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PART III

DYNAMICS OF MACHINES

151

Chapter 11

**Static Force Analysis
**

11.1

**The figure shows four mechanisms and the external forces and torques exerted on or by
**

the mechanisms. Sketch the free-body diagram of each part of each mechanism. Do not

attempt to show the magnitudes of the forces, except roughly, but do sketch them in their

proper locations and directions.

152

11.2

**What moment M12 must be applied to the crank of the mechanism shown if
**

P = 0.9 kN ?

Kinematic analysis:

φ = sin −1 ⎡⎣( r sin θ ) ⎤⎦ = sin −1 ⎡⎣( 75 mm sin105° ) 350 mm ⎤⎦ = 11.95°

04ˆi + 105.978ˆi + 0.207 ( 920 N ) = 190 N ) + 75 mm ( cos105ˆi + sin105ˆj) × ( −900ˆi + 190ˆj N ) = 0 F32 = −F34 = 920 N −0.95° = 323 mm Force analysis: ∑ M Oz = xF14 − M 12 = 0 F14 = M 12 x = 100N ⋅ m 0.978F34 = 0 F14 − 0. P11.07ˆj mm R = 100 mm∠135.207 F34 = 0 ( ) ( ) F34 = 900 N 0.53° = −107.95° from Prob. P11.2.207ˆj = 0 ( −900 N + 0.775ˆi − 43.95° = 1 463 N 11.323 m = 310 N Recall the force polygon on link 4 from Prob. what force P is required to maintain static equilibrium? Kinematic analysis: Recall φ = 11. If M12 = 100 N ⋅ m for the mechanism shown.5kˆ N ⋅ m Ans. Find the frame reactions and torque M12 necessary to maintain equilibrium of the fourbar linkage shown in the figure.75ˆj mm R = 150 mm∠82. P = F14 tan φ = 310 N tan11.2.725ˆi + 148.978ˆi − 0.5kˆ N ⋅ m = 0 11.978 = 920 N F14 = 0.375ˆi + 70.4 Ans.83° = 18.207ˆj = −900ˆi + 190ˆj N ∑M = M 12 + r2 × F32 = M12 M12 + 61.3 M12 = −61. x = r cos θ + cos φ = 75 mm cos105° + 350 mm cos11. Kinematic analysis: R AO2 = 88 mm∠210° = −75.53° = −71.825ˆj mm BA R BO4 = 150 mm∠135.153 Force analysis: P = −900ˆi N ∑ F = P + F14 ˆj + F34 cos φ ˆi − sin φ ˆj = −900 Nˆi + F14ˆj + F34 0.05ˆj mm CO4 .

408kˆ N − m Ans.475ˆi + 144.225ˆi + 68.5 mm∠240° = −43.02ˆj N = 0 M 12 = 26.55ˆi − 370.07ˆj mm ) × ( cos82.94 N∠82.26° = −39.04ˆi + 105.775ˆi − 43.2 N − m − 119.75ˆi − 75.425ˆi + 80.64° = −155.7ˆj mm R DO4 = 175 mm∠152.408 N − m 11.72ˆi + 317.05ˆj mm ) × (311.325 mmF34 ) kˆ = 0 F34 = −372.775ˆj mm R BO4 = 150 mm∠152.02ˆj N F34 = −9.57ˆj N ) + ( −107.83° = −46.375ˆi + 70. What torque must be applied to link 2 of the linkage shown to maintain static equilibrium? Kinematic analysis: R AO2 = 87.425ˆj mm .55ˆi − 370.47 N − m ∑M O2 = M12 + R AO2 × F32 = 0 ( ) ( ) M 12kˆ + −75.925ˆj mm R BA = 150 mm∠105.154 Force analysis: ∑ M O4 = R CO4 × P + R BO4 × F34 = 0 ( −71.75ˆj mm × −46.83°ˆi + sin 82.83°ˆj) F 34 =0 ( −45.64° = −133.5 M12 = 26.

86°ˆj F32 = 0 ( 90 N ⋅ m − 99.23kˆ N − m Ans.26°ˆi + sin105.116 N − m ∑M O2 F34 = −162.666ˆi − 156. Sketch a complete free-body diagram of each link of the linkage shown.925ˆj mm ) × ( cos105.775ˆj mm × −42.225ˆi + 68.26°ˆj) F 34 =0 ( −18.3° = 143ˆi + 140ˆj mm CO4 R DC = 400 mm∠ − 20.375 mmF34 ) kˆ = 0 F34 = −4.640 mmF32 ) kˆ = 0 F32 = 903 N∠ − 4.176 N − m − 110.23 N − m 11.3° = 89ˆi + 87ˆj mm R = 200 mm∠44.86° .6 M12 = 10.155 Force analysis: ∑ M O4 = R DO4 × P + R BO4 × F34 = 0 ( −155.44° = 375ˆi − 140ˆj mm Force analysis: ∑ M O2 = M12 + R AO2 × F32 = 0 ( ) ( ) 90kˆ N ⋅ m + 100ˆj mm × cos− 4.425ˆj mm ) × ( 222.75ˆi − 75.39ˆj N = M12 + R AO2 × F32 = 0 ( ) ( ) M 12kˆ + −43. What force P is necessary for equilibrium? Kinematic analysis: R AO2 = 100 mm∠90° = 100ˆj mm R = 150 mm∠ − 4.109 N∠105.666ˆi + 156.5ˆi N ) + ( −133.39ˆj N = 0 M 12 = 10.425ˆi + 80.86° = 149ˆi − 13ˆj mm BA R BO4 = 125 mm∠44.26° = 42.86°ˆi + sin − 4.

49ˆi + 268.3ˆi + 16.65 mmF34 ) kˆ = 0 =0 F34 = 936.20° = −199.125ˆi + 31. Determine the torque M12 required to drive slider 6 of the figure against a load of P = 445 N at a crank angle of θ = 30° . Kinematic analysis: R AO2 = 63 mm∠30° = 54.65 mm∠73.275ˆj mm ) × ( 445ˆi − 37.4ˆi + 178.37° = 114.58 N − m + 186.56 N .156 ∑M O4 = R BO4 × F34 + R CO4 × F54 = 0 (89ˆi + 87ˆj mm ) × ( cos175.44°ˆi + sin − 20.20°ˆi + sin175.37°ˆj) F 34 ( −177.37° = 53.37°ˆi + sin163.275ˆj mm R CB = 200 mm∠175.996 = 446.20ˆj F56 = 0 ( ) F56 = − P cos175. F56 = 446.725ˆj mm Force analysis: ∑ F = Pˆi + F16ˆj + cos175.4ˆi + 178.45ˆi + 383.14°ˆj) 903 N + (143ˆi + 140ˆj mm ) × ( cos− 20.67 N∠163. or as specified by your instructor.14°ˆi + sin175.56 N∠175.20 = −445 N −0.45ˆi + 383.44°ˆj) F 54 =0 (86 N ⋅ m − 181 mmF54 ) kˆ = 0 ∑ 11.34ˆj N ) + ( 53.34ˆj N ∑M O4 = R BO4 × F54 + R AO4 × F34 = 0 (114.20° = −445ˆi + 37.85ˆj mm ) × ( cos163.44°=44ˆi − 165ˆj N F = Pˆi − 443 Nˆi + 165 Nˆj + F ˆj= 0 P = 443ˆi N 16 Ans.37°= − 897.07ˆj N .7 F54 = 472 N∠ − 20.25ˆj mm R AO4 = 186.85ˆj mm R BO4 = 400 mm∠73.

