Section 3.1 Solutions 1. Function
2. Function
3. Not a function –
4. Not a function –
1pm and 4pm both map to two elements in
Pat maps to two elements of the range.
the range.
6. Not a function –
5. Function
Both elements of the domain map to 2
elements of the range.
8. Not a function –
7. Not a function –
2 maps to both −2 and 2, and 5 maps to
0 maps to both −3 and 3.
both −5 and 5.
9. Not a function –
4 maps to both −2 and 2, and 9 maps to
10. Function
both −3 and 3.
11. Function
12. Function
14. Not a function –
13. Not a function –
Since (1, −1) and (1,1) are both on the graph,
Since 1, −2 2 and 1, 2 2 are both on
it does not pass the vertical line test.
the graph, it does not pass vertical line test.
(
)
(
)
15. Not a function –
Since (1, −1) and (1,1) are both on the
16. Function
graph, it does not pass the vertical line test.
17. Function
18. Function
19. Not a function –
20. Not a function –
Since ( 0,5 ) and ( 0, −5 ) are both on the
Since ( 0, 4 ) and ( 0, −4 ) are both on the
graph, it does not pass the vertical line test. graph, it does not pass the vertical line test.
21. Function
22. Function
23. Not a function –
Since ( 0, −1) and ( 0, −3) are both on the
24. Function
graph, it does not pass the vertical line test.
25. a) 5 b) 1 c) −3
26. a) 1 b) −5
c) 0
28. a) 0 b) 4 c) −5
27. a) 3 b) 2 c) 5
29. a) −5
b) −5
c) −5
30. a) −2
b) −6
c) −4
31. a) 2 b) −8
c) −5
32. a) DNE b) 0 c) 3
34. −1.5 and 3
33. 1
35. 1 and –3
36. −7
221
Chapter 3
37. For all x in the interval [−4, 4]
39. 6
41. f (−2) = 2(−2) − 3 = −7
38. For all x in the set [−4, 0) ∪ [4]
40. −3
42. G (−3) = (−3) 2 + 2(−3) − 7 = −4
43. g (1) = 5 + 1 = 6
45. Using #41 and #43, we see that
f (−2) + g (1) = −7 + 6 = −1 .
47. Using #41 and #43, we see that
3 f (−2) − 2 g (1) = 3(−7) − 2(6) = −33 .
49. Using #41 and #43, we see that
f (−2)
7
= − .
g (1)
6
51.
f (0) − f (−2) ( 2(0) − 3) − ( −7 )
=
6
g (1)
44. F (−1) = 4 − (−1) 2 = 3
46. Using #42 and #44, we see that
G (−3) − F (−1) = −4 − 3 = −7 .
48. Using #42 and #44, we see that
2 F (−1) − 2G (−3) = 2(3) − 2(−4) = 14 .
50. Using #42 and #44, we see that
G (−3)
4
= − .
F (−1)
3
=
53.
52.
2
G (0) − G (−3) ( 0 + 2(0) − 7 ) − ( −4 )
=
F (−1)
3
−7 + 4
=
= −1
3
−3 + 7 2
=
6
3
f ( x + 1) − f ( x − 1) = [ 2( x + 1) − 3] − [ 2( x − 1) − 3]
= [ 2 x + 2 − 3] − [ 2 x − 2 − 3]
= [ 2 x − 1] − [ 2 x − 5]
= 2x −1 − 2x + 5
= 4
54.
F (t + 1) − F (t − 1) = ⎡⎣ 4 − (t + 1) 2 ⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ 4 − (t − 1) 2 ⎤⎦
= ⎡⎣ 4 − ( t 2 + 2t + 1) ⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ 4 − ( t 2 − 2t + 1) ⎤⎦
= ⎡⎣ 4 − t 2 − 2t − 1⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ 4 − t 2 + 2t − 1⎤⎦
= 4 − t 2 − 2t − 1 − 4 + t 2 − 2t + 1
= −4t
55.
g ( x + a) − f ( x + a) = [5 + ( x + a) ] − [ 2( x + a) − 3]
= [5 + x + a ] − [ 2 x + 2a − 3]
= 5 + x + a − 2 x − 2a + 3
= 8− x−a
222
Section 3.1
56.
G ( x + b) + F (b) = ⎡⎣( x + b) 2 + 2( x + b) − 7 ⎤⎦ + ⎡⎣ 4 − b 2 ⎤⎦
= x 2 + 2bx + b 2 + 2 x + 2b − 7 + 4 − b 2
= x 2 + 2bx + 2 x + 2b − 3
57.
f ( x + h) − f ( x) [ 2( x + h) − 3] − [ 2 x − 3]
=
h
h
2 x + 2h − 3 − 2 x + 3
=
h
2h
=
= 2
h
58.
2
2
F (t + h) − F (t ) ⎣⎡ 4 − (t + h) ⎦⎤ − ⎣⎡ 4 − t ⎦⎤
=
h
h
2
⎡ 4 − ( t + 2ht + h 2 ) ⎤ − ⎡ 4 − t 2 ⎤
⎦
⎦ ⎣
=⎣
h
⎡⎣ 4 − t 2 − 2ht − h 2 ⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ 4 − t 2 ⎤⎦
=
h
2
4 − t − 2ht − h 2 − 4 + t 2
=
h
2
−2ht − h
− h(2t + h)
=
=
= − ( 2t + h )
h
h
59.
g (t + h) − g (t ) [5 + (t + h) ] − [5 + t ]
=
h
h
5+t + h−5−t h
=
= =1
h
h
60.
2
2
G ( x + h) − G ( x) ⎣⎡( x + h) + 2( x + h) − 7 ⎦⎤ − ⎣⎡ x + 2 x − 7 ⎦⎤
=
h
h
x 2 + 2hx + h 2 + 2 x + 2h − 7 − x 2 − 2 x + 7
=
h
2hx + h 2 + 2h h(2 x + h + 2)
=
=
= 2x + h + 2
h
h
223
Chapter 3
61. It follows directly from the
computation in #57 with x = −2 that this
equals 2.
63. It follows directly from the
computation in #59 with t = 1 that this
equals 1 .
65. The domain is \ .
This is written using interval notation as
( −∞, ∞ ) .
62. It follows directly from the
computation in #58 with t = −1 that this
equals 2 − h .
64. It follows directly from the
computation in #60 with x = −3 that this
equals h − 4 .
66. The domain is \ .
This is written using interval notation as
( −∞, ∞ ) .
67. The domain is \ .
This is written using interval notation as
( −∞, ∞ ) .
68. The domain is \ .
This is written using interval notation as
( −∞, ∞ ) .
69. The domain is the set of all real
numbers x such that x − 5 ≠ 0 , that is
x≠5.
This is written using interval notation as
( −∞,5 ) ∪ ( 5, ∞ ) .
70. The domain is the set of all real
numbers t such that t + 3 ≠ 0 , that is
t ≠ −3 .
This is written using interval notation as
( −∞, −3) ∪ ( −3, ∞ ) .
71. The domain is the set of all real
numbers x such that
x 2 − 4 = ( x − 2)( x + 2) ≠ 0 ,
that is x ≠ −2, 2 .
This is written using interval notation as
( −∞, −2 ) ∪ ( −2, 2 ) ∪ ( 2, ∞ ) .
72. The domain is the set of all real
numbers x such that
x 2 − 1 = ( x − 1)( x + 1) ≠ 0 ,
that is x ≠ −1,1 .
This is written using interval notation as
( −∞, −1) ∪ ( −1,1) ∪ (1, ∞ ) .
73. Since x 2 + 1 ≠ 0 , for every real number 74. Since x 2 + 4 ≠ 0 , for every real number
x, the domain is \ .
x, the domain is \ .
This is written using interval notation as
This is written using interval notation as
( −∞, ∞ ) .
( −∞, ∞ ) .
75. The domain is the set of all real
numbers x such that
7− x ≥ 0,
that is 7 ≥ x .
This is written using interval notation as
( −∞, 7] .
76. The domain is the set of all real
numbers t such that
t −7 ≥ 0,
that is t ≥ 7 .
This is written using interval notation as
[ 7, ∞ ) .
224
Section 3.1
77. The domain is the set of all real
numbers x such that
2x + 5 ≥ 0 ,
that is x ≥ − 52 .
This is written using interval notation as
⎡⎣− 52 , ∞ ) .
78. The domain is the set of all real
numbers x such that
5 − 2x ≥ 0 ,
that is 52 ≥ x .
This is written using interval notation as
( −∞, 52 ⎤⎦ .
79. The domain is the set of all real
numbers t such that t 2 − 4 ≥ 0 , which is
equivalent to (t − 2)(t + 2) ≥ 0 .
CPs are −2, 2
80. The domain is the set of all real
numbers x such that x 2 − 25 ≥ 0 , which is
equivalent to ( x − 5)( x + 5) ≥ 0 .
CPs are −5, 5
+
−
+
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
G


−2
+
−
+
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
G


−5
2
5
This is written using interval notation as
( −∞, −2] ∪ [ 2, ∞ ) .
This is written using interval notation as
( −∞, −5] ∪ [5, ∞ ) .
81. The domain is the set of all real
numbers x such that
x −3 > 0,
that is x > 3 .
This is written using interval notation as
( 3, ∞ ) .
82. The domain is the set of all real
numbers x such that
5− x > 0 ,
that is 5 > x .
This is written using interval notation as
( −∞,5) .
83. Since 1 − 2x can be any real number,
there is no restriction on x, so that the
domain is (−∞, ∞) .
84. Since 7 − 5x can be any real number,
there is no restriction on x, so that the
domain is (−∞, ∞) .
85. The only restriction is that x + 4 ≠ 0 ,
so that x ≠ −4 . So, the domain is
(−∞, −4) ∪ (−4, ∞) .
86. The only restriction is that
x 2 − 9 = ( x − 3)( x + 3) ≠ 0 , so that x ≠ ±3 .
So, the domain is
(−∞, −3) ∪ (−3,3) ∪ (3, ∞) .
87. The domain is the set of all real
numbers x such that
3 − 2x > 0 ,
3
that is 2 > x .
This is written using interval notation as
( −∞, ) .
3
2
88. The domain is the set of all real
numbers t such that 25 − x 2 > 0 , which is
equivalent to (5 − x)(5 + x) > 0 .
CPs are −5, 5
−
+
−
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ
G


−5
5
This is written using interval notation as
( −5,5 ) .
225
Chapter 3
89. The domain is the set of all real
numbers t such that t 2 − t − 6 > 0 , which is
equivalent to (t − 3)(t + 2) > 0 .
CPs are −2, 3
+
−
+
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG


−2
3
90. Since t 2 + 9 > 0 , for all real numbers t,
there is no restriction. So, the domain is
( −∞, ∞ ) .
This is written using interval notation as
( −∞, −2 ) ∪ ( 3, ∞ ) .
91. The domain is the set of all real
numbers t such that x 2 − 16 ≥ 0 , which is
equivalent to ( x − 4)( x + 4) ≥ 0 .
CPs are −4, 4
+
−
+
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG


−4
4
92. There is no restriction on x. So, the
domain is ( −∞, ∞ ) .
This is written using interval notation as
( −∞, −4] ∪ [ 4, ∞ ) .
93. The function can be written as
x2
r ( x) =
. So, the domain is the set
3 − 2x
of real numbers x such that 3 − 2 x > 0 ,
that is 32 > x . This is written using interval
notation as ( −∞, 32 ) .
95. The domain of any linear function is
( −∞, ∞ ) .
97. Solve x 2 − 2 x − 5 = 3.
x2 − 2 x − 8 = 0
( x − 4)( x + 2) = 0
94. The function can be written as
( x − 1) 2
. So, the domain is the
p ( x) =
3
5
x2 − 9
(
)
set of real numbers x such that
x 2 − 9 = ( x − 3)( x + 3) ≠ 0 , so that x ≠ ±3 .
So, the domain is
(−∞, −3) ∪ (−3,3) ∪ (3, ∞) .
96. The domain of any quadratic function
is ( −∞, ∞ ) .
98. Solve
5
6
x − 34 = 23 .
10 x − 9 = 8
10 x = 17
x = 17
10
x = −2, 4
226
Section 3.1
99.
2 x( x − 5)3 − 12( x − 5) 2 = 0
100.
3x( x + 3) 2 − 6( x + 3)3 = 0
2( x − 5) [ x( x − 5) − 6] = 0
2
3( x + 3) 2 [ x − 2( x + 3)] = 0
2( x − 5) 2 ( x 2 − 5 x − 6) = 0
3( x + 3) 2 ( − x − 6 ) = 0
2( x − 5) ( x − 6)( x + 1) = 0
2
x = −3, −6
x = −1,5, 6
101. Let x = number of people
y = cost
Then, y = 45 x, x > 75 . The domain is
( 75, ∞ ) .
102. Let x = number of minutes of a
domestic long distance call
y = cost
Then, y = 35 + 0.10 x, x ≥ 0 .
103. Assume: 6am corresponds to x = 6
noon corresponds to x = 12
104. h(14) = −16(4) 2 + 128(4) = 256 ft
Then, the temperature at 6am is:
T (6) = −0.7(6) 2 + 16.8(6) − 10.8
= 64.8D F
The temperature at noon is:
T (12) = −0.7(12) 2 + 16.8(12) − 10.8
= 90D F
106. Since
The domain is [ 0, ∞ ) since we are starting
at time t = 0 sec.
105. P(10) = 10 + 400, 000 − 100(10)
≅ $641.66
P(100) = 10 + 400, 000 − 100(100)
≅ $634.50
400, 000 − 100x is nonnegative wherever it is defined, the lowest price
400, 000 − 100 x = 0 . This happens when
400, 000 − 100 x = 0
x = 4000
So, the lowest price is $10 and 4000 tickets were available at that time.
Similarly, the highest price occurs when there is only 1 signed card for sale. This
corresponds to P (1) = 10 + 400, 000 − 100(1) ≅ $642.38 .
must occur when
227
Chapter 3
107. Start with a square piece of
cardboard with dimensions 10 in. × 10 in..
Then, cut out 4 square corners with
dimensions x in. × x in. , as shown in the
diagram:
Upon bending all four corners up, a box of
height x is formed. Notice that all four
sides of the base of the resulting box have
length 10 − 2x . The volume of the box,
V ( x) , is given by:
V ( x) = ( Length ) ⋅ ( Width ) ⋅ ( Height )
= (10 − 2 x) (10 − 2 x) ( x)
= x(10 − 2 x) 2
The domain is ( 0,5 ) . (For any other values
of x, one cannot form a box.)
108. The volume of a right circular cylindrical tank whose base radius is 10 ft and
whose height is h is given by V (h) = π (10) 2 h = 100π h . If the height is increased by 2
ft, the corresponding volume would be:
V (h + 2) = π (10) 2 (h + 2) = 100π h + 200π
So, the volume increased by 200π cubic ft, which corresponds to
200π ⋅ 7.48gal ≅ 4700 gal .
109. Yes. For because every input (year),
there corresponds to exactly one output
(federal funds rate).
111. (1989, 4000), (1993, 6000),
(1997, 6000), (2001, 8000), (2005,11000),
113. a) F(50) = number of tons of carbon
emitted by natural gas in 1950 = 0
b) g(50) = number of tons of coal emitted
by natural gas in 1950 = 1000
c) h(5) = 2000
115. Should apply the vertical line test to
determine if the relationship describes a
function. The given relationship IS a
function in this case.
110. (2000, 5.45), (2002, 1.73),
(2004, 1.00), (2006, 4.50), (2008, 3.50)
112. Yes, for every input there
corresponds a unique output.
114. F (100) + g (100) + G (100) represents
the total amount (in millions of metric
tons) of carbon emitted in 2000 by natural
gas, coal, and petroleum.
116. H (3) − H (−1) ≠ H (3) + H (1) , in
general. You cannot distribute −1 through
in this manner.
228
Section 3.1
118. There are two mistakes.
One, the computation 3 − t > 0 should be
3 − t ≥ 0 . And two, the statement directly
preceding the computation should be,
“What can 3 − t be?”
The domain should be ( −∞,3] .
117.
f ( x + 1) ≠ f ( x) + f (1) , in general. You
cannot distribute the function f through the
input at which you are evaluating it.
120. f (1) = −1 means the
point (1, −1) must satisfy the function. So,
−1 = 1 − A − 1
119. G (−1 + h) ≠ G (−1) + G (h) , in
general.
0 = 1− A
1= A
122. False. Consider the function
f ( x) = x 2 on its domain \ .
121. False. Consider the function
f ( x) = 9 − x 2 on its domain [ −3,3] . The
vertical line test x = 4 doesn’t intersect the 123. False. This simply means that a
particular horizontal line intersects the
graph, but it still defines a function.
graph twice. Consider f ( x) = x 2 on \ . In
this case, f (a) = f (− a) , for all real
numbers a.
125.
124. True. The graph of the circle
x 2 + y 2 = r 2 satisfies this relationship, but
does not pass the vertical line test.
126. g (3) =
f (1) = A(1) 2 − 3(1) = −1
A − 3 = −1
A=2
1
is undefined only if b = 3 .
b−3
C − (−2) C + 2
=
is undefined only if D = −2 . So,
D − (−2) D + 2
C − (−1) C + 1 C + 1
F (−1) =
=
=
= −(C + 1) = 4 implies that C = −5 .
D − (−1) D + 1 −2 + 1
127. F (−2) =
229
Chapter 3
128. Many functions will work here. The easiest ones to construct are of the form
b
g ( x) =
. For such a function, certainly g (5) is undefined. In order for (1, −1) to be
x −5
b
b
on the graph, it must be the case that −1 =
, so that b = 4 . So, one function
=
1 − 5 −4
4
that works is g ( x) =
.
x −5
130. The domain is the set of all real
numbers x such that
129. The domain is the set of all real
x 2 − a 2 = ( x − a )( x + a ) ≥ 0 .
numbers x such that
CPs: x = ± a
x 2 − a 2 = ( x − a )( x + a) ≠ 0 , which is
+
−
+
equivalent to x ≠ ± a . So, the domain is
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJG


( −∞, −a ) ∪ ( −a, a ) ∪ ( a, ∞ ) .
131.
The time of day when it is warmest is
Noon ( x = 12 ) and the temperature is
approximately 90 degrees.
This model is only valid on the interval
[6,18] since the values of T outside the
interval [ 6,18] are too small to be
considered temperatures in Florida.
