The flavonoids have two benzene rings separated by a propane unit and are derived from flavone. They
are generally water-soluble compounds. The more conjugatedcompounds are often brightly colored.
They are generally found in plants as their glycosides, which can complicate structure determinations.
The different classes with in the group are distinguished by additional oxygen-containing heterocyclic
ring and hydroxyl groups. These include the chalcones, flavones, flavonols, flavanones, anthocyanins,
and isoflavones.
Other common flavonoid group include aurones, xanthones, and condensed tannins. The catechinsand
leucoanthocyanidins are structurally similar and only rarely exist as their glycosides. They polymerize to
from condensed tannins, which help give tea its color. They also are sufficiently prevalent to darken the
color of streams and rivers in some woody areas, including the black waters of the okefenokee swamp in
georgia and the suwannee river in georgia and florida.
The flavonnes and flavononols are rare and normally exist as their glycosides. The flavones and flavonols
are the most widely distributed of all the phenolics, the anthocyanins are the common red and rare blue
pigments of flowers petals and can make up as much as 30% of the dry weight of some flowers. The red
pigment of beet ( beta vulgaris) is anthocyanin. The antocyanins exist typically as glycosides. Flavonones
often coexist in plants with their coresponding flavones . the flavone, acacetin, isolated from black
locust (robinia pseudocacia) show anti-inflamatory activity.
Tannins are water-soluble oligomers, rich in phenolic groups, capable of binding or precipitating watersoluble proteins. The tannins, common to vascular plants, exist primarily with in woody tissue but can
also be found in leaves, flowers, or seeds. Plant tissues that are high in tannin content have a highly
bitter taste and are avoided by most feeders. Tannins may be divided into two groups : either
condensed tannins or hydrolyzable tannins. Condensed tannins are formed biosynthetically by the
condensation of flavanols to from polymeric networks. Examples of condensed tannins
(proanthocyanidins). Hydrolyzable tannins are esters of a sugar with one or more
trihydroxybenzenecarboxylic acid ( gallic acid). These materials give insoluble precipitates with albumin,
starch, or gelatin. This reaction with protein is used industrially to convert animal skin into leather
(tanning). Examples of hydrolyzable tannins
The quinones are phenolic compounds that typically from strongly colored pigments covering the entire
visible spectrum. Typically, however, they are found in the internal regions of the plant and thus do not
impart a color to the exterior of the plant. Generally, quinones are derived from benzoquinone,
naphthoquinone, or anthraquinone structures.
Quinones play an important role in the respiration of plants. They act as electron carries that function by
converting between hydroquinones and quinones, thus acting as redox couples.
Hydroquinone (1,4- benzenediol ) appears to play several roles, including chemical defense and leaf
growth reduction. Ubiquinone (coenzime q) specifically serves as an electron carrier on the inner
mitichondrial membrane by transferring electrons in order to complete a proton pump in the respiratory

This makes the quinones important components of most plant respiratory and phtosynthetic electron transfer processes. . Quinones play a key role in photosynthetic membranes.chain. A dual function is ascribed to plastoquinones as they act as both photochemical and non-photochemical quenchers of energy in photosynthetic.