Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control Systems

Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control System
(

)

(chapter)

( )

control

HVAC

ACMV system

control

(ဂ) Control product

(ဃ) Control system

control loop

( ) Control loop

block

control strategy


algorithm

Study Objectives

(chapter)
(

) HVAC system

control system

( ) Open loop control

closed loop control

(ဂ) Two-position ၊ floating

modulating control loop

(ဃ) Modulation control loop
action

Reverse action

( ) Normally Open(NO)
(

Proportional (P)၊ Integral (I)
control loop

( ) Direct action

Normally Closed(NC)

tune

controlled device

Control System

Derivative (D) control

) Controller

၁.၁

?
၍ အဆင္ေျပေခ်ာေမြ႔(

control


control

system
1-1

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems

(condition)

equipment
control

Equipment

control
Control

(current input)

(output device)

(monitor

)

output

control
(speedometer)
(accelerator)
closed-loop manual control
)

Manual

(controller

controller
Closed-loop

control action

process

control

feedback

control

feedback

loop

(operator)

control action
plant

control

(speedometer)


cruise control

automatic control
(manual)

control

Automatic control

control action

control

cruise control panel

cruise controller

(monitor

(accelerator)

)

(desired speed)
“Set Point”

Controller

control loop

set point

(desired speed)

Cruise control system

(set point)


(speed)

Automatic control

(desire result)


HVAC

refrigeration system

control

(speed)
HVAC system

dry bulb

control

(temperature)

(speed)

(temperature)
(speed)

1-2

(major factor)

Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control Systems

(co

(temperature)


၌ peak power output
(speed)

(output)

control

(accelerator)

HVAC system


Peak cooling load

heating load
(actual) cooling/ heat load

system output

control
HVAC system
automatic control

(operator)

(operator cost)
System

(consistent)
(performance)

HVAC system

control

facility

process

environment

occupants)
(productive atmosphere)



HVAC system

(air)

(water)

(movement)

(regulate)

heating၊ cooling

humidification source

(regulate)

control

energy m

Control system

system

(capability)

HVAC function
(safety)

automatic control

function

Safety function

HVAC equipment

equipment

equipment

Safety control function

(overheating)

(freezing)

(high temperature)


၊ fuse

fire protection

(low temperature)

(high pressure)

(low pressure)

over current protection (current

smoke detection

)၊

၁.၂ Control
Automatic control

(device)

space heating system

(device)
combustion rate

(boiler) output
(boiler)

၊ combustion air
1-3

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems

damper

radiator

control

steam heating coil

(manually)

steam radiator

control

Dr.Andrew Ure

thermostat


Thermostat


thermometer

(temperature)

mercury switch



control

contact

complete circuit
(adjust

Mercury switch

)

tube

(mercury)


Refrigeration system

refrigeration

refrigerant

manually control

constant pressure valve(automatic expansion valve)
Control

contact

thermostat

(valves)

low side float

valve

device

damper

၌ fan

pump

(electric circuit)
(Break)

control

control device
Self-powered

high side float ၊
control device

(Make)၊

(external source)

mercury

Mercury thermometer

system

thermostat

control

႔(expansion)

steam

(self-powered)

control device
control

power

process

power

modulating control
compressed air

pneumatic control device

Modulating control

(state)

controlled device
- valve

damper

Pneumatic control

0%

100 %

၃၀%

analog

(modulating)

analog electronic control device
analog solid state (semiconductor) device
function

control
Direct Digital Control (DDC)

control
Modern control system

1-4

control system

(၅)

(၁)

Self-powered controls

(၄) Analog electronic controls

(၂)

Electric controls

(၅) Digital control

(၃)

Pneumatic control

digital

Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control Systems

control system

control system

(၅)

Hybrid control system

temperature control system
control

hardware

(fundamental principle)

(fundamental concept)
(ASHRAE publication - Heat and Cold Mastering the Great Indoor
)

၁-၁ Diagram of control loop

၁.၃ Control Loops
(speed)

control loop
(speedometer)

(speed)

(speed)

(accelerator)

(speed)

(accelerator)

(speed)
(speedometer)

(accelerator)
(accelerator)

decision

controller

(speed)

“Controlled Variable”

(၁-၁)

(engine)

(speedometer)
“Control Point”

“Process Plant”

control system
Control

“Control Variable”

(accelerator)

“Controlled Device”

information

loop

schematic
information

)
(speedometer)

control


(speed)

Sensor

controlled variable

(speed)

Controller

controller

(speed)

point


(instruction)
Controlled device (accelerator)

output


cont


speed set


accelerator

process plant (car engine)
1-5

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems

Control loop

process plant ၊ controlled variable ၊ controller ၊ controlled device၊ set

point ၊ control point

(essential element)

၁-၂ Simple heating system
(၁-၂)

႔(steam)

(hot water)

heating coil

heating source

air-heating system

fan

set point
supply air

controller


(

(temperature)

sensor

႔ ႔

Controller

sensor

(control point)

error

“E

Controller
valve
position

actuator

error

(hot water)

(set point)

set point

control point

Actuator

signal

႔(steam)

information

controller

႔ ႔

sensor

(direct link)
1-6

controller

႔(feed)

“Closed Loop”

controlled variable

sensor

output signal

Open-loop control system

coil

“Feedback Control System”

process plant

Controlled variable

coil

supply air

cycle

sense

“Feedback Control System”

set point

) process plant

system

Controlled device

valve opening

)

Controlled variable

output signal

(heating medium flow rate

sensor

)

controller

controlled device
controlled variable

feedback

(outside air temperature)

႔ ႔

controller

႔ ႔
controller

Open loop control
controller

Controller

႔ Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control Systems outside air temperature (feedback control valve control supply ၊ controller ႔ ႔ ၊ ႔ ႔ air temperature controller (response) control valve Open-loop control valve control variable sense Table 1-1 Control Comparison for Automobile and Heating Term Controller Automobile Heating system Example Example Sensor You Speedometer Definition The device that The device that provides a signal to the provides a signal to controlled device in response to the valve feedback from the sensor Supply air temperature The device that measures the current sensor status of the controlled variable The device that changes the operation of Controlled The accelerator device The control valve the process plant in response to a control signal Controlled variable The car speed Process The car engine plant The supply air The signal that the sensor senses temperature The device that produces the change in The heating coil the controlled variable This is the reference or desired input Input signal Desired speed (set point) Supply air set point that is compared to the controlled variable Open-loop control system end result variable sensed by the controller (indirect connection) outdoor air temperature open-loop control ႔ heating load (presume ႔ ႔ open-loop (performance) HVAC continuous control system Time clock ၊ occupancy sensor ႔ on/off open-loop control control ) ႔ (space temperature) control system ၄ ႔ setpoint closed-loop control ႔ open-loop control continuous control “reset control” Reset control closed-loop 1-7 .

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems ႔ (၁-၃) (outside temperature) water temperature adjust heating supply open-loop control temperature) ( (outside ) (predetermined) schedule open-loop output open-loop output (boiler) set point ၁-၃ Boiler reset control Reset control heating system capacity control loop output (ability) control (second) control loop input “Cascading” control loop controlled device essential element process plant ႔ ႔ ႔ sensor ၊ controller ၊ control system ႔ system ႔ sensor ႔ humidistat elementary control loop controller Sensor (complex) package controller “stat” pressurestat ႔ Stat .thermostat ၊ sensor controller ႔ (enclosure) Stat water controlled device control device ) stat ႔ control damper (air flow ႔ (temperature)၊ Hydronic heating system controlled variable variable 1-8 ) sensor (humidity) ၊ cooling system (temperature)၊ (velocity) hot ႔ Sensor (pressure) ႔ (pressure) ၊ (measurement) accuracy control ႔ ႔ Controlled variable (velocity) control valve (steam accuracy (accuracy) (၃) control ႔ .

၄ Control Modes Closed loop controller controlled variable Controller set point controlled device Output signal ႔ output signal error signal output signal 1-9 .႔ Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control Systems controller controlled device(valve signal (physical force) Actuator damper ႔ device(valve) valve ႔ ႔ damper) actuator ႔ ၊ Actuator controlled “Linkage” control system ၌ (term) (fundamental) Controlled variable : Control (temperature)၊ (pressure)၊ Control point : (flow) (humidity) (velocity) ၊ (condition) ဂ ႔ ၊ (properties) ၊ ၊ control variable ၊ Sensor : Controlled variable sense (existing Sensed variable condition) : Heating coil property process plant ႔ controlled variable output cooling coil controlled variable ၊ : Sensor set point ႔ controlled device ႔ Control loop ၊ control equipment Controller sense sense variable : Valve ၊ damper ႔ Process plant ၊ : Temperature ၊ pressure ၊ humidity closed loop control Controlled device ၊ ႔ signal controller : Sensor ၊ controlled device ၊ process plant controller ႔ control loop Closed-loop : Sensor controlled variable control loop plant open loop ႔ Controlled device process controlled variable (direct impact) controlled variable (property) ႔ ၁.

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems Error ႔ error signal ႔ control point controlled variable set point set point Controller ႔ ႔ control mode ႔ Control mode (၁) Two-position control (၂) Floating control (၃) Modulating control Error signal output signal ႔ ႔ control algorithm (performance) control mode Control mode subcategories (desired result) HVAC system control system controller sensor process plant (response) ႔ (time ႔ (time delay) controller lag) (valve) output signal ႔ (operation ) coil coil ၁-၄ Dead time and time constant sensor duct ႔ (response) sensor ႔ sensing material controller sensor signal ၊ steady state ႔ information update ႔ set point ႔ (time delay) constant time Controlled device device constant 1-10 ႔ process plant system time ႔ controlled (react device ႔ Controller gain gain controller process plant “Controller Gain” controller ႔ “System Time Constant” (short) control system quickly) sensor ႔ controlled Control system performance process plant System gain controller .

a big change in output. 1°F causes controller to request ) only 20% valve opening Full load system gain process plant ႔ full output 50% load controller gain process plant full output process plant required output System gain capacity System gain controller gain ႔ system gain capacity controller gain function load gain(high system gain) (controlled device system ) signal controlled variable system (over Signal output control (၁-၃) outdoor reset system capacity load over capacity (adjust gain time delay (linear relation) controller Tune ႔ (adjust ) control system (non-linear relation)၊ (delay) ႔ (uneven response) hysteresis - (valve) (stem) (delay) Heating coil ၊ ႔ system gain (linear movement) (hot water supply temperature) (air flow) system gain ႔ system control mode control 1-11 . 1°F causes valve 100% 0% controller to request 100% valve opening ) Open valve from zero to 100% for Lower Large change in measured variable required to create a significant change in valve 100% 0% output.႔ Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control Systems Table 1-2 Controller Setting Controller Gain Control Action Higher Small change in measured variable creates Open valve from zero to 100% for a 1°F change in measured.

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems Fan ႔ pump equipment (state) (closed) ႔ (run)၊ Damper ၊ valve state (stop) device Equipment (open)၊ device control two position control HVAC system furnace two-position control system system air conditioner State two-position control heating thermostat (၁-၅) two-position control heating (action) ၁-၅ Two-position control diagram for a heating system Two position control water on/off ႔ open/close heating medium control differential ႔ Control (temperature) control differential valve ႔“ ၁-၆( valve ႔ ” ) Two-position heating control valve (supply air temperature) set point 1-12 differential (temperature) Supply air temperature set point temperature actuator hot (supply air temperature) valve controller ႔ (supply air temperature) ႔ set point Steam heating medium set point “on-point” cycle valve .

႔ Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control Systems (point) Set point + control valve Set point differential “off-point” on-point (point) off-point (mid point) valve set point ႔ two position thermostat ၊ set point ၌ (adjust) (overshoot) Overshoot (၁-၆) (undershoot) undershoot ႔ operation differential controlled variable Operating differential ႔ maximum temperature control differential anticipation device ႔ thermal lag operating differential Resistance heater ၊ sensor (space temperature) control Cooling ႔ Cooling sensor cooling coil differential heat temperature sensor false reading ႔ control differential heater Overshoot differential ႔ Single zone heating thermostat anticipatory ႔ HVAC system (natural time delay) ႔ minimum temperature operating anticipation device signal (supply air temperature) set point ႔ ၁-၆( ) Temperature versus time for Two-position cooling control 1-13 .

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၁-၇ Control differential ႔ anticipation device ( ႔ ၊ control differential set point (undershoot) (overshoot) (temperature fluctuation) (desired condition) ႔ ႔ ၊ set point ႔ Control differential control ႔ control differential Short-cycling valve (open) (close)၊ equipment - heating (on)၊ cooling system (off) efficient Two position control ၊ short-cycling control differential Two position control Process plant ႔ Equipment ၊ controlled variable (function) HVAC system capacity set point system gain load control differential Control differential operating differential HVAC system capacity two position control HVAC system Load 1-14 load control (oversize) ႔ (over sized) system capacity control control .

႔ Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control Systems Controlled variable ( set point ) Control differential ( ) System Load Operation differential - system capacity (two position) step control set point system control High-Low-Off step control High fire-Low fire-off ၊ multiple compressor ၊ multi-speed compressor ၊ compressor with cylinder unloading multi-stage refrigeration system ၁-၈( ) stage ) Step control heating system operating position High fire ၊ Low fire controller first step heating first step “ON” capacity 1)set point (stage Two-position control ႔ ႔ (stage 2) set point second heating stage second heating stage “ON” “ON” ၊ “O first heating stage ” two position control operating range Set point ON ႔ Control “ON” control differential (overlap “ON” ( Off control system (stage 1) set point controller Multiple stage multi-speed motor multi-stage gas burner ၁-၈( Multiple stage capacity (multiple steps) capacity Step control ) differential ႔ ) first stage “ON” point overlapping range over all operating short-cycling )၊ stage differential stage operating ( control 1-15 .