−a
a
So, the domain is ( −∞, − a ] ∪ [ a, ∞ ) .
132.
The firecracker is airborne for 8 seconds
after liftoff – this corresponds to the xintercept.
The firecracker maintains a maximum
height of 256 ft within 4 seconds of liftoff.
The model only applies for 8 seconds since
the firecracker will land after 8 seconds,
and presumably will not travel through the
ground afterwards.
230
Section 3.1
133.
134.
Observe that
S ( r + 3 ) = 4π (r + 3) 2
Radius
increased by 3
Corresponding
surface area
= 4π ( r 2 + 6r + 9 )
= 4π r 2 + 4π ( 6r + 9 )
So, the surface area would increase by
4π ( 6r + 9 ) .
The lowest price is $10 and the highest
price is $642.38. These agree with the
values of Exercise 105.
135.
136.
The graph of y2 can be obtained by
shifting the graph of y1 two units to the
right.
The graph of y2 can be obtained by
shifting the graph of y1 two units to the
left.
231
Chapter 3
Section 3.2 Solutions 2. h(− x) = 3 − (− x) = 3 + x ≠ h( x)
1. G (− x) = − x + 4 ≠ x + 4 = G ( x)
So, not even.
So, not even.
−G ( − x ) = − ( − x + 4 ) = x − 4 ≠ G ( x )
− h( − x ) = − ( 3 − ( − x ) ) = − ( 3 + x ) ≠ h( x )
So, not odd. Thus, neither.
So, not odd. Thus, neither.
3. f (− x) = 3(− x) 2 + 1 = 3x 2 + 1 = f ( x)
So, even. Thus, f cannot be odd.
5. g (−t ) = 5(−t )3 − 3(−t ) = −5t 3 + 3t
4. F (− x) = ( − x ) + 2 ( − x )
4
= x 4 + 2 x 2 = F ( x)
So, even. Thus, F cannot be odd.
6. f (− x) = 3(− x)5 + 4(− x)3
= − ( 3x5 + 4 x3 ) ≠ f ( x)
= − ( 5t 3 − 3t ) ≠ g (t )
So, not even.
(
− f (− x) = − − ( 3x5 + 4 x3 )
So, not even.
− g (−t ) = − − ( 5t 3 − 3t ) = g (t )
(
)
So, not odd. Thus, neither.
)
= 3x + 4 x = f ( x)
So, odd.
5
So, odd.
7. h(− x) = (− x) 2 + 2(− x) = x 2 − 2 x ≠ h( x)
So, not even.
− h( − x ) = − ( x 2 − 2 x ) = − x 2 + 2 x ≠ h( x )
2
3
8. G (− x) = 2(− x) 4 + 3(− x)3
= 2 x 4 − 3 x3 ≠ G ( x)
So, not even.
−G ( − x ) = − ( 2 x 4 − 3 x 3 ) ≠ G ( x )
So, not odd. Thus, neither.
9. h(− x) = (− x) 3 − (− x)
1
(
10. g (− x) = (− x) −1 + (− x)
)
= − ( x −1 + x ) ≠ g ( x)
= − x 3 − x ≠ h( x )
1
So, not even.
((
− h( − x ) = − − x − x
1
3
)) = x
So, not even.
1
3
(
− g (− x) = − − ( x −1 + x )
− x = h( x )
So, odd.
11. f (− x) = − x + 5 = −1 x + 5
)
= x −1 + x = g ( x)
So, odd.
(Note: (− x) −1 = −1x = − 1x = −( x) −1 )
12. f (− x) = − x + (− x) 2
= x + 5 = f ( x)
= −1 x + x 2 = f ( x)
So, even. Thus, f cannot be odd.
So, even. Thus, f cannot be odd.
232
Section 3.2
13. f (− x) = − x = −1 x = f ( x)
So, even. Thus, f cannot be odd.
15. G (−t ) = ( −t ) − 3 = −(t + 3)
14.
f ( − x ) = ( − x ) = − x 3 = −1 x 3 = f ( x )
3
So, even. Thus, f cannot be odd.
16. G (−t ) = ( −t ) + 2 ≠ G (t )
= t + 3 ≠ G (t )
So, not even.
−G (−t ) = − ( −t ) + 2 ≠ G (t )
So, not even.
−G (−t ) = − t + 3 ≠ G (t )
So, not odd. Thus, neither.
So, not odd. Thus, neither.
17. G (−t ) = −t − 3 = −(t + 3) ≠ G (t )
So, not even.
−G (−t ) = − −(t + 3) ≠ G (t )
Note: Cannot distribute
−1 here
18. f (− x) = 2 − (− x) = 2 + x ≠ f ( x)
So, not even.
− f ( − x) = − 2 + x ≠ f ( x)
So, not odd. Thus, neither.
So, not odd. Thus, neither.
19. g (− x) = (− x) 2 + (− x)
= x 2 − x ≠ g ( x)
So, not even.
20. f (− x) = (− x) 2 + 2 = x 2 + 2 = f ( x)
So, even. Thus, f cannot be odd.
− g ( − x) = − x 2 − x ≠ g ( x)
So, not odd. Thus, neither.
1
21. h(− x) =
+ 3 ≠ h( x )
−x
So, not even.
⎛ 1
⎞ 1
− h( − x ) = − ⎜
+ 3 ⎟ = − 3 ≠ h( x )
⎝ −x
⎠ x
So, not odd. Thus, neither.
23. Call the function h.
h is not even since h(1) = 4 ≠ 0 = h(−1) .
h is not odd since h(1) = 4 ≠ 0 = −h(−1) .
Thus, neither.
22.
1
⎛1
⎞
− 2(− x) = − ⎜ − 2 x ⎟ ≠ h( x)
−x
⎝x
⎠
So, not even.
⎛ ⎛1
⎞⎞ 1
− h( − x ) = − ⎜ − ⎜ − 2 x ⎟ ⎟ = − 2 x = h( x )
⎠⎠ x
⎝ ⎝x
So, odd.
24. Call the function h.
h is not odd since h(2) = 3 ≠ −3 = −h(−2) .
h is even since h( x) = h(− x) for all x.
(This can be visualized by reflecting the
graph about the yaxis.
h( − x ) =
233
Chapter 3
25.
Domain
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
( −∞, ∞ )
[ −1, ∞ )
( −1, ∞ )
(−3, −2)
d) 0
e) −1
f) 2
( −∞, −3) ∪ ( −2, −1)
26.
Domain
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
[ −4, ∞ )
( −∞,3]
(1, 2 )
(−3, 0) ∪ (2, ∞)
d) −1
e) approximately 1.8
f) 1
[ −4, −3) ∪ (0,1)
27.
Increasing
[ −7, 2]
[ −5, 4]
( −4, 0 )
Decreasing
Constant
(−7, −4) ∪ (0, 2)
nowhere
Domain
Range
d) 4
e) 1
f) −5
234
Section 3.2
28.
Increasing
( −∞, ∞ )
( −∞, ∞ )
( −∞, −3) ∪ ( 3, ∞ )
Decreasing
Constant
(−3,3)
nowhere
Domain
Range
d) 0
e) 3.5
f) approximately −3.3
29.
Increasing
( −∞, ∞ )
( −∞, ∞ )
( −∞, −3) ∪ ( 4, ∞ )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
( −3, 4 )
Domain
Range
d) 2
e) 2
f) 2
30.
Range
( −∞, ∞ )
( −∞, ∞ )
Increasing
Decreasing
nowhere
( −∞, ∞ )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
d) 2
e) 1
f) −1
235
Chapter 3
31.
Decreasing
( −∞, ∞ )
[ −4, ∞ )
( 0, ∞ )
( −∞, 0 )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
d) −4
e) 0
f) 0
32.
Domain
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
( −∞, ∞ )
[0, ∞ )
( 3, ∞ )
( −∞, −3)
( −3,3)
d) 0
e) 0
f) 0
33.
Increasing
( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, ∞ )
( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, ∞ )
( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, ∞ )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
nowhere
Domain
Range
d) undefined
e) 3
f) −3
236
Section 3.2
34.
Decreasing
( −∞, 4 ) ∪ ( 4, ∞ )
( −∞, ∞ )
( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 4, ∞ )
( 0, 4 )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
d) 4
e) approximately 3.5
f) approximately 2.5
35.
( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, ∞ )
( −∞,5) ∪ [7]
( −∞, 0 )
( 5, ∞ )
( 0,5)
Domain
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
d) undefined
e) 3
f) 7
36.
Decreasing
( −8, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, 4]
( −4,3]
( −8, −5) ∪ ( 0, 4 )
( −5, 0 )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
37.
d) undefined
e) approximately −0.8
f) 0
38.
⎡⎣( x + h) − ( x + h) ⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ x − x ⎤⎦
=
h
x 2 + 2hx + h 2 − x − h − x 2 + x
=
h
h ( 2 x + h − 1)
= 2x + h −1
h
2
⎡⎣( x + h) 2 + 2( x + h) ⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ x 2 + 2 x ⎤⎦
=
h
x 2 + 2hx + h 2 + 2 x + 2h − x 2 − 2 x
=
h
h ( 2x + h + 2)
= 2x + h + 2
h
2
237
Chapter 3
39.
40.
⎡⎣( x + h) + 3( x + h) ⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ x + 3x ⎤⎦
=
h
x 2 + 2hx + h 2 + 3x + 3h − x 2 − 3x
=
h
h ( 2 x + h + 3)
= 2x + h + 3
h
2
⎡⎣ −( x + h) 2 + 5( x + h) ⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ − x 2 + 5 x ⎤⎦
=
h
− x 2 − 2hx − h 2 + 5 x + 5h + x 2 − 5 x
=
h
h ( −2 x − h + 5 )
= −2 x − h + 5
h
2
41.
⎡⎣( x + h) 2 − 3( x + h) + 2 ⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ x 2 − 3x + 2 ⎤⎦
42.
⎡⎣( x + h) 2 − 2( x + h) + 5⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ x 2 − 2 x + 5⎤⎦
=
h
x 2 + 2hx + h 2 − 3x − 3h + 2 − x 2 + 3x − 2
=
h
h ( 2 x + h − 3)
= 2x + h − 3
h
43.
=
h
x 2 + 2hx + h 2 − 2 x − 2h + 5 − x 2 + 2 x − 5
=
h
h ( 2x + h − 2)
= 2x + h − 2
h
44.
⎡⎣ −3( x + h) 2 + 5( x + h) − 4 ⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ −3 x 2 + 5 x − 4 ⎤⎦
=
h
−3x 2 − 6hx − 3h 2 + 5 x + 5h − 4 + 3x 2 − 5 x + 4
=
h
h ( −6 x − 3h + 5 )
= −6 x − 3h + 5
h
⎡⎣ −4( x + h) 2 + 2( x + h) − 3⎤⎦ − ⎡⎣ −4 x 2 + 2 x − 3⎤⎦
=
h
−4 x 2 − 8hx − 4h 2 + 2 x + 2h − 3 + 4 x 2 − 2 x + 3
=
h
h ( −8 x − 4h + 2 )
= −8 x − 4h + 2
h
33 − 13 27 − 1
=
= 13
3 −1
2
3 −1
=1
47.
3 −1
(1 − 2(3)) − (1 − 2(1)) −5 − (−1)
49.
=
= −2
3 −1
2
45.
51.
5 − 2(3) − 5 − 2(1)
3 −1
=
−1 − 3
2
= −1
− 11 − 32
=
= − 13
3 −1 2
2(3) − 2(1) 4
48.
= = 2
3 −1
2
46.
1
3
( 9 − 3 ) − ( 9 − 1 ) = 0 − 8 = −4
2
50.
3 −1
3
52.
238
2
2
3 −1 − 1 −1
8
=
=1
3 −1
2
2
3
2
3
Section 3.2
53.
Increasing
( −∞, ∞ )
( −∞, 2]
( −∞, 2 )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
( 2, ∞ )
Domain
Range
54.
Range
( −∞, ∞ )
{−1} ∪ (1, ∞ )
Increasing
Decreasing
nowhere
( −∞, −1)
Constant
( −1, ∞ )
Domain
Notes on Graph: There should be an open
hole at (−1,1), and a closed hole at (−1, −1) .
55.
Domain
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
( −∞, ∞ )
[0, ∞ )
( 0, ∞ )
( −1, 0 )
( −∞, −1)
239
Chapter 3
56.
Domain
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
( −∞, ∞ )
[0, ∞ )
( 0, 2 )
( −∞, 0 )
( 2, ∞ )
57.
Increasing
( −∞, ∞ )
( −∞, ∞ )
( −∞, ∞ )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
nowhere
Domain
Range
58.
Decreasing
( −∞, ∞ )
[0, ∞ )
( 0, ∞ )
( −∞, 0 )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
240
Section 3.2
59.
Decreasing
( −∞, ∞ )
[1, ∞ )
(1, ∞ )
( −∞,1)
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
60.
Decreasing
( −∞, ∞ )
( −∞, ∞ )
( −∞, −1) ∪ ( 0, ∞ )
( −1, 0 )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
61.
Increasing
( −∞, ∞ )
[ −1,3]
( −1,3)
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
( −∞, −1) ∪ ( 3, ∞ )
Domain
Range
241
Chapter 3
62.
Increasing
( −∞, −1) ∪ ( −1,3) ∪ ( 3, ∞ )
[ −1,3]
( −1,3)
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
( −∞, −1) ∪ ( 3, ∞ )
Domain
Range
Notes on Graph: There should be open
holes at (−1, −1) and (3,3) .
63.
Increasing
( −∞, ∞ )
[1, 4]
(1, 2 )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
( −∞,1) ∪ ( 2, ∞ )
Domain
Range
64.
Increasing
( −∞,1) ∪ (1, 2 ) ∪ ( 2, ∞ )
[1, 4]
(1, 2 )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
( −∞,1) ∪ ( 2, ∞ )
Domain
Range
Notes on Graph: There should be open
holes at (1,1) and (2, 4) .
242
Section 3.2
65.
Decreasing
( −∞, −2 ) ∪ ( −2, ∞ )
( −∞, ∞ )
( −2,1)
( −∞, −2 ) ∪ (1, ∞ )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
Notes on Graph: There should be open
holes at (−2,1) , (−2, −1), and (1, 2) , and a
closed hole at (1, 0) .
66.
Decreasing
( −∞,1) ∪ (1, ∞ )
( −∞, ∞ )
( −2,1)
( −∞, −2 ) ∪ (1, ∞ )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
Notes on Graph: There should be open
holes at (−2, −1), (1, 2), and (1, 0) , and a
closed hole at (−2,1) .
67.
Increasing
( −∞, ∞ )
[0, ∞ )
( 0, ∞ )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
( −∞, 0 )
Domain
Range
243
Chapter 3
68.
Increasing
( −∞,1) ∪ (1, ∞ )
[1, ∞ )
(1, ∞ )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
( −∞,1)
Domain
Range
Notes on Graph: There should be an open
hole at (1,1) .
69.
Range
( −∞, ∞ )
( −∞, ∞ )
Increasing
Decreasing
nowhere
( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, ∞ )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Notes on Graph: There should be a closed
hole at (0,0).
70.
Increasing
( −∞, ∞ )
( −∞, ∞ )
( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, ∞ )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
nowhere
Domain
Range
Notes on Graph: There should be a closed
hole at (0,0).
244
Section 3.2
71.
Decreasing
( −∞,1) ∪ (1, ∞ )
( −∞, −1) ∪ ( −1, ∞ )
( −1,1)
( −∞, −1) ∪ (1, ∞ )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
Notes on Graph: There should be open
holes at (−1, −1) , (1,1) and (1, −1) . Also,
the graph of − 3 x should appear on the
interval ( −∞, −1) with a closed hole at
(1,1).
72.
Decreasing
( −∞,1) ∪ (1, ∞ )
( −∞,1) ∪ (1, ∞ )
(1, ∞ )
( −∞, −1)
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
Notes on Graph: The graph of − 3 x
should appear on the interval ( −∞, −1) .
245
Chapter 3
73.
Decreasing
( −∞, ∞ )
( −∞, 2 ) ∪ [ 4, ∞ )
( −∞, −2 ) ∪ ( 0, 2 ) ∪ ( 2, ∞ )
( −2, 0 )
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
Notes on Graph: There should be open
holes at (−2, 2), (2, 2) and closed holes
at (−2,1), (2, 4) .
74.
Domain
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
( −∞, −1) ∪ ( −1,1) ∪ (1, ∞ )
[1, ∞ )
(1, ∞ )
( −∞, −1)
( −1,1)
Notes on Graph: There should be open
holes at (−1,1), (1,1) .
75.
Increasing
( −∞,1) ∪ (1, ∞ )
( −∞,1) ∪ (1, ∞ )
( −∞,1) ∪ (1, ∞ )
Decreasing
Constant
nowhere
nowhere
Domain
Range
Notes on Graph: There should be an open
hole at (1,1) .
246
Section 3.2
76.
Decreasing
( −∞, ∞ )
( −1, ∞ )
( −1, ∞ )
( −∞, −1)
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
Notes on Graph: There should be an open
hole at (−1, −1) and a closed hole at (−1,1) .
77. Let x = number of Tshirts ordered.
The cost function is given by
⎧10 x, 0 ≤ x ≤ 50
⎪
C ( x) = ⎨9 x, 50 < x ≤ 100
⎪⎩8 x, x > 100
78. Let x = number of new uniforms
ordered. The cost function is given by
⎧176.12 x, 0 ≤ x ≤ 50
C ( x) = ⎨
⎩159.73 x, 50 < x ≤ 100
79. Let x = number of boats entered. The cost function is given by
250 x,
0 ≤ x ≤ 10
⎧
0 ≤ x ≤ 10
⎪ 2500 + 175 ⋅
⎧ 250 x,
( x − 10)
, x > 10
C ( x) = ⎨
=⎨
⎩175 x + 750, x > 10
# of boats beyond first 10
⎪Cost for first
⎩ 10 boats
80. Let x = number of minutes. The cost function is given by
0.39 x,
0 ≤ x ≤ 10
⎧
0.39 x,
0 ≤ x ≤ 10
⎪ 3.90 + 0.12 ⋅
⎧
( x − 10)
, x > 10
C ( x) = ⎨
=⎨
⎩ 0.12 x + 2.7 , x > 10
# of minutes beyond first 10
⎪Cost for first
⎩ 10 minutes
81. Let x = number of people attending the reception. The cost function is given by
1000 + 35 x,
0 ≤ x ≤ 100
⎧
⎪
Fee for reserving
⎪
dining room
C ( x) = ⎨
3500 + 25 ⋅
( x − 100)
, x > 100
⎪1000 +
Cost
for
first
#
of
guests
beyond
first
100
⎪
100 guests
⎩
Simplifying the terms above yields
⎧1000 + 35 x, 0 ≤ x ≤ 100
C ( x) = ⎨
⎩2000 + 25 x, x > 100
82. Let x = number of hours of labor. The cost function is
C ( x) = 1400 + N
25 x .
