Review – English – 8a série

Present Perfect
O presente perfeito é marcado pela forma:
Sujeito + have/has + verbo principal no particípio + complemento.
Susan has been to England. (Susan esteve na Inglaterra).
O presente perfeito pode ser usado para indicar:
1- Ações que começaram no passado e continuam até o presente.
She has worked at the hospital since April. (Ela trabalha/ tem trabalhado no hospital desde abril).
I have exercised at the gym lately. (Eu tenho me exercitado na academia ultimamente).
They have organized their wedding. (Eles têm organizado o casamento deles).
2- Ações que ocorreram em um tempo não determinado (indefinido) no passado.
I have been to the U.S.A. (Eu estive nos E.U.A.)
She has traveled to England. (Ela viajou para a Inglaterra).
You have made a delicious apple pie. (Você fez uma torta de maçã deliciosa).
3- Ações que acabaram de acontecer.
They have just left. (Eles acabaram de sair).
Jane has just made the lunch. (Jane acabou de preparar o almoço).
I have just done the dishes. (Acabei de lavar a louça).
Para as frases negativas, basta acrescentar o “not” após “have/has”. E nas frases interrogativas, basta colocar o
“have/has” no início da frase.

Negativa

Interrogativa

I have not / I haven’t

Have I …?

You have not / you haven’t

Have you…?

He has not / he hasn’t

Has he…?

She has not / she hasn’t

Has she…?

It has not / it hasn’t

Has it…?

We have not / we haven’t

Have we…?

You have not / you haven’t

Have you…?

They have not / they haven’t

Have they…?

Ex.: She hasn’t organized the house. (Ela não organizou a casa).
They haven’t painted their house yet. (Eles ainda não pintaram a casa deles).
Has she called Susan? (Ela ligou para a Susan?).
Has he watched a lot of movies? (Ele assistiu a muitos filmes?)
Simple Past
Verbo To be
Formas “Was” e “Were”
I was at school yesterday.
She was with me last week.
He was very tired before class.
You were very hungry yesterday.
We are really happy last night

They were here this morning.
O passado simples dos verbos regulares é marcado pelo sufixo “ed”. Já os verbos irregulares possuem formas
próprias, e caso surja alguma dúvida é só consultar a tabela do passado dos verbos irregulares nesse mesmo
site.
Em frases afirmativas, a forma do passado simples é:

Sujeito + passado do verbo + complemento.
She broke her leg. (Ela quebrou sua perna).
He studied a lot yesterday. (Ele estudou bastante ontem).
The dog barked a lot last night. (O cão latiu bastante na noite passada).
They woke up late this morning. (Eles acordaram atrasados esta manhã).
Para as sentenças negativas é necessário utilizar o auxiliar “did” + “not” para todas as pessoas. O auxiliar deve vir
sempre após o sujeito. Ele pode vir na sua forma completa, “did not”, ou abreviada, “didn’t”. Pelo fato de já estarmos
usando o auxiliar do passado, “did”, o verbo deve vir sempre no infinitivo sem o “to”, e jamais conjugado no passado.

Negativas
Sujeito + did + verbo no presente + complement
ou
Sujeito + didn't + verbo no presente + complemento

She did not break her leg.
He didn't study a lot yesterday.
Julian didn't like the film.

They did not wash the car this weekend. (Eles não lavaram o carro esse fim de semana).
We didn’t send e-mails to our parents. (Nós não mandamos e-mails para os nossos pais).
I didn’t see Jack at the party yesterday. (Eu não vi o Jack na festa ontem).
She did not cut her nails. (Ela não cortou suas unhas).
Nas frases interrogativas, assim como nas negativas, é necessário utilizar o auxiliar “did”, logo, vale relembrar que o
verbo nunca deve vir conjugado. Na construção de frases interrogativas, coloca-se primeiro o auxiliar “did”, seguido do
sujeito + verbo no infinitivo sem “to” + complemento.

Interrogativas

Did + sujeito + verbo no presente + complemento

Did Mary and Carol go to the mall last week? (A Mary e a Carol foram ao shopping semana passada?).
Did Phillip buy his mother a gift? (O Philip comprou um presente para a sua mãe?).
Did Amanda sing at the festival? (A Amanda cantou no festival?).
Did John give you all this money? (O John lhe deu todo este dinheiro?).