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems Floating control – Floating control “ - ႔ modulating ႔ ” system Two position control state ႔ controlled device damper System valve ႔ - ၁-၈( ) Floating control for heating Floating control controller mode (၁) Drive open ( ) (၂) – N ၌ (၃) Drive closed ( Floating control ) two position control floating controller point adjustment ႔ ႔ upper set point ) set point control differential ႔ lower set point Control differential set upper set point lower set point ႔ (differential) ၁-၈(ဂ) Floating control for heating ၁-၈( ) ၁-၈(ဂ) (supply air temperature) differential Valve controller coil ႔ heating medium ) 1-16 ၊ valve ႔ Valve ၊ valve .

႔ Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control Systems (supply air temperature) Supply air temperature differential floating controller valve ႔ (supply air temperature) differential range valve temperature line) floating controller ၊ differential valve (actuator) (upper ႔ coil ႔ (heating (temperature) differential range medium flow rate) ႔ ႔ valve Air temperature differential range f “Floating control” (၁-၉) actuator ႔ controller ႔ Drive signal (close) signal (open) signal Floating control controlled device two position control ႔ ၁-၉ Floating diagram with actuator (fully open)၊ ) ႔ (fully close)၊ (opening % ႔ floating control differential two position control (excessive) short-cycling Two position control differential ႔ ( Time delay controlled device floating control control stability operating differential control ) thermal lag ႔ floating control valve full open ၊ damper (full closed overshoot valve timing full open) overshoot undershoot valve timing ၊ valve two position control control ၌ valve damper ၊ Floating floating control two position control ႔ two position anticipation device floating control (speed) (desired speed) 1-17 .

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems ႔ ႔ ၊ (speed) ၊ (power) ၊ ႔ (accelerator) ၊ ၊ control HVAC system load load ႔ set point controlled variable modulating control two position control accelerator ၊ Floating control ႔ ႔ ႔ modulating control Modulating control “Analog Control” Two position control “Digital Control” Proportional control modulating control controller Proportional control logic function modulating Proportional logic sophisticated algorithm Automatic control ႔ (accelerator) (accelerator) (speed) (accelerator) (speed) (speed) accelerator (accelerator) (speed) (accelerator) ႔ ႔ control system control equation ∫ Vo Vp Error Vp Error 1-18 error Error desired speed (set point) Vp actual speed control loop .

Integral and Derivative control derivative control logic ဂ Proportional Error (၁-၁၀) term(Vp) set point term error (set point) ႔ 1-19 .႔ Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control Systems desired speed(set point) actual speed ႔ Vp Error Desired speed(set point) error actual speed Error Error Vi error (speed ) (speed (accelerator) ) “Integral Term” Error integrate Calculus - Set point average error - (speed) (desired speed) (accelerator) Vd “ ” Calculus Vd set point controlled variable (speed) set point (desired speed) ႔ (approaching) ႔ (speed) ႔ set point (desired speed) ႔ (accelerator) ၁-၁၀ Proportional.

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems Error ႔ controlled variable Integral term(Vi) error set point time – weight average Curve (Area under the Curve.) Derivative term(Vd) (Slope of the error line) Set point error line ႔ ၊ set point Term ႔ ႔ control system (accuracy) equation 1-1 Integral term Derivative term Proportional term ႔ equation 1-2 V (desired controller speed) ႔ set point accelerator Proportional only control logic (mathematics Proportional control Pneumatic thermostat electric controller ၊ pneumatic controller ႔၌ Proportional gain တစ္ခုတည္းသာ ပါသည့္ (Proportional only) control logic (၁-၁၁) equipment ႔ Proportional only system ႔ ႔ ႔ point System Set undershoot undershoot set point ႔ controlled variable set point error “offset” “Droop” steady-state offset Continuous offset Proportion control Proportional only control Proportional control ႔ load ႔ Equation 1-2 controlled variable droop ႔ Proportional logic (heating) coil coil set point heating coil control load ႔ equation 1-2 set point offset steady load heating (flow rate) (valve opening %) controller output signal Output V controlled variable ႔ error second term V0 (flow rate) 1-20 set point timer delay overshoot signal set point (response) ႔ medium analog control signal o V0 load V0 adjust ႔ offset .

႔ Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control Systems V0 Load (flow rate) (flow rate) valve ႔ V V zero equation 1-2 error ႔ signal second term (Non-zero) error Offset offset Kp (offset=function of constant Kp) Kp controller Kp Kp offset Kp system stability Set point controlled variable “Hunting” ၊ signal value system Overreact O error overshoot gain “ Proportional gain device ) Stable control offset valve closed) ႔ load ႔ adjust ၊ ” “P Gain” damper Throttling range ႔ controlled (full open) (fully ႔ ၁-၁၁ Proportional-only control Throttling range Proportional only logic ၁-၁၂ Proportional Plus Integral control Proportional gain offset Integral logic Integral term Integral term ( ၊ ႔ ႔ Proportional plus Integral(PI) control logic equation 1-3 ႔ (oscillation) Gain error hunting offset ) ႔ ႔ error controlled variable set point offset ႔ 1-21 .

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems (၁-၁၂) ႔ PI control Proportional gain(Kp) Control Integral gain (Ki) gain ႔ sensitivity Proportional control stable control “wind up” logic Tune Wind up Integral term control loop (in operation) controlled device Controlled variable set point Controlled variable ႔ ) Integral term system valve (wrong side) Integral ႔ over shoot term system set point controlled variable ႔ ႔ system “wind up” unstable system controller System system control loop Derivative control Anti-wind up device Analog electric controller anti-wind up algorithm algorithms system integral term PI control analog electric control controller loop ႔ pneumatic control Digital control system (standard) ∫ Equation 1-1 term Derivative (PID) control logic Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative term Integral term (brake) derivative control ႔ ႔ HVAC system ႔ (very fast response) ႔ industrial process derivative control Differential term ႔ ႔ (responses) digital control application derivative function modulating control loop equipment 1-22 capacity PID loop PID logic (accuracy) controlled variable HVAC application tuning control sequence modulating function staged capability real device control Second loop control “ ” virtual output .

႔ Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control Systems ႔ PID logic step control logic differential ( system ) operating differential ၊ - on- pulse width (PWM)” step system Pulse-width modulating off type output control “Pulse-Width Modulation Output step ႔ modulating output Controller pulse length) pulse (A Series of pulses of varying controlled device step motor Control loop control ၊ electric heater output signal Valve control device position (actual position) control system ႔ input control system ႔ ) ႔ position ႔ ႔ control ႔ feedback (feedback (actual position) control pulse ၁-၁၄ Time-proportioning control Controlled device input damper ON-OFF control ၁-၁၃ Pulse-width Modulation device operating PWM device Time-proportioning control PWM ႔ time cycle output on/off pulse Cycle (%) PWM on time off time cycle (ontime) (offtime) ႔ cycle (%) ၁.၅ Gains and Loop Tuning (accelerator) ၊ ၊ ႔ ႔ (accelerator) ၊ ႔ ၊ adjust control loop tune HVAC system Control HVAC system control loop (ware heating coil system (adjust) time constant ႔ house) heating coil controller ႔ controller gain Tune 1-23 .

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၁-၁၅ Proportional control (၁-၁၅) proportional control loop turning gain offset “ G ” oscillation ၁-၁၆ Proportional-integral control (၁-၁၆) Proportional plus Integral(Pl) control loop turning control P Gain(Kp) “ G (၁-၁၇) ” Ki ) HVAC system ႔ 1-24 1.5 oscillation PID control loop tuning control loop P only Set point ႔ ႔ ၊ Heating load cooling load ႔ (response) .

႔ Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control Systems Proportional gain ၊ Integral gain accuracy Derivative gain system stability ႔ curve Loop turning trial-and-error ၁-၁၇ Proportional-integral-derivative control Tune Proportional gain offset ႔ Derivative gain Derivative gain tune PID gain rule-of-thumb (manufacturer) ၊ (recommended value) ႔ tune gain ၊ Control system logging oscillation Trend control system (performance) oscillation ႔ gain ႔ PID (performance) (manufacturer) turning loop turning ႔ digital control system ႔ automatic loop turning software input Proportional control logic relation) process (linear Error operating condition function n manually - characteristic (independent) ႔ PID logic ႔ process operation condition error (zero error) 1-25 .

၆ Control Action control gain Normal Position Control action Direct Action (DA) control action controlled variable Reverse Action (RA) ႔ control direction Control controller output signal direction Direct Action(DA) controlled variable output signal controller Reverse Action(RA) controller Cooling valve - controller controlled variable output signal cooling valve coil (behavior) (discharge air temperature) set point discharge air temperature set point output signal valve ႔ (cold water) signal “Direct Action” Cooling coil Heating valve output signal 1-26 Heating coil - (temperature) heating valve set point coil controller ႔ hot water(steam) .HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems (၁-၂) ႔ heating coil valve ႔ supply temperature characteristic heating coil Valve % ႔ steam ၅၀% hot water (opening) supply air temperature Hot water steam flow rate turn flow control ႔ ႔ flow ႔ turning (response) (precise) control gain ၊ system “ ႔ ) dynamically self-turned capability ” Dynamic self-tuning operating (adjust digital control system N control loop system Dynamically self-tuned condition (response) ႔ (fast responding) manual tuning commissioning - fuzzy logic Fuzzy logic PID control logic Fuzzy logic control action Neural network artificial intelligence operation condition ႔ ႔ self turning technique control system (response) ၁.

႔ Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control Systems Control action (term) variable control direction Two position-action ၊ floating action ၊ modulating Control logic control mode control action Proportional action ၊ Integral action control action ၁-၁၈ Proportional control (၁-၁၈) Proportional control logic direct acting Output signal reverse acting signal ႔ error signal equation 1-2 Slope line (sign) (magnitude) action action Proportion gain Direct action Slop slope sign Reverse slope sign (၁-၁၉) throttling range controlled variable valve full-closed Set point throttling range (၁-၈) set point (၁-၄) ႔ ႔ set point valve full-open controlled variable Two-position floating control Proportional control logic set point (user) ၊ throttling range Damper ၊ valve Normally Closed(NC) position ႔ Set point switch controlled device Normally Open(NO) position Normally Open(NO) “ O ” 1-27 .

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems ႔ Power supply (fail) Fail Open ၁-၁၉ Control Action and Normal Position Damper ၊ valve switch power (electricity power Device normal position ႔ control air-pneumatic normal position device ) ၊ (spring) self power Normally closed damper (spring) actuator power supply actuator damper (spring) Normally open damper ႔ ႔ actuator spring damper spring return damper power supply damper (Stay in the last position.) damper/actuator water ႔ normal position Three-way valve way valve ႔ Normally closed damper ႔ 1-28 Actuator ႔ stream diverting compressed air mixing steam ႔ Diverting Mixing three .

႔ Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control Systems Three way valve valve port Diverting common port mixing valve Normally open(NO) common port common port Normally closed three way valve common port Three way valve Normally Closed (NO) Coil ႔ ၊ controlled device Outdoor air damper Normally Open (NO) normal position ႔ (every day) Normally Closed(NC) ႔ outdoor air damper fan ႔ damper ၊ actuator damper ၊ device power fail-safe position normal position open) ႔ valve Normally Open(NO) (fully closed Fan (fully .outdoor air intake coil ႔ ႔ ႔ power Supply fan ႔ inlet guide vane coil outdoor Normally Closed(NC) damper ႔ inter lock inlet guide Inter lock fan outdoor air damper ႔ control device Control signal position) damper supply fan control signal control action hot water hot water damper ႔ ) Spring return Fail-safe position air intake damper N ႔ ႔ controlled device normal position normal position (normal controller process plant 1-29 .

control loop 100% device control loop gain scale 1-30 1-3 output range 3 psi 13 psi Controlled device .HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems Controller (၁-၂) heating system control valve N action (thermostat) valve O NO Controller normal position ( Valve ႔ ႔ ) control signal ႔( ႔ control signal duct control signal Valve coil (၁-၂) heating coil Open(NO) ႔ ႔ valve hot water flow chilled water coil ႔ control valve Normally controller valve chilled water flow Valve control signal ႔ ႔ controller Table 1-3 Required control action Normal Position Application and Controlled Device NO (Normally Close) NC (Normally Open) Heating valve or damper Direct Action Reverse Action Cooling valve or damper Reverse Action Direct Action Heating cooling application (၁-၃) control action (၁-၁၉) normal position (relationship) control schematic normal position ႔ ႔ device process plant (heating plant plant) Proportion ႔ cooling normal position ႔ controller (conflict) reversing relay control action controller action .Normally Open(NO) heating valve controller reverse acting reversing relay ၁-၇ Control Range Gain adjust equation 1-1 ၊ Error 0% 0% 100% output 3 psi 13 psi Controller device output range control range controller controlled device controlled output 2Vdc 12 Vdc controller “Control range” ႔ output range controller output Pneumatic controller Electric controller controlled device output direct-action loop - controlled device pneumatic controller adjust .

Normally Open(NO) pneumatic control valve valve 3 psi 8 psi 13 psi ႔ control range 3 psi 8 psi 8 psi ၁-၂၀ Sequencing “Control span” control pneumatic control valve controlled device ၊ range control span - control range normal position controller control function (energy valve control range .heating valve control range ၅၀% control range ၁၀၀% over lapping ၀% ၅၀% ၊ cooling valve Heating valve (controller fully code) fully open heating valve Valve ) fully fully ႔ ASHRAE 90.1-2004 overlapping 1-31 .႔ Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control Systems Pneumatic device Control control range range 3 psi device 8 psi fully closed .

