426

Chapter 8: Microwave Filters

1 dB at 2 GHz. The response of the corresponding lumped-element filter is also
shown in Figure 8.41. The passband characteristic is similar to that of the stepped
impedance filter, but the lumped-element filter gives more attenuation at higher
frequencies. This is because the stepped-impedance filter elements depart significantly from the lumped-element values at higher frequencies. The steppedimpedance filter may have other passbands at higher frequencies, but the response
will not be perfectly periodic because the lines are not commensurate.

8.7

COUPLED LINE FILTERS
The parallel coupled transmission lines discussed in Section 7.6 (for directional couplers)
can be used to construct many types of filters. Fabrication of multisection bandpass or
bandstop coupled line filters is particularly easy in microstrip or stripline form for bandwidths less than about 20%. Wider bandwidth filters generally require very tightly coupled
lines, which are difficult to fabricate. We will first study the filter characteristics of a single
quarter-wave coupled line section, and then show how these sections can be used to design
a bandpass filter [7]. Other filter designs using coupled lines can be found in reference [1].
Filter Properties of a Coupled Line Section
A parallel coupled line section is shown in Figure 8.42a, with port voltage and current
definitions. We will derive the open-circuit impedance matrix for this four-port network by
considering the superposition of even- and odd-mode excitations [8], which are shown in
Figure 8.42b. Thus, the current sources i 1 and i 3 drive the line in the even mode, while i 2
and i 4 drive the line in the odd mode. By superposition, we see that the total port currents,
Ii , can be expressed in terms of the even- and odd-mode currents as
I1 = i 1 + i 2 ,

(8.87a)

I2 = i 1 − i 2 ,

(8.87b)

I3 = i 3 − i 4 ,

(8.87c)

I4 = i 3 + i 4 .

(8.87d)

First consider the line as being driven in the even mode by the i 1 current sources. If
the other ports are open-circuited, the impedance seen at port 1 or 2 is
e
= − j Z 0e cot β .
Z in

(8.88)

The voltage on either conductor can be expressed as
va1 (z) = vb1 (z) = Ve+ [e− jβ(z− ) + e jβ(z− ) ]
= 2Ve+ cos β( − z),

(8.89)

so the voltage at port 1 or 2 is
e
.
va1 (0) = vb1 (0) = 2Ve+ cos β = i 1 Z in

This result and (8.88) can be used to rewrite (8.89) in terms of i 1 as
va1 (z) = vb1 (z) = − j Z 0e

cos β( − z)
i1 .
sin β

(8.90)

91) Now consider the line as being driven in the odd mode by current i 2 . sin β (8.92) (8. Similarly. Then the voltage at port 1 or port 2 is o .427 8. (b) A parallel coupled line section with even. Z0o I1 1 4 O. 3 I3 Z0e. Z0o I1 1 +V1 I4 4 +V4 0 z l (a) vb i1 2 i1 i3 3 i2 Z0e. va2 (0) = −vb2 (0) = 2V0+ cos β = i 2 Z in (8. the voltages due to current sources i 3 driving the line in the even mode are va3 (z) = vb3 (z) = − j Z 0e cos βz i3 . (a) A parallel coupled line section with port voltage and current definitions.42 Definitions pertaining to a coupled line filter section. (c) A two-port coupled line section having a bandpass response. the impedance seen at port 1 or 2 is o = − j Z 0o cot β .C. Z0o i4 1 i3 4 va 0 z l (b) 2 O. If the other ports are open-circuited. Z in The voltage on either conductor can be expressed as   va2 (z) = −vb2 (z) = V0+ e− jβ(z− ) + e jβ(z− ) = 2V0+ cos β( − z).7 Coupled Line Filters +V3 +V2 2 I2 I3 3 Z0e. (c) FIGURE 8.93) .and odd-mode current sources.C.