Cost for parts
247
Cost for labor
Chapter 3
83. Let x = number of books sold.
Since a single book sells for $20, the amount of money earned for x books is 20x.
Then, the amount of royalties due to the author (as a function of x) is given by:
50, 000 +
0.15(20 x) ,
0 ≤ x ≤ 100, 000
⎧
⎪⎪
Amount upfront
Amount from 15% royalties
R ( x) = ⎨50, 000 + 0.15(2, 000, 000) +
0.20(20)( x − 100, 000) , 100, 000 < x
⎪
Royalties from first 100,000 books
20% royalties on books
⎪⎩
beyond initial 100,000
Simplifying the terms above yields
⎧ 50, 000 + 3x, 0 ≤ x ≤ 100, 000
R ( x) = ⎨
⎩−50, 000 + 4 x, x > 100, 000
84. Let x = number of books sold.
Since a single book sells for $20, the amount of money earned for x books is 20x.
Then, the amount of royalties due to the author (as a function of x) is given by:
35, 000 +
0.15(20 x) ,
0 ≤ x ≤ 100, 000
⎧
⎪⎪
Amount upfront
Amount from 15% royalties
R ( x) = ⎨35, 000 + 0.15(2, 000, 000) +
0.25(20)( x − 100, 000) , x > 100, 000
⎪
Royalties from first 100,000 books
25% royalties on books
⎪⎩
beyond initial 100,000
Simplifying the terms above yields
0 ≤ x ≤ 100, 000
⎧ 35, 000 + 3 x,
R ( x) = ⎨
⎩−165, 000 + 5 x, x > 100, 000
85. Let x = number of stained glass units sold.
Total monthly cost is given by: C ( x) = N
100 + N
700 +
35 x = 800 + 35 x .
Business
Costs
Studio
Rent
Cost of materials
for x units
Revenue for x units sold is given by: R( x) = 100 x
So, the total profit is given by: P ( x) = R ( x) − C ( x) = 100 x − ( 800 + 35 x ) = 65 x − 800
86. Let x = number of people who attend.
Since it is assumed that each person eats 1 lb. of shrimp, it will cost 5x dollars for x
people for the shrimp.
So, the total cost is given by: C ( x) = 30 + 5 x
The total revenue is given by: R( x) = 10 x
So, the total profit is given by: P ( x) = R ( x) − C ( x) = 10 x − (30 + 5 x) = 5 x − 30
248
Section 3.2
87. Observe that
⎧ 0.80,
⎪0.80 + 0.17,
⎪⎪
f ( x) = ⎨0.80 + 0.17(2),
⎪
#
⎪
⎪⎩0.80 + 0.17(n),
0 ≤ x <1
1≤ x < 2
2≤ x<3
n ≤ x < n +1
Using the greatest integer function, we
have f ( x) = 0.80 + 0.17 a x b , x ≥ 0 .
t
91. a)
(
) (
−16(2) 2 + 48(2) − −16(1) 2 + 48(1)
h(2) − h(1)
=
2 −1
2 −1
= 0 ft/sec
88. Observe
0 ≤ x <1
⎧1
⎪1
1≤ x < 2
⎪⎪
f ( x) = ⎨1
2≤ x<3
⎪
⎪
n ≤ x < n +1
⎪⎩1
Using the
thegreatest
greatestinteger
integer
function,
function,
we we Using the g
have f ( x) =
have f ( x) = 1.13 + 0.17 a x b , x ≥ 0 .
⎛ cd x fg ⎞
⎜ 1+ d
g⎟
⎝ e100 h ⎠
89. f (t ) = 3(−1)a b , t ≥ 0
1500 − 500
= 20 per year
1950 − 1900
7000 − 1500
b)
= 110 per year
2000 − 1950
93.
88. Observe that
⎧ 1.13,
⎪1.13 + 0.17,
⎪⎪
f ( x) = ⎨1.13 + 0.17(2),
⎪
#
⎪
⎪⎩1.13 + 0.17(n),
)
, x≥0
90. f ( x) = (−1)
5000 − 1500
= 140 per year
92. a)
1975 − 1950
7000 − 5000
b)
= 80 per year
2000 − 1975
94.
(
) (
−16(3) 2 + 48(3) − −16(1) 2 + 48(1)
h(3) − h(1)
=
3 −1
2 −1
)
= −16 ft/sec
95. Should exclude the origin since x = 0
is not in the domain. The range should be
(0, ∞) .
96. The open and closed holes at x = 1
should be switched, and then the range
should be changed to [ −1, ∞ ) .
97. The portion of C ( x) for x > 30 should
be:
15 + N
x − 30
98. The portion of C ( x) for x > 10, 000
should be:
0.02(10, 000) + 0.04( x − 10, 000)
Number miles
beyond first 30
99. True. This corresponds to y = mx + b
with m = 1, b = 0 .
100. True. This corresponds to
y = mx + b with m = 0 .
101. False. For instance, f ( x) = x 3 is
102. True.
always increasing.
103. The individual pieces used to form f, namely ax , bx 2 , are continuous on \ . So,
the only xvalue with which we need to be concerned regarding the continuity of f is
x = 2 . For f to be continuous at 2, we need a(2) = b(2) 2 , which is the same as a = 2b .
104. Both 1x and − 1x are undefined at x = 0 . So, for every value of a, either a > 0 or
a ≤ 0 . Hence, we would need to evaluate either 1x or − 1x at 0, which is not possible. So,
this function cannot be continuous, for any value of a.
249
Chapter 3
105. The graph is odd.
106. The graph is even.
107. The graph is odd.
108. This is the graph of tan x (in #107).
109.
110.
Domain: \ Range: The set of integers
Domain: \ Range: The set of integers
250
Section 3.3
Section 3.3 Solutions 1. l Shift the graph of x 2 up 1 unit.
2. j Shift the graph of x 2 right 1 unit.
4. d Reflect the graph of x 2 over xaxis,
3. a Shift the graph of x 2 right 1 unit,
then reflect over xaxis.
then shift down 1 unit.
2
5. b Shift the graph of x left 1 unit, then 6. k Shift the graph of x 2 right 1 unit,
reflect over xaxis.
reflect over xaxis, and then shift up 1 unit.
7. i Shift the graph of x right 1 unit,
8. h Reflect the graph of x over xaxis,
then shift up 1 unit.
then shift down 1 unit.
9. c Shift the graph of x right 1 unit,
10. e Reflect the graph of x over yaxis,
then reflect over yaxis, and then shift
then shift up 1 unit.
down 1 unit.
11. g Reflect the graph of x over y12. f Shift the graph of x right 1 unit,
axis, then reflect over xaxis, and then shift then reflect over yaxis, then reflect over xup 1 unit.
axis, and then shift down 1 unit.
13. y = x + 3
14. y = x + 4
15. y = − x = x (since − x = −1 x = x )
16. y = − x
17. y = 3 x
18. y = 13 x
19. y = x 3 − 4
20. y = ( x − 3)3
21. y = ( x + 1)3 + 3
22. y = − x 3
23. y = − x 3
25.
24. y = x 3
26.
251
Chapter 3
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
252
Section 3.3
33.
35.
37.
34.
36.
38.
253
Chapter 3
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
254
Section 3.3
45.
46.
47.
48.
49. Shift the graph of x 2 down 2 units.
50. Shift the graph of x 2 up 3 units.
255
Chapter 3
51. Shift the graph of x 2 left 1 unit.
52. Shift the graph of x 2 right 2 units.
53. Shift the graph of x 2 right 3 units, and
up 2 units.
54. Shift the graph of x 2 left 2 units, and
up 1 unit.
55. Shift the graph of x 2 right 1 unit, and
then reflect over xaxis.
56. Shift the graph of x 2 left 2 units, and
then reflect over xaxis.
256
Section 3.3
57. Reflect the graph of x over yaxis.
(This yields the same graph as x since
58. Reflect the graph of x over xaxis.
− x = −1 x = x .)
59. Reflect the graph of x over xaxis,
60. Since 1 − x + 2 = x − 1 + 2 , shift the
then shift left 2 units and down 1 unit.
graph of x right 1 unit, and up 2 units.
257
Chapter 3
61. Vertically stretch the graph of x 2 by a
factor of 2, then shift up 1unit.
63. Shift the graph of x right 2 units,
then reflect over xaxis.
62. Vertically stretch the graph of x by a
factor of 2, then shift up 1unit.
64. Since
2 − x = −( x − 2) , reflect the
graph of x over yaxis, then shift right 2
units.
258
Section 3.3
65. Reflect the graph of x over xaxis,
then shift left 2 units and down 1 unit.
67. Shift the graph of
up 2 units.
3
69. Shift the graph of
up 2 units.
1
x
66. Since 2 − x + 3 = −( x − 2) + 3 ,
reflect the graph of x over yaxis, then
right 2 units and up 3 units.
x right 1 unit, then 68. Shift the graph of
down 1 unit.
left 3 units, then
3
x left 2 units, then
70. Since 3−1 x = − x1−3 , shift the graph of 1x
right 3 units, and then reflect over xaxis.
259
Chapter 3
71. Shift the graph of 1x left 2 units, then
reflect over xaxis, and then shift up 2
units.
73. Reflect the graph of x over yaxis,
then expand vertically by a factor of 5.
72. Since 2 − − ( x1−1) = 2 + x1−1 , shift the
graph of
1
x
right 1 unit, then up 2 units.
74. Reflect the graph of x over xaxis,
then contract vertically by a factor of 5.
75.
Completing the square yields
f ( x) = x 2 − 6 x + 11
= ( x 2 − 6 x + 9 ) + 11 − 9
= ( x − 3) + 2
2
So, shift the graph of x 2 right 3 units, then
up 2 units.
260
Section 3.3
76.
Completing the square yields
f ( x) = x 2 + 2 x − 2
= ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) − 2 − 1
= ( x + 1) − 3
2
So, shift the graph of x 2 left 1 unit, then
down 3 units.
77.
Completing the square yields
f ( x) = − ( x 2 + 2 x )
= − ( x 2 + 2 x + 1) + 1
= − ( x + 1) + 1
2
So, reflect the graph of x 2 over xaxis, then
shift left 1 unit, then up 1 unit.
78.
Completing the square yields
f ( x) = − x 2 + 6 x − 7
= − ( x2 − 6x ) − 7
= − ( x2 − 6x + 9) − 7 + 9
= − ( x − 3) + 2
2
So, reflect the graph of x 2 over xaxis, then
shift right 3 units, then up 2 units.
261
Chapter 3
79.
Completing the square yields
f ( x) = 2 x 2 − 8 x + 3
= 2 ( x2 − 4 x ) + 3
= 2 ( x2 − 4 x + 4) + 3 − 8
= 2 ( x − 2) − 5
2
So, vertically stretch the graph of x 2 by a
factor of 2, then shift right 2 units, then
down 5 units.
80.
Completing the square yields
f ( x) = 3 x 2 − 6 x + 5
= 3 ( x2 − 2 x ) + 5
= 3 ( x 2 − 2 x + 1) + 5 − 3
= 3 ( x − 1) + 2
2
So, vertically stretch the graph of x 2 by a
factor of 3, then shift right 1 unit, then up 2
units.
81. Let x = number of hours worked per
week. Then, the salary is given by
S ( x) = 10 x (in dollars). After 1 year,
taking into account the raise, the new
salary is S ( x) = 10 x + 50 .
83. The 2006 taxes would be:
T ( x) = 0.33( x − 6500)
85. (b) is wrong – shift right 3 units.
87. (b) should be deleted since
3 − x = x − 3 . The correct sequence of
steps would be: (a) → (c)* → (d ) , where
(c)* : Shift to the right 3
82. The profit in a rainy year is given by
P( x) − 10(Cost of 1) , where x is the
number of pallets sold.
Since they are giving away 10 pallets in a
rainy year, they don’t make a profit on the
first 10. So, the profit would be P ( x − 10) .
84. The actual amount administered if the
weight is overestimated by 3 ounces is
A( x + 3) = x + 3 + 2 .
86. (c) is wrong – reflect over xaxis.
88. (b) is wrong and (d) is misplaced. The
correct sequence of steps would be:
(a) → (d ) → (∗) → (c) ,
where (∗) = reflect over xaxis.
262
Section 3.3
89. True. Since − x = −1 x = x .
90. False. y = − x is the reflection of
y = x over the yaxis.
91. True.
92. True.
93. The graph of y = f ( x − 3) + 2 is the graph of y = f ( x) shifted right 3 units, then up 2
units. So, if the point ( a, b) is on the graph of y = f ( x) , then the point ( a + 3, b + 2) is
on the graph of the translation y = f ( x − 3) + 2 .
94. The graph of y = − f (− x) + 1 is the graph of y = f ( x) reflected over yaxis, then over
xaxis, and then shifted up 1 unit. So, if the point (a, b) is on the graph of y = f ( x) ,
then the point (−a, −b + 1) is on the graph of the translation y = − f (− x) + 1 .
b.
95. a.
Any part of the graph of y = f ( x) that is below the xaxis is reflected above it for the
graph of y = f ( x) .
263
Chapter 3
96. a.
97. a.
b.
⎧ f ( x), x ≥ 0
The relationship is described by: f ( x ) = ⎨
⎩ f (− x), x < 0
b.
If a > 1 , then the graph is a horizontal compression.
If 0 < a < 1, then the graph is a horizontal expansion.
264
Section 3.3
98. a.
b.
If 0 < a < 1, then the graph is a vertical compression.
If a > 1 , then the graph is a vertical expansion.
100.
99.
The graph of g is as follows:
The graph of f is as follows:
Each horizontal line in the graph of
y = a x b is stretched by a factor of 2. Any
portion of the graph that is below the xaxis is reflected above it. Also, there is a
vertical shift up of one unit.
Any portion of the graph of y = a x b that is
below the xaxis is reflected above it.
Also, there is a vertical shift up of one unit
and a vertical compression by a factor of
1 .
2
265
Chapter 3
Section 3.4 Solutions 1.
2.
f ( x) + g ( x) = ( 2 x + 1) + (1 − x )
f ( x) + g ( x) = ( 3 x + 2 ) + ( 2 x − 4 )
= x+2
= 5x − 2
f ( x) − g ( x) = ( 2 x + 1) − (1 − x )
f ( x) − g ( x) = ( 3 x + 2 ) − ( 2 x − 4 )
= 2x + 1 −1 + x
= 3x + 2 − 2 x + 4
= 3x
= x+6
f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = ( 2 x + 1)(1 − x )
f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = ( 3x + 2 ) ⋅ ( 2 x − 4 )
= 2x + 1 − 2x2 − x
= −2 x 2 + x + 1
f ( x) 2 x + 1
=
g ( x) 1 − x
Domains:
dom( f + g ) ⎫
⎪
dom( f − g ) ⎬ = ( −∞, ∞ )
dom( fg ) ⎪⎭
= 6 x 2 − 12 x + 4 x − 8
= 6x2 − 8x − 8
f ( x) 3x + 2
=
g ( x) 2 x − 4
Domains:
dom( f + g ) ⎫
⎪
dom( f − g ) ⎬ = ( −∞, ∞ )
dom( fg ) ⎪⎭
⎛ f ⎞
dom ⎜ ⎟ = ( −∞,1) ∪ (1, ∞ )
⎝g⎠
3.
f ( x) + g ( x) = ( 2 x 2 − x ) + ( x 2 − 4 )
⎛ f ⎞
dom ⎜ ⎟ = ( −∞, 2 ) ∪ ( 2, ∞ )
⎝g⎠
4.
= 3x − x − 4
2
= x 2 + 3x − 23
f ( x) − g ( x) = ( 2 x − x ) − ( x − 4 )
2
2
f ( x) − g ( x) = ( 3 x + 2 ) − ( x 2 − 25 )
= 2x − x − x + 4
= x2 − x + 4
2
2
= 3 x + 2 − x 2 + 25
= − x 2 + 3x + 27
f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = ( 2 x 2 − x ) ⋅ ( x 2 − 4 )
f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = ( 3 x + 2 ) ⋅ ( x 2 − 25 )
= 2 x − x − 8x + 4 x
f ( x) 2 x 2 − x
= 2
g ( x)
x −4
4
3
2
Domains:
dom( f + g ), dom( f − g ), dom( fg )} = ( −∞, ∞ )
⎛ f ⎞
dom ⎜ ⎟ = ( −∞, −2 ) ∪ ( −2, 2 ) ∪ ( 2, ∞ )
⎝g⎠
f ( x) + g ( x) = ( 3 x + 2 ) + ( x 2 − 25 )
= 3 x 3 + 2 x 2 − 75 x − 50
f ( x) 3x + 2
=
g ( x) x 2 − 25
Domains:
dom( f + g ), dom( f − g ), dom( fg )} = ( −∞, ∞ )
⎛ f ⎞
dom ⎜ ⎟ = ( −∞, −5 ) ∪ ( −5,5 ) ∪ ( 5, ∞ )
⎝g⎠
266
Section 3.4
5.
1 + x2
x
1 − x2
f ( x) − g ( x) = 1x − x =
x
f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = 1x ⋅ x = 1
f ( x) 1x 1
= =
g ( x) x x 2
f ( x) + g ( x) = 1x + x =
6.