......၆ Control Action ၁-၇ Control Range Normal Position ........ 5 ၁.......................၂ Control ? ............................................၈ Control Documentation ၊ Maintenance and Operation Control system sequence drawing ၊ I/O point list ၊ data sheet ၊ device ၊ damper (site plan location) valve schedule ၊ input/output point list control device control remote device drawing (installation) Testing & Commissioning Control system adjustment ႔ (result data) (periodic maintenance)၊ ၊ calibration (semi annual) (quar ASHRAE Standard 62...........................................HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၁...................1-2004 (maintenance) outdoor air damper ၊ actuator ႔ -End – - Contents ၁........................... 30 ၁.. 26 .................. 3 ၁.......................................................................၈ Control Documentation ၊ Maintenance and Operation .........................၅ Gains and Loop Tuning .........၁ Control System ၁........................................................................................................................................................၄ Control Modes ................................... 1 ................................................................၃ Control Loops .. 23 ၁..... 9 ၁....... 32 1-32 ..........................................................................................................................................

၂ Control 3 ၁.၄ Control Modes 9 ၁.႔ Chapter-1 Introduction to HVAC Control Systems INTRODUCTION TO HVAC CONTROL SYSTEM ၁.၁ Control System ? 1 ၁.၃ Control Loops 5 ၁.၆ Control Action 26 Normal Position ၁-၇ Control Range 30 ၁.၈ Control Documentation ၊ Maintenance and Operation 32 1-33 .၅ Gains and Loop Tuning 23 ၁.

႔ Chapter-2 Control Systems for Buildings Chapter-2 Control Systems for Buildings ၂.၁ Modem Control System control system (occupant) HVAC plant control system efficient (operate) HVAC plant (sophisticated) control system control system (energy saving) ႔ (greenhouse gas emission) control system ၁၉၇၀ digital data sequence of number analogue value (transmit) digital data ႔ (communicate) Error detection Direct Digital Controller(DDC) data (numerical message) ႔ data communication Data communication origin device variable destination device (information) ႔ (value) ႔ ႔ data device data communication protocol 2-1 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Central computer (computing power) (sophisticated) consumption monitoring (central function) report printing energy trending Microprocessor (function) monitoring central computer control function Microprocessor Direct Digital Controller(DDC) monitoring control communicating function central computer Digital Controller(DDC) action supervisory controller supervise alarm set point schedule time(operating time) Data communication Direct ႔ Local Area Network (LAN) PC DDC Network (communicate) (operate) Building Management System (BMS) control system control system Building control system communication device control element central controller software controller database Building Management System (BMS) monitor component service system ႔ control device (communicate) (single point) ႔ network ႔ ႔ ႔ (manage) (operation) (information) system (business) process ၂.၂ Sustainable Development and Global Environment UN world mission sustainable development (future generation) (compromising) ႔ (development) (၁) (၂) (၃) (၄) 2-2 (social progress) (environment) (natural resources) ႔ .

႔ Chapter-2 Control Systems for Buildings ၂.၂.lifts and mechanical services ( ) (၁) IT equipment (၂) Industrial process (business) ( ) (actual energy expenditure) (base requirement) (avoidable waste) (၁) Poor time and temperature control of the building interior (၂) Ineffective utilisation of internal heat gains (၃) Plant oversizing (၄) Excessive ventilation (၅) Low operating efficiency of the HVAC system (၆) Poor system design and installation (၇) (၈) Unnecessary use of ႔ - ( )Heating ႔ cooling ႔ optimal start/stop strategy heating occupancy sensor ႔ 2-3 .၁ Energy Efficiency ႆ (building) BAS system (energy) ( ) Building envelope thermal efficiency (၁) Thermal insulation ( ) (၂) Air tightness ( ) (၃) ) ( ) Indoor environment (၁) Temperature schedule (၂) Ventilation needs (၃) Humidity control (၄) Indoor air quality (၅) Lighting requirement (၆) Hot water requirements .

၃ Building Control System Control system controller (element) controlled device(control Sensor controller (temperature) ႔ ႔ (transmit) controlled device Sensor device) (pressure) Controller ႔ (၂-၁) control variable sensor ႔ output signal (value) Controlled device load output ၂-၁ Open loop control system ၂-၂ Feedback in a closed-loop system “Closed Loop Control System” feedback Loop” ႔ “Feedback System” loop ႔ controlled variable control system “Open “Feed Forward System” ၂-၃ Common control system control system closed loop (၂-၃) setpoint heater output Heater output controller point 2-4 ႔ sensor ႔ ႔ Controller output controlled variable set .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ( ) ႔ (operation) ( )Equipment (malfunction) (warning ႔ (monitoring) ႔ ၂.

႔ Chapter-2 Control Systems for Buildings ၂-၄ System using heating coil ၂-၅ Air Handling Unit’ Controlled device ႔ (operation) controller Weather compensator sensor (value) measured variable open loop Proportional control heating system (temperature) control system control ႔ (temperature) Control loop input signal output signal Control loop control sequence ၂-၆ RTD Controller valve input output control control system ႔ control system System interlock variable interlock Open/Close Input(DI) alve Input Binary Input(BI) output Binary Output(BO) system On/Off ႔ Digital Digital Output(DO) 2-5 .

၄ Control Modes (၂-၆) closed loop system Control system ႔ (respond) controlled variable Mode” “Control control ႔ control (control mode) control mode ၂.၁ Two Position (ON/OFF) Control Two position control mode (minimum) output open/close ႔ ႔ ႔ controlled variable Controlled device ) valve sensor output 2-6 On/Off set point ) Heating (maximum) output output Control system (desired temperature) ( control device ( (space set point temperature) .၄.Thermostat Thermistor Controller Valve and actuator ၂-၇ Control system component ၂.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems Control system ႔ component component .

Chapter-2 Control Systems for Buildings

Heating control

set point

Cooling control

Heating valve
(
temperature)

(

)

set point

(switch off)
) differential

(space temperature)

set point

controller

(space

heating valve

output

၂-၈ Two-position(on/off) control
Upper limit
Band”

lower limit

gap

“Differential Gap”

“Differential

American Society of Heating and Air-Conditioning Engineers(ASHRAE)
“Deadband”
Differential gap

deadband

output state

switching

Heating valve
radiator

(hot water)

Two position control

(temperature swing)
(desired temperature)

set point

Heating load
Heating load

set point

(mean temperature)

set point

(mean temperature)
2-7

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems

set point

(peak space temperature)
“Swing”

“Operation Differential”

Differential


thermostat

two position controller

accelerator heater

Thermostat

operation differential

heater

thermostat

load

Power

parallel

thermostat

operating

differential
(mean temperature)
Proportional control

Set point

load error

Accelerated thermostat

pseudo-proportional

၂-၉ Floating control
၂.၄.၂ Floating Control
Floating control

two position control

Controlled device
output

Three position

tristate control

hotwater

(flow)

Controller
႔ (close position)
Signal

႔(open position)

valve

Within natural zone

2-8

output signal

Cooling Valve
(shut)
(hold)

controller

tristate control

Heating Valve

Above upper limit

Below lower limit

valve


three position

Temperature

control

(open)

(open)

(hold current positioin)

(shut)

Chapter-2 Control Systems for Buildings

(၂-၉)

floating control

(floating control mode)

upper temperature limit

controller

Valve

valve

,


upper limit

valve

controller

natural

hold signal

upper limit

zone

upper

limit

controller

lower limit
low

signal

limit

valve

actuator

႔ ႔
System

controlled

(fully open)

device

(fully closed position)

Load

two position control
-

Sensor

(immediately downstream)

downstream

floating control

- control damper

coil
Long lead time
natural zone

system

floating control

controlled variable

actuator

disturbance

correction

Integral control

၂.၄.၃ Proportional Control
Proportional control
controlled

device

(variable)

output

controller


Setpoint

measured variable

error

)
controlled device
System

Error signal
output

load

output

(controller
controlled variable

) set point

offset

၂-၁၀ Proportional control showing steady-state conditions
(၂-၁၀)

Proportional control

Controlled variable

controller output
offset

Set point

Tc

Proportional control
System load
(၂-၁၁)

steady-state

heating system
“Throttling range”

steady state condition

load error

offset

offset
Proportional control output
Steady state

0%

control point

100%
equilibrium
2-9

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems

set point

Offset

load

heating load

၂-၁၁ Proportional control loop (cooling system)

၂-၁၂

Proportional controller

Proportional band

control

(unit)

pascal

control

(Pressure)

scale range

Proportional band

0°C

control

Proportional band

2-10

Proportional band

control

Proportional band

control scale range

80

Proportional band

25%

width

Physical unit

(Non-dimensional)
Proportional gain

(response)

physical quantity

(Temperature)
°C

Proportional band 50%
controller sensor span

Proportional band
Proportional gain 2

Chapter-2 Control Systems for Buildings

industrial control system

Proportional control

gain

(term)

Proportional band

၂-၁၃ Proportional-Integral control response to load changes
(၂-၁၃)
controller

(၂-၁၄)

Proportional control system

Controlled variable

(value)

steady state offset temperature
Proportional band


gain

Proportional band

control system

Proportional band
Proportional control

control action

on/off control

time proportioning

two position outpu
output

Proportional

On/Off
Control

(on)

(off)

control
40% output

Output device

constant cycle period

cycle time

(၁၀)

control

control device

Cycle time


gain

over all system

(longer response time)

response time
system
2-11

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems

system

two position on/off control

Control

(behavior)
Time

Proportional

(heater)

temperature swing

Proportional control system

control

switching

load error

frequency

disturbance

၂.၄.၄ Integral Control
Integral control
Integral control

PI control

Proportional control

“I control”

Integral control

Integral control

Proportional control

set point
(integrate

Integral control

(deviation)

action

Steady state

set point

offset
PI control

Steady output

PI control

width

(zero

steady state
floating control

2-12

time constant
system

long time constant

control device

Natural zone

) output

Integral control
reaction rate)

System

(response)

Proportional control

control variable

)

၂-၁၄ Integral control

system


system

(over correct or over react)

variable speed actuator

Integral control

(fast

(slow response)

Chapter-2 Control Systems for Buildings

Control response

(variable) rate of change

Controller

variable

Valve

pulse

constant speed actuator

(speed of closure of valve)

speed

Proportional

controlled system

Integral

response

PI control

၂.၄.၅ Proportional Plus Integral (PI) Control
Proportional controller

Integral

HVAC control
offset

load error
PI control

control output

adjust

(deviate)
set point
control

stable control

Proportional

PI control

Set point

Proportional
Proportional band

offset

(zero offset) stable control
controller

Integral
PI control

Integral setting

integral

correction

error
Integral control

Error
integral setting

unit

“reset rate”

Reset rate

PI controller

reset

Integral time

Proportional band

Integral time

Integral time
PI control

(

Integral time

Integral term
Equipment

steady state error

steady state error

integral time

(

Integral time

)

Proportional controller
PI control

control system

output

Proportional controller

time constant

controlled variable

(

(

(

error

“wind up”

(၁) System
(၂) Heating

(၃) Control loop

cooling medium
override


error

Integral action
system
windup

gain
2-13

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems (normal operation) ႔ ႔ control loop ႔ Anti wind up feature Equipment disable (not in operation) ႔ Integral action ႔ ႆ controller disable PI system ႔ Proportional band ၂.၄.၆ Proportional Plus Integral Plus Derivative (PID) Control Derivative action control signal Controlled variable control variable set point control action ႔ derivative action Controlled variable ႔ Inertia (rate of change) set point over s system D ႆ controller ( Measured variable derivative action amplitude Derivative action Proportional Proportional gain ) Proportional gain Integral erratic output Integral gain Derivative steady control PID control Integral zero offset Offset ႔ (respond) ႔ ႔ ႔ PID control disturbance steady state ႔ zero offset load steady control Derivative gain setting control output action PID controller derivative time Process control application (၂-၁၅) PID control derivative time PID controller derivative zero PI action PID control loop ၂-၁၅ P only PI 2-14 HVAC application PID control mode (start up) control variable control behavior .

၇ Cascade Control (Reset Control) (application) submaster controller ) sub system Master controller set point Submaster controller submaster loop controller system control controller (master controller intermediate part control master submaster controller Master controller supply air temperature hot water flow rate supply air set point control control Heating coil Submaster controller hot water modulating valve control (term) control Cascade UK USA Cascade controller master control Control sub master controller Master-slave Cascade control “Reset Control” ႔ Control loop primary.႔ Chapter-2 Control Systems for Buildings ideal characteristic Proportional control set point output Control variable (stabilize) Integral control set point ႔ ႔ ႔ control variable stable operation Derivative control overshoot overshoot control variable set point ၂-၁၆ Room temperature Controller controller set point set point reset supply air temperature Cascade control control ၂.secondary PI control PI control “ ” feedback control loop control system Incoming air temperature hot water temperature ႔ ႔ submaster controller ႔ (response) ႔ heating coil supply air temperature 2-15 .၄.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems set point reset ႔ control Master controller Space temperature reset supply air temperature set point Control loop ၂-၁၇ System supply air set point Integral action ႔ (response) t=0 system dead time valve (space temperature) ႔ (response) Feedback control loop control system control system response (၁) Transport delay (delay) “Distance Velocity Lag” heating medium controlled output ႔ ႔ Heat source controlled space (heat) ႔ “Transport Delay” heating system ႔ (၂) delay “Transfer Lag” Component (၂-၁၇) hot water heating circuit heating coil controller ႔ ႔ (heat transfer) heating coil heating coil supply air supply air sensor valve Hot water sensor system respond ႔ Integral ႔ ႔ floating control control system ႔ Dead (dead time output 2-16 (system ႔ ) ) system controller PI control .