2 (8. I2 = I4 = 0. 2 1 i 4 = (I4 − I3 ). bandpass. 2 1 i 3 = (I3 + I4 ).99b) Z13 = Z 31 = Z 24 = Z 42 Z14 = Z 41 = Z 23 = Z 32 (8. and θ = β .90). sin β (8.99d) A two-port network can be formed from a coupled line section by terminating two of the four ports with either open or short circuits. we are most interested in the case shown in Figure 8. or by connecting two ends. Next. the various circuits have different frequency responses.97c) (8. and (8. there are 10 possible combinations. 2 1 i 2 = (I1 − I2 ). all other matrix elements can be found once the first row is known.8. 2 i1 = (8. as illustrated in Table 8.97d) and use these results in (8.94) Similarly.87) for the i j in terms of the I s: 1 (I1 + I2 ). (8. we solve (8.99a) Z12 = Z 21 = Z 34 = Z 43 (8. The matrix elements are then −j (Z 0e + Z 0o ) cot θ 2 −j = (Z 0e − Z 0o ) cot θ 2 −j = (Z 0e − Z 0o ) csc θ 2 −j = (Z 0e + Z 0o ) csc θ 2 Z 11 = Z 22 = Z 33 = Z 44 = (8. . (8. For bandpass filters. the voltages due to current i 4 driving the line in the odd mode are va4 (z) = −vb4 (z) = − j Z 0o cos βz i4 .95) The total voltage at port 1 is V1 = va1 (0) + va2 (0) + va3 (0) + va4 (0) = − j (Z 0e i 1 + Z 0o i 2 ) cot θ − j (Z 0e i 3 + Z 0o i 4 ) csc θ.99c) (8.91). as open circuits are easier to fabricate in microstrip than are short circuits. all pass.42c.96): V1 = −j (Z 0e I1 + Z 0e I2 + Z 0o I1 − Z 0o I2 ) cot θ 2 −j (Z 0e I3 + Z 0e I4 + Z 0o I4 − Z 0o I3 ) csc θ.428 Chapter 8: Microwave Filters This result and (8. From symmetry.92) can be used to rewrite (8.97b) (8.96) where the results of (8.98) This result yields the top row of the open-circuit impedance matrix [Z ] that describes the coupled line section.93) in terms of i 2 as va2 (z) = −vb2 (z) = − j Z 0o cos β( − z) i2 . As indicated in the table.97a) (8. sin β (8. including low-pass.94). and all stop. (8.95) were used. In this case.

7 Coupled Line Filters TABLE 8.8.8 Ten Canonical Coupled Line Circuits Circuit Image Impedance 2Z 0e Z 0o cos Zi1 = Zi1 429 Zi2 Response Re(Zi1) (Z 0e + Z 0o)2 cos 2 – (Z 0e – Z 0o)2 Z 0eZ 0o Zi1 Zi2 = 0 2 Low-pass 3 2 2 Bandpass 3 2 2 Bandpass 3 2 2 Bandpass 3 2 Re(Zi1) Zi1 2Z 0e Z 0o sin Zi1 = (Z 0e – Z 0o)2 – (Z 0e + Z 0o)2 cos 2 Zi1 0 Re(Zi1) Zi1 (Z 0e – Z 0o)2 – (Z 0e + Z 0o)2 cos 2 Zi1 = 2 sin 0 Zi1 Zi2 Zi2 = Zi1 Zi1 = Zi1 Z 0e Z 0o Zi1 = (Z 0e – Z 0o)2 – (Z 0e + Z 0o)2 cos 2 Re(Zi1) (Z 0e + Z 0o) sin Z 0eZ 0o Zi1 Z 0e + Z 0o 2 0 All pass Zi1 Zi1 = 2Z 0eZ 0o Z 0e + Z 0o All pass Zi1 Zi1 = Z 0eZ 0o All pass All stop Zi1 2Z 0eZ 0o cot Z 0e + Z 0o Z 0eZ 0o Zi2 = Zi1 Zi1 Zi1 = j All stop Zi1 Zi1 Zi1 Zi1 = –j Zi2 Z 0eZ 0o tan Zi1 Zi1 Zi1 Zi1 = –j Z 0eZ 0o cot All stop .

the image impedance in terms of the impedance parameters is  Z Z2 2 − 11 13 Z i = Z 11 Z 33 .100b) where Z i j is given in (8.42c. (8. From Table 8.100a) V3 = Z 31 I1 + Z 33 I3 . (8. and the propagation constant.99).43 0 1 π 2 2  3 2  The real part of the image impedance of the bandpass network of Figure 8. We can analyze the filter characteristics of this circuit by calculating the image impedance (which is the same at ports 1 and 3). so the four-port impedance matrix equations reduce to V1 = Z 11 I1 + Z 13 I3 .430 Chapter 8: Microwave Filters Re(Z i ) Z 0e – Z 0o 2 0 FIGURE 8.1.