Domains:
dom( f + g ) ⎫
dom( f − g ) ⎪
⎪
dom( fg ) ⎬⎪ = ( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, ∞ )
⎛f ⎞ ⎪
dom ⎜ ⎟ ⎪
⎝ g ⎠ ⎪⎭
2x + 3 x − 4
⋅
x − 4 3x + 2
2x + 3
=
3x + 2
2x + 3
6 x 2 + 9 x + 4 x + 6 + x 2 − 8 x + 16
(
)
f
x
=
= x−4
( x − 4 )( 3x + 2 )
x−4
g ( x)
2
3x + 2
7 x + 5 x + 22
=
2
x + 3 3x + 2
( x − 4 )( 3x + 2 )
=
⋅
4
x
x−4
−
2x + 3 x − 4
f ( x) − g ( x) =
−
( 2 x + 3)( 3x + 2 )
x − 4 3x + 2
=
2
2
( x − 4)
2 x + 3)( 3 x + 2 ) − ( x − 4 )
(
=
Domains:
( x − 4 )( 3x + 2 )
2x + 3 x − 4
+
x − 4 3x + 2
2
2 x + 3)( 3 x + 2 ) + ( x − 4 )
(
=
( x − 4 )( 3x + 2 )
f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) =
f ( x) + g ( x) =
dom( f + g ) ⎫
6 x 2 + 9 x + 4 x + 6 − x 2 + 8 x − 16
=
dom( f − g ) ⎪
⎪⎪
4
3
2
x
x
−
+
(
)(
)
=
dom( fg ) ⎬ = ( −∞, − 23 ) ∪ ( − 23 , 4 ) ∪ ( 4, ∞ )
⎛ f ⎞ ⎪
dom ⎜ ⎟ ⎪
⎝ g ⎠ ⎭⎪
5 x + 21x − 10
( x − 4 )( 3x + 2 )
2
Domains:
7.
dom( f + g ) ⎫
⎪
dom( f − g ) ⎬ = [ 0, ∞ )
dom( fg ) ⎪⎭
f ( x) + g ( x) = x + 2 x = 3 x
f ( x) − g ( x) = x − 2 x = − x
f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = x ⋅ 2 x = 2 x
⎛ f ⎞
dom ⎜ ⎟ = ( 0, ∞ )
⎝g⎠
f ( x)
x 1
=
=
g ( x) 2 x 2
267
Chapter 3
8.
f ( x) + g ( x) = x − 1 + 2 x
Domains:
Must have both x − 1 ≥ 0 and 2 x 2 ≠ 0. So,
dom( f + g ) ⎫
dom( f − g ) ⎪
⎪
dom( fg ) ⎪⎬ = [1, ∞ )
⎛ f ⎞ ⎪
dom ⎜ ⎟ ⎪
⎝ g ⎠ ⎪⎭
2
f ( x) − g ( x) = x − 1 − 2 x 2
f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = 2 x 2 x − 1
f ( x)
x −1
=
g ( x)
2x2
9.
f ( x) + g ( x) = 4 − x + x + 3
f ( x) − g ( x) = 4 − x − x + 3
f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = 4 − x ⋅ x + 3
f ( x)
4− x
4− x x+3
=
=
g ( x)
x+3
x+3
10.
f ( x) + g ( x) = 1 − 2 x + 1x
f ( x) − g ( x) = 1 − 2 x − 1x
f ( x) ⋅ g ( x) = 1 − 2 x ⋅ 1x
f ( x)
1− 2x
=
= x 1− 2x
1
g ( x)
x
11.
Domains:
Must have both 4 − x ≥ 0 and x + 3 ≥ 0 .
So,
dom( f + g ) ⎫
⎪
dom( f − g ) ⎬ = [ −3, 4] .
dom( fg ) ⎪⎭
For the quotient, must have both 4 − x ≥ 0
⎛f ⎞
and x + 3 > 0 . So, dom ⎜ ⎟ = ( −3, 4] .
⎝g⎠
Domains:
Must have both 1 − 2 x ≥ 0 and x ≠ 0 . So,
dom( f + g ) ⎫
dom( f − g ) ⎪
⎪
dom( fg ) ⎪⎬ = ( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, 12 ]
⎛ f ⎞ ⎪
dom ⎜ ⎟ ⎪
⎝ g ⎠ ⎪⎭
( f D g )( x) = 2 ( x 2 − 3) + 1 = 2 x 2 − 6 + 1 = 2 x 2 − 5
( g D f )( x) = ( 2 x + 1) − 3 = 4 x 2 + 4 x + 1 − 3 = 4 x 2 + 4 x − 2
2
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( −∞, ∞ ) = dom( g D f )
12.
( f D g )( x) = ( 2 − x ) − 1 = 4 − 4 x + x 2 − 1 = x 2 − 4 x + 3
2
( g D f )( x) = 2 − ( x 2 − 1) = 2 − x 2 + 1 = − x 2 + 3
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( −∞, ∞ ) = dom( g D f )
268
Section 3.4
13.
1
1
=
( x + 2) − 1 x + 1
1
1 + 2( x − 1) 1 + 2 x − 2 2 x − 1
+2=
=
=
( g D f )( x) =
x −1
x −1
x −1
x −1
( f D g )( x) =
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( −∞, −1) ∪ ( −1, ∞ ) ,
dom( g D f ) = ( −∞,1) ∪ (1, ∞ )
14.
2
2
=
(2 + x) − 3 x − 1
2
2( x − 3) + 2 2 x − 6 + 2 2 x − 4
=
=
=
( g D f )( x) = 2 +
x−3
x−3
x−3
x−3
( f D g )( x) =
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( −∞,1) ∪ (1,3) ∪ ( 3, ∞ ) ,
dom( g D f ) = ( −∞,3) ∪ ( 3, ∞ )
15.
16.
1
1− x
−1 =
x
x
1
( g D f )( x) =
x −1
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, ∞ )
1
1
=
x −1 x −1
1
( g D f )( x) =
x −1
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( −∞,1) ∪ (1, ∞ )
( f D g )( x) =
( f D g )( x) =
dom( g D f ) = ( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0,1) ∪ (1, ∞ )
dom( g D f ) = ( −∞, −1) ∪ ( −1,1) ∪ (1, ∞ )
17.
( f D g )( x) = ( x + 5) − 1 = x + 4
( g D f )( x) = x − 1 + 5
Domains:
dom( f D g ) : Must have x + 4 ≥ 0 . So, dom( f D g ) = [ −4, ∞ ) .
dom( g D f ) : Must have x − 1 ≥ 0 . So, dom( g D f ) = [1, ∞ ) .
18.
( f D g )( x) = 2 − ( x 2 + 2 ) = 2 − x 2 − 2 = − x 2
( g D f )( x) =
(
2− x
)
2
+2 = 2− x+2 = 4− x
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = [0] since − x 2 ≥ 0 only when x = 0.
dom( g D f ) = ( −∞, 2]
269
Chapter 3
19.
3
( f D g )( x) = ⎡⎣( x − 4) 3 ⎤⎦ + 4 = x − 4 + 4 = x
1
( g D f )( x) = ⎡⎣( x3 + 4 ) − 4 ⎤⎦ = ⎡⎣ x3 ⎤⎦ = x
1
3
1
3
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( −∞, ∞ ) = dom( g D f )
20.
( f D g )( x) =
3
( g D f )( x) =
(
(x
3
2
3
)
2
+ 1 −1 = 3 x 3 + 2x 3 + 1−1 = 3 x 3 + 2x 3 = 3 x
x2 −1
)
2
3
4
2
4
2
2
3
(x
2
3
+2
)
+ 1 = ( x 2 − 1) + 1 = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 1 + 1 = x 4 − 2 x 2 + 2
2
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( −∞, ∞ ) = dom( g D f )
21.
22.
( f + g )(2) = f (2) + g (2)
23.
= ⎣⎡102 + 10 ⎦⎤ + 10 − 1
= 14 + 1 = 15
= 110 + 3 = 113
24.
( f − g )(2) = f (2) − g (2)
( f − g )(5) = f (5) − g (5)
= ⎡⎣ 2 + 10 ⎤⎦ − 2 − 1
= ⎣⎡52 + 10 ⎦⎤ − 5 − 1
= 14 − 1 = 13
= 35 − 2 = 33
2
25.
( f + g )(10) = f (10) + g (10)
= ⎡⎣ 2 + 10 ⎤⎦ + 2 − 1
2
26.
( f ⋅ g )(4) = f (4) ⋅ g (4)
( f ⋅ g )(5) = f (5) ⋅ g (5)
= ⎡⎣ 4 + 10 ⎤⎦ ⋅ 4 − 1
= ⎣⎡52 + 10 ⎦⎤ ⋅ 5 − 1
= 26 3
= 35(2) = 70
2
28.
27.
⎛ f ⎞
f (10) 10 + 10
=
=
⎜ ⎟ (10) =
g (10)
10 − 1
⎝g⎠
⎛ f ⎞
f (2) 22 + 10
=
=
= 14
(2)
⎜ ⎟
g (2)
2 −1
⎝g⎠
2
110
3
29.
30.
⎛
⎞
f ( g (2)) = f ⎜ N
2 − 1 ⎟ =12 + 10 = 11
⎜ =1 ⎟
⎝
⎠
31.
⎛
⎞
f ( g (1)) = f ⎜ N
1 − 1 ⎟ = 02 + 10 = 10
⎜ =0 ⎟
⎝
⎠
32.
⎛
⎞
g ( f ( −3)) = g ⎜ (−3) 2 + 10 ⎟ = 19 − 1 = 3 2
⎟
⎜
=19
⎝
⎠
⎛ 2
⎞
g ( f (4)) = g ⎜ 4
+ 10 ⎟ = 26 − 1 = 5
⎜ = 26 ⎟
⎝
⎠
270
Section 3.4
33. 0 is not in the domain of g, so that
g (0) is not defined. Hence, f ( g (0)) is
undefined.
34.
⎛ 2
⎞
g ( f (0)) = g ⎜ 0
+ 10 ⎟ = 10 − 1 = 3
⎜ =10 ⎟
⎝
⎠
36.
35. f ( g (−3)) is not defined since g (−3)
in not defined.
( ( 7 )) = g ⎛⎜⎝ ( 7 ) + 10 ⎞⎟⎠
2
g f
= g (17) = 17 − 1 = 4
37.
( f D g )(4) = f ( g (4)) = f
= f
( 3) = ( 3)
2
(
4 −1
)
38.
( g D f )(−3) = g ( f (−3)) = g (−3) 2 + 10
(
+ 10 = 13
= g (19) = 19 − 1 = 3 2
40.
39.
⎛
⎞
⎜ 1 ⎟ 2
=1 + 1 = 2
f ( g (1)) = f ⎜
2 − 1 ⎟⎟
⎜N
⎝ =1 ⎠
1
⎛ 2 ⎞
+ 1⎟ =
= − 13
g ( f (2)) = g ⎜ 2N
⎝ =5 ⎠ 2 − 5
⎛
⎞
⎜
f ( g (1)) = f 2(1) + 1⎟ = 13
⎜
⎟
⎝ =3 ⎠
g ( f (2)) = g ( 12 ) = 2 ( 12 ) + 1 = 2
⎛ 2
⎞
+ 2 ⎟ Since 3 is not in
41. f ( g (1)) = f ⎜1N
⎝ =3 ⎠
the domain of f, this is undefined.
Likewise, g ( f (2)) is undefined since 2 is
not in the domain of f.
43.
1
⎛
⎞
f ( g (1)) = f ⎜1N
+ 3⎟ =
= 13
4
1
−
⎝ =4 ⎠
⎛
⎞
⎜ 1 ⎟
g ( f (2)) = g ⎜
⎟ = 1+ 3 = 4
2 −1 ⎟
⎜N
⎝ =1 ⎠
42.
⎛ 2 ⎞
f ( g (1)) = f ⎜ 1N
+ 1⎟ = 3 − 2 = 1
⎝ =2 ⎠
⎛
⎞
−
g ( f (2)) = g ⎜ 3
2 ⎟ = 12 + 1 = 2
⎜
⎟
⎝ =1 ⎠
44.
⎛
⎞ 1
f ( g (1)) = f ⎜ 2(1) − 3 ⎟ = = 1
⎟ 1
⎜
⎝ =1 ⎠
g ( f (2)) = g ( 12 ) = 2 ( 12 ) − 3 = 2
46.
45.
⎛
⎞
⎜ 1 ⎟ 3 1
7
3
f ( g (1)) = f ⎜
⎟ = − 2 −3 = − 2
1
3
−
⎜N
⎟
⎝ = −2 ⎠
⎛3
⎞
1
g ( f (2)) = g ⎜
2 −
3 ⎟ =
= − 14
⎜
⎟ −1 − 3
⎝ =−1 ⎠
⎛ 2
⎞
+ 5 ⎟ = 6 −1 = 5
f ( g (1)) = f ⎜ 1N
⎝ =6 ⎠
⎛
⎞
g ( f (2)) = g ⎜ N
2 − 1 ⎟ = 12 + 5 = 6
⎝ =1 ⎠
271
)
Chapter 3
48.
47. f ( g (1)) is undefined since g (1) is not
defined.
⎛ 1 ⎞
g ( f (2)) = g ⎜ 2
⎟ = g (1) , which is not
⎝ 2 −3⎠
defined. So, this is also undefined.
49.
(
(
3
= −3
2−3
g ( f (2)) is undefined since f (2) is not
defined.
50.
1
1
f ( g (1)) = f (1 − 3) 3 = f (−2) 3
(
)
f ( g (1)) = f 12 + 2(1) + 1 = f (4)
= (4 − 1) =
1
(
3
3
g ( f (2)) = g (2 − 1)
1
3
(
3
) = g (1)
51.
⎛ x −1 ⎞
f ( g ( x)) = 2 ⎜
⎟ + 1 = x −1 + 1 = x
⎝ 2 ⎠
(2 x + 1) − 1 2 x
g ( f ( x)) =
=
=x
2
2
(x
g ( f ( x)) =
(
2
+ 1) − 1 = x 2 = x = x
N
)
)
1
))
2
3
1
(
1
2
)
⎛
2 ⎞
= ⎜1N
−2 3 ⎟ ,
⎝ <0 ⎠
2
which is undefined
g ( f (2)) is undefined since f (2) is not
defined.
52.
(3 x + 2) − 2 3 x
f ( g ( x)) =
=
=x
3
3
⎛ x−2⎞
g ( f ( x)) = 3 ⎜
⎟+2 = x−2+2 = x
⎝ 3 ⎠
54.
= 1 + 2(1) + 1 = 4
f ( g ( x)) =
(
= 1 − (−2)
2
53.
)
f ( g (1)) = f 4 − 12 = f (3) =
f ( g ( x)) = 2 −
(
2− x
)
2
= 2 − (2 − x)
= 2−2+ x = x
Since x ≥1
g ( f ( x)) = 2 − ( 2 − x 2 ) = 2 − 2 + x 2 = x 2 = x
2
x − 1 + 1 = ( x − 1) + 1 = x
56.
3
f ( g ( x)) = ⎡⎣5 − ( 5 − x 3 ) ⎤⎦ = ⎡⎣5 − 5 + x 3 ⎤⎦
1
55.
f ( g ( x)) =
1
1
x
=x
g ( f ( x)) =
1
1
x
1
= ⎡⎣ x 3 ⎤⎦ = x
=x
3
1
57.
2
⎛ x+9 ⎞
⎛ x+9⎞
f ( g ( x)) = 4 ⎜⎜
⎟⎟ − 9 = 4 ⎜
⎟−9 = x
2
4
⎝
⎠
⎝
⎠
g ( f ( x)) =
(4x
3
g ( f ( x)) = 5 − ⎡⎣(5 − x) 3 ⎤⎦ = 5 − (5 − x)
= 5−5+ x = x
2
)
−9 +9
2
272
=
4x2 2x
=
=x
2
2
1
3
Section 3.4
58.
⎛ x3 + 1 ⎞
3 3
f ( g ( x)) = 8 ⎜
⎟ −1 = x = x
⎝ 8 ⎠
3
(
g ( f ( x)) =
3
)
3
8x − 1 + 1
8
=
8x − 1 + 1
=x
8
59.
f ( g ( x)) =
g ( f ( x)) =
60. f ( g ( x)) = g ( f ( x)) = 25 −
61.
(
1
1
1
=
=
=x
x +1
x +1− x
1
x −1
x
x
+1
1
x −1
1
x −1
25 − x 2
f ( x) = 2 x 2 + 5 x g ( x) = 3x − 1
)
2
=
1+ x −1
x −1
1
x −1
=
x
x −1
1
x−1
=x
(
)
= 25 − 25 − x 2 = x 2 = x since x ≥ 0 .
62. The most natural pairs are:
f ( x) = 1x g ( x) = x 2 + 1
f ( x) =
63. f ( x) =
2
x
g ( x) = x − 3
64. f ( x) = x
3
g ( x) = x + 1
x −2
67. F (C ( K )) = 95 ( K − 273.15 ) + 32
65. f ( x) =
66. f ( x) =
g ( x) = x 2
1
x +1
g ( x) = 1 − x 2
x
g ( x) = x
3x + 2
68. We need to calculate the composition function ( K D C )( F ) .
Solve F = 95 C + 32 for C: C = 95 ( F − 32)
Solve C = K − 273.15 for K: K = C + 273.15
So, ( K D C )( F ) = K (C ( F )) = K ( 95 ( F − 32) ) = 95 ( F − 32) + 273.15 =
5
9
F + 255.37 .
Thus, 32D F corresponds to 95 (32) + 255.37 = 273.15K , and
212D F corresponds to 95 (212) + 255.37 = 373.15K .
69. Let x = number of linear feet of fence purchased.
a. Let l = length of each side of the square pen ( = 4x )
2
b. A(100) = ( 100
4 ) = 625 ft
2
2
c. A(200) = ( 200
4 ) = 2500 ft
2
A = area of the square pen = l 2 .
So, ( A D l )( x) = A ( 4x ) = ( 4x ) .
2
273
Chapter 3
70. Let x = number of linear feet of fence purchased.
a. Let l = length of a radius of the circular pen
2π l = x so that l = 2xπ
N
b. A(100) = 100
4π =
2
2500
π
Circumference
A = area of the square pen = π l 2 .
So, ( A D l )( x) = A ( 2xπ ) = π ( 2xπ ) =
2
x2
4π
c. A(200) =
2002
4π
= 10,000
π
.