၅ Logic Control Logic control function controller control operation Hysteresis Hysteresis module filter Hysteresis module process (fluctuation) Control variable control system module Averaging ႔ fluctuation Averaging module input ႔ hysteresis (respond) input ႔ (zone) Logic Operator (response) temperature sensor averaging module Logic module ႔ Boolean AND NOT OR logic XOR gate gate software interlock (operate Safety critical interlock interlock 2-17 .႔ Chapter-2 Control Systems for Buildings P band control Proportional control Integral time stable load error ၂-၁၈ PID control mode ၂.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems Look up table Look up table resistance functional relationship Thermistor temperature (conversion up table ႔ linearization ၂. Fan static pressure PI Some applications may require PID Humidity P Possibly PI for tight control Dewpoint P Possibly PI for tight control Static pressure control of supply fan PI Flow tracking control of return fan PI Space temperature control PI Steam heat 2-18 PID .၆ ႔ control element resistance ) look characteristic temperature ႔ conversion Control Mode control mode (၁) accuracy offset (၂) ( load ) (၃) sub system (respond) ႔ speed (၄) start up (situation) ႔ control mode (complicated) control mode control Derivative control set point equipment setup Derivative control HVAC high inertia system approach Overshoot (additional equipment ) Table 2. PID may be required.1 Recommended control modes Application Recommended Notes control mode Space temperature P Mixed air temperature PI Chilled water coil discharge PI temperature Hot water coil discharge temperature PI Air flow PI Use wide Proportional band and short Integral time.

႔ Chapter-2 Control Systems for Buildings ၂.၇ Optimum Start Building control system (function) equipment (shut down) equipment ႔ HVAC equipment (continuous operation) ႔ building) (lightweight thermal inertia (saving) intermittent heating ( cooling ႔ ) Lightweight building (low thermal mass) ( ) Short occupancy period ( ) Over sized plant ႔ Heat output 30kW heating system timer ႔ time switch Optimal start controller ႔ heating system ႔ occupant (comfortable) ) (start too early) occupant (comfortable) ႔ Optimizer start controller (၂-၁၈) period control characteristic heating ႔ ႔ occupied period unoccupied cooling occupied period Optimal start controller (primary function) (internal space temperature) temperature) Optimal stop function ႔ ) cooling heating occupancy period (comfortable) (၁၅) optimal stop ႔ Optimal (energy saving) HVAC system ) (max condition) ႔ system control behavior ႔ ႔ ( ႔ occupant start (external air capacity part load Part load condition design (operate) VAV system (air flow) system gain system stability design flow(max flow) ႔ system gain system system gain 2-19 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၂-၁၉ Optimum start control ၂-၂၀ Weather compensation control characteristic with two adjustable slopes Sampling Time Digital control system 2-20 controlled variable interval sampling time .

၈ Tuning control setting setting (unstable) Controller control loop behavior controller parameter optimum control system performance control parameter setting System Stability ( ) Proportional band ( ) Integral action time ( ) Derivative action time 2-21 .႔ Chapter-2 Control Systems for Buildings Sampling time ( ) Time period required by the A/D converter ( ) Any multiplexing between sensor inputs ( ) Density of traffic on a bus system Sampling time (too fast) BAS/BMS ( system )data data handling handle (changes) Sampling time Detect Equipment ႔ system data information ႔ (performance) Sampling ႔ control evaluate data information information ႔ “Aliasing” sampling frequency Maximum frequency(time max) ’ system time max ႔ equipment component frequency sampling frequencies Theoretical sampling frequencies Disturbance ႔ Control system disturbance ( ) Supply disturbances (Chilled water supply temperature ႔ ) ( ) Demand disturbances (Occupant ) ( ) Set point changes ) (ဃ)Ambient (environmental) variable changes ( ) ၂.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems Tuning ႔ system manual mode ႔ output signal tuning Set point (၁) Process noise Controlled variable (၂) (၃) operating region Control loop turning ( ) On/off controller Proportional controller ( ) Controlled device open ႔ udk operating range Fully fully closed ( ) Cascade control turning submaster (inner) loop turning Primary water circuit turning (ဃ) Proportional action secondary loop controller turning controlled device temperature controller control heating coil operation control cooling coil disable turning Proportional band : Proportional band 50% Integral time : plant output controlled variable Integral time constant open loop time Component time constant actuator sensor ႔ time constant Derivative time : Control loop delay Derivative time Derivative time dead time Sampling time 2-22 : Open loop time constant 25% control loop .

႔ Chapter-2 Control Systems for Buildings Initial controller setting (manufacturer) Common application Table 2. cost and Integrated control system ၂-၂၁ Relative capability and complexity of key control systems (Based on diagram from BSRIA AG 15/2002) -End- 2-23 .၉ Complexity of Control Systems control system Manually control Simple automatic controls Direct Digital Controls (DDC) Building management systems (BMS) Integrated control systems complexity Manually operated controls Increasing capability.2 Typical settings for a PI controller Controlled device Controlled quantity Proportional band Integral time (min) Heating coil Zone temperature 2K 0 Preheat coil Duct temperature 3K 4 Chilled water coil Duct temperature 8K 4 Humidifier Zone RH 15% RH 15 Dehumidifier coil Duct RH 15% RH 4 Thermal wheel Duct air temperature 4K 4 Run around coil Supply air temperature 6K 4 Recirculation damper Mixed air temperature 4K 4 Ventilation supply Zone CO2 concentration 100 ppm 10 Room terminal unit Zone temperature 3K 4 Supply fan Static pressure 1000 Pa 1 ၂.

....၉ Complexity of Control Systems 24 ၂...၁ Two Position (ON/OFF) control 6 ၂...၆ 18 Control Mode 19 ၂..........................၂ Floating control 8 ၂.......၄ Integral control 12 ၂........................၅ Proportional Plus Integral (PI) control 13 ၂........................... 2-24 ...........................................၄ Control Modes 6 ၂...၄..........၇ Cascade Control (Reset Control) 16 ၂................................................. ၂......................၁ Two Position (ON/OFF) Control ...........................................................................၂ Floating Control .........................၄....၄ Control Modes .............................၄..၁ Energy Efficiency ..................................................... ၂. 1 ၂.................၄...... ၂........................၄..........................၄...........၄. 2 ၂................................. 6 ၂.....၇ Optimum Start 20 ၂..............၄ Integral Control ...........၆ Proportional Plus Integral Plus Derivative (PID) control 14 ၂......၂................................၁ Modem Control System ...........၆ Proportional Plus Integral Plus Derivative (PID) Control ........ ၂............................................... 3 ၂......၁ Modem Control System 1 ၂.............................၄................HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Chapter-2 Control Systems for Buildings ၂.............၅ Logic Control ၂..............၄........................................၂ Sustainable Development and Global Environment ......၄.........................................၈ Tuning 23 ၂.................၃ Proportional control 9 ၂................. ၂............၃ Proportional Control ..............................................၅ Proportional Plus Integral (PI) Control ........................................................၄.......................................................၃ Energy Efficiency 3 ၂......၂ Sustainable Development and Global Environment 2 ၂..၄.......၄...................

.....................၇ Optimum Start ...................၆ Control Mode ...............၅ Logic Control ..................................................................... 19 ၂..............................................................၈ Tuning ................၄..................................................................................႔ Chapter-2 Control Systems for Buildings ၂..................... ၂................. 17 ၂.... 21 ၂...... 23 2-25 .............................၇ Cascade Control (Reset Control) .............................................................................. 18 ၂.................................................................................................................................................................၉ Complexity of Control Systems..........

႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers Chapter -3 Sensors and Transducers (measurement) (Direct Method) Direct method (unknown quantity) (Indirect Method) Indirect method (unknown quantity) unknown - quantity (volume flow rate) (cross sectional area) ၏ (velocity) (multiply) ၃.၁ Classification Of Instruments Absolute Instruments ၏ instrument “Absolute Instrument” Secondary Instruments Instrument calibrate calibrate absolute instruments secondary instrument Instrument (၁) ၏ function (Indicating function) (၂) (Recording function) - (၃) Device (Controlling function) 1-1 .

(၂) Control of processes and operation. Sensor control system sensor sensor (sophisticated) ဤ (chapter) building control system Sensor sensor controlled variable ၏ control Operator (monitoring) plant sensor ၏ ၃-၁ Anatomy of a sensor system HVAC (application) sensor Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Monoxide (CO) velocity sensor flow sensor ႔ Relative Humidity dewpoint temperature differential pressure Sensing technology sensor (measured variable) control module process sensor Sensor (function) (၁) Sensing element: (measured variable) sensing element 1-2 Carbon ႔ input .Chilled water flow valve ႔ control supply temperature Measurement system (application) (၁) Monitoring of process and operation.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems . (၃) Experimental engineering analysis.

႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers (၂) Transducer: Sensing element electrical signal active device (၃) Transmitter: ႔ Transducer transducer electrical signal device ႔ control module ႔ ႔ transmitter transducer transmitter transmitter ႔ ႔၏ ႔ “Signal Conditioning” Signal conditioning ၏ (၁) ၤFiltering to remove noise (၂) Averaging over time (၃) Linearization ႔ system sensing element thermocouple controller controller signal conditioning controller module Transmitter Transmitter signal (data) signal device ႔ (device) Transmitter Transmitter milliamp (mA) signal ႔ HVAC 4–20 mA signal Sensor 0–5 volt voltage output ႔ (robust) transmitter ႔ accuracy Sensor sensor interoperability 0–10 volt or 4–20 ႔ ၏ interchangeability control system Interchangeability sensor sensor (physical replacement) Interoperability sensor control system (operability) Sensor repeatability Status installation time durability maintenance sensor “ON” output ႔ accuracy repair/replacement costs precision reliability compatibility binary output(on/off) setpoint ႔ Setpoint “OFF” output 1-3 .

.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems Sensor ႔ mechanical device pressure switches Thermostats ႔ t tu ႔ software interlock sensor ၏ output digital input controller (safety-critical) interlock (hardwired) Sensor ၏ status Software interlock voltage-free contact measured variable ၏ electrical signal input signal Analogue sensor ႔ controller T 2 E ၃-၂( ႔ ႔ control 1 NTC "K2" or "K10" humidistats ) Passive Sensor 1 + 15 V supply 3 temperature 0.1 Standard signals for transmission of sensor readings Signal Application 0–10 V DC Standard for HVAC applications 4–20 mA Common in process control Voltage-free contact For status indication Pulse Energy and flow measurement 4 to 20 mA signal environments (two-wire connection) process control 4 to 20 mA signal Hostile 0–10 V signal ႔ HVAC systems Intelligent sensor (status) control 1-4 digital signal ႔ (measured value) ႔ intelligent device ႔ ႔ ..10 V 4 Com ၃-၂( ) Active Sensor Analogue sensor ( ) Passive devices: Transducer sensing element Signal conditioning device controller resistance type temperature sensor analogue input passive device controller ၏ passive sensor ( ) Active devices: Sensing element signal conditioning active device transducer transmitter Controller ၏ analogue input sensor Transmitter standard electrical signal ႔ passive industry Table 3.1 Table 3.

g.၂ (Definition of Terminology) Ambient Sensor ႔ control system ၏ Attenuation Attenuation signal ၏ magnitude signal strength Calibrate (true value) accuracy ႔ sensor ၏ output uncertainty ႔ calibrate Closed loop Relates to a control loop where the process variable is used to calculate the controller output.႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers Network ႔ device ႔ ႔ intelligent sensor ( ) Checking upper and lower bounds ( ) Calibration and compensation functions (ဂ) Calculating derived values. Range Device operate upper limit lower limit Rangeability Rangeability Control o Reliability Reliability device specification operation ႔ ႔ (operating hours) Resolution Resolution t t Self Heating t t to sensor u Self-heating t Sensitivity input output 1-5 . enthalpy. ၃. e.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Stiction Static friction (resistance to motion Transducer Temperature or pressure physical quantity ၏ resistance change element ႔ volts or millivolts or device transducer Accuracy Accuracy (measurement) accuracy o t (measurement) (amount of error) (true sensor ၏ equipment) repeatability accuracy value) (measurement) ၏ Accuracy linearity hysteresis ႔ (suitability measuring total error in the measurement ႔ Reference accuracy (reference conditions) u (ambient temperature) pressure) (supply voltage) Accuracy error ႔ u t ႔ o t (static to Systematic random errors (imprecision) bias Reporting Accuracy 1-6 pt error (true value) u minimum t (amount of error) accuracy Accuracy u po t u Measured Variable Reported Accuracy Space temperature ±0.0 degrees C [±2 degrees F] Water temperature ±0.G.1 "W.001 "W.G.] Water pressure ±2 percent of full scale *Note 1 Electrical Power 5 percent of reading .] Air pressure (space) ±3 Pa [±0.0 degrees C [±2 degrees F] Outdoor air temperature ±1.5 degrees C (±1 degrees F) Ducted air temperature ±1.5 degrees C [±1 degrees F] Relative humidity ±2 percent RH Water flow ±5 percent of full scale Air flow (terminal) ±10 percent of reading Air flow (measuring stations) ±5 percent of reading Air pressure (ducts) ±25 Pa [±0.

႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers CO Carbon Monoxide ±10 percent of reading 0-300 ppm CO2 Carbon Dioxide ±50 ppm or 3% of reading Note 1: for both absolute and differential pressure ၃-၃ Accuracy terminology Range of Operation operating o op limit ႔ to specification range of operation Range of operation ၏ (excessive errors) Sensor (malfunction) ၏ (permanent damage) range ႔ (manufacturer) (catalogue) range ၏ Budget/Cost Sensor ဂ (allocated budget) specification Hysteresis Device ၏ accuracy previous value direction of variation Hysteresis (true value) (inaccuracy) Previous measurement Linearity Linearity curve Sensor ၏ curve (straight line) (straight line) Instrument (straight line) ႔ po ႔ u linearity linearity Response curve continuous control 1-7 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems application ႔ ႔ signal (straight line) ႔ ၃-၄ Hysteresis linearise ၃-၅ Linearity Repeatability Repeatability (second measurement) (second measurement) (same) input (same) operating condit o u Repeatability Sensor Sensor Repeatability repeatability o to hysteresis control system repeatability ၏ controller controller device ၏ control o deadband ၃-၆ Repeatability ၃-၇ Poor Repeatability Means Poor Accuracy Good Accuracy Repeatability Means Good Good Repeatability Does Not Necessarily Mean Good Accuracy 1-8 - .

Ventilating. 2001–2002) (၃-၂) precise and inaccurate imprecise and relatively accurate ႔ Reliability Realibility device (mathematical po t Response Device ႔ ၏ output u to (respon) o t device ႔ (slow responding) device continuous control application ၃-၉ Typical time response for a system with a step input. ASHRAE Terminology of Heating.႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers ၃-၈ Accuracy and Precision (Hegberg. and Refrigeration (1991) 1-9 . Air Conditioning.

05 K.၃ Sensor Performance Characteristic Sensor ၏ static characteristic characteristic Static Characteristics dynamic characteristic static characteristic Dynamic Characteristics Accuracy Scale range Speed of response Drift Scale span Measuring lag Dead Zone Noise Fidelity Static Error Dead Time Dynamic error Sensitivity Hysteresis. ( ) Hysteresis: the sensor reading may be affected by its past history and speed and direction of change of the measured variable. a measurement range of –50 to 150 ºC would have a step size of 0.e. Reproducibility Linearity Static correction 1-10 . 12-bit into 4096 steps. T u to minimise network traffic. ( ) Sensitivity: this is the smallest change in themeasured variable that can be detected by the system. Stability is likely to be affected by operating conditions. ) Signal conditioning: associated transducers will introduce their own limitations to the accuracy . (ဃ) Stability: sensors may drift with time and require checking. (ဂ) Interacting variables: the condition of the sensormay be affected by other environmental variables. (ဇ) A/D conversion: the discrimination of any analogue to digital conversion will set a limit to the achievable accuracy. an air temperature sensor will be affected by thermal radiation or an RH sensor by local variations in air temperature. o t the measured variable has ‘ t ’ t p only transmit when ‘ t to ’. ၃. ( ) ( Mounting: the mounting and location of the sensor will affect the reading.g.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems (measurement) ( ) ႔ ၏ accuracy Accuracy of the sensing element: the claimed accuracy of the element may not be available over the whole operating range or may be quoted under ideal conditions. Eight-bit conversion divides the range into 256 steps. In the latter case.

၄ Selection Requirements sensor ႔ control system Control system ၏ sensor sensor ႔ control t (early failure) ႔ 1-11 .႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers Actuator Expected Performance Characteristic Sensor Type Expected Response Time Performance Assurance Air Flow Damper 30 second Sensor Feedback Evacuation 60 second Supervised Admittance 1 second Supervised Lighting 100 millisecond Optical Sensing Smoke Control Damper 10 second Supervised Smoke Abatement 60 second Supervised Speed of response Sensor ၏ ႔ (response) (stable) control Speed of response Time constant ၏ ၆၃% (accurate) t t output singal ၏ ၆၃% medium o t time constant ႔ ၃-၁၀ Time Constant Controlled variable ၏ control system ၏ sensor ႔ time constant po Time constant measured variable ၏ short term fluctuation Sensor ၏ time constant control action control system ၏ time lags ၃.

housing and medium Protection Is protection required from a damaging environment? Maintenance Calibration requirements. pipe Housing Accessibility. effect on accuracy and speed Accuracy Accuracy. intelligent Sensed medium Air. Signal conditioning is required for nonlinear sensors Response time: The time taken for the sensor output to change for a given change in the sensor input Accuracy: Sensor (sensor output value) (true value) ႔၏ (error) u Repeatability: Sensor ၏ consistency Interchangeability: R - Ease of calibration: The ease of establishing and maintaining the calibration of a sensor Stability: Sensor ၏ 1-12 t sensor . humidity Location Space. oil Sensed quantity Temperature. resolution.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ sensor (failure) o t t (inaccuracy) ႔ sensor to Table 3. hysteresis. water. repeatability Operating range The range over which the sensor performs accurately Overload range The range to which the sensor may be subjected without damage Response time Affected by sensor. ease of servicing and replacement Interchangeability Can sensor be replaced by another from the same or different manufacturer? Cost Initial cost and total ownership cost over life cycle Sensor selection criteria: Sensor Range: Sensor ၏ accuracy range Sensitivity: Linearity: u o t t Linearity between the change in input variable and the change in output variable. analogue. gas. velocity. duct.2 Sensor requirements Sensor requirement Checklist Type Status. pressure.

02%/°C of reading Thermal zero drift 0.႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers Cost: Consideration of the appropriate cost for the value of information gained from the sensor (manufacturer) pressure transducer ၏ specifications Operation Input range 0–1000 cm H2O Excitation 15 V DC Output range 0–5 V Performance Linearity error 0.15% full-scale operating range Sensitivity error 0.02%/°C full-scale operating range Temperature range 0–50 °C ၃.25% of reading Thermal sensitivity error 0.၅ Classification of Error ၃-၁၁ Effects of random and systematic errors on calibration readings.5% full-scale operating range Hysteresis error Less than 0. Error (၁) Gross Error Gross error ႔ (၂) Systematic Or Cumulative Error ( ) Instrumental error Instrumental error instrument ( ) Enviromental error Measuring device (temperature pressure humidity dust or of external electrostatic or magnetic field) 1-13 .

၆ Temperature Sensors Air-conditioning application o to o ot (temperature) ၏ ႔ Humidity u t 1-14 primary Comfort HVAC application u radiant temperature (temperature) p tu o air velocity ot Temperature sensor .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ (ဂ) Observational Error (၃) Random Or Residual Or Accidental Error Residual error (measurement) ၏ accuracy instrument error (၅) ၃-၁၂ ( ) Hysteresis error ၃-၁၂ ( ) Linearity error ၃-၁၂ (ဂ) Sensitivity error ၃-၁၂ (ဃ) Zero shift (null) error ၃-၁၂ ( ) Repeatability error ၃.

(industrial) temperature sensor Contact Type Non contact Type Thermocouples t T Infrared p tu D t to TD’ Acoustic Thermistors Temperature sensor 15°C 25°C ၏ (application) accuracy 0.၆.႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers ၃-၁၃ Calibration and interpolation for a liquid-in-glass thermometer.၁ Principles of Temperature Measurement Process material (measuring device) ႔ (heat energy) (temperature measurement) ႔ (measuring device) ႔ analog electronic t digital control system t p tu p t t device device (၁) Thermistors (၂) Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) (၃) Integrated circuit (IC) temperature sensors Sensor ႔ u t t ႔ t - t 1-15 .6 specification temperature sensor Chilled water temperature temperature sensor zone air temperature control accuracy 0.25 K ၃.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Bimetal temperature sensor bimetal bimetalli o (metal strip) ဂ (welding) ႔ (different coefficient of expansion) (metal strip) ႔ ႔ control system Two-position electric control small glass switch modulating ႔ spiral bimetal spiral Mercury spiral spiral u bimetal (wind) mercury switch ႔ two-position ႔ (make the circuit) (break the circuit) ၃-၁၄ Expansion thermometry bimetallic temperature sensor ၏ small glass switch po t ႔ ႔ thermostat mercury ၃-၁၅ Mercury switch 1-16 ၃-၁၆ Bimetallic spiral shape t .

၆.၂ Thermocouple RTDs Thermocouple Thermocouple hostile Thermocouple ႔ remote environment “Seebeck effect” (temperature) Thermocouple (dissimilar metal) electromagnetic Iron wire constantan wire (ambient temperature) ႔ (voltage) 3 milli-volts platinum-rhodium (Type S or R) alumel (Type K) copper-constantan (Type T) Thermocouple force junction 100°F thermocouple material junction iron-constantan (Type J) handheld instrument ±0.႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers ၃.5°F ±5°F chromel- ႔ (accuracy) ၃-၁၇ Thermocouples E and K characteristics Thermocouple steady-state ႔ hand-held temperature sensor HVAC application boiler flue ႔ u thermocouple ၏ Table 4-1 (advantage) (disadvantage) thermocouple ၏ measuring circuit ၃-၁၈ Typical thermocouple and extension leads 1-17 ႔ .

millivolts Wide temperature range Limited accuracy for small variations in temperature Inexpensive for lower accuracy Sensitive to electrical noise Wide range of operation Complicated conversion from emf to temperature Robust Small size Accurate for large temperature changes ၃-၂၀ Thermocouples in parallel for average temperature measurement 1-18 .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၃-၁၉ Practical thermocouple circuit ၏ ႔ (volt) Transmitter t linear signal ႔ Digital control system look-up table ႔ exponents software (resistance) thermistor manufacturer coefficients ႔ exponential equation (advantages) (disadvantages) lab o Table 4-2 Table 4-2 Thermocouple – Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages Self-powered Non-linear Simple Reference required for accuracy Rugged Least stable Fast response Least sensitive Wide variety Very weak output.

႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers ၃-၂၁ Two thermocouples used to measure temperature difference ၃.2°F Sensitivity (fast) (detailed response) thermistor (true value) ႔ (၅) 0.05°F (drift) thermistor t calibration t thermistor 1-19 .၃ Thermistors Thermistor semiconductor compound Thermistor ၏ (resistance) (resistance) ၃-၂၂ Thermistor characteristic (၃-၂၂) 77°F axis (resistance) (ratio) Y- Resistance-temperature curve ၏ characteristic o Thermistor ၏ accuracy ±0.5°F ႔ ±0.၆.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၃-၂၃ Mineral insulated thermocouples ၃-၂၄ Variations in thermistor sensor packaging Thermistor resistance versus temperature is highly non-linear and usually has a negative slope. Thermistor thermal resistor Thermistor negative temperature coefficient thermistor ၏ resistor (resistance) Table 4-2 Thermistor – Advantages and Disadvantages (Advantages) (Disadvantages) High resistance change Non-linear Fast response Fragile Two-wire measurement Current source required ၃.၆.၄ Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) (stable) electronic (accuracy) temperature sensor ႔ RTD analog digital control system RTD (resistance) (၃-၂၅) nickel-iron alloys to 1-20 ႔ platinum copper-nickel copper tungsten RTD .

႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers 0°C standard platinum RTDs (resistance) o (low resistance) RTDs (resistance) (resistance) three-wire ႔ four-wire circuit ၃-၂၅ Typical RTD and thermowell construction ၃-၁၅ Thermistor and RTD resistance change with temperature Platinum RTD purity) platinum sensor 100 ohms ±1.0°F accuracy ၏ accuracy .5°F . F (advantages) Table 4-3 1-21 . Thin-film platinum RTD ၏ ႔ electronic o digital control system thermistor Thin-film RTDs ၏ accuracy Platinum (high F (reference resistance) u RTDs ႔ ၏ calibration point t (disadvantages) RTD ±0.

Two-wire .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Table 4-3 RTD – Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages Most stable Expensive Most accurate Current source required Most linear Bulky in size and fragile Good sensitivity Slow thermal response time due to bulk Uses standard copper wire Self heating problems Copp TD’ t o oup t More susceptible to electrical noise Interchangeable More expensive to test and diagnose Transmitter electronic circuit signal ႔ RTD amplifie ၃-၂၇ T to u TD’ signal conditions u T DDC ႔ o oup RTD connection to a Wheatstone Bridge: .Four-wire Two-wire measurement RTD ႔ resistance accuracy true value Three-wire measurement: Three-wire measurement RTD device resistance wire Two-wire device bridge circuit ၏ (bottom half) 1-22 bridge ၏ lead wires Lead (top half) wire .Three-wire .