102) (Z 0e − Z 0o ). (8.43.101) as Zi = cos θ1 = − cos θ2 = Z 0e − Z 0o . where cos θ1 = (Z 0e − Z 0o )/(Z 0e + Z 0o ).103) cos β = 2 Z Z 0e − Z 0o Z 13 13 which shows β is real for θ1 < θ < θ2 = π − θ1 . We will do this by calculating the image impedance and propagation constant of the equivalent circuit and showing that they are approximately equal to those . The real part of the image impedance is sketched in Figure 8. Z 0e + Z 0o The propagation constant can also be calculated from the results of Table 8. indicating a stopband. (8. when θ → 0 or π.101) 2 When the coupled line section is λ/4 long (θ = π/2). 1 = (Z 0e − Z 0o )2 csc2 θ − (Z 0e + Z 0o )2 cot2 θ .1 as  Z 11 Z 33 Z 11 Z 0e + Z 0o = = cos θ.44. To derive the design equations for filters of this type. Design of Coupled Line Bandpass Filters Narrowband bandpass filters can be made with cascaded coupled line sections of the form shown in Figure 8. 2 which is real and positive since Z 0e > Z 0o .42c. where the cutoff frequencies can be found from (8. we first show that a single coupled line section can be approximately modeled by the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 8. the image impedance reduces to 1 (8. Z i → ± j∞. However.

and odd-mode line impedances to give Z 0e = Z 0 [1 + J Z 0 + (J Z 0 )2 ].27) the image impedance of the equivalent circuit is     J Z 2 sin2 θ − (1/J ) cos2 θ B = 0 2 . yields the following equations: 1 (Z 0e − Z 0o ) = J Z 02 .108a) Z 0o = Z 0 [1 − J Z 0 + (J Z 0 )2 ]. From (8.108b) Now consider a bandpass filter composed of a cascade of N + 1 coupled line sections.8. as shown in Figure 8. ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 2 2 ⎣j ⎦ sin θ − J cos θ J Z0 + sin θ cos θ J Z0 J Z 02 The ABCD parameters of the admittance inverter were obtained by considering it as a quarter-wave length of transmission of characteristic impedance. and the propagation constants of (8.102) and (8. (8. J Z0 (8. which will correspond to the center frequency of the bandpass response.106). From (8.42c.45a.7 Coupled Line Filters  Z0 FIGURE 8. 1/J . with the load on the . The sections are numbered from left to right. of the coupled line section for θ = π/2.106) (8. (8.105) Zi = C (1/J Z 0 ) sin2 θ − J cos2 θ which reduces to the following value at the center frequency.107). These equations can be solved for the even.31) the propagation constant is 1 cos β = A = J Z 0 + sin θ cos θ. 2 Z 0e + Z 0o 1 = J Z0 + .44 431  J –90° Z0 Equivalent circuit of the coupled line section of Figure 8. θ = π/2: Z i = J Z 02 . (8. The ABCD parameters of the equivalent circuit can be computed using the ABCD matrices for transmission lines from Table 4.104) ⎥.103) and (8.1: ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ ⎡  cos θ   j Z 0 sin θ cos θ j Z 0 sin θ  0 − j/J ⎢ A B ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ = ⎣ j sin θ ⎦ ⎣ j sin θ ⎦ − j J 0 C D cos θ cos θ Z0 Z0 ⎡  ⎤ 2θ 1 cos ⎢ J Z0 + ⎥ sin θ cos θ j J Z 02 sin2 θ − ⎢ ⎥ J Z J 0 ⎢ ⎥  =⎢ (8.107) Equating the image impedances in (8. Z 0e − Z 0o J Z0 where we have assumed sin θ 1 for θ near π/2.

(a) Layout of an (N + 1)-section coupled line bandpass filter. (f) Lumped-element circuit for a bandpass filter for N = 2. . (b) Using the equivalent circuit of Figure 8. (d) Equivalent circuit of the admittance inverters.44 for each coupled line section. (c) Equivalent circuit for transmission lines of length 2θ.432 Chapter 8: Microwave Filters FIGURE 8.45 Development of an equivalent circuit for derivation of design equations for a coupled line bandpass filter. (e) Using results of (c) and (d) for the N = 2 case.