71. First, solve p = 3000 − 12 x for x: x = 2(3000 − p ) = 6000 − 2 p
a. C ( x( p )) = C ( 6000 − 2 p ) = 2000 + 10(6000 − 2 p ) = 62, 000 − 20 p
b. R( x( p)) = 100(6000 − 2 p) = 600, 000 − 200 p
c. Profit P = R − C . So,
P ( x( p )) = R( x( p)) − C ( x( p))
= ( 600, 000 − 200 p ) − ( 62, 000 − 20 p )
= 538, 000 − 180 p
1
72. First, solve p = 10, 000 − 4 x for x: x = 4(10, 000 − p) = 40, 000 − 4 p
a. C ( x( p )) = C ( 40, 000 − 4 p ) = 30, 000 + 5(40, 000 − 4 p ) = 230, 000 − 20 p
b. R ( x( p )) = 1000(40, 000 − 4 p ) = 40, 000, 000 − 4000 p
c. Profit P = R − C . So,
P( x( p )) = R( x( p)) − C ( x( p))
= ( 40, 000, 000 − 4000 p ) − ( 230, 000 − 20 p )
= 39, 770, 000 − 3,980 p
2
73. A(t ) = π ⎡⎣150 t ⎤⎦ = 22,500π t ft 2
74. Volume of rectangular pool = length × width × height = 20 × 10 × h = 200h .
Let t = number of hours water has been pumped into the pool.
Then, from the information we are given, volume = 50t .
50 t
=t
Thus, solving 50t = 200h for h yields: h = 200
4
Height of water as a
function of time t
274
Section 3.4
75. Let h = height of the fireworks above
ground.
Then, the distance between the family and
the fireworks is given by
d (h) = (h − 0) 2 + (0 − 2) 2 = h 2 + 4 .
76. Let p = asking price for a home.
Then, the profit is given by
Realtor
⎛
Commission ⎞
⎟
⎜
+
R( p ) = p − ⎜ 172,
000
0.6
p
⎟
⎜ Amount initially
⎟
⎝ paid for home
⎠
79. ( f D g )( x) = f ( g ( x)) , not f ( x) ⋅ g ( x)
81. The mistake made was that ( f + g )
was multiplied by 2 when it ought to have
been evaluated at 2.
77. Must exclude −2 from the domain.
78. Must also exclude −2 from the
domain.
80. Domain is [3, ∞ )
82. Didn’t distribute “ – “ to all parts of
g ( x) . Should have been:
(
f ( x) − g ( x) = ( x + 2) − x 2 − 4
= x + 2 − x2 + 4
= − x2 + x + 6
83. False.
84. False.
The domain of the sum, difference, or
For example, consider the functions
product of two functions is the intersection
f ( x) = x + 1, g ( x) = 3 .
of their domains; the domain of the
Observe that
quotient is the set obtained by intersecting
f ( g (4)) = f (3) = 4
the two domains and then excluding all
g ( f (4)) = g (5) = 3
values where the denominator equals 0.
85. True
86. False
87.
1
1
=
( g D f )( x) =
Domain: x ≠ 0, a
( x + a) − a x
275
)
Chapter 3
88.
( g D f )( x) =
=
1
1
= 2
( ax + bx + c ) − c ax + bx
2
1
x(ax + b)
Domain: x ≠ 0, − ba , c
89.
( g D f )( x) =
(
x+a
)
2
−a = x+a−a = x
Domain: Must have x + a ≥ 0, so that
x ≥ − a . So, domain is [ − a, ∞ ) .
90. ( g D f )( x) =
1
b
=
1
= x ab
1
x ab
⎛ 1 ⎞
⎜ a⎟
⎝x ⎠
Domain: The domain depends on the
values of a and b. For instance, if a = 1
and b = 3 , then domain is ( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, ∞ ) .
If a = 2 and b = 1 , then domain is ( 0, ∞ ) .
1
91.
Notes on the graph:
The dotted curve is the graph of y1 , while
the thick, solid curve is the graph of
y1 + y2 .
Domain of y2 is [7, 9].
The graph of y3 is as follows:
92.
y1 = 3 x + 5
1
3− x
y1
y3 =
y2
y2 =
Domain of y3 = ( −∞,3)
276
Section 3.5
93.
y1 = x 2 − 3 x − 4
1
x 2 − 14
1
y3 =
2
( y1) − 14
y2 =
Domain of y3 = ( −∞,3) ∪ (−3, −1] ∪ [4, 6) ∪ (6, ∞ )
94.
Notes on the graph:
The dotted curve is the graph of y1 , while
the thick, solid curve is the graph of
y3 = y12 + 2 .
Section 3.5 Solutions 1. Is a function.
Not onetoone
2. Is a function.
3. Is a function.
April and October both
Onetoone
Onetoone
map to 78D F .
4. Is a function.
5. Is a function.
6. Is a function.
Not onetoone
Onetoone
Onetoone
Carrie and Michael both
map to A, for instance.
277
Chapter 3
7. Not a function since 4
maps to both 2 and −2 .
10. Is a function.
Onetoone
13. Is a function.
Onetoone
8. Is a function.
Not onetoone
0,1,2,3 all map to 1 in the
range.
11. Is a function.
Not onetoone
Doesn’t pass the horizontal
line test. Both (−1,1) , (0,1)
are on the graph.
14. Is a function.
Onetoone
9. Is a function.
Not onetoone
0,2, −2 all map to 1 in the
range, for instance.
12. Is a function.
Not onetoone
Doesn’t pass the horizontal
line test.
15. Is a function.
Not onetoone
Doesn’t pass the horizontal
line test.
16. Is a function. Onetoone
17. Not onetoone. Both (0,3), (6,3) lie
on the graph.
18. Not onetoone. Both (0,5), (4,5) lie
on the graph.
19.
f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 ) ⇒
1
1
=
x1 − 1 x2 − 1
⇒ x2 − 1 = x1 − 1
⇒ x2 = x1
Onetoone
278
Section 3.5
20.
f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 ) ⇒
⇒
3
x1 = 3 x2
( x ) =( x )
3
3
1
3
3
2
⇒ x1 = x2
Onetoone
21. f is not onetoone since, for example,
f (−1) = f (1) = −3 .
22.
f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 ) ⇒
x1 + 1 = x2 + 1
⇒ x1 + 1 = x2 + 1
⇒ x1 = x2
Onetoone
279
Chapter 3
23.
f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 ) ⇒ x13 − 1 = x23 − 1
⇒ x13 = x23
⇒ x1 = x2
Onetoone
24.
f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 ) ⇒
1
1
=
x1 + 2 x2 + 2
⇒ x2 + 2 = x1 + 2
⇒ x2 = x1
Onetoone
25.
Given: f ( x) = 2 x + 1, f −1 ( x) =
x −1
2
⎛ x −1 ⎞
f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 2 ⎜
⎟ + 1 = x −1 + 1 = x
⎝ 2 ⎠
(2 x + 1) − 1 2 x
f −1 ( f ( x) ) =
=
=x
2
2
Notes on the Graphs:
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
280
Section 3.5
26.
x−2
, f −1 ( x) = 3 x + 2
3
x
(3
+ 2) − 2 3 x
f ( f −1 ( x) ) =
=
=x
3
3
⎛ x−2⎞
f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 3 ⎜
⎟+2 = x−2+2 = x
⎝ 3 ⎠
Given: f ( x) =
Notes on the Graphs:
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
27.
Given: f ( x) = x − 1, x ≥ 1
f −1 ( x) = x 2 + 1, x ≥ 0
f ( f −1 ( x) ) =
f −1 ( f ( x) ) =
(x
(
2
+ 1) − 1 = x 2 = x = x
N
)
Since x ≥ 0
2
x −1 +1 = x −1+1 = x
Notes on the Graphs:
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
281
Chapter 3
28.
Given: f ( x) = 2 − x 2 , x ≥ 0
f −1 ( x ) = 2 − x , x ≤ 2
f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 2 −
(
2− x
)
2
= 2 − (2 − x) = x
f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 2 − ( 2 − x 2 ) = x 2 = x = x
N
Since x ≥ 0
Notes on the Graphs:
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
29.
Given: f ( x) = 1x , f −1 ( x) = 1x
1
f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 1 = x
x
f −1 ( f ( x) ) =
1
1
x
=x
Notes on the Graphs:
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
282
Section 3.5
30.
1
Given: f ( x) = (5 − x) 3 , f −1 ( x) = 5 − x 3
f ( f −1 ( x) ) = (5 − (5 − x 3 )) 3 = (5 − 5 + x 3 )
1
1
3
= ( x3 ) 3 = x
1
f −1 ( f ( x) ) = 5 − ⎡⎣(5 − x) 3 ⎤⎦ = 5 − (5 − x) = x
1
3
Notes on the Graphs:
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
31.
1
1
−3
, f −1 ( x) =
2x + 6
2x
1
1
f ( f −1 ( x) ) =
=1
−6+6
⎛ 1
⎞
2 ⎜ − 3⎟ + 6 x
⎝ 2x
⎠
1
= 1 =x
Given: f ( x) =
x
1
1
−3 =
−3
1
⎡ 1 ⎤
2⎢
x+3
⎣ 2 x + 6 ⎦⎥
= x +3−3 = x
f −1 ( f ( x) ) =
Notes on the Graphs:
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
283
Chapter 3
32.
3
3
, f −1 ( x) = 4 −
4− x
x
3
3
=
f ( f −1 ( x) ) =
3
3⎞
⎛
4−⎜4− ⎟ 4−4+
x
x⎠
⎝
x
= 3⋅ = x
3
3
4− x
−1
= 4− 3 ⋅
f ( f ( x) ) = 4 −
3
3
4− x
= 4−4+ x = x
Given: f ( x) =
Notes on the Graphs:
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
33.
x+3
3 − 4x
, f −1 ( x) =
x+4
x −1
3 − 4x
3 − 4 x + 3( x − 1)
+3
x −1
f ( f −1 ( x) ) = x − 1
=
3 − 4x
3 − 4 x + 4( x − 1)
+4
x −1
x −1
3 − 4 x + 3x − 3
−x
x −1
=
= x −1
−1
3 − 4 x + 4x − 4
x −1
x −1
−x x −1
⋅
=x
=
x − 1 −1
⎛ x+3⎞
4 x + 12
3− 4⎜
⎟ 3−
+
x
4
⎝
⎠=
x+4
f −1 ( f ( x) ) =
x+3
⎛ x+3⎞
−1
⎜
⎟ −1
x+4
⎝ x+4⎠
Given: f ( x) =
3 x + 12 − 4 x − 12
−x
x+4
=
= x+4
−1
x +3− x − 4
x+4
x+4
−x x + 4
⋅
=x
=
x + 4 −1
Notes on the Graphs:
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
284
Section 3.5
34.
3x + 5
x −5
, f −1 ( x ) =
3− x
x +1
3x + 5
3 x + 5 − 5( x + 1)
−5
x +1
=
f ( f −1 ( x) ) = x + 1
3x + 5 3x + 3 − ( 3x + 5)
3−
x +1
x +1
−2 x
3x + 5 − 5 x − 5
x +1
= x +1
=
−2
3 x + 3 − 3x − 5
x +1
x +1
−2 x x + 1
=
⋅
=x
x + 1 −2
⎛ x −5⎞
3 x − 15
3⎜
+5
⎟+5
3
−
x
⎠
= 3− x
f −1 ( f ( x ) ) = ⎝
x−5
⎛ x −5⎞
+1
⎜
⎟ +1
3− x
⎝ 3− x ⎠
3 x − 15 + 5(3 − x) 3 x − 15 + 15 − 5 x
3− x
3− x
=
=
x −5+3− x
x −5+ 3− x
3− x
3− x
−2 x 3 − x
⋅
=
=x
3 − x −2
Given: f ( x) =
Notes on the Graphs:
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
35.
36.
Notes on the Graphs:
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
Notes on the Graphs:
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
285
Chapter 3
37.
38.
Notes on the Graphs:
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
Notes on the Graphs:
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
39.
Notes on the Graphs:
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
40.
Notes on the Graphs:
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
286
Section 3.5
41.
42.
Notes on the Graphs:
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
Notes on the Graphs:
Thin, solid curve is the graph of f.
Thick, dotted curve is the graph of y = x .
Thick, solid curve is the graph of f −1 .
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
43. Solve y = x − 1 for x:
x = y +1
−1
Thus, f ( x) = x + 1 .
44. Solve y = 7 x for x:
x = 17 y
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
Thus, f −1 ( x) = 17 x .
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
45. Solve y = −3x + 2 for x:
x = − 13 ( y − 2)
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
Thus, f −1 ( x) = − 13 ( x − 2) = − 13 x + 32 .
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
46. Solve y = 2 x + 3 for x:
x = 12 ( y − 3)
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
Thus, f −1 ( x) = 12 ( x − 3) .
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
47. Solve y = x 3 + 1 for x:
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
x=
−1
3
y −1
Thus, f ( x) = x − 1 .
3
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
287
Chapter 3
48. Solve y = x 3 − 1 for x:
x=
3
y +1
Thus, f −1 ( x) = 3 x + 1 .
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
49. Solve y = x − 3 for x:
x = y2 + 3
Thus, f −1 ( x) = x 2 + 3 .
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = [3, ∞ )
50. Solve y = 3 − x for x:
x = 3 − y2
Thus, f −1 ( x) = 3 − x 2 .
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞,3]
51. Solve y = x 2 − 1 for x:
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = [ 0, ∞ )
x=
y +1
Thus, f −1 ( x) = x + 1 .
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = [ 0, ∞ )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = [ 0, ∞ )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = [ −1, ∞ )
52. Solve y = 2 x 2 + 1 for x:
2 x2 = y − 1
y −1
(since x ≥ 0)
2
x −1
.
Thus, f −1 ( x) =
2
53. Solve y = ( x + 2) 2 − 3 for x:
x=+
y + 3 = ( x + 2) 2
y + 3 = x + 2 (since x ≥ −2)
−2 + y + 3 = x
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = [ 0, ∞ )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = [1, ∞ )
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = [ −2, ∞ )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = [ −3, ∞ )
Thus, f −1 ( x) = −2 + x + 3 .
54. Solve y = ( x − 3) 2 − 2 for x:
y + 2 = ( x − 3) 2
y + 2 = x − 3 (since x ≥ 3)
3+ y + 2 = x
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = [3, ∞ )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = [ −2, ∞ )
Thus, f −1 ( x) = 3 + x + 2 .
288
Section 3.5
55. Solve y =
2
x
for x:
xy = 2
x = 2y
Thus, f −1 ( x) = 2x .
56. Solve y = − 3x for x:
yx = −3
x = − 3y
−1
Thus, f ( x) = − .
3
x
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, ∞ )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, ∞ )
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, ∞ )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, ∞ )
57. Solve y = 3−2 x for x:
(3 − x ) y = 2
3 y − xy = 2
xy = 3 y − 2
x = 3 yy− 2
Thus, f −1 ( x) =
58. Solve y =
3 x −2
x
7
x+2
for x:
2 y + xy = 7
xy = 7 − 2 y
x = 7 −y2 y
59. Solve y =
7−2 x
x
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, −2 ) ∪ ( −2, ∞ )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, ∞ )
.
7 x +1
5− x
for x:
y (5 − x) = 7 x + 1
5 y − xy = 7 x + 1
−7 x − xy = 1 − 5 y
− x(7 + y ) = 1 − 5 y
x = 57y+−y1
Thus, f −1 ( x) =
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, ∞ )
= 3 − 2x .
( x + 2) y = 7
Thus, f −1 ( x) =
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞,3) ∪ ( 3, ∞ )
5 x −1
x +7
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞,5 ) ∪ ( 5, ∞ )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, −7 ) ∪ ( −7, ∞ )
.
289
Chapter 3
60. Solve y = 27x++x5 for x:
y (7 + x) = 2 x + 5
xy + 7 y = 2 x + 5
−2 x + xy = 5 − 7 y
x( y − 2) = 5 − 7 y
x = 5y−−72y
Thus, f −1 ( x) =
5− 7 x
x−2
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, −7 ) ∪ ( −7, ∞ )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, 2 ) ∪ ( 2, ∞ )
.
61. Not onetoone
63. Onetoone
The portion of the graph for nonnegative
x values is as follows. The graph for
negative xvalues is merely a reflection of
this graph over the origin.
62. Onetoone
Calculate the inverse function piecewise:
For x < 0 : Solve y = 1x for x:
y = 1x
xy = 1
x = 1y
So, G −1 ( x) = 1x on ( −∞, 0 ) .
For x ≥ 0 : Solve y = x for x:
y= x
x = y2
So, G −1 ( x) = x 2 on ( 0, ∞ ) .
Thus, the inverse function is given by:
⎧ 1x , x < 0
−1
G ( x) = ⎨ 2
⎩x , x ≥ 0
290
Section 3.5
64. Not onetoone
65. Solve y = 95 x + 32 for x:
y − 32 = 95 x
5
9 ( y − 32) = x
So, f −1 ( x) = 95 ( x − 32) .
The inverse function represents the
conversion from degrees Fahrenheit to
degrees Celsius.
(Note: Should also have the graph of
y = x 2 , x ≥ 2 , above. The present curve
would have an open hole at (2,2), and this
newlyadded piece would have a closed
hole at (2,4) and extend upward to the
right quadratically.)
66. Solve y = 95 ( x − 32) for x:
y = x − 32
y + 32 = x
9
5
9
5
So, C −1 ( x) = 95 x + 32 . The inverse function represents the conversion from degrees
Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit.
67. Let x = number of boats entered. The cost function is
250 x,
0 ≤ x ≤ 10
⎧
⎪
C ( x) = ⎨2500 + 175( x − 10) , x > 10
⎪⎩
= 175 x + 750
To calculate C −1 ( x) , we calculate the inverse of each piece separately:
y
x
For 0 ≤ x ≤ 10 : Solve y = 250 x for x: x = 250
. So, C −1 ( x) = 250
, for 0 ≤ x ≤ 2500 .
− 750
. So, C −1 ( x) =
For x > 10 : Solve y = 175 x + 750 for x: x = y175
Thus, the inverse function is given by:
⎧ x , 0 ≤ x ≤ 2500
C −1 ( x) = ⎨ x −250
750
⎩ 175 , x > 2500
291
x − 750
175
, for x > 2500 .
Chapter 3
68. Let x = number of longdistance minutes. The cost function is
0.39 x,
0 ≤ x ≤ 10
⎧
⎪
C ( x) = ⎨3.9 + 0.12( x − 10) , x > 10
⎪⎩
= 0.12 x + 2.7
−1
To calculate C ( x) , we calculate the inverse of each piece separately:
y
x
For 0 ≤ x ≤ 10 : Solve y = 0.39 x for x: x = 0.39
. So, C −1 ( x) = 0.39
, for 0 ≤ x ≤ 3.9 .