Then ∑M O4 ( −45kˆ N ⋅ m+350kˆ mmF34θ = 0 ∑M A ) ( ) = M14 + R CO4 × F34θ = −45kˆ N ⋅ m+ −114ˆi − 331ˆj mm × cos− 19.07ˆj N = 0 M 12 = 43.22kˆ N − m Ans.125ˆi + 31.22 N − m 11.95°=74ˆi + 215ˆj N . R CA = 700 mm∠ − 46. F43r = 228 N∠70.95°ˆj) F = 0 r 43 −101kˆ N ⋅ m − 41kˆ N ⋅ m+624kˆ mmF43r = 0 .06° = 278ˆi − 288ˆj mm . the force F34 is resolved into radial and transverse components.05°=122ˆi − 42ˆj N θ = R BA × P + R CA × F43 + R CA × F43r = 0 ( 278ˆi − 288ˆj mm ) × ( −350ˆi N ) + ( 486ˆi − 504ˆj mm ) × ( −122ˆi + 42ˆj N ) + ( 486ˆi − 504ˆj mm ) × ( cos 70.06° = 486ˆi − 504ˆj mm Force analysis: Since the lines of action of all constraint forces can not be found from two. Sketch complete free-body diagrams for the illustrated four-bar linkage.05°ˆi + sin − 19.157 ∑M O2 = M12 + R AO2 × F32 = 0 ( ) ( ) M 12kˆ + 54.05°ˆj F34θ = 0 F34θ = 129 N∠ − 19.8 M12 = 43.49ˆi − 268.05° = −114ˆi − 331ˆj mm R BA = 400 mm∠ − 46.and threeforce members.25ˆj mm × 897. F34r and F34θ . What torque M12 must be applied to 2 to maintain static equilibrium at the position shown? Kinematic analysis: R AO2 = 200 mm∠60° = 100ˆi + 173ˆj mm R CO4 = 350 mm∠ − 109.95°ˆi + sin 70.

15ˆj mm ) × ( −858.66°ˆj) F = 0 θ 34 .075ˆi + 198.275ˆi + 174. F =398ˆi − 257ˆj N = 474 N∠ − 32.34° = 17. Kinematic analysis: R AO2 = 100 mm∠30° = 86.9 Ans.775ˆj mm R BA = 350 mm∠67.775ˆj mm ) × ( cos − 5.85ˆi + 231.2ˆi + 324.675ˆi + 248.55 N ⋅ m 11.675ˆi + 248.6ˆi + 50ˆj mm R CO4 = 250 mm∠84. Find the magnitude and direction of the moment that must be applied to link 2 to drive the linkage against the forces shown.81° = 132.34° = 24.275ˆi + 174.85° ∑M 23 O2 = M12 + R AO2 × F32 = 0 ( ) ( 23 ) M 12kˆ + 100ˆi + 173ˆj mm × −398ˆi + 257ˆj N = 0 M12 = −94.775ˆj mm R = 175 mm∠84.075ˆj mm R CA = 350 mm∠34.55kˆ N ⋅ m M 12 = −94.61° = 288.15ˆj mm DO4 Force analysis: Since the lines of action of all constraint forces can not be found from two. F34r and F34θ .66°ˆi + sin − 5.158 θ F43 = F43r + F43 = −48ˆi + 257ˆj N = 261 N∠100.and threeforce members. the force F34 is resolved into radial and transverse components. Then ∑M O4 = R DO4 × PD + R CO4 × F34θ = 0 (17.4ˆj N ) + ( 24. ∑ F = F43r + F43θ + P + F23 = 0 74ˆi + 215ˆj N − 122ˆi + 42ˆj N − 350ˆi N + F = 0 . Sketch free-body diagrams of each link and show all the forces acting.58° Now the lines of action for other forces may be found as shown.

56° = −113ˆi + 165ˆj mm R = 300 mm∠42.075ˆi + 198.3∠ − 125.66°ˆj) F = 0 r 43 146.1 N∠ − 5.00° = 192ˆi + 55ˆj mm BA R CO4 = 200 mm∠124.775ˆj mm ) × ( −609.65ˆj N 43 θ F43 = F43r + F43 = −712ˆi − 992.65ˆi − 62.35ˆi − 1054.476kˆ N − m Ans. Find the torque that must be applied to link 2 to maintain equilibrium.38° = 222ˆi + 202ˆj mm CA .6ˆi + 50ˆj mm × −1157ˆi − 992.65ˆi + 62. F r = 1059.66° Now the lines of action for other forces may be found as shown. ∑ F = F43r + F43θ + PB + F23 = 0 −102.448kˆ N − m + 141.94kˆ N − m − 249.075kˆ mmF43r = 0 .1 N∠ − 95.075ˆi + 198.66°= − 102.62° ∑M O2 = M12 + R AO2 × F32 = 0 ( ) ( ) M 12kˆ + 86. 23 F23 =1157ˆi + 992.65ˆj N − 609.35ˆj N = 0 M 12 = 28.66°ˆi + sin − 95.35 N∠40.65ˆi + 62.775ˆj mm ) × ( cos − 95.476 N − m M12 = 28.159 155.2ˆi + 324.35ˆj N = 1219.975kˆ mmF34θ = 0 ∑M A F34θ = 614. Kinematic analysis: R AO2 = 75 mm∠ − 30° = 65ˆi − 38ˆj mm R = 200 mm∠16.10 The figure shows a four-bar linkage with external forces applied at points B and C.66°=609. 11.35ˆi − 1054.35ˆj N = 1526.3ˆj N θ = R BA × PB + R CA × F43 + R CA × F43r = 0 (132.3ˆj N − 445ˆi N + F = 0 .363kˆ N − m − 267.3ˆj N ) + ( 288. Draw a free-body diagram of each link and show all the forces acting on each.075ˆj mm ) × ( −445ˆi N ) + ( 288.