and has an approximate equivalent circuit that consists of a shunt parallel LC resonator. (8.45c. the equivalent circuit of the cascade is as shown in Figure 8. but the filter can be reversed without affecting the response.1 for a T-circuit and an ideal transformer: ⎡ ⎡ 2 − Z2 ⎤ 2 − Z2 ⎤ −Z 11 Z 12 Z 11 Z 11 12 11     ⎥ −1 0 ⎢ Z 12 ⎥ ⎢ Z 12 Z 12 Z 12 A B ⎥ ⎢ ⎥.44.7 Coupled Line Filters 433 right. Between any two consecutive inverters we have a transmission line section that is effectively 2θ in length. The shunt impedance Z 12 . The first step in establishing this equivalence is to find the parameters for the Tequivalent and ideal transformer circuit of Figure 8. as in Figure 8.110b) Then the series arm impedance is Z 11 − Z 12 = − j Z 0 cos 2θ + 1 = − j Z 0 cot θ. looks like the impedance of a parallel resonant circuit for θ ∼ π/2.109) ⎢ =⎣ =⎣ ⎦ 0 −1 C D 1 Z 11 −1 −Z 11 ⎦ Z 12 Z 12 Z 12 Z 12 Equating this result to the ABCD parameters for a transmission line of length 2θ and characteristic impedance Z 0 gives the parameters of the equivalent circuit as −1 j Z0 = .111) The 1: −1 transformer provides a 180◦ phase shift. This line is approximately λ/2 long in the vicinity of the bandpass region of the filter. C sin 2θ = Z 22 = −Z 12 A = − j Z 0 cot 2θ. If we let ω = ω0 + .110a) Z 11 (8. however. Since each coupled line section has an equivalent circuit of the form shown in Figure 8. For θ ∼ π/2 the series arm impedances of (8. since this does not affect the amplitude response of the filter.45c (an exact equivalent). The ABCD matrix for this circuit can be calculated using the results in Table 4. which cannot be obtained with the T-network alone. Z 12 = (8.111) are near zero and can also be ignored. it can be discarded.45b. sin 2θ (8.8.

ω. then we have 2θ = β = ω /v p = (ω0 + . where θ = π/2 at the center frequency ω0 .

ω)π/ω0 = π(1 + .

110a) can be written for small .ω/ω0 ). so (8.

sin π(1 + .ω as Z 12 = j Z0 − j Z 0 ω0 .

114a) C= π 1 = .112) From Section 6.ω/ω0 ) π(ω − ω0 ) (8. The end inverters.1 the impedance near resonance of a parallel LC circuit is Z= − j Lω02 .112) gives the equivalent inductor and capacitor values as L= 2Z 0 .114b) The end sections of the circuit of Figure 8. 2(ω − ω0 ) (8. The lines of length θ on either end of the filter are matched to Z 0 and so can be ignored. can each be represented as a transformer followed by a λ/4 section . π ω0 (8.113) with ω02 = 1/LC. J1 and J N +1 . 2 2Z ω0 L 0 ω0 (8.45b require a different treatment. Equating this to (8.

jωC2 + jωL 2 L 2 ω0 ω since the transformer scales the load admittance by the square of the turns ratio.115) = ⎣ −jN = N C D 0 0 N 0 Z0 Z0 Comparing this to the ABCD matrix of an admittance inverter [part of (8. This will then allow the admittance inverter constants. −j (8. The ABCD matrix of a transformer with a turns ratio N in cascade with a quarter-wave line is − j Z0 ⎤   ⎡    1 0 0 − j Z 0 0 A B N ⎦. We see that each pair of coupled line sections leads to an equivalent shunt LC resonator.45e. (8. Thus. Jn .45b to be transformed into the circuit of Figure 8. as shown in Figure 8. We will demonstrate this for the N = 2 case.118c) . we show that the admittance inverters have the effect of transforming a shunt LC resonator into a series LC resonator. The λ/4 line merely produces a phase shift and so can be ignored.45d. which is specialized to the N = 2 case. and an admittance inverter occurs between each pair of LC resonators.118a) L 1 J12 Z 02 L 1   J12 Z 02 C2 L 2 = . leading to the final equivalent circuit of Figure 8. that L n Cn = 1/ω02 for all LC resonators. from (8. to be determined from the element values of a low-pass prototype.116). Next.114).117) which is identical in form to (8.45f is 1 1 + jωL 1 jωL 2 + 1/jωC2 + Z 0  C1 ω ω0 1 = j − . (8. the admittance just to the right of the J2 inverter is  C2 ω 1 ω0 2 + Z 0 J3 = j − + Z 0 J32 . Using these results for the interior and end sections allows the circuit of Figure 8.45e. With reference to Figure 8.104)] shows that the necessary turns ratio is N = J Z 0 .118b) L2 C2 J22 J12 Z 03 J32 J22 = Z0. (8.434 Chapter 8: Microwave Filters of line.116) L 1 ω0 ω J1 Z 0 j C2 /L 2 [(ω/ω0 ) − (ω0 /ω)] + Z 0 J32 These results also use the fact. (8. Now the admittance seen looking into the circuit of Figure 8. the two circuits will be equivalent if the following conditions are met:   C1 C1 1 = . +  L 1 ω0 ω j L 2 /C2 [(ω/ω0 ) − (ω0 /ω)] + Z 0 Y = jωC1 + (8. Then the admittance seen at the input of the filter is   J22 1 1 + √ Y = 2 2 jωC1 + jωL 1 J1 Z 0 j C2 /L 2 [(ω/ω0 ) − (ω0 /ω)] + Z 0 J32    J22 1 C1 ω ω0 = 2 2 j − + √ .45f (shown for N = 2).