Four-wire measurement . Eo is the output voltage. By alternating. 1-23 . This level of complexity does make four-wire sensing more expensive. but is then cancelled out by taking the average of the two readings.Switched: three-wire measurement lead resistance One of the limitations with the three-wire measurement. The Four-wire measurement takes both sensing leads into account and alternates the leads into the upper part of the bridge. is that if the lead resistance is not the same or suffer different effects. and RT is the RTD. lead resistance L1 and L2 add directly to RT.Constant Current: Fou - lead resistance o constant current wire voltage drop excitation power ၃-၂၉ 2-wire Wheatstone bridge circuit circuit voltage ၃-၃၀ 3-wire circuit Shown is a 2-wire RTD connected to a typical Wheatstone bridge circuit. the lead resistance is effectively measured in both sensing leads. then the measurement will be erroneous. R1.႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers ၃-၂၈ 3-Wire RTD Configuration for a Digital System Four-wire measurement . In this uncompensated circuit. and R3 are fixed resistors. R2. Es is the supply voltage.

but you should consider using a transmitter in electrically noisy environments.၆. TEMPCO matches RTD leads within 5%.၅ Integrated Circuit Temperature Sensors Integrated Circuit (IC) sensor current source device Semiconductor junction diode Current-voltage voltage source device ၏ current-voltage characteristics (temperature) (linear relationship) IC sensors ၏ ဂ ( (Properties) ) ( ) (ဂ) (ဃ) ( ) BAS 1-24 (relatively cheap) -50 °C 150 °C (relatively fragile) (limited temperature range) stability (poor stability over time) (require an external power supply) (not quite suitable for BAS application) ႔ . L2 and L3 measure the voltage drop across the RTD element. Eo must have high impedance to prevent current flow in the potential leads. L1 and L3 carry the measuring current while L2 acts only as a potential lead. resistance is canceled.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ In this circuit there are three leads coming from the RTD instead of two. ၃-၃၁ 4-wire circuit 4-wire RTD circuit resistances (mismatch) A common version is the constant current circuit shown here. Is drives a precise measuring current through L1 and L4. 4-wire circuits may be usable over a longer distance than 3-wire. This circuit assumes high impedance at Eo and close matching of resistance between wires L2 and L3. No current flows through it while the bridge is in balance. Since L1 and L3 are in separate arms of the bridge. 3 wire circuits can handle wire runs up to 100 feet. ၃. As a rule of thumb.

average sensed temperature Linear Diodes Table 4-4 Linear Diodes – Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages Most linear Use up to 330°F Inexpensive Power supply required.႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers ၃-၃၂ 4. Slow.3: IC sensor output types IC sensor output types: ( ) Voltage output ( ) Current output .000°F accuracy Disadvantages Very low voltage output High sensitivity Very large Non-linear General use resistance Fragile change Self-heating ° < 300 F Response Time Slow to fast depending on wire gauge Fast 1-25 . Limited configurations Semiconductor diode temperature sensor Integrated circuit (IC) solid-state temperature sensor Solid-state sensor Table 4-4 transistor ၏ (advantage) Solid-state sensor ၏ ႔ linear diode calibration (advantages) (disadvantages) sensor (economics) (accuracy) (long-term reliability) Sensor characteristics ႔ Table 4-5 Table 4-5 Temperature Sensors Comparison Type Thermocouple Thermistor Primary Use Advantages Portable units Inexpensive and high Self-powered temperature use for average < 5.minimum sensed temperature (ဂ) Current output . Self-heating.

၆. Not very sensitive.၆ Summary of temperature sensors Sensor type RTD Primary use Advantages General purpose water. rugged. inexpensive (<200OC) ၃-၃၃ C 1-26 t t o T o oup TD’ IC T Not very rugged. prone to applications. low Very linear. high temperature applications output. fragile. steam Thermistor Disadvantages Very accurate.400°F Integrated circuit Long for coil Very accurate General purpose RTD ႔ Very stable Relatively Medium/ fast expensive for foil Short for thin film General purpose Linear output Not rugged Medium / <400°F Relatively limited selection Fast inexpensive ၃. air. self-powered voltage output stack gas IC sensor General purpose. low applications. boilers. interchangeable High sensitivity Very sensitive very sensitive Nonlinear. limited physical configurations to T p tu Sensors . chilled self-heating water metering Thermocouple High temperature Inexpensive. Relatively expensive.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems Interchangeable < 1. not stable.

heating or cooling of junctions Conduction errors Radiation errors ဂ Recovery errors ၂ Effects of plugs and extension wires Nonisothermal connections Loading errors ၃ Ignorance of materials or material changes during measurements Aging following calibration Annealing effects ဂ Cold work hardening ၄ Ground loops ၅ Magnetic field effects ၆ Galvanic error ၇ Reference junction inaccuracies ၃.Conductivity .Chilled mirror -Wet and dry bulb -Electrolysis .၆.Capacitance .Infrared .၇ Moisture Sensors (gases) ႔ (humidity) Dew point (moisture content) (humidity) Relative humidity Absolute humidity ႔ (Humidity) (technologies) Relative Humidity Absolute Humidity Dew Point Measurement -Mechanical -Gravimetry .Wet bulb thermometer -Crystal frequency change .Karl Fischer titration .Neutron reflection 1-27 .Lithium chloride -Surface resistivity devices .႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers ၃.Colour change .၇ Temperature Sensor’ Measuring Errors T . temperature sensor measuring errors Random Errors ၁ Imprecision of readings ၂ Time and spatial variations Systematic Errors ၁ Insertion errors.RF power absorption .

1 Ventilation for Acceptable I oo u t (relative humidity levels) Solid-state technology accuracy accuracy Relative Humidity sensor ႔ calibration ဇ HVAC control system Humidity ႔ ႔ ဇ relative humidity dew-point temperature wet-bulb temperature Relative humidity dry-bulb temperature ၏ Barometric pressure Relative Humidity (RH): Humidity sensor material ၏ hygroscopic material (dimension) hygroscopic material 1-28 Hygroscopic (humidity) ႔ .၇.Nuclear magnetic resonance ၃.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ .Heat of absorption or desorption .၁ Relative Humidity Sensors HVAC system (stable) (humidity measurement) (Accurate) ASHRAE Standard 62.၁ Humidity Sensors Air conditioning (humidity measurement) ႔ t o t o tu ႔ o t to t (nylon) film (expansion) ႔ ႔ o t ႔ to accuracy HVAC application capacitative polymer film sensor sensor Capacitative polymer film sensor Sensing element (netting filter) Low humidities ႔ chilled mirror dewpoint relative humidity membrane ႔ low temperature dewpoint ၃.၇.

၇.၇. 2001) Capacitance-type humidity sensor ၏ electrical capacitance Hygroscopic material (humidity) aluminum oxide Aluminum gold Capacitance ႔ (၃-၃၅) polymer gold ႔ capacitor ၏ plate aluminum oxide layer ႔(water vapor) (very thin layer of gold) ႔(water vapor) Jason-type 85% relative humidity (higher humidity air) ±1% rh RH sensor hygrometer accuracy ±5% RH accuracy ±1% rh accuracy hysteresis 1-29 .၂ Resistance-type humidity sensors Resistance-type humidity sensor hygroscopic material Hygroscopic materials (electrical ၏ resistance) (humidity) ၃-၃၄ Polymer resistance humidity sensor ၃.႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers (animal hair) ႔ (wood) (various fabrics) hygroscopic material Accuracy portable sensor ±5% relative humidity ၃.၃ Capacitance-Type Humidity Sensors ၃-၃၅ 4-19 Thin-film Sensor Example (Hegberg.

၄ Lithium Chloride Dew-point Sensors: Dew-point sensor humidity sensor saturated salt solution (lithium chloride) ႔ Steady state ႔ solution ၏ ႔ ႔ (slow to respond) (low humidity levels) accuracy ၏ dew-point u t Sensor ±2.၅ Chilled-Mirror Dew-point Sensors: -po t light source chamber o - o two photocells (chilled mirror) ႔ source (၃-၃၆) Photocell light reference (chilled photocell mirror) ၏ dew-point o to ႔ photocell t p tu o t o to o TD t ႔ ႔ (scatter) L t ၏ p tu o u condensation ၏ dew-point chilled-mirror sensor humidity sensor (advantages) (၁) Dew-point Temperature 1-30 RH ႔ commercial building relative ႔ .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems calibration uncertainty ႔ ႔ 1% 3%RH ႔ t calibration ၃.၇.၇.5°F ၃-၃၆ Chilled-mirror Dew-point sensor ၃.

႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers (၂) Accuracy ±0.၆ Psychrometers Psychrometer wet-bulb Wet-bulb ၏ဂ dry-bulb humidity dry-bulb psychrometric chart (properties of air) Commercial building psychrometer humidity sensor humidistat relative calibration Sling psychrometer Sling psychrometer (thermometer) (thermometer) ဂ ႔ (thermometer) wet-bulb Wet-bulb RH Dry-bulb dry-bulb Psychrometric chart moisture content (swing) (thermometer) ႔ Advantages of Psychrometers ( ) Physical propertie ( ) Indoor environments (ဂ) wet-bulb recalibration accuracy +5% accuracy (ဃ) Disadvantages ( ) Psychrometric chart psychrometric chart Wet-bulb Dry-bulb (locate) 1-31 .၇.4°F (၃) range (—20 and 80°F dry bulb) Chilled-mirror sensor co t ႔ ၏ dew-point to ႔ ႔ accuracy (filter) chilled-mirror ၃-၃၇ Examples of humidity sensors sensor ၃-၃၆ Sling psychrometer ၃.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ( ) ႔ Duct (ဂ) (low-relative-humidity) (ဃ) (thermometer) ( ) error Contamination error ၃-၃၉ Relative pressure scales. ၃-၄၀ C-shaped Bourdon tube Corrugated diaphragm Bellows Diaphragm Capsule ၃-၄၁ Elastic elements used as pressure sensors. 1-32 .

036 psi (Atmospheric Pressure) (sea barometric pressure) SI ႔ (theoretical IP standard ႔ Torr kPa Inch of Hg M Bar Psia Psig 760 101.၈ Pressure Sensors (pressure) Fluid t ႔၏ ႔ fluid (atmospheric pressure) pipe (atmospheric pressure) ၏ absolute pressure (atmospheric pressure) ႔၏ reference pressure (fluid)၏ Fluid ႔၏ gauge pressure ႔ (atmospheric pressure) .4 29.696 0.92 1000 14.0 psig = psi ၏ ႔ psia = psi ၏ “Gu ႔ psiv = psi ၏ psi level v ႔ ressure” “ bsolute Pressure” (positive pressure) “Vacuum Pressure” (negative pressure) “Differential pressure” Differential pressure pressure (positive pressure) (positive or negative pressure) fluid ၏ ႔ ႔၏ Pressure sensor diaphragm ႔ bellow (force summing element) ႔ reference pressure elastic (spring) structure displacement electrical quantity Pressure sensor pressure transducers (selection criteria) temperature sensor (၅) 1-33 . pou (water pressure) (air pressures) p u pounds per square inch(PSI) gauge pressure inch H2O reference pressure Gauge pressure duct psig u ၏ gauge pressure ႔ p psia ႔ absolute pressure inches of water gauge ႔ t psi t p ou u One 0.႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers ၃.

The wiper moves as a result of force due to pressure. (၄) Piezoelectric transducers These use materials whose electrical characteristics change when they are deformed under pressure.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၃-၄၂ Capacitive pressure transducer ၃-၄၃ Inductive pressure transducer ၃-၄၄ Strain gauge pressure transducer ၃-၄၅ Piezoelectric pressure transducer (၁) Capacitive pressure transducers Capacitor plate plate Capacitance capacitance ၏ oscillator circuit ၏ oscillator frequency Oscillator frequency (၂) Inductive pressure transducers Inductive type pressure transducers induced coil voltages primary coil ac (displacement) (၃) Strain gauge pressure transducers The deformation of a piece of wire subjected to force due to pressure along its length causes a change in wire diameter and hence the wire resistance. crystalline quartz exhibits a change in resistance when subjected to pressure (piezoresistive) (၅) Potentiometric transducers These consist of a 3-terminal resistor with adjustable centre connection in the form of a wiper. Resistance changes are then measured by a suitable bridge circuit. e. and hence pressure measurement is related to the position of the wiper measured as a resistance.g. 1-34 .

၈.၂ Mechanical Pressure Gauges: (၃-၄၆) pressure gauge Bourdon tube Bourdon tube sensing element p tu atmospheric pressure reference Bourdon tube (linkage) Bourdon and spiral tube ဂ (gear) ႔ (indicating pointer) water system 1-35 .႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers ၃.၁ Summary of pressure sensors for BAS applications Sensor type Primary use Advantage Disadvantage Capacitive low-pressure air. high Low accuracy.၈. steam Piezoelectric Potentiometric ၃-၄၆ Potentiometric pressure transducers ၃. Wide pressure Difficult to calibrate sound. duct Cheap Complex signal conditioning Rugged Expensive. mech. chilled Linear output Low output signal Fluctuating pressures. temp static or filter differential pressure Inductive Low pressure compensation difficult Strain gauge High pressure. output physical wear reduces life water. large size. vibration range General purpose Cheap.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၃-၄၇ 4-22 Bourdon Tube Pressure Sensor ၃-၄၈ 4-22 Bourdon tube pressure gauge.၃ Diaphragm sensor (၃-၄၉ ) ႔ diaphragm sensor p chamber flexible wall (thin steel sheet) diaphragm Fabric diaphragm ၏ (psi) pressure gauge 1-36 ႔ ႔ pressure range Pressure range . ၃.၈.

Pressure sensor electrical output transducer ၃.၈.၄ Potentiometer potentiometer device Slider xx2 (coil) slider (coil) 1-37 .႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers t t Diaphragm pressure gauge water air system ၃-၄၉ 4-23 Diaphragm Pressure Sensor ၃-၅၀ Diaphragm pressure transducer mechanical device transmitter transmitter singal ၃-၅၁ xx2 Potentiometer pressure transducer.