5ˆi + 165.775ˆi + 149.57kˆ N ⋅ m Ans. and find the magnitude and the direction of all the forces and moments. F = 927∠124.000kˆ N ⋅ m + 297kˆ mmF43r = 0 .56°ˆj) F = 0 43 87.5ˆi + 165.438kˆ N ⋅ m − 363.160 Force analysis: ∑ M A = R BA × PB + R CA × PC + R CA × F43 = 0 (192ˆi + 55ˆj mm ) × ( −354ˆi + 354ˆj N ) + ( 222ˆi + 202ˆj mm ) × (1 800ˆi N ) + ( 222ˆi + 202ˆj mm ) × ( cos124. 11.35ˆj mm R = 150 mm∠95. F = − 920ˆi − 1 117ˆj N = 1 447 N∠ − 129.85ˆi + 290.23° = −112.57 N ⋅ m M12 = −107.41° = 187.48° 43 23 ∑M O2 = M12 + R AO2 × F32 = 0 ( ) ( ) M 12kˆ + 65ˆi − 38ˆj mm × 920ˆi + 1 117ˆj N = 0 M 12 = −107. Compute the magnitude and direction of the torque that must be applied to link 2 to maintain static equilibrium.375ˆj mm DO4 .35ˆj mm R BA = 350 mm∠55.27° = −13. Kinematic analysis: R AO2 = 100 mm∠180° = −100ˆi mm R CO4 = 200 mm∠124.11 Draw a free-body diagram of each of the members of the mechanism shown in the figure.56° N= − 526ˆi + 763ˆj N 43 ∑F = F + PB + PC + F23 = 0 −526ˆi + 763ˆj N − 354ˆi + 354ˆj N+1 800ˆi N + F23 = 0 .075ˆj mm R CA = 250 mm∠41.56°ˆi + sin124.98° = 195.

8ˆi + 841.075ˆj mm ) × ( −534ˆi N ) + (187.161 Force analysis: Since the lines of action of all constraint forces can not be found from two.8ˆi − 841.428 N − m M12 = −85.8ˆi − 841.85ˆi + 290.73° Ans. 11.77°=387.12 Determine the magnitude and direction of the forces that must be applied to link 2 to maintain static equilibrium.2ˆi + 400.481kˆ N − m − 248.27° F = −F = 551. r 43 34 43 ∑F = F + PD + F14 = 0 17.1 N∠ − 61. Kinematic analysis: R AO2 = 75 mm∠90° = 75ˆj mm R BA R CA = 350 mm∠ − 12.4ˆi − 1241.35ˆj mm ) × ( −404.475ˆi − 100.779kˆ N − m − 200kˆ mmF34θ = 0 ∑M F34θ = 489.5 N∠34.5ˆi + 165.37° = 341.05ˆj N − 694. Ans.77°ˆj) F = 0 r 43 157.05 N∠ − 91.3 N∠ − 55.8ˆi + 841. ∑ F = F43 + PB + F23 = 0 −17.025kˆ mmF43r = 0 F r = 685.35ˆj mm ) × ( cos 34.7 N∠56. Then ∑M O4 = R DO4 × PD + R CO4 × F34θ = 0 ( −13.7 N∠ − 123.05ˆj N − 534ˆi N + F23 = 0 .225ˆj mm .55ˆj N = 1415.15ˆj N 43 θ F43 = F + F43 = −17. Now the lines of action for other forces may be found as shown.21° Ans.9ˆj N ) + (187. ) M 12kˆ + −100ˆi mm × −551.73° 12 ∑M 32 O2 = M12 + R AO2 × F32 = 0 ( ) ( Ans.95ˆi − 275.05ˆj N = 0 M 12 = −85.5ˆj N ) + ( −112.and threeforce members.8ˆi − 841.2ˆi + 400.7 N∠56. Ans.95ˆi + 275.79° Ans.5ˆi + 165.296kˆ N − m + 15.05 N∠88.23°ˆj) F = 0 θ 34 99.375ˆj mm ) × ( −694.05ˆj N = 841.8ˆi − 841.8ˆi + 841.5ˆj N + F14 = 0 .428kˆ N − m Ans.8ˆi + 841.05ˆj N = 841.23°=404.775ˆi + 149.42° 34 14 F32 = −F23 = −551.05ˆj N = 1005. F34r and F34θ .77°ˆi + sin − 55.05ˆj N = 1005. the force F34 is resolved into radial and transverse components. F23 =551.9ˆj N θ = R BA × PB + R CA × F43 + R CA × F43r = 0 A (195.23°ˆi + sin 34.35ˆj mm ) × ( cos − 55.875ˆi − 75ˆj mm = 175 mm∠ − 34.93° = 143. F =676.15ˆi − 565.05ˆj N = 1005.5ˆi + 165. F = −F = 17.

600ˆi + 5.094ˆj m . which corresponds to θ 2 = 49° .39° = 21. B ∑M O2 = M12 + R AO2 × F32 = 0 M 12 = −33.00° = 9.02° M kˆ + 75ˆj mm × −445ˆi + 226.700 m∠49.9kˆ N − m + 350kˆ mmF14 = 0 ∑F = P + PC + F14 + F23 = 0 222. O2 .45ˆj N 32. Kinematic analysis: R AO2 = 14. Other dimensions are given in the figure caption.5ˆj N ) + ( 341.5 m at θ 2 = 49°. B.300 m∠14.739ˆi + 16.269ˆj m R CA = 22. Minimum outreach is 10.300 m∠59. The lifting capacity is 16 T (with 1 T = 1 metric ton =1 000 kg) including the grab which is about 10 T.95ˆj N = 0 12 ( ) ( M12 = −33.225ˆj mm ) × ( 222.45ˆj N + F23 = 0 .644ˆi + 11.162 Force analysis: ∑ M A = R BA × PB + R CA × PC + R CA × F14 = 0 (143. and the moment M12 required.9 N − m F23 =445ˆi − 226. Notice that the photograph shows a counterweight on link 2.500 m∠2.494ˆi + 0.543ˆj m .431kˆ N − m − 33.475ˆi − 100.663ˆj m R BA = 6. The maximum outreach is 30 m. find the bearing reactions at A. and O4 .45 N∠90°=4. For the maximum outreach position and a grab load of 10 T.875ˆi − 75ˆj mm ) × ( ˆj) F = 0 14 F14 = 4.5ˆj N − 445ˆi N + 4. 11. Also shown is a schematic diagram of the crane.875ˆi − 75ˆj mm ) × ( −445ˆi N ) + ( 341.5 N∠ − 27.13 The photograph shows the Figee floating crane with leminscate boom configuration.37° = 6. R BO4 = 19. neglect this weight and also the weights of the members.70° = 9.9kˆ N − m ) Ans.95ˆj N = 498.

