1.

(a)

Distinguish between global warming and the greenhouse effect.
(3)

(b)

Explain what is meant by the systems concept and suggest how it can be applied to global
warming.
(6)

(c)

Reducing the impact of global warming is extremely difficult. Explain why this is the
case. In your answer you should refer to the strategies for managing pollutants in the
model below.

H U M A N A C T IV IT Y
P R O D U C IN G
PO LLU TA N T

A lte rin g h u m a n a c tiv ity th ro u g h in c e n tiv e s a n d
p e n a ltie s to p ro m o te th e :
– d e v e lo p m e n t o f a lte rn a tiv e te c h n o lo g ie s
– a d o p tio n o f a lte rn a tiv e life s ty le s
– re c y c lin g .

R ELEA SE O F
P O L L U T A N T IN T O
E N V IR O N M E N T

R e g u la tin g a n d re d u c in g th e p o llu ta n t a t th e
p o in t o f e m is s io n b y :
– s e ttin g a n d im p o s in g s ta n d a rd s
– in tro d u c in g m e a s u re s fo r e x tra c tin g th e
p o llu ta n t fro m w a s te e m is s io n s .

LO
IM
PO
EC

C le a n in g u p th e p o llu ta n t a n d re s to rin g
e c o s y s te m s b y :
– e x tra c tin g a n d re m o v in g th e p o llu ta n t fro m
th e e c o s y s te m s
– re p la n tin g a n d re s to c k in g w ith a n im a l
p o p u la tio n s .

N G -T E R M
PA C T O F
LLU TA N T O N
O SY STEM

(8)

Expression of ideas
(3)
(Total 20 marks)

1

2.

(a)

Describe the role of greenhouse gases in maintaining mean global temperature.
(4)

(b)

Discuss the impact of global warming. Consider the potential effect on biomes, global
agriculture and human society.
(7)

(c)

Predictive models of climate change may give very different results. Explain this
statement with reference to the limitations of models and the contrasting arguments about
global warming.
(6)
Expression of ideas (3)
(Total 20 marks)

3.

(a)

Describe some of the contrasting responses to the issue of global warming.
(5)

(b)

Outline the reasons why people have such different opinions on the issue of global
warming.
(5)

(c)

Describe what is meant by carrying capacity and evaluate the role that technology could
play in ensuring that the earth’s carrying capacity is not exceeded by human populations.
(8)
Expression of ideas (2)
(Total 20 marks)

2

4.

The Gaia Hypothesis proposes that our planet functions as a single organism that
maintains conditions necessary for its survival by feedback mechanisms. It was
formulated by James Lovelock in the mid-1960s. In his recent book The revenge of
Gaia, he suggests that we have passed the “tipping point” on global warming and that
feedback mechanisms will speed up the rate of global warming.
(a)

State what type of system the Earth is and what the inputs and outputs are
(3)

(b)

Using positive and negative feedback models explain the process of climate
change.
(7)

(c)

Scientists use computer simulations to model the effects of changes in the
temperature of the Earth. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this
modelling.
(4)

(d)

Describe your personal viewpoint on the global warming issue and justify your
position based on the evidence.
(4)
Expression of ideas (2)
(Total 20 marks)

5.

(a)

Outline the link between greenhouse gases and global temperatures.
(2)

(b)

Explain why the effects of global environmental problems, such as global
warming and ozone depletion, will not have an impact on every society to the
same extent.
(6)

(c)

Human responses to global warming can be divided into strategies to prevent
global warming from happening (preventive) and strategies to reduce the impacts
that global warming might have (reactive). Outline preventive and reactive
management strategies to address global warming. Evaluate the strengths and
weaknesses of preventive versus reactive approaches.
(10)
Expression of ideas (2)
(Total 20 marks)

3