Quality Concepts

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Quality is perceived differently by different people. Yet, everyone understands what is meant
by “quality.” In a manufactured product, the customer as a user recognizes the quality of fit,
finish, appearance, function, and performance. The quality of service may be rated based on
the degree of satisfaction by the customer receiving the service. The relevant dictionary
meaning of quality is “the degree of excellence.”
Quality is the degree to which performance meets expectations.
The degree to which something meets or exceeds the expectations of its consumers.
The word quality is often used indiscriminately for many different meanings. Quality can be
defined as “fitness for use,” “customer satisfaction,” “doing things right the first time,” or “zero
defects.” These definitions are acceptable because quality can refer to degrees of excellence.
Webster’s dictionary defines quality as “an inherent characteristic, property or attribute.”
In a manufacturing or service environment, there are two major categories of quality: quality of
design and quality of conformance. A poorly designed product will not function properly
regardless of how well it meets its specifications. Conversely, a product that does not conform
to excellent design specifications will not properly perform its intended function.

Quality System:
A quality system is a mechanism that coordinates and maintains the activities needed to ensure
that the characteristics of products, processes or services are within certain bounds. A quality
system involves every part of an organization that directly or indirectly affects these activities.
Typically, the quality system is documented in a quality manual and in the associated
documents that specify procedures and standards.
Basic Elements in a Quality System:
There are three basic elements in a quality system:


Quality Management
Quality Control
Quality Assurance.

Quality Management: Quality management is the means of implementing and carrying out
quality policy. They perform goal planning and manage quality control and quality assurance
activities. Quality management is responsible for seeing that all quality goals and objectives are
implemented and that corrective actions have been achieved. They periodically review the
quality system to ensure effectiveness and to identify and review any deficiencies.

Quality Assurance: The term quality assurance describes all the planned and systematic actions necessary to assure that a product or service will satisfy the specified requirements. For a TQM program to be successful.Quality Control: The term quality control describes a variety of activities. Total Quality Management (TQM) A core definition of total quality management (TQM) describes a management approach to long–term success through customer satisfaction. Crosby. In a TQM effort. products.” The quality assurance function should represent the customer and be independent of the quality control function. processes or services to specifications. Edwards Deming. Deming in Japan in the 1940s. The distinction between quality control and quality assurance is stated in an ANSI/ASQ standard: “Quality control has to do with making quality what it should be. and the culture in which they work. reinforces the importance of superior quality within projects of any size or type and has been making a bit of resurgence since its most recent peak during the 1980s. Usually this takes the form of an independent final inspection. The methods for implementing this approach come from the teachings of such quality leaders as Philip B. The objective of a quality control program is to define a system in which products meet design requirements and checks and feedback for corrective actions and process improvements. Differences between Quality Assurance and Quality Control Quality Assurance is process oriented and focuses on defect prevention. all members of an organization participate in improving processes. They are: . a management concept popularized by W. and quality assurance has to do with making sure quality is what it should be. which is an integral part of the manufacturing operation. Juran.E. and Joseph M. Quality control aims to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance by identifying and helping to eliminate or at least narrow the sources of variation. while quality control is product oriented and focuses on defect identification. Quality control has the same meaning as variation control of product characteristics. W. Kaoru Ishikawa. Quality control activities should also include the selecting and rating of suppliers to ensure that purchased products meet quality requirements. five major things must be in place within an organization. Quality control may also include the review of processes and specifications and make recommendations for their improvement. services. Armand V. It encompasses all techniques and activities of an organization that continuously monitor and improve the conformance of products. The five aspects of Total Quality Management Total Quality Management. Feigenbaum.

this allows for fixes and enhancements to be made almost immediately on the spot. strategic. and the human resources aspects of the organization (and the appropriate senior-management buy-in) in order for an organization to truly reap the rewards of total quality management. the ability to accurately measure and record quality and defects Organizational support for total quality Through continuous improvement. production cycles are short and iterative. managerial involvement and an overall support system for TQM are required for the program to be successful. 4. It is not enough to have only the front-line workers be knowledgeable in the area of total quality management . That is. an organization looking to refine its processes must be aware of the needs of its customers and tie those needs into the refactoring process. Additionally. Finally. . 2. Customer satisfaction is also necessary for a TQM program to work . Continuous improvement Customer satisfaction Managerial involvement Measurability. there must also be an organizational support system in place for the program to work.everyone within the organization must be involved in an implementation of this magnitude. 3.1. there must be a linkage between the TQM program and the financial.obviously. 5. it is not enough to simply improve processes to the point where errors are at an absolute minimum.