163 Force analysis: Note that a metric ton is a unit of mass.100ˆj kN ) = 0 43 F43 = 387∠59.35° = −9.100 kN .471kˆ mF43 − 2 119kˆ kN ⋅ m = 0 .836ˆi + 10. the weight of a metric ton in standard gravity is W = mg = (1 000 kg ) ( 9. ) M 12kˆ + 9.751ˆi + 16.500 m∠3.70°ˆi + sin 59.924ˆj m .644ˆi + 11.14 Repeat Problem 11. 11.81 m/s 2 ) = 9.300 m∠15.70° kN=195ˆi + 334ˆj kN 5.494ˆi + 0. Kinematic analysis: R AO2 = 14. R BO4 = 19.70°=195ˆi + 334ˆj kN Ans. ∑ M A = R BA × F43 + R CA × F = 0 ( 6.432ˆj m R CA = 22.600ˆi + 5.83° = 21.083ˆj m .656ˆj m R BA = 6.810 kN .094ˆj m × −195ˆi − 236ˆj kN = 0 M 12 = −47 kN ⋅ m M12 = −47kˆ kN ⋅ m Ans.486ˆi + 0.700 m∠132.13 for the minimum outreach position.00° = −9. F14 = −F34 = 387 kN∠59.1ˆj kN + F23 = 0 F = − 195ˆi − 236ˆj kN = 307 kN∠ − 129.300 m∠120.81° = 6. Therefore the rated load of the crane is F = 98.59° ∑M O2 = M12 + R AO2 × F32 = 0 ( ) ( Ans.269ˆj m ) × ( cos 59.454ˆi + 6. ∑F = F + F + F23 = 0 195ˆi + 334ˆj kN − 98.70°ˆj) F + ( 21.59° 43 23 F12 = − F32 = − 195ˆi − 236ˆj kN = 307 kN∠ − 129.543ˆj m ) × ( −98.

81 m/s 2 ) = 9.7).35°= − 183ˆi + 312ˆj kN F14 = −F34 = 362 kN∠120.35°= − 183ˆi + 312ˆj kN Ans. .432ˆj m ) × ( cos120.486ˆi + 0.1ˆj kN + F23 = 0 F23 =183ˆi − 214ˆj kN = 282 kN∠ − 49. Since the impending motion VC6 /1 is to the left the friction force f16 = μ c F16n is toward the right. Therefore the rated load of the crane is F = 98. the friction angle is φ = tan −1 ( 0.15 Repeat Problem 11.836ˆi + 10. including friction.810 kN . ) M 12kˆ + −9.454ˆi + 6.35°ˆi + sin120.10 between links 3 and 4.31° . against the load P.164 Force analysis: Note that a metric ton is a unit of mass.31° = −78.100 kN . the total force F16 acts at the angle −90° + 11. ∑F = F + F + F23 = 0 −183ˆi + 312ˆj kN − 98. ∑ M A = R BA × F43 + R CA × F = 0 ( 6.20 between links 1 and 6 and μc = 0. See the figure and solution for Problem P11.815kˆ mF43 − 2 105kˆ kN ⋅ m = 0 F43 = 362 kN∠120.35°ˆj) F + ( 21.7 assuming coefficients of Coulomb friction μc = 0.083ˆj m ) × ( −98.7 for the kinematic and frictionless solution. For friction between links 1 and 6.51° 43 12 ∑M 32 O2 = M12 + R AO2 × F32 = 0 ( ) ( Ans. Also.1ˆj kN ) = 0 43 5. Determine the torque M12 necessary to drive the system.51° F = − F =183ˆi − 214ˆj kN = 282 kN∠ − 49. Therefore.69° .924ˆj m × −183ˆi + 214ˆj kN = 0 M 12 = 109 kN ⋅ m M12 = 109kˆ kN ⋅ m Ans. the weight of a metric ton in standard gravity is W = mg = (1 000 kg ) ( 9. P11.20 ) = 11. since the non-friction normal force F16n is downward (from the solution for Prob. 11.

15 ) = 8. Since the impending motion VC4 /1 is to the right the friction force f14 = μ c F14n is toward the left.66°ˆi + sin157.117 N − m M12 = 48. 11.76 N F56 = 454.66°= − 885.95ˆj N = 500.5ˆj N ) + ( 341.6ˆi − 38ˆj N ) + ( 53.4ˆi + 178.53° = 98. ∑M A = R BA × PB + R CA × PC + R CA × F14 = 0 (143.58ˆi − 363.69°ˆi + sin − 78.42 N∠98.374ˆj N + F23 = 0 . B ∑M O2 = M12 + R AO2 × F32 = 0 M 12 = −33. P11. P11.654ˆi + 4.431kˆ N − m − 33. See the figure and solution for Problem P11.53° . F14 = 4.98° M kˆ + 75ˆj mm × −445. ∑M O4 = R BO4 × F54 + R AO4 × F34 = 0 (114.53°ˆj) F = 0 14 32.94kˆ N − m ) Ans.12 for the kinematic and frictionless solution.654ˆi + 4.725 mmF34 ) kˆ = 0 ∑M O2 F34 = 957.25ˆj mm × 885. Determine the torque M12 necessary to overcome friction. since the non-friction normal force F14n is upward (from the solution for Prob.53° .12).20° F56 = 0 F16 = 38.20° = −452. Since the impending motion VA3 / 4 is upward the friction force f34 = μ c F34n is upward.94ˆj N = 0 M 12 = 48.58ˆi + 363.69°ˆj) F 16 ( ) ˆj + cos175. For friction between links 1 and 4.20° F56 = 0 .7).225ˆj mm ) × ( 222. the friction angle is φ = tan −1 ( 0.71° = 157. Therefore.475ˆi − 100.165 ∑ F = Pˆi + ( cos− 78. Also.37° − 5.19 N∠175.53°ˆi + sin 98.20°ˆi + sin175.176 N − m + 185.6ˆi + 38ˆj N 56 For friction between links 3 and 4. the total force F14 acts at the angle 90° + 8.53°= − 0. and sin − 78.66°ˆj) F 34 ( −180. since the non-friction normal force F34n is toward the left (from the solution for Prob.66° .95kˆ mmF14 = 0 .94 N − m F23 =445. the total force F34 acts at the angle 163.69° F16 + sin175.875ˆi − 75ˆj mm ) × ( −445ˆi N ) + ( 341.10 ) = 5.18 N∠ − 26. . Therefore.45ˆi + 383.71° .125ˆi + 31.45 N∠157.95ˆj N = 0 12 ( ) ( M12 = −33.12 assuming a coefficient of static friction μ = 0. the friction angle is φ = tan −1 ( 0.19 N F = 454.20°ˆj F = 0 56 445 N + cos− 78.117kˆ N − m Ans.69° F16 + cos175.9kˆ N − m + 326.85ˆj mm ) × ( cos157.5ˆj N − 445ˆi N − 0.445ˆi + 226.374ˆj N ∑F = P + PC + F14 + F23 = 0 222.94ˆj N = M12 + R AO2 × F32 = 0 ( =0 ) ( ) M 12kˆ + 54.16 Repeat Problem 11.875ˆi − 75ˆj mm ) × ( cos 98.275ˆj mm ) × ( 452. Also.445ˆi − 226.15 between links 1 and 4.