၈.၈.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ o transmitter Potentiometric accuracy ၃. ၆ Capacitance pressure detector Capacitive pressure measurement p p t Sensor high frequency oscillator pressure changes ၏ bridge circuit ၃-၅၂ Capacitive sensor (၃-၅၂) Capacitor plate O C p to (၃-၅၃) o t o metal core (coil) Metal core metal core M t magnetic flux transmitter ႔ capacitance pressure detector p to ဤ Capacitive pressure measurement 1-38 to u inductive sensor transformer plate ၏ oscillator circuit ၏ u t ၃-၅၃ Inductive sensor Capacitance sensor Capacitance p diaphragm two-plate design (accurate) operating range ၏ .၅ Electrical Pressure Guages: Piezoelectric pressure sensor pressure sensor (measure continuous) Piezoelectric pressure sensor t output signal update ၃.

01 to 0.2% Temperature sensitive Range of 80Pa to 35MPa Stray capacitance problems Linearity Vibration Fast response Limited overpressure capability Cost ၃-၅၄ Capacitance pressure detector ၃.႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers Advantages Disadvantages Inaccuracy 0.၉ Flow Sensors and Meters Process flow flow velocity volumetric flow mass ႔ Air system hydronic system energy process control flow sensor energy monitoring (indication device) (recording device) Sensor ႔ sensor (meter) Factors affecting flowmeter performance ( ) Process media (Liquid/Gas) (ဃ) Velocity ( ) Density (Specific Gravity) ( ) Viscosity (ဂ) Temperature ( ) Pressure 1-39 .

and Steam Limited Rangeability Suitable for Extreme Temperatures and Effected By Changes In Density. Pressures and Viscosity No Moving Parts Maintenance Intensive Low Cost 1-40 .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Volumetric Flowmeter ( ) DP ( ) Target ( ) Turbine ( ) Ultrasonic (ဂ) Vortex / Swirl ( (ဃ) Magnetic HVAC ACMV ) Displacement flow control flow condenser water flow hot water flow chilled water air flow ႔ HVAC applications flow sensor (၁) Differential pressure flow sensors (၂) Displacement flow sensors (၃) Passive flow sensors (၄) Mass flow sensors ႔ fluid eddy u op vortice fitting flow sensor obstruction ၏ Flow sensor ႔ upstream (၁၀) downstream duct/pipe diameter ၏ (၂) ႔ ႔ grid duct duct/pipe diameter ၏ (၂) (၃) duct accuracy straightening vane (water) (air) flow meter Differential Pressure Flowmeters Advantages Disadvanteages Use On Liquid. Pressure. Gas.

and ρ is the fluid density.၉.၂ Orifice Meter ၃-၅၅ 4-26 Orifice Plate Flow Meter 4-26 orifice plate meter ၏ (with round sharp edged) ၏ Reynolds Number plate flow rate Orifice plate Orifice plate pressure drop fluid ႔ 1-41 .၉.႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers ၃.၁ Differential Pressure Flow Meters Differential pressure B pressure ou ’ (flow) u to Differential (flow) √ Differential Pressure Flow Meters: where V is the velocity. C is a constant that is a function of the physical design of the meter. HVAC system ႔၏ ႔ (density) ၃. DP is the measured pressure drop.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ √ Orifice plate flow coefficient C orifice opening (determine device measured area of the pipe and ) flow coefficient C orifice meter ႔ (experiment) flow meter Orifice meter calibrate (pressure drop) Reynolds Number flow HVAC system (lamina flow) (wear) accuracy ႔ HVAC system ၃.၉.၃ Venturi Meter ၃-၅၆ 4-27 Venturi flow meter (၃-၅၆) meter Venturi flow meter ႔၏ (inlet) Venturi meter ၏ static pressure (inlet) velocity (pressure drop) velocity (kinetic energy) ႔ static pressure Flow coefficient (test) √ 1-42 Venturi meter (outlet) orifice .

႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers ၃-၅၇ The Herschel venturi meter with the associated flow pressure drop along its axis. Venturi meter steam flow measurement measurement Water flow air flow measurement Standard density ၃-၅၈ 4-28 Averaging Type. Pipe-mounted Pitot Meter 1-43 .

(၃-၅၈) pitot flow sensor velocity profile (natural distortion) pressure port tu u u Velocity tube Sensor tube Downstream Accuracy static pressure (manufacturers) ၃-၅၉ 4-29 Annubar flow sensor (၃-၅၈) Annubar flow sensor (symmetrical) Annubar sensors (negative side) system secondary piping system pass pipe 1-44 to o sensing port Bi-directional pressure transmitter pressure transmitter - Bi-directional (zero mark) (positive side) transmitter ႔ (Bi-directional) sensor HVAC chilled water system decoupling pipe ႔ Primaryby .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Equation 4-2 √ where DP is in psi and V is in feet per second (fps).

၉.၄ Displacement Flow Meters fluid stream ႔ flow meter displacement flow meter Paddle flow switch Paddle flow switch Fu 4-30 o p switch activate Air system p “Sail switch” ၃-၆၁ 4-31 Inline Turbine Flow Meter ၃-၆၂ Cutaway view of a turbine flow meter.၉.၅ Turbine Meter (၃-၆၁) turbine meter Fluid stream propeller-shaped rotor HVAC system water flow measurement 1-45 .႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers ၃-၆၀ 4-30 Paddle Flow Switch ၃. ၃.

5% of rate) Clean water applications only High rangeability (up to 50:1) NIST Traceable Factory Calibration Compact design Low cost.၉.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Magnetic sensor (metal rotor) Infrared light ၏ reflection Non-magnetic radio frequency impedance sensors Turbine meter (bi-directional) Dual turbine meter accuracy (opposite directions) current Turbine counter-rotating rotor (cancel out) Turbine Meter High accuracy (. Easy to install Fast response time In and out of line. under pressure Broad range of sizes Turbine Flowmeters Advantages Disadvanteages High Accuracy Only For Low Viscosities Suitable for Extreme Temperatures and Moving Parts Pressures Can Be Used On Gas or Liquid Sensitive to Flow Profile Pressure differential flowmeters Helical gear Oval gear Nutating disk Rotary Oscillating piston ၃.၆ Target Meter ၃-၆၃ 4-32 Target Meter 1-46 swirling .

or Steam Flow Profile Sensitive (Vortex) Uneffected by Pressure.၉. or Density Changes.50% of Rate Versatile No Moving Parts Electronics can be used for Diagnostics Minimal Upstream Piping Works with Entrained Liquids 1-47 .၇ Vortex meter Vortex meter flow ႔ rate sensor t accuracy HVAC system ၃-၆၅ Swirlmeter Vortex / Swirlmeter Advantage Disadvantage No Moving Parts Span Limitations Due to Viscosity For Liquid. the flow path is obstructed by a bluff body (or strut) that creates the vortex swirl. Gas. (flow path) bluff body ot ၃.႔ (၃-၆၂) Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers target meter Fo Drag-force meter p Flow rate flow rate bending action Strain-gauge stress stress (moving parts) ၃-၆၄ In the vortex shedding flow meter. Wide Rangeability Vortex / Swirlmeter Benefits High Accuracy 0. Temperature.

၃.၉.၉.၉ Transit time ultrasonic meters Transit time ultrasonic meter flow rate fluid velocity sound waves ၏ (၃-၆၆) Transit time ultrasonic meter fluid downstream sensor Ultrasonic wave ၏ ႔ ultrasonic sound wave ႔ ultrasonic sound wave (travel time) Transducer average flow velocity t Transmitte ႔ ႔ fluid downstream tt ႔ ultrasonic sound wave receiver ႔ ultrasonic sound wave ၏ no air bubbles 1-48 sensor straight flow Fully developed very clean water accuracy o u ႔ .၈ Passive Flow Meters Passive flow meter fluid stream ႔ o t u to flow rate ႔ (pressure drops) Fluid stream ၃-၆၆ Ultrasonic meter ၃-၆၇ Principle of a transit time (ultrasonic) flow meter.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Measures Low Flows ၃.

Performance Considerations Reynolds number constraints Installed without process shut down Entrained gas or particles for doppler Straight upstream piping requirements Clean liquids for time of flight Ultrasonic Flowmeters Advantages Disadvanteages • No Moving Parts • For Liquids Only (limited gas) • Unobstructed Flow Passage • Flow Profile Dependent • Wide Rangeability • Errors Due To Deposits ၃.႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers accuracy ±5% other practical limitation Ultrasonic Flowmeter ( Piping dimensions fluid properties ႔ accuracy doppler time of flight ) Doppler effect. slurry type flows ( ) Transit time measurement. used for dirty.၁၀ Magnetic flow meters Magnetic flow meter flow rate magnetic field fluid deionized water sludges magnetic induction o - o t o u t Tu u slurrie ၃-၆၈ Magnetic Flowmeters 1-49 . used for clean fluids Ultrasonic Flowmeters .၉.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၃-၆၉ Electromagnetic principle as applied to a working flow meter. Magnetic Flowmeters Advantages Disadvanteages No moving parts to wear out Liquid Must Be Conductive Very Wide Rangeability Physical Pressure and Temperature Limits Ideal For Slurries no obstructions or restrictions to flow No pressure drop or differential Accommodate solids in suspension No pressure sensing points to block up Temperature independent Capable of measuring flow in either direction Magnetic Flowmeters Advantages Over Other Technologies No moving parts Measure dirty liquids with solids No pressure drop Measure highly corrosive fluids Flowrate independent of viscosity. Very large turndown temperature. and density Minimum upstream piping requirements Linear output Electronics interchangeable without regard to size Direct Measurement Coriolis 1-50 Mass Flowmeter Thermal Dispersion .

၁၁ Mass Flow Meters Coriolis force meter angular momentum meter mass flow meter anemometer mass flow meter Thermal anemometer HVAC ႔ hot-wire air flow measurement ၃-၇၀ 4-34 Thermal Anemometer (၃-၇၀) thermal anemometer heated probe ႔ mass flow rate heated probe element Air stream Probe temperature sensor electric resistance-heating ႔ Heated probe 200°F ႔ electrical current velocity signal ၏ thermal anemometer heating element Self-heated thermistor air density Temperature sensor ၏ air velocity ±2% to ±3% accuracy Anemometer Pitot sensor velocities range anemometer temperature sensor entering air temperature Thermal anemometer (air density) upstream accuracy pitot tube sensor Commercial model 100 fpm 500 fpm ႔ accuracy velocity 150 to 5.၉.01 inch wg) Pitot sensor ႔ Thermal VAV system anemometer thermal fan inlet 1-51 .000 fpm ±20 fpm accuracy 400 fpm (0.႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers ၃.

1-52 .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၃-၇၁ Air flow meter (4-35) air flow meter ၃-၇၂ Pitot tube sensor (၃-၇၂) Pitot tube sensor ၏ (speed of aircraft) HVAC application (၃-၇၃) total pressure static pressure Total pressure static pressure velocity pressure Pitot tube velocity differential pressure standard density air flow where DP is measured in inches of water gauge (wg) and V is measured in feet per minute (fpm).

Two arrangements are available. which is a transmitter that converts the differential pressure signal into a velocity signal. the preferred location of the pitot sensor is in the inlet of the fan. First.႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers ၃-၇၃ Figure 4-37 Air Flow Measuring Station Figure 4-37 shows an air flow measuring station (FMS) commonly used in duct applications.) The velocity measured in this way is an approximate average of duct velocity. The first. which can be used with almost any fan. in which case this location is not recommended) and velocities are high. but it is not a precise average because pressure and velocity are not proportional (the average of the square of velocity is not equal to the average of the velocity). much less common arrangement has multiple pinhole pressure taps that are built into the fan inlet by the fan manufacturer. this calculation can be made in software with improved accuracy over the use of a square root extractor. Differential pressure is measured from the outer point of the inlet to the most constricted point. The second. This location also reduces costs because the sensor array is smaller than the array required in a duct. air flow is generally stable in the inlet (except when inlet vanes are used. much like a Venturi meter. Even where inlet vanes are used. a location in the mixed air plenum space could be found. which increases accuracy because the differential pressure signal will be high. This signal is fed to a square root extractor. the FMS is composed of an array of pitot sampling tubes the pressure signals of which are averaged. has two bars with multiple velocity pressure and static pressure ports mounted on either side of the fan axis. Where fan air flow rate measurement is required. (With digital control systems. The space needed for these duct sections seldom seems to be available in modern HVAC applications where the operating space occupied by HVAC systems is heavily 1-53 . Perhaps the most important advantage of this location is that it obviates the need to provide long straight duct sections required for the duct mounted array. Locating the air flow sensor in the fan inlet has many advantages compared to a duct mounted pitot array. In large ducts.