− 2.7
− 2.7
. So, C −1 ( x) = x0.12
, for x > 3.9 .
For x > 10 : Solve y = 0.12 x + 2.7 for x: x = y0.12
Thus, the inverse function is given by:
⎧ x , 0 ≤ x ≤ 3.9
C −1 ( x) = ⎨ x −0.39
2.7
⎩ 0.12 , x > 3.9
69. Let x = number of hours worked. Then, the take home pay is given by
E ( x) = N
7 x − 0.25(7 x) = 5.25 x .
$7 per hour,
for x hours
Amount withheld
for taxes
y
x
To calculate E −1 , solve y = 5.25 x for x: x = 5.25
. So, E −1 ( x) = 5.25
, x≥0.
The inverse function tells you how many hours you need to work to attain a certain take
home pay.
70. Let x = number of hours worked.
Since the hourly rate for overtime pay is 1.5(8) = 12 dollars per hour, we see that the
weekly earnings are described by the following function:
8 x,
0 ≤ x ≤ 40
⎧
0 ≤ x ≤ 40
⎪ 320 + 12( x − 40) , x > 40
⎧ 8 x,
E ( x) = ⎨
= ⎨
⎩12 x − 160, x > 40
⎪ Pay for first Amount of overtime
pay
⎩ 40 hours
To calculate E −1 ( x) , we calculate the inverse of each piece separately:
For 0 ≤ x ≤ 40 : Solve y = 8 x for x: x = 8y . So, E −1 ( x) = 8x , for 0 ≤ x ≤ 320 .
For x > 40 : Solve y = 12 x − 160 for x: x = y +12160 . So, E −1 ( x) = x +12160 , for x > 320 .
Thus, the inverse function is given by:
⎧ x , 0 ≤ x ≤ 320
E −1 ( x) = ⎨ x +8160
⎩ 12 , x > 320
The inverse function tells you how many hours you need to work to attain a certain take
home pay.
72. To determine the points on the graph
71. Not a function since the graph does
of the inverse of f, switch the order of the x
not pass the vertical line test.
and y in the ordered pairs rather than
292
Section 3.5
73. Must restrict the domain to a portion
on which f is onetoone, say x ≥ 0 . Then,
the calculation will be valid.
74. dom ( f −1 ) = rng ( f ) = [ 0, ∞ ) , not
[ 2, ∞ ) .
76. False. The function f ( x) = 0 is odd,
but not onetoone.
78. True. dom( f ) is inside ( −∞, 0 ) and
rng ( f ) is inside ( 0, ∞ ) . Since they are
switched for f −1 , dom( f −1 ) is inside ( 0, ∞ )
multiplying by −1 . So, in this case, since
(3,3), (0, −4) are on the graph of f, the
points (3,3), (−4, 0) are on the graph of f −1 .
75. False. In fact, no even function can be
onetoone since the condition
f ( x) = f (− x) implies that the horizontal
line test is violated.
77. False. Consider f ( x) = x . Then,
f −1 ( x) = x also.
79. (b, 0) since the x and y coordinates of
all points on the graph of f are switched to
get the corresponding points on the graph
of f −1 .
and rng ( f −1 ) is inside ( −∞, 0 ) . Thus, the
graph of f −1 is in Quadrant IV.
80. If (a, 0) is on the graph of f, then (0, a) is on the graph of f −1 . This is its yintercept.
81. The equation of the unit circle is x 2 + y 2 = 1 . The portion in Quadrant I is given by
y = 1 − x 2 , 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 .
To calculate the inverse of this function, solve for x:
y 2 = 1 − x 2 , which gives us x = 1 − y 2
So, f −1 ( x) = 1 − x 2 , 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 . The domain and range of both are [0,1] .
82. Let f ( x) = cx , c ≠ 0 . To calculate the inverse of this function, solve for x:
y = cx ⇒ x = cy ⇒ yx = c ⇒ y = cx .
Thus, f ( x) = f −1 ( x), x ≠ 0 .
83. As long as m ≠ 0 (that is, while the
graph of f is not a horizontal line), it is
onetoone.
84. Assume m ≠ 0 . Then, solving
y = mx + b for x yields: x = ym−b .
So, the inverse of f ( x) = mx + b is
f −1 ( x) =
293
x −b
m
.
Chapter 3
85. Not onetoone
87. Not onetoone
89. Not inverses. Had we restricted the
domain of the parabola to [ 0, ∞ ) , then they
86. Onetoone
88. Onetoone
90. Yes, it appears as though the given
functions are inverses of each other.
would have been.
294
Section 3.6
91. Yes, it appears as though the given
functions are inverses of each other.
92. No, they are not inverses.
Section 3.6 Solutions 1. y = kx
2. s = kt
3. V = kx3
5. z = km
k
7. f =
λ
kw
L
11. v = kgt
k
13. R =
PT
9. F =
15. y = k x
17. The general equation is d = kt . Using
the fact that d = k (1) = r , we see that
k = r . So, d = rt .
19. The general equation is V = klw .
Using the fact that V = k (2)(3) = 6h we
see that k = h . So, V = lwh .
4. A = kx 2
6. h = k t
k
8. P = 2
r
kT
10. V =
P
12. S = ktd
k
14. y =
xz
k
16. y = 3
t
18. The general equation is F = km .
Using the fact that F = k (1) = a, we see
that k = a . So, F = ma .
20. The general equation is A = kbh .
Using the fact that A = k (5)(4) = 10 we see
that k =
295
1
1
. So, A = bh .
2
2
Chapter 3
21. The general equation is d = kr 2 .
Using the fact that A = k (3) 2 = 9π , we see
22. The general equation is V = kr 3 .
Using the fact that V = k (3)3 = 36π , we
4
4
see that k = π . So, V = π r 3 .
3
3
that k = π . So, A = π r 2 .
⎛4⎞
23. The general equation is V = khr 2 . Using the fact that V = k ⎜ ⎟ (2) 2 = 1, we see
⎝π ⎠
that k =
π
16
. So, V =
π
16
hr 2 .
24. The general equation is W = kRI 2 . Using the fact that W = k (100)(0.25) 2 = 4 , we
25k
16
16 2
= 4 , so that k =
. Hence, W =
RI .
4
25
25
k
k
25. The general equation is V = . Using the fact that V =
= 1000 , we see that
400
P
400, 000
k = 400, 000 . Hence, V =
.
P
k
k
26. The general equation is I = 2 . Using the fact that I = 2 = 42 , we see that
16
d
10, 752
k = 10, 752 . Hence, I =
.
d2
k
27. The general equation is F =
. Using the fact that F = −6 k 5 = 20π , we
λL
(10 m )(10 m )
see that
see that k = 2π . So, F =
2π
.
λL
28. The general equation is y =
k
k
. Using the fact that y =
= 32 , we see that
xz
4(0.05)
k = 4(0.05)(32) = 6.4 . Hence, y =
6.4
.
xz
k
k
. Using the fact that t = = 2.4 , we see that
8
s
19.2
k = 2.4(8) = 19.2 . Hence, t =
.
s
29. The general equation is t =
296
Section 3.6
30. The general equation is W =
k
k
= 180 , we see that
. Using the fact that W =
2
(0.2) 2
d
7.2
.
d2
k = 180(0.2) 2 = 7.2 . Hence, W =
31. The general equation is R =
k
k
. Using the fact that R =
= 0.4 , we see that
2
I
(3.5) 2
k = (3.5)2 (0.4) = 4.9 . Hence, R =
32. The general equation is y =
4.9
.
I2
k
x z
. Using the fact that y =
that k = 12(0.2)(2) = 4.8 . Hence, y =
33. The general equation is R =
k
= 12 , we see
(0.2) 4
4.8
.
x z
kL
k (20)
. Using the fact that R =
= 0.5 , we see that
A
(0.4)
50k = 0.5 , so that k = 0.01 . Hence, R =
0.01L
.
A
km
k (20)
= 32 , we see that
. Using the fact that F =
d
8
12.8m
.
k = 32 ( 208 ) = 12.8 . Hence, F =
d
km m
k (8)(16)
35. The general equation is F = 12 2 . Using the fact that F =
= 20 , we see
(0.4) 2
d
34. The general equation is F =
20(0.4) 2
0.025m1m2
= 0.025 . Hence, F =
that k =
.
(8)(16)
d2
36. The general equation is w =
k g
k 16
. Using the fact that w =
= 20 , we see that
2
(0.5) 2
t
1.25 g
20(0.5) 2
.
k=
= 1.25 . Hence, w =
t2
4
37. Assume that W = kH . We need to determine k. Using Jason’s data, we see that
172.50 = 23k , so that k = 7.5 . So, W = 7.5H . (Note that Valerie’s data also satisfies
this equation.)
297
Chapter 3
38.
Orange County: Assume that T = kP . We need to determine k. Using the data, we see
that 2.60 = 40k , so that k = 0.065 . So, T = 0.065P .
Seminole County: Assume that T = kP . We need to determine k. Using the data, we
see that 0.84 = 12k , so that k = 0.07 . So, T = 0.07 P .
39. Let S = speed of the object, and M =
40. Using the same model as in Exercise
Mach number. We are given that S = kM . 39, we see that for the F22A Raptor,
We also know that when S = 760 mph (at S = 760 (1.5 ) = 1,140 mph .
sea level), M = 1. As such, k = 760.
Hence, for U.S. Navy Blue Angels,
S = 760 (1.7 ) = 1, 292 mph .
41. We are given that F = kH . Using the
fact that F = 11 when H = 6.8, we see that
11 = 6.8k , so that k = 1.618. Hence,
F = 1.618 H .
43. Assume Hooke’s law holds: F = kx.
Using the fact that F = 30N when
x = 10 cm, we see that k = 3 N
. So,
cm
F = 3 x . As such, 72N = 3 N
x , so
cm
that x = 24 cm .
(
)
45. Let D = demand for Levi’s jeans
P = price for Levi’s jeans.
k
We are told that D = . Using the given
P
information for Flare 519 jeans (namely
that P = 20 when D = 300,000) yields
k
so that k = 6, 000, 000 .
300, 000 =
20
Thus, for Vintage Flare jeans, the demand
6, 000, 000
= 20, 000 .
D is given by: D =
300
42. Let S1 and S2 denote two abutting
sections of a finger. It is known that
S1 = kS2 . Using the fact that S 2 = 5 when
S1 = 8 , we see that k = 1.6 . So,
S1 = 1.6S 2 .
44. Using the same information as in
Exercise 43, we see that the given
information yields
F= 3N
18 cm ) = 54N .
cm (
(
)
46. Let D = demand for Levi’s jeans
P = price for Levi’s jeans.
k
We are told that D = . Using the given
P
information for Silver Tab baggy jeans
(namely that P = 30 when D = 400,000)
k
yields 400, 000 =
so that
30
k = 12, 000, 000 . Thus, for Offender jeans,
the demand D is given by:
12, 000, 000
D=
= 75, 000 .
160
298
Section 3.6
47. Use the formula I =
(
k = 1400 w
k
. Using the data for Earth, we obtain:
D2
k
so that
1400 w 2 =
m (150, 000 km )2
(150, 000 km ) = (1400 w m ) (150, 000, 000 m ) = 3.15 ×10
m )
2
2
2
2
19
w
Hence, the intensity for Mars is given by:
3.15 ×1019 w
3.15 × 1019 w
I=
=
≈ 600 w 2
2
2
m
( 228, 000 km ) ( 228, 000, 000 m )
48. Use the formula I =
(
)
k
. Using the data for Earth, we obtain:
D2
k
1400 w 2 =
so that
m (150, 000 km )2
)
(
(150, 000 km ) = 1400 w m2 (150, 000, 000 m ) = 3.15 ×1019 w
m2
Hence, the intensity for Mercury is given by:
3.15 ×1019 w
3.15 × 1019 w
I=
=
≈ 9400 w 2
2
2
m
( 58, 000 km ) ( 58, 000, 000 m )
k = 1400 w
2
2
49. Use the formula I = kPt .
50. Use the formula I = kPt . Observe
Bank of America:
750 = k (25, 000)(2) , so that k = 0.015,
⎛1⎞
that 3250 = k (130, 000) ⎜ ⎟ , so that
which corresponds to 1.5%.
⎝2⎠
Navy Federal Credit Union:
k = 0.05. So, 5% interest rate is needed to
1500 = k (25, 000)(2) , so that k = 0.03,
make $3250 in interest in 6 months.
which corresponds to 3%.
kT
51. Use the formula P =
with T = 300K, P = 1 atm., and V = 4 ml to obtain
V
PV (1 atm ) (4)
4
4 ⎛ 275 ⎞ 11
k=
=
=
. Thus, P =
or 0.92 atm .
⎜
⎟=
300
300
T
300 ⎝ 4 ⎠ 12
kT
52. Use the formula P =
with T = 300K, P = 1 atm., and V = 4 ml to obtain
V
PV (1 atm ) (4)
4
4 ⎛ 300 ⎞ 4
k=
=
=
. Thus, P =
or 1.33 atm .
⎜
⎟=
300
300
T
300 ⎝ 3 ⎠ 3
54. y varies directly with the square of x
53. Should be y is inversely proportional
to x.
( x 2 ), NOT the square root ( x ).
299
Chapter 3
56. False. Since d = rt , it follows that
d
r = . So, r is directly proportional to d,
t
but inversely proportional to t.
57. b
58. a
2
2 7 6 116
59. Use the equation σ p1 = α Cn k L with the following information (all converted to
1
55. True. A = bh , so area is directly
2
proportional to both base and height.
meters):
Cn2 = 1.0 ×10−13 , L = 2000m, λ = 1.55 ×10−6 m (so that k =
Substituting this information into the equation yields α :
7.1 = α (1.0 × 10
2π
), and σ p21 = 7.1 .
1.55 × 10−6 m
2π
⎛
⎞6
) ⎜⎝ 1.55 ×10−6 ⎟⎠ 2000116
7
−13
so that
α=
7.1
(1.0 ×10
2π
⎛
⎞6
) ⎜⎝ 1.55 ×10−6 ⎟⎠ 2000116
7
−13
Thus, the equation is given by σ p21 = 1.23Cn2 k 6 L
7
60. Use the equation σ s2p = α Cn2 k 6 L
7
11
6
11
≈ 1.23 .
.
6
with the following information (all converted to
meters):
Cn2 = 1.0 ×10−13 , L = 2000m, λ = 1.55 ×10−6 m (so that k =
Substituting this information into the equation yields α :
2.3 = α (1.0 ×10
2π
), and σ s2p = 2.3 .
−6
1.55 × 10 m
6
) ⎛⎜⎝ 1.552×π10−6 ⎞⎟⎠ 2000116
7
−13
so that
α=
2.3
(1.0 ×10
6
2π
⎛
⎞
) ⎜⎝ 1.55 ×10−6 ⎟⎠ 2000116
7
−13
Thus, the equation is given by σ s2p = 0.399Cn2 k 6 L
7
300
11
6
.
≈ 0.399 .
Section 3.6
61. (a) The least squares regression line is y = 2.93x + 201.72 , and is plotted as seen
below:
(b) The variation constant is 120.07 and the equation of the direct variation is
y = 120.074 x 0.259 .
(c) When the oil price is $72.70 per barrel in September 2006, the predicted stock index
obtained from the least squares regression line is 415, and the value from the equation of
direct variation is 364. In this case, the least squares regression line provides a closer
approximation to the actual value, 417.
301
Chapter 3
62. (a) The least squares regression line is y = −0.04 x + 6.08 .
The following is the sequence of commands, and screen captures, to use on the TI8*.
Then, the graph of the least squares regression line, with the scatterplot, is given by:
(b) The variation constant is 11.53 and the equation of the inverse variation is
11.53
y = 0.27 . The following is the sequence of commands, and screen captures, to use on
x
the TI8*.
(c) When oil price is $72.70 per barrel in September 2006, the predicted 5year maturity
rate obtained from the least squares regression line is 3.25, and the equation of inverse
variation is 3.61. The equation of the inverse variation provides a closer approximation
to the actual value, 5.02. Here are the corresponding screen captures from the TI8*.
302
Section 3.6
63. (a) The least squares regression line is y = −141.73x + 2, 419.35 . The following is
the sequence of commands, and screen captures, to use on the TI8*.
Then, the graph of the least squares regression line, with the scatterplot, is given by:
(b) The variation constant is 3,217.69 and the equation of the inverse variation is
3217.69
. The following is the sequence of commands, and screen captures, to use
y=
x 0.41
on the TI8*.
The graph of the curve of inverse variation,with the scatter plot, is given by:
Continued onto the next page…
303
Chapter 3
(c) When the 5year maturity rate is 5.02% in September 2006, the predicted number of
housing units obtained from the least squares regression line is 1708, and the equation of
inverse variation is 1661. The equation of the least squares regression line provides a
closer approximation to the actual value, 1861. The picture of the least squares line,with
the scatter plot, as well as the computations using the TI8* are as follows:
304
Section 3.6
64. (a) The least squares regression line is y = 0.15 x + 22.60 . The following is the
sequence of commands, and screen captures, to use on the TI8*.
Then, the graph of the least squares regression line, with the scatterplot, is given by:
(b) The variation constant is 0.32 and the equation of the inverse variation is
y = 0.32 x 0.91 .
Then, the graph of the curve of inverse variation, with the scatterplot, is given by:
Continued onto the next page…
305
Chapter 3
(c) There are 1861 housing units in September 2006. The predicted utilities stock index
obtained from the least squares regression line is 307, and the equation of direct
variation is 304. The equation of the least squares regression line provides a closer
approximation to the actual value, 417. The screen captures from the TI8* are as
follows:
1861 → X
1861.000
Y1
308.186
Y2
303.583
66. (a) The variation constant is 0.346,
65. (a) The equation is approximately
and the equation is approximately
y = 0.218 x + 0.898
y = 1.163x 0.346 .
(b) About $2.427 per gallon. Yes, it is
very close to the actual price at $2.425 per (b) About $2.283 per gallon. No, it is
very close to the actual price at $2.425 per
gallon.
gallon.
(c) $3.083
(c) $2.583
Chapter 3 Review Solutions 2. No, since 3 is assigned
3. Yes
1. Yes
to two different values.