ω = R2 ω = 36 mm 62.937 kN R3ω3 ( 68 mm )( 33. the gears have module of 4 mm/tooth and 20° pressure angle. N m 34 teeth × 4 mm/tooth N 2 m 18 teeth × 4 mm/tooth = = 36 mm R3 = 3 = = 68 mm 2 2 2 2 ( 600 rev/min )( 2π ) = 62.248 rad/s ccw . gear 3 is an idler.124 rad/s cw ω2 = 3 2 72 mm 60 s/min R3 P (18. pinion 2 is the driver.166 11.43 × 1000 w × (1 N − m) × (1000 mm/m) F23t = = = 5. For each case. sketch the free-body diagram of gear 3 and show all forces acting. For (a) pinion 2 rotates at 600 rev/min and transmits 13.248 rad/s = 47.124 rad/s ) b) R2 = F23 = F23t cos φ = 5497 N cos20° = 5849 N .832 rad/s cw .874 kN Ans. F43 = F23 = 5849 N . pinion 2 rotates at 900 rev/min and transmits 18. F43 = F23 = 6318 N ∑F = F 23 + F43 + F13 = 0 F13 = F23t + F43t = 5937 + 5937 = 11.264 rad/s ) a) R2 = F23 = F23t cos φ = 5937 N cos20° = 6318 N .264 rad/s ccw ω2 = 3 2 60 s/min 68 mm R3 P 13.43 kw to the gearset.832 rad/s = 33.65 kw to the gearset. For (b) and (c). ω = R2 ω = 36 mm 94.65 kw) × (1000 w/kw) × (1 N − m/w) × (1000 mm/m) F23t = = = 5497 N R3ω3 ( 72 mm )( 47. N m 36 teeth × 4 mm/tooth N 2 m 18 teeth × 4 mm/tooth = = 36 mm R3 = 3 = = 72 mm 2 2 2 2 ( 900 rev/min )( 2π ) = 94.17 In each case shown.

6 N∠ − 45° Ans. N m 60 teeth × 5 mm/tooth N 2 m 15 teeth × 5 mm/tooth = = 37. The drive transmits 18. 11.18 A 15-tooth spur pinion has a module of 5 mm/tooth and 20° pressure angle.65 kw.708 rad/s ω2 = 60 s/min R3 150 mm R2 = . rotates at 600 rev/min.5 mm R3 = 3 = = 150 mm 2 2 2 2 ( 600 rev/min )( 2π ) = 62.124 rad/s ) c) R2 = F23 = F23t cos φ = 5497 N cos20° = 5849 N .124 rad/s cw ω2 = 3 2 60 s/min 72 mm R3 (18. N m 36 teeth × 4 mm/tooth N 2 m 18 teeth × 4 mm/tooth = = 36 mm R3 = 3 = = 72 mm 2 2 2 2 ( 900 rev/min )( 2π ) = 94.5 mm ω3 = 2 ω2 = 62. Construct a freebody diagram of each gear showing upon it the tangential and radial components of the forces and their proper directions.248 rad/s ccw . ω = R2 ω = 36 mm 94.65 kw )(1000 w/kw )(1 N − m/w ×1000 mm/m ) = 5497 N P F23t = = R3ω3 ( 75 mm )( 47.167 F13 = − ( F23 + F43 ) ∑F = F 23 + F43 + F13 = 0 = − ( 5849 N∠ − 20° + 5849 N∠110° ) = 4945 N∠225° Ans. and drives a 60-tooth gear. F43 = F23 = 5849 N F13 = − ( F23 + F43 ) ∑F = F 23 + F43 + F13 = 0 = − ( 5849 N∠ − 20° + 5849 N∠ − 70° ) = 10.832 rad/s R 37.248 rad/s = 47.832 rad/s = 15.

73 kw to the double-reduction gear train.17 N R 96 mm 862.168 F32t = P R3ω3 = (18. R2 = N 2 m 16 teeth × 3 mm/tooth N m 64 teeth × 3 mm/tooth = = 24 mm RA = A = = 96 mm 2 2 2 2 N B m 24 teeth × 4 mm/tooth N m 36 teeth × 4 mm/tooth = = 48 mm R4 = A = = 72 mm 2 2 2 2 (1 720 rev/min )( 2π ) = 180.8 N = 1725.6 N F43t = A F23t = 48 mm RB F43 = F43t cos φ = 1836. The distances between centers of the bearings and gears for shaft 3 are shown in the figure.029 rad/s ω2 = 3 2 60 s/min 96 mm RA R 48 mm ω4 = B ω3 = 45.029 rad/s ) F23 = F23t cos φ = 918.73 kw )(1000 w/kw )(1 N − m/w ) × (1000 mm/m ) = 862. F r = F t tan φ = 2880.8 N .65 kw )(1000 w/kw )(1 N − m/w ) × (1000 mm/m ) = 7915 N. ( 96 mm )( 45.8 N 11.029 rad/s = 30.832 rad/s ) F23t = F32t = 7915 N F23r = F32r = 2880.118 rad/s = 45.3 N . Find the magnitude and direction of the radial force that each bearing exerts against the shaft.118 rad/s ω = R2 ω = 24 mm 180.5 mm )( 62. All gears have 20° pressure angle.19 A 16-tooth pinion on shaft 2 rotates at 1 720 rev/min and transmits 3.8 N 32 32 ( 37.020 rad/s R4 72 mm RB = F23t = P RAω3 = ( 3.

35ˆj + 82.2 N∠188.17 N∠20° = 862.72kˆ N − m ) + (150.8ˆi + 314. of course.3 N∠ − 20° = 1725. and.72kˆ N − m ) + ( −288F ˆi + 288F ˆj mm ) = 0 x D y D y D FDx = −1495 N. + FB + FC + FD = 0 (862.42° = −1495ˆi + 445ˆj N Ans.56ˆi − 628ˆj N ) + ( 288kˆ mm ) × ( F ˆi + F ˆj) = 0 ( −15ˆi + 41. All gears in the train are helical.8ˆi + 314.56ˆi − 628ˆj N R B = 48ˆj + 240kˆ mm F = F x ˆi + F y ˆj R =0 C C C C FD = F ˆi + FDy ˆj ∑M R D = 288kˆ mm x D C = R A × FA + R B × FB + R D × FD = 0 ( −96ˆj + 48kˆ mm ) × (862.5 N∠163. .86° = −952. the normal module is 4 mm/tooth for each case.169 Choosing a coordinate system with origin at C as shown we have FA = F23 = 918.03ˆj N ) + (1495ˆi − 445ˆj N ) + F + ( −1495ˆi + 445ˆj N ) = 0 C FC = 961. FDy = 445 N ∑F = F A x D FD = 1557.8ˆi + 314.20 Solve Problem 11.85ˆj N Ans.7ˆi + 414ˆj − 82.17 if each pinion has right-hand helical teeth with a 30° helix angle and a 20° pressure angle.3ˆi − 146. 11.03ˆj lb R A = −96ˆj + 48kˆ mm FB = F43 = 1836.03ˆj N ) + ( 48ˆj + 240kˆ mm ) × (1725.