VERBOS IRREGULARES
Infinitive
be
beat
become

Past
was, were
beat
became

Participle
been
beaten
become

Tradução
ser, estar
bater, derrotar, pulsar
tornar-se

begin
bite
blow
break
bring
build
buy
catch
choose
come
cost
cut
deal
dig
do
draw
dream
drink
drive
eat
fall
feed
feel
fight
find
fly
forget
freeze
get
give
go
grow
hang
have
hear
hide
hit
hold
hurt
keep
know
lay
learn
leave
lend
let
lie
light
lose
make
mean
meet

began
bit
blew
broke
brought
built
bought
caught
chose
came
cost
cut
dealt
dug
did
drew
dreamt/ dreamed
drank
drove
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
flew
forgot
froze
got
gave
went
grew
hung
had
heard
hid
hit
held
hurt
kept
knew
laid
learnt
left
lent
let
lay
lit / lighted
lost
made
meant
met

begun
bitten
blown
broken
brought
built
bought
caught
chosen
come
cost
cut
dealt
dug
done
drawn
dreamt/ dreamed
drunk
driven
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
flown
forgotten
frozen
got/ gotten
given
gone
grown
hung
had
heard
hidden
hit
held
hurt
kept
known
laid
learnt
left
lent
let
lain
lit/ lighted
lost
made
meant
met

começar
morder, picar
soprar, tocar (instrumento de sopro)
quebrar, interromper
trazer
construir
comprar
agarrar, pegar (doença)
escolher
vir, chegar, aproximar-se, acontecer
custar
cortar
negociar, distribuir
cavar
fazer, executar
desenhar, puxar, arrastar
sonhar
beber, embriagar-se
dirigir
comer
cair
alimentar (se), suprir
sentir
lutar
encontrar
voar
esquecer (se)
gelar, congelar
conseguir, ganhar
dar, conceder
ir
crescer, cultivar
pendurar
ter, possuir
ouvir
esconder, ocultar (se)
bater
segurar, manter, conter
machucar
guardar, manter, permanecer, ficar
saber , conhecer
pôr, colocar, botar (ovos)
aprender
deixar, partir
emprestar
deixar, alugar
jazer, deitar ou mentir, enganar
iluminar, acender
perder
fazer, produzir, fabricar
significar, ter intenção
encontrar-se com

pay
put
read
rid
ride
ring
rise
run
say
see
sell
send
set
shake
shine
shoot
show
shut
sing
sink
sit
sleep
slide
slit
smell
speak
spend
spread
stand
steal
strike
swear
sweep
swim
swing
take
teach
tell
think
throw
understand
wake
wear
wed
wet
win
wring
write

paid
put
read
rid
rode
rang
rose
ran
said
saw
sold
sent
set
shook
shone
shot
showed
shut
sang
sank
sat
slept
slid
slit
smelt
spoke
spent
spread
stood
stole
struck
swore
swept
swam
swung
took
taught
told
thought
threw
understood
woke/ waked
wore
wed
wet
won
wrung
wrote

paid
put
read
rid
ridden
rung
risen
run
said
seen
sold
sent
set
shaken
shone
shot
shown/ showed
shut
sung
sunk
sat
slept
slid
slit
smelt
spoken
spent
spread
stood
stolen
struck
sworn
swept
swum
swung
taken
taught
told
thought
thrown
understood
woke/waked
worn
wed
wet
won
wrung
written

pagar
pôr
ler
cavalgar, livrar, desembaraçar
viajar, cavalgar
soa , tocar a campainha
nascer, surgir, erguer-se
correr, administrar
dizer
ver
vender
enviar
colocar, fixar, arrumar
sacudir
brilhar
atirar, disparar
mostrar
fechar
cantar
afundar, naufragar
sentar
dormir
escorregar
fender, rachar
cheirar
falar
gastar
difundir, divulgar, espalhar
ficar de pé, aguentar
roubar
fazer greve , bater
jurar, blasfemar
varrer
nadar
balançar
tomar, pegar
ensinar
contar, dizer
pensar, achar
arremessar
entender, compreender
acordar
vestir, usar
desposar
umedecer
ganhar, vencer
espremer
escrever