5. No, since both (0, 6) and
(0, −6) satisfy the equation, 6. No, since the graph fails
4. Yes
the vertical line test.
so that the graph fails the
vertical line test.
9. No, since the
7. Yes
8. Yes
10. Yes
graph fails the
vertical line test.
11. (a) 2
12. (a) 0
(b) 4
(b) −4
(c) when x = −3, 4
(c) when x ≈ −2,3.2
13. (a) 0
14. (a) 7
(b) −2
(b) −1.5
(c) when x ≈ −5, 2
(c) never
15. f (3) = 4(3) − 7 = 5
16. F (4) = 42 + 4(4) − 3 = 29
306
Chapter 3 Review
17.
f (−7) ⋅ g (3) = ( 4(−7) − 7 ) ⋅ 32 + 2(3) + 4
18.
= −35 19 = −665
F (0)
3
= −
g (0)
4
19.
f (2) − F (2) ( 4(2) − 7 ) − ( 2 + 4(2) − 3)
=
20. f (3 + h) = 4(3 + h) − 7 = 5 + 4h
g (0)
4
1− 9
= −2
4
21.
f (3 + h) − f (3) ( 4(3 + h) − 7 ) − ( 4(3) − 7 )
=
h
h
5 + 4h − 5
=
= 4
h
22.
2
2
F (t + h) − F (t ) ( (t + h) + 4(t + h) − 3) − ( t + 4t − 3)
=
h
h
2
2
t + 2ht + h + 4t + 4h − 3 − t 2 − 4t + 3
=
h
2
2ht + h + 4h h ( 2t + h + 4 )
=
=
= 2t + h + 4
h
h
23. ( −∞, ∞ )
24. ( −∞, ∞ )
25. ( −∞, −4 ) ∪ ( −4, ∞ )
2
26.
27. We need x − 4 ≥ 0 , so
the domain is [ 4, ∞ ) .
( −∞, ∞ )
28. We need 2 x − 6 > 0 , so
the domain is ( 3, ∞ ) .
D
for D: 2 = D9 , so that D = 18 .
5 − 16
30. There are many such functions. The most natural one to construct has the form
D
f ( x) =
. Since ( 0, −4 ) is to lie on the graph of f, we substitute this point
( x + 3)( x − 2)
into the equation for the function to find the corresponding value of D that will ensure
D
D
this: −4 =
=
, so that D = 24 . Hence, one such function is given by:
(0 + 3)(0 − 2) −6
24
.
f ( x) =
( x + 3)( x − 2)
29. Solve 2 = f (5) =
2
307
Chapter 3
31.
f (− x) = 2(− x) − 7 = −(2 x + 7) ≠ f ( x)
So, not even.
− f (− x) = − ( −(2 x + 7) ) = 2 x + 7 ≠ f ( x)
So, not odd.
Thus, neither.
33.
h(− x) = (− x)3 − 7(− x) = − ( x 3 − 7 x ) ≠ h( x)
So, not even.
− h( − x ) = − − ( x 3 − 7 x ) = x 3 − 7 x = h( x )
(
)
32.
g (− x) = 7(− x)5 + 4(− x)3 − 2(− x)
= − ( 7 x5 + 4 x3 − 2 x ) ≠ g ( x)
So, not even.
(
− g (− x) = − − ( 7 x5 + 4 x3 − 2 x )
)
= 7 x5 + 4 x3 − 2 x = g ( x)
So, odd.
34.
f (− x) = (− x) 4 + 3(− x) 2 = x 4 + 3 x 2 = f ( x)
So, even.
Hence, cannot be odd.
So, odd.
35.
1
1
f (− x) = (− x ) 4 + (− x) = (− x) 4 − x ≠ f ( x)
So, not even.
1
1
− f (− x) = − x 4 − x = − x 4 + x ≠ f ( x)
(
)
36.
f (− x) = − x + 4 ≠ f ( x)
So, not even.
− f (− x) = − − x + 4 ≠ f ( x)
So, not odd.
Thus, neither.
So, not odd.
Thus, neither.
37.
38.
1
⎛1
⎞
f (− x) =
+ 3(− x) = − ⎜ 3 + 3 x ⎟ ≠ f ( x) f (− x) = 1 + 3(− x) 4 + − x = f ( x)
( − x)3
⎝x
⎠
(− x) 2
So, not even.
So, even.
⎛ ⎛1
⎞⎞ 1
− f (− x) = − ⎜ − ⎜ 3 + 3 x ⎟ ⎟ = 3 + 3 x = f ( x) Hence, f cannot be odd.
⎠⎠ x
⎝ ⎝x
So, odd.
39.
40.
Domain
[ −4, 7]
Domain
( −∞, −3) ∪ ( 3, ∞ )
Range
[ −2, 4]
Range
( −∞, −2 ) ∪ ( 3, ∞ )
Increasing
( 3, 7 )
nowhere
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
( 0,3)
( −4, 0 )
308
Decreasing
( −∞, −3) ∪ ( 3, ∞ )
Constant
nowhere
Chapter 3 Review
( 4 − 2 ) − ( 4 − 0 ) = −2
41.
42.
43. Domain: ( −∞, ∞ ) Range: ( 0, ∞ )
44. Domain: ( −∞, ∞ ) Range: [ −3, ∞ )
Notes on the graph: There is an open hole
at (0,0), and a closed hole at (0,2).
Notes on the graph: There are open holes
at (0,4) and (1,5), and closed holes at (1,4)
and (0, −3) .
2
2
2
45. Domain: ( −∞, ∞ ) Range: [ −1, ∞ )
Notes on the graph: There is an open hole
at (1,3), and a closed hole at (1, −1) .
47. Let x = number of 30minute periods.
x ≤ 2,
25,
.
⎩ 25 + 10.50( x − 2), x > 2
Then, C ( x ) = ⎧⎨
2(5) − 1 − 2(1) − 1
5 −1
=
9 −1
= 2
4
46. Domain: ( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, ∞ )
Range: ( −∞, −2] ∪ ( 0, ∞ )
Notes on the graph: There are open holes
at (0,0) and (1,1), and a closed hole at
(1, −2) .
48. Let x = number of hours worked.
Then, the weekly earnings are described by
30 x,
x ≥ 40
⎧
⎪1200 + 45( x − 40) , x > 40
E ( x) = ⎨
Amount of overtime
⎪
at time and a half.
⎩
309
Chapter 3
49. Reflect the graph of x 2 over xaxis,
then shift right 2 units and then up 4 units.
50. First, note that
− x + 5 − 7 = − ( x − 5) − 7 = x − 5 − 7
So, shift the graph of x right 5 units and
then down 7 units.
51. Shift the graph of
and then up 2 units.
3
x right 3 units,
52. Shift the graph of
then down 4 units.
310
1
x
right 2 units, and
Chapter 3 Review
53. Reflect the graph of x 3 over xaxis, and
then contract vertically by a factor of 2.
54. Expand the graph of x 2 vertically by a
factor of 2, and then shift up 3 units.
55.
56.
311
Chapter 3
57.
58.
59. y = x + 3 Domain: [ −3, ∞ )
60. y = x − 4 Domain: [ 0, ∞ )
61. y = x − 2 + 3 Domain: [ 2, ∞ )
62. y = − x
63. y = 5 x − 6 Domain: [ 0, ∞ )
64. y =
65. y = ( x 2 + 4 x + 4 ) − 8 − 4 = ( x + 2 ) − 12
1
2
( −∞, 0]
Domain: [ 0, ∞ )
Domain:
x +3
2
Domain: \ or ( −∞, ∞ )
66.
y = 2 ( x 2 + 3 x ) − 5 = 2 ( x 2 + 3 x + 94 ) − 5 − 92
= 2 ( x + 32 ) − 192
2
Domain: \ or ( −∞, ∞ )
312
Chapter 3 Review
68.
g ( x ) + h( x ) = ( 2 x + 3 ) + ( x 2 + 6 ) = x 2 + 2 x + 9
67.
g ( x) + h( x) = ( −3 x − 4 ) + ( x − 3) = −2 x − 7
g ( x) − h( x) = ( −3 x − 4 ) − ( x − 3) = −4 x − 1
g ( x ) − h( x ) = ( 2 x + 3 ) − ( x 2 + 6 ) = − x 2 + 2 x − 3
g ( x ) ⋅ h( x ) = ( 2 x + 3 ) ⋅ ( x 2 + 6 )
g ( x) ⋅ h( x) = ( −3 x − 4 ) ⋅ ( x − 3) = −3 x 2 + 5 x + 12
g ( x ) −3 x − 4
=
h( x )
x −3
Domains:
dom( g + h) ⎫
⎪
dom( g − h) ⎬ = ( −∞, ∞ )
dom( gh) ⎪⎭
⎛g⎞
dom ⎜ ⎟ = ( −∞,3) ∪ ( 3, ∞ )
⎝h⎠
69.
= 2 x 3 + 3 x 2 + 12 x + 18
g ( x) 2 x + 3
=
h( x ) x 2 + 6
Domains:
dom( g + h) ⎫
dom( g − h) ⎪
⎪
dom( gh) ⎬ = ( −∞, ∞ )
⎛g⎞ ⎪
dom ⎜ ⎟ ⎪
⎝h⎠ ⎭
g ( x ) + h( x ) =
1
x2
+ x
Domains:
g ( x ) − h( x ) =
1
x2
− x
dom( g + h) ⎫
dom( g − h) ⎪
⎪
dom( gh) ⎬ = ( 0, ∞ )
⎛g⎞ ⎪
dom ⎜ ⎟ ⎪
⎝h⎠ ⎭
g ( x ) ⋅ h( x ) =
g ( x)
=
h( x )
1
x2
x
1
x2
=
⋅ x=
1
5
x2
1
x
3
2
70.
g ( x ) + h( x ) =
x+3
3x − 1
+
2 ( x − 2) x − 2
=
( x + 3) + 2 ( 3x − 1)
( 2x − 4)
=
7x +1
2 ( x − 2)
x+3
3x − 1
−
g ( x ) − h( x ) =
2 ( x − 2) x − 2
=
( x + 3) − 2 ( 3x − 1)
( 2x − 4)
=
−5 x + 5
2 ( x − 2)
g ( x ) ⋅ h( x ) =
x + 3 3x − 1 ( x + 3) ⋅ ( 3 x − 1)
⋅
=
2
2 ( x − 2) x − 2
2 ( x − 2)
x+3
g ( x) 2 ( x − 2 )
x+3
x−2
x+3
=
=
⋅
=
3
x
−
1
h( x )
2 ( x − 2 ) 3x − 1 2(3x − 1)
x−2
Domains:
dom( g + h) ⎫
⎪
dom( g − h) ⎬ = ( −∞, 2 ) ∪ ( 2, ∞ )
dom( gh) ⎪⎭
⎛ f ⎞
dom ⎜ ⎟ = ( −∞, 13 ) ∪ ( 13 , 2 ) ∪ ( 2, ∞ )
⎝g⎠
313
Chapter 3
Domains:
Must have both x − 4 ≥ 0 and 2 x + 1 ≥ 0 .
So,
dom( f + g ) ⎫
⎪
dom( f − g ) ⎬ = [ 4, ∞ ) .
dom( fg ) ⎪⎭
For the quotient, must have both
x − 4 ≥ 0 and 2 x + 1 > 0 . So,
⎛ f ⎞
dom ⎜ ⎟ = [ 4, ∞ ) .
⎝g⎠
71.
g ( x ) + h( x ) = x − 4 + 2 x + 1
g ( x ) − h( x ) = x − 4 − 2 x + 1
g ( x ) ⋅ h( x ) = x − 4 ⋅ 2 x + 1
g ( x)
x−4
=
h( x )
2x +1
72.
g ( x ) + h( x ) = ( x 2 − 4 ) + ( x + 2 ) = x 2 + x − 2
g ( x ) − h( x ) = ( x 2 − 4 ) − ( x + 2 ) = x 2 − x − 6
g ( x ) ⋅ h( x ) = ( x 2 − 4 ) ⋅ ( x + 2 )
= x3 + 2 x 2 − 4 x − 8
g ( x) x 2 − 4
=
= x − 2, x ≠ −2
h( x ) x + 2
73.
Domains:
dom( g + h) ⎫
⎪
dom( g − h) ⎬ = ( −∞, ∞ )
dom( gh) ⎪⎭
⎛g⎞
dom ⎜ ⎟ = ( −∞, −2 ) ∪ ( −2, ∞ )
⎝h⎠
74.
3
( f D g )( x) = ( x + 3) + 2 ( x + 3) − 1
( f D g )( x) = 3 ( 2 x + 1) − 4 = 6 x − 1
= x 3 + 9 x 2 + 29 x + 3
( g D f )( x) = 2 ( 3 x − 4 ) + 1 = 6 x − 7
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( −∞, ∞ ) = dom( g D f )
( g D f )( x) = ( x3 + 2 x − 1) + 3 = x 3 + 2 x + 2
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( −∞, ∞ ) = dom( g D f )
314
Chapter 3 Review
76.
75.
2
( f D g )( x) = 2
2
1
1 + 3(4 − x)
+3
4− x
4− x
2(4 − x) 8 − 2 x
=
=
13 − 3x 13 − 3x
x+3
1
1
( g D f )( x) =
=
=
2
4( x + 3) − 2 4 x + 10
4−
x+3
x+3
( f D g )( x) =
=
Domains:
dom( f D g ) = ( −∞, 4 ) ∪ ( 4, 133 ) ∪ ( 133 , ∞ )
dom( g D f ) = ( −∞, −3) ∪ ( −3, −
5
2
) ∪ (−
5
2
(
x+6
)
2
− 5 = 2( x + 6) − 5
= 2x + 7
( g D f )( x) =
2 x2 − 5 + 6
Domains:
dom( f D g ) : Need both x + 6 ≥ 0 and
2 x + 7 ≥ 0 . Thus, dom( f D g ) = ⎡⎣− 72 , ∞ ) .
, ∞)
dom( g D f ) : Note 2 x 2 − 5 + 6 ≥ 0 , for
all values of x for which 2 x 2 − 5 is
defined. This is true when 2 x 2 − 5 ≥ 0 .
So, solving this inequality yields:
2 x2 − 5 ≥ 0
x 2 − 52 ≥ 0
( x − )( x + ) ≥ 0
5
2
CPs: ±
5
2
5
2
+
−
+G
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ


−
5
2
(
5
2
So, dom( g D f ) = −∞, −
315
5
2
)∪(
5
2
)
,∞ .
Chapter 3
78.
1
= x2 − 4
1
2
x −4
1
1
=1
( g D f )( x) =
2
1
−4 x −4
x
( f D g )( x) =
77.
( f D g )( x) = x 2 − 4 − 5 = ( x − 3)( x + 3)
( g D f )( x) =
(
x −5
)
2
( )
−4 = x−9
Domains:
=
dom( f D g ) : Need ( x − 3)( x + 3) ≥ 0 .
CPs: ±3
+
−
+G
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ


−3
3
1
1− 4 x
x
=
x
1− 4x
Domains:
dom( f D g ) : Need ( x − 2)( x + 2) > 0 .
So, dom( g D f ) = ( −∞, −3] ∪ [3, ∞ ) .
CPs: ±2
dom( g D f ) : Need x − 5 ≥ 0 . Thus,
+
−
+G
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ


−2
2
So, dom( g D f ) = ( −∞, −2 ) ∪ ( 2, ∞ ) .
dom( g D f ) = [5, ∞ ) .
dom( g D f ) : Need 1 − 4 x ≠ 0 , so that
x ≠ 14 . So,
dom( g D f ) = ( −∞, 0 ) ∪ ( 0, 14 ) ∪ ( 14 , ∞ ) .
79.
g (3) = 6(3) − 3 = 15
f ( g (3)) = f (15) = 4(15) 2 − 3(15) + 2 = 857
f (−1) = 4(−1) 2 − 3(−1) + 2 = 9
g ( f (−1)) = g (9) = 6(9) − 3 = 51
81.
f (−1) = 4 − (−1) = 5
g ( f (−1)) = g
( 5) = ( 5)
2
+ 5 = 10
82.
g (3) = 5(3) + 2 = 17
g (3) = 32 − 1 = 8
17
17
=
2(17) − 3 31
1
−1
f (−1) =
=−
2(−1) − 3
5
f ( g (3)) = f (17) =
⎛ 1⎞
g ( f (−1)) = g ⎜ − ⎟ =
⎝ 5⎠
80.
g (3) = 32 + 5 = 14, but f ( g (3)) = f (14)
is not defined.
1
1
=
8 −1 7
1
1
f (−1) =
=−
−1 − 1
2
2
3
⎛ 1⎞ ⎛ 1⎞
g ( f (−1)) = g ⎜ − ⎟ = ⎜ − ⎟ − 1 = −
4
⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠
f ( g (3)) = f (8) =
⎛ 1⎞
5⎜ − ⎟ + 2 = 1
⎝ 5⎠
316
Chapter 3 Review
83.
(
f ( g (3)) =
3
3− 4
) −(
2
3
)
3 − 4 + 10
84. f ( g (3)) is undefined since g (3) is
not defined.
⎛
⎞
4
1
g ( f (−1)) = g ⎜
⎟ = g (−4) = 7
2
⎝ (−1) − 2 ⎠
= (−1) 2 − (−1) + 10 = 12
(
g ( f (−1)) = g (−1) 2 + 1 + 10
)
= 3 12 − 4 = 2
x
, g ( x) = 3 x .
1− x
Then, h( x) = f ( g ( x)) .
85. Let f ( x) = 3 x 2 + 4 x + 7, g ( x) = x − 2 .
Then, h( x) = f ( g ( x)) .
86. Let f ( x) =
1
, g ( x) = x 2 + 7 .
x
Then, h( x) = f ( g ( x)) .
88. Let f ( x) = x , g ( x) = 3 x + 4 .
87. Let f ( x) =
Then, h( x) = f ( g ( x)) .
90. Since 42 = lw, l = 42w . So, the
perimeter formula becomes:
84 + 2 w2
36 = 2l + 2 w = 2 ( 42w ) + 2 w =
w
so that
2w2 − 36 w + 84 = 0
w2 − 18w + 42 = 0
92. No, since Bill and Maria both
received an A.
89. The area of a circle with radius r (t ) is
given by:
(
A(t ) = π ( r (t ) ) = π 25 t + 2
2
)
2
= 625π (t + 2) in 2
91. Yes
93. No, since both (2,3) and (3,3) lie on the
graph of the function.