170 N m 34 teeth × 4 mm/tooth N 2 m 18 teeth × 4 mm/tooth = = 36 mm R3 = 3 = = 68 mm 2 2 2 2 ( 600 rev/min )( 2π ) = 62.59 N .8kˆ N ) − ( 68ˆj mm ) × (5932ˆi + 2493.7 N ( 72 mm )( 47.5ˆj + 3424.5ˆj − 3424.864ˆi N Ans.832 rad/s cw .65 kw )(1000 w/kw ) × (1000 w/kw ×1000 mm/m ) = 5496. F23a = F23t tanψ = ( 5496.124 rad/s ) Since the pressure angles and the helix angle are related by cosψ = tan φn tan φt .8kˆ N ) + M ( 68ˆj mm ) × (5932ˆi − 2493.268 rad/s ) a) R2 = Since the pressure angles and the helix angle are related by cosψ = tan φn tan φt .5 N .832 rad/s = 33.5ˆj − 3424. φt = tan −1 ( tan φn cosψ ) = tan −1 ( tan 20° cos 30° ) = 22.248 rad/s = 47.8 N F = 5932ˆi − 2493.80° F23r = F23t tan φt = ( 5496.80° = 2310.5 N .45ˆi N − m This moment must be supplied by the shaft bearings.5ˆj + 3424.80° = 2493. ω = R2 ω = 36 mm 62. ω = R2 ω = 36 mm 94.5ˆj − 3424.8kˆ N F = 5923ˆi + 2493. 13 =0 13 =0 Ans.8kˆ N 23 43 ∑F = F + F ∑ M =R ˆj × F + F13 = 0 ˆ 23 − R3 j × F43 + M13 = 0 23 43 3 F13 = −11. F23a = F23t tanψ = ( 5932 N ) tan 30° = 3424.7 N ) tan 22.8kˆ N ) − ( 68ˆj mm ) × (5932ˆi + 2493.7 N ) tan 30° = 3173. ( 68ˆj mm ) × (5932ˆi − 2493.80° F23r = F23t tan φt = ( 5932 N ) tan 22.264 rad/s ccw ω2 = 3 2 60 s/min R3 68 mm (13.8kˆ N ) + M M13 = −465.124 rad/s cw ω2 = 3 2 60 s/min R3 72 mm b) R2 = F23t = P R3ω3 = (18.248 rad/s ccw .5ˆj + 3424.42 kw ×1000 w/kw ×1 N − m/w ×1000 mm/m )( 550 ft ⋅ lb/s/hp )(12 in/ft ) = 5932 N P = F23t = R3ω3 ( 68 mm )( 33. N m 36 teeth × 4 mm/tooth N 2 m 18 teeth × 4 mm/tooth = = 36 mm R3 = 3 = = 72 mm 2 2 2 2 ( 900 rev/min )( 2π ) = 94. φt = tan −1 ( tan φn cosψ ) = tan −1 ( tan 20° cos 30° ) = 22.

124 rad/s cw ω2 = 3 2 60 s/min R3 72 mm P (18.11ˆj N Ans. ω = R2 ω = 36 mm 94.7ˆj + 3173.59ˆi − 5496.5kˆ N F43 = −2310.7ˆj + 3173. Ans.59ˆj − 3173.5kˆ N ) + M = 0 13 M13 = 228.7ˆi − 2310. + R3ˆi × F43 + M13 = 0 ( 72ˆj mm ) × (5496.7ˆj + 3173.5kˆ N ) + M = 0 13 M13 = 228.29ˆj N F =F +F +F = 0 ∑ ∑ M =R ˆj × F 23 43 3 23 13 13 Ans.7 N ) tan 22.7 N F23t = R3ω3 ( 72 mm )( 47.5kˆ N F13 = −3186.248 rad/s = 47.49ˆi + 228.49ˆj N − m This moment must be supplied by the shaft bearings.29ˆi + 7807.5kˆ N F43 = 2310. ∑F = F + F ∑ M =R ˆj × F 23 3 + F13 = 0 ˆ 23 + R3 i × F43 + M13 = 0 43 ( 72ˆj mm ) × (5496.59ˆj − 3173.80° F23r = F23t tan φt = ( 5496.59ˆj − 3173. F23a = F23t tanψ = ( 5496.248 rad/s ccw .171 F23 = 5496. Ans.5kˆ N ) + ( 72ˆi mm ) × ( −2310.7ˆi − 2310.7 N ) tan 30° = 3173.5kˆ N F = −7807. N m 36 teeth × 4 mm/tooth N 2 m 18 teeth × 4 mm/tooth = = 36 mm R3 = 3 = = 72 mm 2 2 2 2 ( 900 rev/min )( 2π ) = 94. .65 kw) × (1000 w/kw) × (1 N − m/w) × (1000 mm/m) = = 5496.59ˆj − 3173.11ˆi − 3186.59 N .7ˆi − 2310.124 rad/s ) c) R2 = Since the pressure angles and the helix angle are related by cosψ = tan φn tan φt .59ˆi − 5496.59ˆi + 5496. φt = tan −1 ( tan φn cosψ ) = tan −1 ( tan 20° cos 30° ) = 22.5kˆ N ) + ( −72ˆi mm ) × ( 2310.49ˆi − 228.80° = 2310.59ˆi + 5496.7ˆi − 2310.49ˆj N − m This moment must be supplied by the shaft bearings.5 N F23 = 5496.7ˆj + 3173.

66 N ∑M A = R BA × FB + R PA × F23 + T3 = 0 ( −50kˆ mm ) × ( F ˆi + F ˆj) + (35ˆi − 59kˆ mm ) × ( −180. 11.6ˆj N FA = 218. bearing A takes both thrust load and radial load. 11.9ˆj + 40.018 m = 1111 N F32r = F32t tan φ cos Γ = 180.695ˆi + 259. The teeth are cut with a 20° pressure angle.35ˆj − 182.7kˆ N − m ) = 0 ( −50 mmF ˆi + 50 mmF ˆj) + ( −16.95ˆi − 834. All gears have pressure angles of 20° .375ˆj + 182.7kˆ N − m . Ans.375ˆj + 182.20c. Ans.21 Analyze the gear shaft of Example 11.21kˆ N ) + ( −26. determine the forces that each bearing exert against shaft 4.172 11.95 N F32 = 242.21kˆ N ∑M A 3 3 FB = −37.87° F32r = F32t tan φ cos γ = 242.87ˆi + 1111ˆj + 361. while bearing B takes only radial load.66kˆ N F32a = F32t tan φ sin Γ = 361. F32t = T2 R2 = 26. Shaft 4 is the output of the train and delivers 4.68kˆ N − m ) + T kˆ = 0 x B y B y B x B T3 = −40.7kˆ N − m ) + ( −26. a) Γ = tan −1 ( 32 teeth 16 teeth ) = 63.375 N F32a = F32t tan φ sin γ = 182. If bearing E is to take both thrust load and radial load.87 N F23 = −180.21 N = R BA × FB + R PA × F32 + T2 = 0 (50kˆ mm ) × ( F ˆi + F ˆj) + ( −32ˆi − 20kˆ mm ) × ( 242. The solution is shown in Fig.66kˆ N Ans. Compute the bearing loads for each case.7kˆ N − m ) = 0 x B y B ∑F = F A y B x B + FB + F23 = 0 FB = −17. The diameters of the bevel gears at their large ends are R4 = mN 4 2 = 3 mm/tooth × ( 40 teeth ) 2 = 60 mm R3 = mN 3 2 = 3 mm/tooth× ( 20 teeth ) 2 = 30 mm .45kˆ N Ans.7 N − m 32 mm = 834.87ˆi + 1111ˆj + 361. 11.5 kw to the load at a speed of 370 rev/min.825ˆi − 1370.9ˆj + 26.66kˆ N ) + T kˆ = 0 (50 mmF ˆi − 50 mmF ˆj) + ( 70ˆi − 1. For (a) T2 = −20ˆi N − m and for (b) T2 = −26.8 and find the bearing reactions FC and FD .75ˆj N FA = −222.95ˆi + 0.43° F32t = T2 R2 = 20 N − m/0.23 The figure shows a gear train composed of a pair of helical gears and a pair of straight bevel gears.0ˆj − 361.95ˆi − 834.68kˆ N − m ∑F = F A + FB + F23 = 0 b) γ = tan −1 (18 teeth 24 teeth ) = 36. while bearing F is to take only radial load.22 In each of the bevel gear drives shown in the figure.5ˆi + 1170.8ˆi − 333.