8.64) allows the L n and Cn values to be written as . L n and Cn are determined from the element values of a lumped-element low-pass prototype that has been impedance scaled and frequency transformed to a bandpass filter. Using the results in Table 8.6 and the impedance scaling formulas of (8.7 Coupled Line Filters 435 We know L n and Cn from (8.114).

C1 = .Z 0 . ω0 g1 g1 .

ω0 Z 0 L 1 = (8. .119b) L 2 = g2 Z 0 .119a) (8.

ω0 (8.119c) C2 = .

ω0 g2 Z 0 (8.119d) where . .

Then (8.118) can be solved for the inverter constants with the following results (for N = 2): J1 Z 0 = C1 L 1 L 1 C1  1/4 = C2 C2 L 2 L 2  π. = (ω2 − ω1 )/ω0 is the fractional bandwidth of the filter.

J2 J3 Z 0 = = . J1 2g2 J2 Z 0 = J1 Z 02 1/4 π.

. 2g1 (8.120a) π.

Thus. but more general results can be derived for any number of sections. and for the case where Z L = Z 0 (or g N +1 = 1. the design equations for a bandpass filter with N + 1 coupled line sections are  π.120c) After the Jn are found. = √ . The above results were derived for the special case of N = 2 (three coupled line sections). 2 g1 g2 (8. as in the case of an equal-ripple response with N even).108). Z 0e and Z 0o for each coupled line section can be calculated from (8.120b) (8.

. (8.121a) Z 0 J1 = 2g1 π.

for n = 2. N . . . Z 0 Jn = √ 2 gn−1 gn  π. . . 3.

EXAMPLE 8.8 GHz? .and odd-mode characteristic impedances for each section are found from (8. and Z 0 = 50 . the bandwidth is 10%. What is the attenuation at 1. Z 0 J N +1 = 2g N g N +1 (8.0 GHz. The center frequency is 2.7 COUPLED LINE BANDPASS FILTER DESIGN Design a coupled line bandpass filter with N = 3 and a 0. .121c) The even.121b) (8.5 dB equal-ripple response.108).

Chapter 8: Microwave Filters Solution The fractional bandwidth is .

but first we must use (8.1. ω← . = 0.8 2.0 1 ω − = − = −2.11.27a to obtain the attenuation at 1. We can use Figure 8.71) to convert this frequency to the normalized low-pass form (ωc = 1): ω0 1 1.8 GHz.

which can be obtained from a coupled line filter by folding the lines at their midpoints. 0 10 Attenuation (dB) 436 20 30 40 50 1. . most of these are of the bandpass or bandstop variety.77 44.24 Note that the filter sections are symmetric about the midpoint.121) can be used to calculate the admittance inverter constants.11| − 1 = 1.0 Frequency (GHz) FIGURE 8. The low-pass prototype values.1187 0.1 2.108).27a is ω − 1 = | −2.3137 0.1187 0. etc.7.0 1.61 56. These results are summarized in the following table: n gn Z 0 Jn Z 0e ( ) Z 0o ( ) 1 2 3 4 1. then (8.61 39. gn .64 56. ■ Many other types of filters can be constructed using coupled line sections.5963 1. Finally.46.0 2.4. Jn . the even.5 3.0967 1. passbands also occur at 6 GHz. ω0 ω 0. see references [1] and [3] for details.46 Amplitude response of the coupled line bandpass filter of Example 8.and odd-mode characteristic impedances can be found from (8.77 39. The calculated response of this filter is shown in Figure 8.11.5963 1.24 44.0 1.5 2.64 70.8 Then the value on the horizontal scale of Figure 8. ω c which indicates an attenuation of about 20 dB for N = 3. are given in Table 8.3137 70. 10 GHz. One particularly compact design is the interdigitated filter.0000 0.