido con la ayuda de instrumentos lógicos y matemáticos en vez de
depender de una formulación puramente verbal. En Crisis y Reconstrucción de la Filosofía
(2000) Bunge mantiene que:

La física no puede prescindir de la filosofía, del mismo modo que ésta no puede progresar
si ignora la física y las demás ciencias. En otras palabras, la ciencia y la filosofía sólida (i.e.,
científica) se solapan parcialmente y, por consiguiente, pueden interactuar de manera
fructífera. Sin la filosofía, la ciencia pierde profundidad; y, sin la ciencia, la filosofía se
estanca.

Su sistema es presentado con todo detalle en su monumental Tratado de Filosofía Básica
(1974-1989), en ocho volúmenes (de los cuales sólo dos se han traducido hasta ahora al
español), y cuyos tomos individuales están dedicados a la Semántica, la Ontología, la
Epistemología, la Filosofía de la Ciencia y la Ética. Bunge ha aplicado su enfoque
sistemático a los problemas de la física, la biología, la psicología, las ciencias sociales, los
estudios de tecnología y la ciencia política. Una fuente accesible para conocer su posición
es la colección de ensayos titulada Scientific Realism: Selected Essays of Mario Bunge
(Mahner, 2001): los ensayos recorren más de nueve campos de la filosofía --la Metafísica
u Ontología, la Metodología y la Filosofía de Ciencia, la Filosofía de las Matemáticas, la

Filosofía de la Psicología, la Filosofía de la Ciencia Social, la Filosofía de la Tecnología, la
Filosofía Moral, y la Filosofía Social y Política.

Bunge cree que las lecciones aprendidas a raíz de los éxitos obtenidos con gran esfuerzo
en las ciencias naturales deberían ser aplicables a la ciencia social; el esquema de
investigación forjado por lo mejor de las ciencias naturales puede y debe ser aplicado a los
ámbitos sociales y psicológicos.

Junto con la insuficiente financiación, Bunge considera que la mala filosofía es el obstáculo
principal para el avance de las ciencias sociales. Bunge ve en la investigación social
profundas carencias filosóficas de carácter lógico, ontológico, epistemológico y ético. Los
defectos lógicos son la falta de claridad conceptual y la inferencia inválida; los culpables
ontológicos son el individualismo y el holismo; los errores epistemológicos son el
sectoralismo o la visión en túnel, el subjetivismo, el apriorismo, el pragmatismo y el
irracionalismo. Asimismo, hay dos grandes estigmas morales que contribuyen al atraso de
la ciencia social, según escribe Bunge en Sistemas Sociales y Filosofía (1998):
Uno es la violación frecuente del ethos de la ciencia, estudiado por primera vez por
Merton (1938). Dicha violación ocurre, en particular, cuando se niega la universalidad del
conocimiento científico, cuando el dogmatismo sustituye al 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...
y cuando se desechan las pruebas rigurosas, o al menos la contrastación empírica. El
segundo culpable moral es la tentativa de hacer pasar la ideología (de izquierda, de centro
o de derecha) por ciencia en la investigación básica, asumiendo a la vez el pretexto de la
neutralidad moral o política cuando se abordan cuestiones prácticas.
La
Filosofía
y
la
Enseñanza
de
la
Física
Cuántica
Para Bunge, los aspectos ontológicos, epistemológicos, semánticos y culturales de la
teoría cuántica deben ser explicados con todo detalle y claridad en la enseñanza
académica. A cualquier estudiante inquisitivo que aprenda física cuántica se le ocurrirán
numerosas preguntas filosóficas, que a su vez tendrán mucho que ver con la historia de la
investigación y con los intereses filosóficos de los gigantes de la física moderna --Einstein,
Bohr, Planck, Heisenberg, Schrodinger, Born y Dirac. Como un célebre físico/filósofo, F.
Rohrlich, ha escrito:
El desarrollo de la mecánica cuántica ha conducido a la mayor revolución conceptual de
nuestro siglo, y tal vez a la mayor revolución que haya experimentado nunca la
humanidad. Probablemente ha superado a las grandes revoluciones de nuestro
pensamiento causadas por la revolución copernicana, la revolución darwiniana, y la teoría
especial y general de la relatividad. La mecánica cuántica nos ha obligado a reconsiderar
nuestras convicciones más profundas sobre la realidad de la naturaleza.

Bunge sostiene que la adecuada enseñanza de la teoría cuántica exige la incorporación de
la historia y la filosofía de la ciencia en los currículos académicos. El profesor necesita
conocer la historia y la filosofía de su materia para responder a las preguntas de los
estudiantes más reflexivos y para despertar la curiosidad de los estudiantes menos
inquisitivos. Sin lo anterior, dice Bunge, enseñar y aprender la teoría cuántica se convierte
en un rutinario encadenamiento de lecciones de matemáticas avanzadas, mezcladas con
historias extrañas de gatos que están mitad vivos mitad muertos, y de entidades
diminutas que cambian de orientación en un lado del mundo porque sus entidades
“hermanas” del otro lado del mundo han cambiado de orientación. La necesidad de una
sólida perspectiva histórica y filosófica para comprender adecuadamente la física cuántica
es uno de los mensajes centrales del profesor Bunge.
Conclusión
Bunge es uno de los pocos eruditos capaces de abarcar de manera competente disciplinas
tan diversas como la física, la biología, la psicología, las ciencias sociales, la historia de la
ciencia y la filosofía. Tal competencia interdisciplinar está hoy desapareciendo
lentamente. Desde los años de licenciatura y doctorado, existen enormes presiones sobre
los académicos para que se especialicen y, como dice el cliché, para que aprendan cada
vez más sobre cada vez menos. Bunge considera que esto es una desgracia para el futuro
de la ciencia ya que, entre otras cosas, limita gravemente la fertilización interdisciplinaria
y los programas de investigación. Y es asimismo una desgracia para la educación científica
desde la Educación Primaria hasta la Universidad, donde una serie de modas filosóficas y
pedagógicas desfasadas --por ejemplo, el conductismo en los años 1960 y 70, y el
constructivismo en los años 1980 y 90-- entorpecen, si es que no hacen descarrilar
completamente, la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de los contenidos científicos.

Bunge insiste en que la falta de competencia interdisciplinaria es un obstáculo para la
buena enseñanza académica de la ciencia. La interconexión de las diversas ramas de la
ciencia se ha perdido, y asimismo se ignora ampliamente el rico impacto de la ciencia
sobre la historia de la cultura. Diez años después de que Bunge naciera, se publicó un
texto titulado Science Teaching para la preparación de los profesores de ciencias
británicos, el cual llegó a ser muy popular. El autor, F.W. Westaway, había tenido
formación científica y escrito varios libros sobre metodología e historia de la ciencia. Al
inicio de su manual, Westaway caracterizó al buen profesor de ciencias como alguien
que:conoce su propio objeto de estudio... ha leído mucho sobre otras ramas de la
ciencia... sabe cómo enseñar... puede expresarse con claridad... es hábil en la
manipulación... es inventivo tanto en la pizarra de clase como en el laboratorio... es un
lógico de los pies a la cabeza... tiene algo de filósofo... tiene tanto de historiador que
puede sentarse con una multitud [de estudiantes] y hablarles sobre los intereses
personales, las vidas y la obra de genios como Galileo, Newton, Faraday y Darwin. Más
aún, es un entusiasta, lleno de fe hacia su propio trabajo. Westaway tenía expectativas
muy altas hacia los profesores de ciencias. Mario Bunge las compartiría.

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