78ˆi + 78.98ˆj + 564. C should be a thrust bearing.46ˆj − 1950kˆ N ) + ( −115.5 kw ×1000 w/kw ×1 N − m/w × 1000 mm/m = = 1950 N F34t = R4.17 N ) tan 20° = 603.21ˆj mm ) × ( 634.96ˆj + 1950kˆ N ) + ( 35ˆi + 22ˆj mm ) × ( −603.avg RS = 1950 N ( 29.78 N = R FE × FF + R PE × F34 + T4 = 0 ( 60ˆi mm ) × ( F ˆj + F kˆ ) + (18ˆi − 59.89ˆi + 957.97kˆ N Ans.89ˆi + 957.92ˆj + 1659. 11.500sin γ = 29.746 rad/s ) F34r = F34t tan φ cos Γ = 317.57° The average pitch radii are R4.500sin Γ = 59.17 N ) tan 30° = 957.34ˆj + 1386.92ˆj + 1659.17 N F23r = F23t tan φ = (1659.78ˆi + 317.78ˆi − 317. Ans.173 Γ = tan −1 ( R4 R3 ) = 63.5ˆi − 4192kˆ N FC = −284.8ˆi − 538.24 Using the data of Problem 11.avg = R3 − 0. Which of these bearings should take the thrust load if the shaft is to be loaded in compression? The pitch radius of the helical gear S is RS = mN S 2 = 2 mm/tooth × 35 teeth 2 = 35 mm F23t = F43t R3.55 mm R3.5ˆi − 58ˆj + 46.78ˆi + 317.192kˆ N FE = 634.43° γ = tan −1 ( R3 R4 ) = 26.23.89 N F = −603.17kˆ N ) = 0 ( 44 mmF ˆi − 44 mmF kˆ ) + (152.46 N F34 = −634. Ans.17kˆ N F23a = F23t tanψ = (1659.5ˆi + 58ˆj − 40kˆ N − m ) + (36. .56ˆj mm ) × ( −634.7ˆj − 31kˆ N − m ) + ( −115.78 mm/35 mm ) = 1659. Ans.55 mm )( 38.avg = R4 − 0.92 N 23 ∑M C = R DC × FD + R PC × F43 + R RC × F23 = 0 ( 44ˆj mm ) × ( F ˆi + F kˆ ) + ( −29.78 mm ω4 = ( 370 rev/min )( 2π ) = 38.45ˆj + 418.78ˆi − 748. find the forces exerted by bearings C and D onto shaft 3.5ˆi + 40.746 rad/s 60 s/min P 4.46ˆj − 1950kˆ N ∑M E F34a = F34t tan φ sin Γ = 634.3kˆ N Since the thrust force is in the −ˆj direction.avgω4 ( 59.5ˆi N − m ) = 0 ( −60 mmF ˆj + 60 mmF kˆ ) + (115.81kˆ N − m ) = 0 x D z D ∑F = F C z D x D + FD + F23 + F43 = 0 FD = 133.5ˆi N − m ) = 0 y F z F z F ∑F = F E y F + FF + F34 = 0 FF = 430.

RP24O4 = 114.174 11.425 mm .64° The first-order kinematic coefficient is θ 4′ = dθ 4 dθ 2 = RP24O2 RP24O4 = 64. Given that the load remains constant at P = 445ˆi N.563 M 14 = RDO4 P sin152.95° x = r cos θ + cos φ = 75 mm cos105° + 350 mm cos11.95° = 68.89 N − m cw )( 0.7. x AO4 = RAO4 cos θ 4 = 63cos θ 2 ⎛ 150 + 63sin θ 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ 63cos θ 2 ⎠ θ 4 = tan −1 ⎜ y AO4 = RAO4 sin θ 4 = 150 + 63sin θ 2 RAO4 = 1056.25 Use the method of virtual work to solve the slider-crank mechanism of Problem 11.26 Use the method of virtual-work to solve the four-bar linkage of Problem 11.36 mm M 12 = Px′ = 900 N ( 68.25 + 750sin θ 2 .563) = 10.95° = 323 mm The first-order kinematic coefficient is x′ = dx dθ = yP24 = x tan φ = 323 mm tan11.07 N − m ccw Ans.64° = 175 mm ( 222.2.425 mm/114. RP24O2 = 64. 11. RDO4 = 175 mm∠152.5 N ) sin152. 11.5 N ⋅ m cw Ans.27 Use the method of virtual work to analyze the crank-shaper linkage of Problem 11.5. find and plot a graph of the crank torque M12 for all positions in the cycle using increments of 30° for the input crank.425 mm .64° = 17. φ = sin −1 ⎡⎣( r sin θ ) ⎤⎦ = sin −1 ⎡⎣( 75 mm sin105° ) 350 mm ⎤⎦ = 11.36 mm ) = 61.425 mm = 0.89 N − m cw M 12 = − M 14 dθ 4 dθ 2 = − M 14θ 4′ = − (17.

