Design and Implementation of Microstrip Patch

Antenna Array
George Casu1, Cătălin Moraru2, Andrei Kovacs (Corresponding author)1*
Military Technical Academy, Faculty of Electronics and Informatics, Bucharest, Romania
*Corresponding author (E-mail: andreikovacs@mta.ro)
Abstract – This paper refers to a detailed analysis on the
design and implementation of 4x1 and 8x1 microstrip patch
antenna (array) of given specifications using IE3D software and a
dielectric material FR4 with dielectric substrate permittivity of
4.28, tangent loss of 0.002 and height of 1.6 mm. The microstrip
patch antenna array is designed for WLAN applications, at an
operating frequency of 2.4 GHz with microstrip line feed and
power dividers.
Keywords - microstrip antenna; microstrip antenna arrays;
antenna; simulation; microstrip line feed.

are usually in the range of 2.2<Er<12 . The most popular
models for the analysis of microstrip patch antennas are the
transmission line model, cavity model and full wave model.
The transmission line model is the simplest of all and it gives
good physical insight but it is less accurate [4].

I. INTRODUCTION
As an interface between the transmitter/receiver and the
propagation media, antenna is an essential part of any wireless
communication (satellites, radars, aviation, medical
applications, ground penetrating radar etc.).
[1] [2] [3] The key features of a microstrip patch antenna are
ease of construction, light weight, low cost, the antenna can
take an arbitrary form of the space that occupies if the
substrate is flexible and the production process has a highly
level of integration, the same circuit can include the microstrip
antenna and also the feeds [3] . These advantages of microstrip
antennas make them popular in many wireless communication
applications such as telemetry and communications, aviation,
naval communications, automatic guidance of intelligent
weaponry, radar, GPS systems. The disadvantages of
microstrip patch antennas are: narrow frequency band with
low efficiency, feeds have high losses and disability to operate
at high power levels of waveguide [3] [4]. Therefore, reliable
solutions must be found to increase bandwidth and to achieve
higher gain.

Figure 1. Geometry of microstrip patch antenna

The width of the microstrip patch antenna was computed with
the following equation [6][7]:
38

where c is the speed of light (3x108 m/s), fr is the operating
frequency of 2.4 GHz and Er is the dielectric permittivity of
4.28.
The length of microstrip patch antenna is given by the
following equations:
1

978-1-4799-2385-4/14/$31.00 ©2014 IEEE

12

3.979

(2)

where Ereff is the effective dielectric constant and h is the
thickness of the dielectric substrate.

II. MICROSTRIP ANTENNA DESIGN
In this paper, the microstrip patch antenna array ( 4x1, 8x1 )
has been designed to operate at a center frequency of 2.4 GHz
with an input impedance of 50 Ω using a dielectric material
FR4 with r = 4.28, tangent loss tgδ=0.002 and thickness (h)
of 1.6 mm. For microstrip antennas, the dielectric constants

(1)

.

0.412

31

.
.

.
.

7.417

(3)

10
(4)

In the equation above ΔL stands for length extension.

39 . the actual length of the microstrip patch antenna is given by: 2 30 (5) III. The designed antenna and its current distribution Furthermore. 2 1 1 31 (8) Figure 3.Therefore. Taking into consideration that one section of the power divider 2 . Figure 4. Frequency characteristic (S11 parameter) Figure 2. to achieve impedance adaptation is equal with with the 50 Ω line feed the impedance of the power divider was calculated : 70. (6) (7) 1 0.123 (12) Figure 6.64 mm. Polar and cartesian plot for the directivity characteristic To compute the distance between the feed and the lower side of the antenna for a given impedance Zin of 50 Ω it was used the equation: 50 300 (11) √ 9. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS For designing the microstrip antenna and the microstrip antenna arrays it has been used Zealand IE3D Software.23 . for an impedance of 70 Ω the following value of w was obtained: w=1.711 (9) Therefore. 3D directivity characteristic for microstrip antenna . To compute the width w of the feed for an impedance Z0 of 50 Ω the following equations were used: 0.063 (10) Figure 5. for achieving impedance adaptation the width of the power divider was also computed. Top view of antenna The effective wave length is given by: 0.