95. Yes
97. Yes
317
94. No, since −3 and 3 both map to 9.
96. Yes
98. No, since both (1,1) and
(−1,1) satisfy the equation.
Chapter 3
100. Not onetoone, since
f (−1) = f (1) = 1 , for instance.
99. Onetoone
101.
⎛ x−4⎞
f ( f −1 ( x) ) = 3 ⎜
⎟+4 = x−4+4 = x
⎝ 3 ⎠
318
Chapter 3 Review
102.
f ( f −1 ( x) ) =
1
1
=
+
1
7
x
⎛ 1+ 7x ⎞
−7
4⎜
⎟−7
x
⎝ 4x ⎠
1
1
=
=
= x
1
1
+7−7
x
x
103.
f ( f −1 ( x) ) =
(x
2
− 4) + 4 = x2 = x ,
since x ≥ 0 .
104.
7 x + 2 + 2( x − 1)
7x + 2
+2
x −1
=
f ( f −1 ( x) ) = x − 1
7 x + 2 − 7( x − 1)
7x + 2
−7
x −1
x −1
7x + 2 + 2x − 2
9x
=
= x
=
9
7x + 2 − 7x + 7
319
Chapter 3
105. Solve y = 2 x + 1 for x:
x = 12 ( y − 1)
x −1
.
2
106. Solve y = x 5 + 2 for x:
Thus, f −1 ( x) =
( x − 1) =
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
x=
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
1
2
5
y−2
Thus, f −1 ( x) = 5 x − 2 .
107. Solve y = x + 4 for x:
x = y2 − 4
Thus, f −1 ( x) = x 2 − 4 .
108. Solve y = ( x + 4) 2 + 3 for x:
y −3 = x + 4
−4 + y − 3 = x
−1
Thus, f ( x) = −4 + x − 3 .
109. Solve y = xx++63 for x:
( x + 3) y = x + 6
xy + 3 y = x + 6
xy − x = 6 − 3 y
x( y − 1) = 6 − 3 y
x = 6y−−31y
Thus, f −1 ( x) =
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
6 −3 x
x −1
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = [ −4, ∞ )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = [ 0, ∞ )
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = [ −4, ∞ )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = [3, ∞ )
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, −3) ∪ ( −3, ∞ )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = ( −∞,1) ∪ (1, ∞ )
.
110. Solve y = 2 3 x − 5 − 8 for x:
y +8 = 2 3 x−5
( 12 ( y + 8) ) = x − 5
3
5 + ( 12 ( y + 8) ) = x
3
Thus, f −1 ( x) = 5 + ( 12 ( x + 8) ) .
3
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, ∞ )
111. Let x = total dollars worth of products sold. Then, S ( x) = 22, 000 + 0.08 x .
1
Solving y = 22, 000 + 0.08 x for x yields: x = 0.08
( y − 22, 000 )
22,000
Thus, S −1 ( x) = x −0.08
. This inverse function tells you the sales required to earn a
desired income.
320
Chapter 3 Review
112. V ( s ) = 3s 2 , s ≥ 0 . Solving y = 3s 2 for s yields: s =
So, V −1 ( s ) =
1
3
1
3
y.
s . This inverse function tells you the length s of a side of a base
required to get a desired volume.
113. The general equation is C = kr .
Using the fact that C = k (1) = 2π , we see
114. The general equation is V = klw .
Using the fact that V = k (2)(6) = 12h, we
that k = 2π . So, C = 2π r .
see that k = h . So, V = lwh .
115. The general equation is A = kr 2 .
Using the fact that A = k 52 = 25π , we see
116. The general equation is F =
that k = π . So, A = π r 2 .
k
.
λL
Using the fact that
F=
k
(10 m )(10 m )
−6
3
= 20π
we see that k = π 50 . So, F =
π
.
50λ L
117. Assume that W = kH . We need to determine k. Using Cole’s data, we see that
229.50 = 27k , so that k = 8.5 . So, W = 8.5H . (Note that Dickson’s data also satisfies
this equation.)
118.
3.50
= 0.07 T ( P) = 0.07 P
County A:
50
3.50
= 0.07 T ( P) = 0.08P
County B:
50
120. The graph of f is as follows:
119. The graph of f is as follows:
Domain of f:
( −∞, −1) ∪ ( 3, ∞ )
Domain of f:
321
( −∞, −3) ∪ ( −3,3) ∪ ( 3, ∞ )
Chapter 3
121.
Domain
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
( −∞, 2 ) ∪ ( 2, ∞ )
{−1, 0,1} ∪ ( 2, ∞ )
( 2, ∞ )
( −∞, −1)
( −1, 2 )
Note on the graph: The vertical line at
x = −1 should NOT be a part of the graph.
122.
Decreasing
( −∞, 2 ) ∪ ( 2, ∞ )
[0,3) ∪ ( 4, ∞ )
( −1, 0 ) ∪ (1, 2 ) ∪ ( 2, ∞ )
( −2, −1) ∪ ( 0,1)
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
322
Chapter 3 Review
123. The graphs of f and g are as follows:
The graph of f can be obtained by shifting
the graph of g two units to the left. That
is, f ( x) = g ( x + 2) .
124. The graphs of f and g are as follows:
The graph of f can be obtained by shifting
the graph of g one unit to the right and
then reflecting it over the xaxis. That is,
f ( x) = − g ( x − 1) .
125.
y1 = 2 x + 3
y2 = 4 − x
y3 =
y1
y2
Domain of y3 = [ −1.5, 4 )
323
Chapter 3
126.
y1 = x 2 − 4
y2 = x2 − 5
y3 = ( y1) 2 − 5
Domain of y3 = ( −∞, −2] ∪ [ 2, ∞ )
127. Yes, the function is onetoone.
128. Yes, the functions are inverses.
129. (a) The line is approximately given
by y = 64.03 + 127.06 .
(b) No, it is not close to the actual price of
$517.20.
(c) $767.40
130. (a) The variation constant is
approximately 0.464 and the equation is
y = 215.35 x 0.464 .
(b) Yes, it is not close to the actual price
of $517.20.
(c) $626.45
Chapter 3 Practice Test Solutions1. b (Not onetoone since both (0,3) and 2. a (Doesn’t pass the vertical line test.)
(−3,3) lie on the graph.)
4. Observe that
3. c
f (11) = 11 − 2 = 9 = 3
g (−1) = (−1) 2 + 11 = 12
So, f (11) − 2 g (−1) = 3 − 2(12) = −21 .
324
Chapter 3 Practice Test
⎛ f ⎞
x−2
5. ⎜ ⎟ ( x) = 2
x + 11
⎝g⎠
7.
g ( f ( x)) =
(
x−2
)
2
Domain: [2, ∞)
+ 11 = x − 2 + 11 = x + 9
⎛g⎞
x 2 + 11
6. ⎜ ⎟ ( x) =
Domain: (2, ∞)
x−2
⎝ f ⎠
8.
( f + g )(6) = f (6) + g (6)
= 6 − 2 + ( 62 + 11) = 2 + 47 = 49
Domain: ( 2, ∞ )
9.
( ( 7 )) = f ⎛⎜⎝ ( 7 ) + 11⎞⎟⎠ = f (18)
10. f (− x) = − x − (− x) 2 = x − x 2 = f ( x)
2
So, even. Therefore, f cannot be odd.
f g
= 18 − 2 = 4
12. f (− x) = −2x = − 2x = − f ( x)
So, odd.
Therefore, f cannot be even.
11.
f (− x) = 9(− x)3 + 5(− x) − 3
= − ⎡⎣9 x 3 + 5 x + 3⎤⎦ ≠ f ( x)
So, not even.
(
)
− f (− x) = − − ⎡⎣9 x3 + 5 x + 3⎤⎦
= 9 x3 + 5 x + 3 ≠ f ( x)
So, not odd. Thus, neither.
13. f ( x) = − x − 3 + 2
Reflect the graph of x over the xaxis,
then shift right 3 units, and then up 2 units.
Domain: [3, ∞ ) Range: ( −∞, 2]
14. f ( x) = −2( x − 1) 2
Reflect the graph of x 2 over the xaxis,
then expand vertically by a factor of 2,
and then shift right 1 unit.
Domain: ( −∞, ∞ ) Range: ( −∞, 0]
325
Chapter 3
⎧ − x, x < −1
⎪
15. f ( x) = ⎨ 1, − 1 < x < 2
⎪ x2 , x ≥ 2
⎩
Domain: ( −∞, −1) ∪ ( −1, ∞ )
Range: [1, ∞ )
Open holes at (1,1) and (2,1); closed hole
at (2,4)
16. (a) 5
(b) 2
(e) when x = 7
(d) when x = −1,1,5.5
(c) 7
17.
(a) −2
(b) 4
(c) −3
(d) when x = −3, 2
19.
3( x + h) 2 − 4( x + h) + 1 − 3x 2 − 4 x + 1
(
) (
18.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
) = 3x
−3
never
−1
2
+ 6 xh + 3h 2 − 4 x − 4h + 1 − 3x 2 + 4 x − 1
h
h
h ( 6 x + 3h − 4 )
=
= 6 x + 3h − 4
h
( 5 − 7( x + h) ) − ( 5 − 7 x ) = 5 − 7 x − 7h − 5 + 7 x = −7h = −7
20.
h
h
h
21.
22.
10 − 1 − 2 − 1 3 − 1 1
( 64 − 16(2)2 ) − ( 64 − 16(0)2 ) = 0 − 64 = −32
=
=
10 − 2
8
4
2
2
Domains:
23. Solve y = x − 5 for x:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = [5, ∞ )
y2 = x − 5
2
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = [ 0, ∞ )
y2 + 5 = x
Thus, f −1 ( x) = x 2 + 5 .
24. Solve y = x 2 + 5 for x:
Domains:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = [ 0, ∞ )
y = x2 + 5
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = [5, ∞ )
y − 5 = x, since x ≥ 0.
Thus, f −1 ( x) = x − 5 .
326
Chapter 3 Practice Test
Domains:
2x +1
for x:
dom ( f ) = rng ( f −1 ) = ( −∞,5 ) ∪ ( 5, ∞ )
5− x
(5 − x ) y = 2x + 1
rng ( f ) = dom ( f −1 ) = ( −∞, −2 ) ∪ ( −2, ∞ )
5 y − xy = 2 x + 1
5 y − 1 = x( y + 2)
5 y −1
x=
y+2
5x − 1
Thus, f −1 ( x) =
.
x+2
26. We compute the inverse of f piecewise:
For x ≤ 0 : Solve y = − x for x: x = − y . So, f −1 ( x) = − x on ( −∞, 0] .
25. Solve y =
For x > 0 : Solve y = − x 2 ( ≤ 0 ) for x: x = − − y . So, f −1 ( x) = − − x on ( 0, ∞ ) .
Thus, the inverse function is given by
⎧ − x, x ≥ 0
f −1 ( x) = ⎨
⎩− − x , x < 0
27. Can restrict to [ 0, ∞ ) so that f will have an inverse. Also, one could restrict to any
interval of the form [ a, ∞ ) or ( −∞, − a ] , where a is a positive real number, to ensure f is
onetoone.
28. The point (5, −2) (switch x and y coordinates to get a point on the inverse.)
29. Let x = original price of a suit. Then, the sale price is x − 0.40 x = 0.60 x . Hence,
the checkout price is S ( x) = 0.60 x − 0.30(0.60 x) = 0.42 x .
30. Recall F = 95 C + 32 is the relationship between degrees Fahrenheit and degrees
Celsius. If K = C + 273.15 , then C = K − 273.15 . Then, the composition function
F (C ( K )) gives the relationship between Kelvin and degrees Fahrenheit. The
composition is: F (C ( K )) = 95 ( K − 273.15 ) + 32 = 95 K − 459.67
31. Consider f ( x) = − 1 − x 2 , − 1 ≤ x ≤ 0 . (The graph of f is the quarter unit circle in
the third quadrant.) To find its inverse, solve y = − 1 − x 2 for x:
y = − 1 − x2
(− y)
2
= 1 − x2
x2 = 1 − y 2
x = − 1 − y 2 since − 1 ≤ x ≤ 0
So, f −1 ( x) = − 1 − x 2 (The graph looks identical to that of f.)
327
Chapter 3
32. Solve r (t ) = 15 (At this point, the
puddle just touches the sidelines.)
10 t = 15
33. Let x = number of minutes.
Then,
15,
0 ≤ x ≤ 30
⎧
⎪15 + 1( x − 30) , x > 30
C ( x) = ⎨
Amount for minutes
⎪
beyond
the initial 30.
⎩
15, 0 ≤ x ≤ 30
⎧
=⎨
⎩ x − 15, x > 30
t = 1.5
t = (1.5) 2 = 2.25
So, after 2.25 hours, the puddle will reach
the sidelines.
34. The general equation is y = kx 2 . Using
the fact that y = k (5) 2 = 8 , we see that
k=
8
25
. So, y =
8
25
Range
Increasing
Decreasing
Constant
km
.
P
k (2)
= 20 , we
3
30m
see that k = 20 ( 32 ) = 30 . So, F =
.
P
Using the fact that F =
x2
36.
Domain
35. The general equation is F =
[ −4, −2 ) ∪ ( −2, 4]
[0,5]
( −1,1) ∪ ( 3, 4 )
( −2, −1) ∪ (1,3)
( −4, −2 )
37. Yes, the function is onetoone.
328
Chapter 3 Cumulative Review
Chapter 3 Cumulative Review 1.
2.
2
2
3+ 5 6+ 2 5 3+ 5
=
⋅
=
=
4
2
3− 5 3− 5 3+ 5
3.
x 3 − 4 x x( x − 2) ( x + 2)
=
= x( x − 2)
x+2
x+2
Domain: ( −∞, −2 ) ∪ ( −2, ∞ )
10 x 2 − 29 x − 21 = (5 x + 3)(2 x − 7)
4.
1
6
x = − 15 x + 11
5 x = −6 x + 330
11x = 330
x = 30
5. (8 − 9i )(8 + 9i ) = 64 + 81 = 145 + 0i
6.
5
10
− 10 = , x ≠ 0
x
3x
15 − 30 x = 10
5 = 30 x
x=
7. Since
is 40%.
35.70
59.50
= 0.60 , the percent markdown
8.
1
6
x(6 x + 1) = 12
6 x 2 + x − 12 = 0
(3x − 4)(2 x + 3) = 0
x = 43 , − 32
10.
9.
2
1
x
−x=
2
5
2
5 x − 10 x = 2
(
)
5 x2 − 2 x
(
3
x + 2 = (−3)3 = −27
x = −29
−2=0
)
5 x2 − 2x + 1 − 2 − 5 = 0
Check:
5( x − 1) 2 = 7
( x − 1) 2 =
7
5
x = 1±
x + 2 = −3
7
5
= 1±
35
5
329
3
−29 + 2 = 3 −27 = −3 .
Chapter 3
11.
12.
−7 < 3 − 2 x ≤ 5
x − x − 12 = 0
4
2
−10 < −2 x ≤ 2
Let u = x 2 .
5 > x ≥ −1
u 2 − u − 12 = 0
(u − 4)(u + 3) = 0
u = −3, 4
So, we have:
[ −1,5)
x 2 = −3 ⇒ x = ±i 3
x 2 = 4 ⇒ x = ±2
13.
14.
x
<0
x−5
CPs: x = 0,5
+
−
+G
HJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ


0
5
−1.3 ≤ 2.7 − 3.2 x ≤ 1.3
−4 ≤ −3.2 x ≤ −1.4
4
1.4
≥x≥
3.2
3.2
N
N
=1.25
So, the solution set is ( 0,5 ) .
[0.4375, 1.25]
15.
16.
d=
( 5.2 − (−2.7) ) + ( 6.3 − (−1.4) )
2
= 0.4375
2
m=
= (7.9) 2 + (7.7) 2 ≈ 11.03
4.3 − (−1.4) 5.7
=
= 2.375
2.7 − 0.3
2.4
⎛ −2.7 + 5.2 −1.4 + 6.3 ⎞
,
M =⎜
⎟ = (1.25, 2.45 )
2
2
⎝
⎠
17. Since m = 0 , the line is horizontal. Hence, its equation is y = −3 .
18.
x 2 + y 2 + 12 x − 18 y − 4 = 0
(x
2
+ 12 x + 36 ) + ( y 2 − 18 y + 81) = 4 + 36 + 81
( x + 6) 2 + ( y − 9) 2 = 121
So, the center is (−6,9) and the radius is 11.
19. Since the center is (−2, −1) , the general equation is ( x − (−2)) 2 + ( y − (−1)) 2 = r 2 .
Now, use the fact that (−4,3) lies on the circle to find r 2 . Indeed, observe that
(−4 − (−2)) 2 + (3 − (−1))2 = 20 = r 2 .
So, the equation is ( x + 2) 2 + ( y + 1) 2 = 20 .
330
Chapter 3 Cumulative Review
20. We place the tower at the origin, and
compute the distance between (0,0) and
(85,23). Observe that
21.
852 + 232 ≈ 88.06 < 100 .
So, you can use the cell phone here.
5(4) 2 − 5(2) 2 80 − 20
22.
=
= 30
4−2
2
( −∞,1) ∪ (1, ∞ )
23.
g ( f (−1)) = g ( 6 − (−1) ) = 7 2 − 3 = 46
24. y = x 2 + 3, x ≥ 0
To find the inverse, switch the x and y and
solve for y:
x = y2 + 3
x − 3 = y2
y = ± x − 3, x ≥ 3
Since the domain of the original function is
x ≥ 0 , we use the positive root. So,
f −1 ( x) = x − 3 .
25. The general equation is r =
So, r =
k
k
. Using the fact that r = = 45 , we see that k = 135 .
t
3
135
.
t
26.
Decreasing
[ −1,1) ∪ (1,3]
[0,1]
( −1, 0 ) ∪ (1, 2 )
( 0,1) ∪ ( 2,3)
Constant
nowhere
Domain
Range
Increasing
Note on the graph: There should be an
open hole at x = 1 .
331
Chapter 3
27. Let f ( x) = x 2 − 3x, g ( x) = x 2 + x − 2 .
Observe that
2
g (h( x)) = ( h( x) ) + ( h( x) ) − 2 = x 2 − 3x
implies that
h( x ) = x − 2 .
332