41416 -0.57 394.00 -1.175 dθ 4 yP24O4 − 150 = = 1 − 150sin θ 4 RAO4 dθ 2 yP24O4 yP24O4 = RAO4 sin θ 4 θ 4′ = yBC = 200sin θ5 = 400 − 400sin θ 4 θ 5 = sin −1 ( 2 − 2sin θ 4 ) yP46C = yBC ( xC xCB ) = 200sin θ5 ⎡⎣( 200 cos θ5 − 400 cos θ 4 ) ( 200 cos θ 5 ) ⎤⎦ = 200 ( sin θ5 − 2 cos θ 4 tan θ5 ) dxC dθ 4 = yP46O4 = 400 + 200sin θ5 − 400 cos θ 4 tan θ5 M 12 = ( dxC dθ 4 )( dθ 4 dθ 2 ) P Values for one cycle are shown in the following table.88 396.89 -129.35 393.19 26.21 40.5 100.93 -68.14 -73.95 65.62 114.5 189.85 393.29 .80 -8.) θ 4 (deg.24015 0.71429 -0.37 -5.38 73.) dxC dθ 4 (mm) M 12 (N − m) 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 67.5 189.18 26.85 -4.48 333.5 130.14793 -8.04593 0.56 23.00 -5.64 368.5 100.24015 0.04 400 392.65 395.5 206.99 373.63 112.50 67.14793 -0.50 108.85 130.5 212.00 71.15 162. θ 2 (deg.65 -10.00 98.32 -4.29 42.37 -8.49 -8.14793 0.79 400 393.) RAO4 (mm) dθ 4 dθ 2 θ 5 (deg.18 50.32 0.57 53.28197 0.85 -10.5 162.41416 -0.65 50.80 -1.5 0.18 392.09 -6.70 106.15 206.29412 0.05 90.38 162.04593 -0.85 87.37 81.65 0.28197 0.30 90.

θ 3′ = dθ 3 dθ 2 = RP RP23P13 = 75 mm 688 mm = −0.881 mm∠45.153 mm∠34.28 Use the method of virtual work to solve the four-bar linkage of Problem 11.176 The values of M 12 from this table are graphed as follows: 11.1089kˆ × ( 568 mm∠135.67° N ⋅ m+129.940 cos89.881 mm∠45. .56° ) = 30.153 mm∠34.56° N ⋅ m M 12 = 107 N ⋅ m cw Ans.56° ) = 72.33° ) = 61.10.56° 23 P12 R′B = dR B R′C = dR C 2 3 CP13 M 12 = PB iR′B + PC iR′C = ( 500 N∠135° )i( 61.1089 dθ 2 = θ 3′kˆ × R BP13 = −0.1089kˆ × ( 662 mm∠124.33° dθ = θ ′kˆ × R = −0.876 cos 34.33° ) + (1 800 N∠0° )i( 72.

Determine the loads on each of the wheels and the minimum coefficient of static friction between the driving wheels and the road to avoid slipping.1 N 5513.342 Ans. The car wheels are of 325 mm radius. the center of the hitch ball is also 325 mm above the roadway. .4 N∠42.1ˆi N Ans. The solution process and all values are the same until the final step.75ˆj N ∑F = F 13 + F23 + W3 = 0 Ans. 11.30 Repeat Problem 11.29 A car (link 2) which weighs 8900 N is slowly backing a 4450 N trailer (link 3) up a 30° inclined ramp as shown in the figure. and gravity acts vertically downward in the figure.1ˆi + 2914.7 N F 12 ) F12R = 5513. and that the car has front-wheel drive. Assume that there are no brakes applied on the car or on the trailer. The entire solution is identical with that of Problem P11.7ˆj N Ans.29 except that friction force f12 acts on the rear wheel of the car instead of on the front wheel.29 assuming that the car has rear-wheel drive rather than front-wheel drive. For the trailer: R G3 B = 945ˆi + 863.2 N∠120° = −1682. The centers of mass of the car and trailer are located at G2 and G3 .5ˆj N F F = 4921. The weights of the wheels and friction in the bearings are considered negligible.305 μ ≥ f12 F12R = 1682. f12 = 1682.5 N Ans.177 11.41° = 1682.41° ∑ M = 1250 mmF kˆ + R × W = 0 B 13 G3 B 3 F13 = 3364. F23 = 2278. and the trailer wheels have 250 mm radius. Then μ ≥ 0. 12 Ans.1 N 4921. μ ≥ 0.15ˆj mm = 1280 mm∠42. respectively.1ˆi + 1535.25ˆj N For the car: ∑ M P = 2000 mmF12Rkˆ − 800 mm (8900 N ) kˆ + 2900ˆi + 325ˆj mm × F32 = 0 ( ∑F = F F 12 + f 12 ˆi + F12R + F32 = 0 μ ≥ f12 F = 1682.

4θ 2 ) −0. defined by Eq. the instant pictured is at θ 2 = 112.19) with parameters L = 30° . finding M12 as a function of θ2.170 (1 − cos 2.849kˆ N ⋅ m = 0. The moment on link 3 caused by the output load is M13 = R CO3 × FC = (150 mm )( 8 N ) sin − 135°kˆ = −0.31 The low-speed disk cam with oscillating flat-faced follower shown in the figure is driven at a constant shaft speed. The displacement curve for the cam has a full-rise cycloidal motion. L⎛ 2πθ ⎞ 30° ⎛ 112.5° ⎞ y′ = ⎜ 1 − cos ⎟= ⎜1 − cos 2π ⎟ = 0.200 (1 − cos 2. and an equation for the final distance X that is reached when friction no longer allows further movement. Assume a coefficient of static friction of μ between the disk and ground and that all other joints are frictionless.19b). . Assume that the weights of the links are negligible in comparison to F. (5.849kˆ N ⋅ m = 0.4θ 2 ) β⎝ β ⎠ 150° ⎝ 150° ⎠ M12 = − y′M13 = −0.32 Repeat Problem 11.5° . Use the virtual work approach to determine the moment M12 required on the crankshaft at the instant shown to produce this motion. (5.200 β⎝ β ⎠ 150° ⎝ 150° ⎠ From virtual work M12 = − dθ 3 dθ 2 M13 = − y′M13 = −0. and a prime circle radius Ro = 30 mm . Find an equation for the torque T required as a function of the distance X = RCO2 .170kˆ N ⋅ m ( ) Ans.31 for the entire lift portion of the cycle.849kˆ N ⋅ m From Eq. 11. A force F is acting vertically downward on the bar at a distance d from the pivot O2 .4θ 2 ) kˆ N ⋅ m Ans. From Problem P11.33 A disk 3 of radius R is being slowly rolled under a pivoted bar 2 driven by an applied torque T as shown in the figure.849kˆ N ⋅ m 360°θ 2 ⎞ L⎛ 2πθ ⎞ 30° ⎛ ⎜ 1 − cos ⎟= ⎜ 1 − cos ⎟ = 0. A force of FC = 8 N is applied at point C and remains at 45° from the face of the follower as shown.200 (1 − cos 2. β = 30° .178 11.31 M13 = R CO3 × FC = (150 mm )( 8 N ) sin − 135°kˆ = −0. y′ = ( ) 11.200 −0.

Also. for geometric compatibility. R secθ 1 + tan 2 θ 1 =R =R =R +1 sin θ tan θ tan θ tan 2 θ Motion is still possible as long as tan θ ≤ μ . . Therefore.179 d cos θ d = FB X cos θ X Rd T = F23 R sin θ = FB sin θ ∑ MC = 0 X But. ∑M O2 F32 = FB =0 T = FB d sin 2 θ = FB d ( R X ) 2 Ans. or as long as X= X ≥ R 1 μ 2 +1 Ans. R = X sin θ .

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