a 28 degrees orientation of the maximum radiation pattern was achieved by modifying the length of the feeds of the array comparing with the sinfazic array. Polar and cartesian plot for the directivity characteristic Concerning the phased array [8] [9]. Figure 14. Implemented sinfazic array . Concerning the main difference between the microstrip patch antenna and the array is that the directive characteristic increases in directivity with the number of antennas. Implemented microstrip patch antenna Figure 10. S11 parameter and VSWR Figure 13. S11 parameter and VSWR Figure 8. a center operating frequency of 2. For implementing the microstrip patch antenna the dielectric material FR4 was used [6].375 GHz was obtained. Designed array and its current distribution Figure 12. Current distribution of the 8x1 array Figure 7. where all the elements are fed with the same amplitude and phase [8]. Figure 11. Polar and cartesian plot for the directivity characteristic Figure 9.For the phased array with 4 antennas. Designed 8x1 array Figure 15.

the measured S11 parameters are almost the same as the simulated parameters: the antenna (-16 dB). The S11 parameter of the antenna (-12 dB) is greater than the S11 parameter of the sinfazic network (-18 dB) and the phased network (-14 dB). Volume 2. Koen W. ISSN. TELSIKS 2001. 2011. IJMER.4 Dubrovnik. Print ISBN: 9781-61284-998-0. 19-21 Sept. No. For X-band Apps. The measured and simulated directive characteristics are almost identical and confirms us that a microstrip patch antenna has a larger directive characteristic than the array. Muhammad Mahfuzul Alam. meaning that there weren’t very high power losses. Concerning VSWR. 2013. IJEIT. Cable and Broadcasting Service. Issue 9. Volume-1. Krishan Kumar Sherdia. ISBN 978-953-6037-58-2 Issue Date: 20-23 Sept. Shihabul Islam.2). Mustafizur Rahman Sonchoy. Design of Reconfigurable Multiband Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Communication. ISSN: 1569-4445.IV. Naresh Kumar Poonia. Smart antennas for wireless communications systems. 2. 2008. Stoica Dan. REFERENCES [1] [2] Figure. Moreover. ``Subsurface imaging using measured near-field antenna footprints''. February 2004. Microstrip Antenna Array for WiMAX & WLAN Applications. 20th International Conference on Applied Electromagnetics and Communications-ICECom 2010. 5th International Conference on Telecommunications in Modern Satellite. a horn antenna used as reference and a power measurement tool . Issue 1. Volume 2. 2010 On page(s): 1 . I. In practice. Issue-1.D. Vivek Sharma. 2. Kamal Hosain. Figure 16. sinfazic array in the horizontal plane The results obtained in simulation proved that the 3dB bandwidth of the microstrip patch antenna is smaller than the 3dB bandwidth of the array (90 MHz and 140 MHz).. September 20-23. Number 1. the antenna doesn’t contain secondary lobes comparing with the array which means that there aren’t power losses.. Facultatea de Electronică i Telecomunica ii. Ion Bogdan. 2001. The horn antenna used as reference 250 200 150 Antena Retea simfazica 100 50 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 Figure 17. In the figure above. Shruti Singh Roy. 2. Vol. CONCLUSIONS The directive characteristic of these microstrip patch antennas were measured using a power generator. and Ioan Nicolaescu. Md. Design and Performance Analysis with Optimum Param. . 2001 Page(s):679 . Near Surface Geophysics. Tanvir Ishtaique-ul Huque. van Dongen. the impedance adaptation between the antenna and the feed line was achieved. therefore. Peter M. pp. S11 Smith Chart of the antenna and the array Priya Upadhyay. the values obtained in each case were between (1. Md. Measured S11 parameter of the array [6] [7] [8] [9] Figure 20.682 vol. Design and Performance Analysis of Microstrip Array Antenna. July 2012. august 2009 Page(s): 1837 – 1842. September 2013. Nicolaescu Ioan. van den Berg. unpublished. Null steering arrays. IJACSA. where it is applied the group directive function. Richa Sharma. IJARCCE. on the Oy axis the power level (W) is represented and on the Ox axis the orientation of the directivity feature ( º ) is represented. Devashri Marotkar. Progress in Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings. Osman Goni. 18 Measured S11 parameter of the antenna [3] [4] [5] Figure 19.2. Nilima Bodhaye. Design of Microstrip Patch Antenna Array for WLAN Application. 31-37. Al-Amin Chowdhury. Croatia. Nicolaescu. Losif. Dubrovnik. Directive characteristic of the antenna vs. pp 1-4. Vol.A. the sinfazic network (-18 dB). “Antene Microstrip – Îndrumar de proiectare”. Vol. 4. F.