They are seldom used as sensors for control systems because they are accurate only for measuring velocity at a single point. ၃. great Sharp selection lowering accuracy Low head loss Expensive. ၃-၇၄ Rotating Vane Anemometers: Table 4-6 summarizes some of the velocity and flow sensors that we have been discussing. 25:1 Air flow Minimum velocity shedding Pitot tube Inexpensive 400 fpm Thermal anemometer 1-54 Air flow ±20 fpm at 100 fpm Can plug with dirt. and velocity in a typical duct system varies considerably over the duct face. Table 4-6 Table of Flow Sensors (Hegberg. large edge can erode velocity air Turbine Water ±0.5%. 5:1 Water.၉. up Blades susceptible to to 50:1 damage Ultrasonic Water 0. reduced to its smallest area possible.25–2%. limited in lowest velocity Good at low velocities.5–1. 2001–2002) Velocity and Flow Sensor Summary Sensor Type Primary Use Orifice plate Water Venturi Accuracy & Maximum Range ±1–5%.15–0. high- Advantage Disadvantage Inexpensive.5%. 100:1 Vortex Water ±0.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ scrutinized by the owner and architect. and consciously minimized. small sensor easy to insert into duct Dirt can reduce accuracy .၁၂ Displacement Flow Meters: air stream ႔ flow meter Displacement flow meter Propeller or Rotating Vane Anemometers: Propeller or rotating vane anemometers are commonly used hand-held devices for measuring air velocity.

which is installed directly in-line and connected to an external electronic output unit. a design favored to monitor blood flow rate through major arteries during surgery. Fluids with values as low as 0. The sensor is connected to a control unit bywiring. and there is no difficulty with measurements in either laminar or turbulent flows. External sensors are also available as an in-line union. The electromagnetic flow meter has a very low pressure loss associated with its use due to its open tube. provided that the velocity profile is reasonably symmetrical. no obstruction design. This absence of internal parts is very attractive for t o o ‘‘ t ’’ u . E. although values from 1% to 5% (95%) are more common for these meters in industrial settings.႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers Rotating Hand-held Vane Air flow Inexpenisve Not robust. 1-55 . Special designs include an independent flow sensor unit that can clamp over a nonmagnetic pipe. L. providing either timeaveraged or instantaneous data in the latter. where symbols in bold face are vector quantities. The fluid must be conductive. The voltage is detected by metal electrode sensors with the voltage magnitude and polarity directly proportional to the volume flow rate and the flow direction. through a magnetic field of magnetic flux. B.1 microsieman (msieman)/cm have been metered. Stray electronic noise is perhaps the most significant barrier in applying this type of meter. Simply. It can be used for either steady or unsteady flow measurements. respectively. Adding salts to a fluid increases its conductivity. The electromagnetic flow meter comes commercially as a packaged flow device. when an electrically conductive liquid moves through a magnetic field. In principle. but the u o u t t u p o p t u t ’ . U. Uncertainty down to 0. and is suitable for installations that can tolerate only a small pressure drop.25% (95%) of the measured flow rate can be attained. This physical behavior was first recorded by Michael Faraday (1791– 1867). large Electromagnetic The operating principle of an electromagnetic flow meter (8) is based on the fundamental principle that an electromotive force (emf) of electric potential. Grounding close to the electrodes and increasing fluid conductivity reduce noise. a voltage is induced in the liquid at a right angle to the field. responding only to average velocity. which moves with a velocity.T op t p p p t o luid density and viscosity. which can measure flow rate in either direction with instantaneous changes (Figure 10. is induced in a conductor of length.16).

.............. ၃................................ • The standard of device with which comparison is made is called a standard instrument.....................၃ Sensor Performance Characteristic .................... ၃........................... 27 1-56 .၇ T p tu o’ M u o . 5 ၃..၇ Moisture Sensors .............၁ Principles of Temperature Measurement ..........၄ Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) ............................................................. ၃..............................................................၅ Classification of Error .......................................HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၃.................... 1 ၃........... 11 ၃.... 14 ၃...................................................................................... • The instrument which is unknown and is to be calibrated is called test instrument.....................................၂ Thermocouple ..................................................................................................... ၃..............၆................၁ Classification Of Instruments .................................၆..........................................................၆......၆ Summary of temperature sensors ...................................................၅ Integrated Circuit Temperature Sensors .........၆............................................................................၆ Temperature Sensors .................................၆.....၁၀ CALIBRATION METHODOLOGY CALIBRATION • It’ t po u o t t o t u o t u o parision with the standard ones..........၃ Thermistors ............................................................................................... DIRECT COMPARISON • METER CALIBRATION • GENERATOR CALIBRATION • TRANSDUCER CALIBRATION INDIRECT COMPARISON • METER CALIBRATION • GENERATOR CALIBRATION • TRANSDUCER CALIBRATION Contents ၃........................................................ • In calibration test instrument is compared with the standard instrument.......................................................... ၃....... ၃........................................... 13 ၃............................................................................. 10 ၃.............................................................................................. ၃................................၄ Selection Requirements ..........၆.........၆..............................၂ (Definition of Terminology) ...............

....... ၃..........................၉...................................... ၃......................၆ Target Meter ..........................၈............... ၃................................................................................ ၃...........................၇...............................................................၁ Relative Humidity Sensors ... ၃..................................... ၃...........................................၇............................................ ၃...................................................................................၃ Diaphragm sensor ........................၈...................................................၃ Venturi Meter .၁၁ Mass Flow Meters ................ ၃..............................................................................၉...............၆ Psychrometers .................. Coriolis Advantages • Direct Mass Measurement Disadvanteages • High Purchase Price 1-57 ..................... ၃...........................................၉ Flow Sensors and Meters ...................................၉.........................၁ Differential Pressure Flow Meters .................................................................၈................................................................................................. ၃........................................................................၄ Potentiometer .................................................................................................................................................၇...................................၅ Turbine Meter . ၃.................................................... ၃.......၇ Vortex meter.....................၉ Transit time ultrasonic meters ......၅ Electrical Pressure Guages: ...............................၇...၂ Resistance-type humidity sensors ......................................................................................၉.............. ၃................................၉................................................................. ၃............................................................ ၃................................................................၈....... ၃.................................. ၃..............................................................၁ Summary of pressure sensors for BAS applications .....................................၅ Chilled-Mirror Dew-point Sensors: ..............................................၈....................................................၁၀ Magnetic flow meters .................................... ၃...............၈.................၄ Displacement Flow Meters ............................. ၃................ ၃............................................................၇.......................... ၃..................................................၉............. ၆ Capacitance pressure detector ..................၉.........................................၉...............................................၇..........႔ Chapter-3 Sensors and Transducers ၃.၄ Lithium Chloride Dew-point Sensors: ...၉........................၂ Mechanical Pressure Gauges: .................၉............. 33 ၃..................................................................................................၉............................................................................၂ Orifice Meter ....................... 39 ၃.......၈ Pressure Sensors ...၃ Capacitance-Type Humidity Sensors ............................................................ ၃.......................၉................................. ၃...................................၈ Passive Flow Meters .......၁၂ Displacement Flow Meters: ..............................................

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems 1-58 ႔ • High Accuracy • High Installation Cost • Additional Density Measurement • Size Limitations • Uneffected By Flow Profile • Vibration Sensitive .

၁.၁ Study Objective HVAC system control control valve (hot water/cold water flow) control damper (air flow) device device control ႔ ႔ valve ၍ (flow) Mixing valve control valve (application) valve diverting valve (operation) hydromic system parallel blade damper damper design opposed blade damper ႔ (leakage) 4-1 .၁ Introduction control system ၏ output valve damper (flow) Valve ႔ Valve damper ႔ (control specialist) Valve control specialist (option) ဝ ဝ (basic terminology) ၄.႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers ၄.

၂ Two-Way Control Valve Fluid distribution system control valve process (flow rate) Regulate (flow rate) valve ၏ HVAC system control valve condensor water flow steam refrigerant actuator chilled water flow control hot water flow ႔ ႔ gases oil ႔၏ control ၄.၁ Style and Principles of Operation Control valve ( ) Two way ( ) Three way-mixing (ဂ) Three way-diverting ၍ Three way mixing valve pipe ဝ Three way diverting valve ဝ ၄-၁ Simple two-way and three-way valve circuits Mixing valve ဝ steam Valve fluid (flow) steam ၍ valve Diverting valve steam heating coil (flow rate) (၄-၁) cooling coil ႔၏ capacity modulate Three way valve (boiler [heating system]) valve ၏ ( Two way configuration ၌ (constant flow chiller(cooling system) 4-2 .၂.HVAC Control and Building Automation System ႔ (leakage) ႔ Mixing damper ((sizing) ႔ ၄.

႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers Control valve ( ) Globe vavle ( ) Butterfly valve (ဂ) Ball valve (style) Globe valve ၍ Ball valve Valve diameter (50mm) (၄-၂) body valve sweat (soldered) valve flanged connection globe single seat ႔ two-way single seated control valve plug ႔ actuator ဝ Plug Valve steam Steam Actuator Actuator steam Steam ႔ plug plug ႔ valve S ႔ ၄-၂ Two-way globe single-seated valve (fluid flow is left to right) ဝ piping system (full shut-off) plug Valve body screwed flanged welded soldered union ႔ pipe fitting Valve j Control valve ၏ (water flow direction) (water flow direction) flow direction Control valve Control valve isolation ၏ service manual (၄-၂) globe valve ၏ normally open valve assembly (power loss) valve Actuator power Actuator valve steam valve Normally Open(NO) 4-3 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation System ၄-၃( )Normally Closed ၄-၃( ) Push down to close globe two-way valve (၄-၃) ႔ Push down to Open Normally Closed(NO) valve (power loss) stem way globe valve ၏ ႔ valve valve ၍ ၄-၄ Double-seated two- steam flow direction ၏ Normally Open(NO) valve ႔ Power loss ႔ ၍ manual valve Actuator(modor) ၍ valve stem Slack linkage Valve fluid ၏ velocity pressure ႔ ႔ valve ၏ flow direction ဝ fluid ၏ differential pressure valve ႔ valve ( valve free movement (actuator) ) (flow direction) velocity pressure valve ) (close) Valve ၏ plug (၄-၂) ႔ valve Valve ၏ stem ႔ ၍ ( ႔ velocity pressure movement free movement linkage free velocity pressure ႔ plug (flow) free movement valve velocity pressure (crack (flow) (flow) fluid ၏ internal force water hammer shock Piping system ႔ control valve (၄-၄) flow direction ၏ balanced valve differential pressure actuator ( ႔ double-seated valve ႔ differential pressure ) ႔ ႔ ၍ seat Fluid ႔ fluid differential pressure ၍ ႔ single seated valve actuator 4-4 .

႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers actuator ႔ Tight shut-off Tight shut-off L ၍ HVAC system ၄-၅ Linear(V-Port) Valve Plug Modulating globe ( ႔ valve ၄-၆ Equal Percentage Valve Plug control valve ) Linear(V-Port) Valve Plug ( ) Equal Percentage Valve Plug ၍ Valve modified Modified linear characteristic modified equal percentage ႔ two-position control (၄-၇) ႔ flat plate plug ၌ modified ႔၏ Flat plate plug (Quick-opening duty) ၄-၇ Quick-opening(Flat Plate) Valve Plug ၄-၈ Control Valve Characteristics (၄-၈) (plug lift) Valve ၏ plug plug ဝ (%) ႔ ၏ (assume) Valve plug lift (၄-၁၀) flat plate ၂၀% (20% open) ၌ full flow ၏ 60% ႔ flat plate modulating Two position control 4-5 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation System Control valve ႔ ၏ characteristic valve valve ႔ operate ႔ ႔ function characteristic ႔ valve (၄-၉) ၄-၉ Combination of Coil and Control Valve Characteristics ၄-၁၀ Typical valve characteristics at constant pressure drop (၄-၁၀) linear plug % of plug lift linear characteristic (flow rate) % of flow ႔ Equal percentage plug plug lift ( valve ၌ valve ၏ plug Valve valve flow ႔၌ plug (pressure drop) rangeability (linearly) ႔ Minimum flow seat ၌ ၌ minimum rate Valve ဝ maximum rate turn-down ratio 4-6 .

႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers Rangeability HVAC system control valve (၂၀) ၏ rangeability ၏ (၁) ၍ plug HVAC Control (ratio) valve (၄-၁၁) butterfly valve Valve body (round disk) (flow) (flow) ႔ Butterfly valve modulate ႔ modulating duty shut off (balancing three way control percentage Butterfly valve linear plug characteristic (၄-၁၁) ball valve two position ၏ characteristic linear characteristic (flow characteristic) (၄-၁၃)၌ ) equal characteristic application (၄-၁၂) ဝ ball valve ၍ ႔ valve ball valve body Ball valve pipe system (shut-off) balancing valve automatic control ႔ Reheat coil coil ၄-၁၁ Butterfly Valve Ball valve ၄-၁၂ Ball Valve Layout plug ဝ (flow) Ball valve (resistance) ႔ valve (၄-၁၃) Ball valve characteristic ball valve ႔ characterized plug valve ႔ HVAC control application characterized plug ball valve ၍ ( stable ႔၌ flow characteristic ႔ Standard ၍ valve ) Globe valve ( ) Butterfly valve (ဂ) Ball valve ႔ 4-7 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation System ႔ ၄-၁၃ Characterized ball valve Globe valve actuator (၄-၁၅) Ball valve steam Butterfly valve (rotate) ၏ actuator (၄-၁၆) valve steam Two way valve Two way valve ႔ three way valve two way valve ၌ Two way valve variable flow pumping energy variable speed drive( Pump pumping energy Operation coil ႔ ႔ ဝ ၍ ဝ two way valve (heat loss) Pumping energy coil ၌ Three way valve Centralized HVAC system ႔၏ control valve position (sizing) cooling coil ၍ Pump distribution system diversity factor heating (sizing) load ႔ ၄-၁၄ Ball Valve Two way valve load coil ႔ ဝ chilled water ႔ two way valve Two way valve (flow) Two way valve hot wate Normal operation Three way valve ၍ ႔ coil ႔ pump flow rate ၌ Chiller boiler ႔ three way valve 4-8 .

႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers Three way valve boiler ႔ ဝ ဝ (flow rate) ႔ ႔ coil boiler Two way valve chiller (flow rate) decoupler ၍ chiller by pass Primary pumping secondary pumping ၍ Hydronic system piping Two way valve control valve ၏ ဝ differential pressure pump ႔ differential pressure system ၏ controllability pressure) (water valve actuator Piping system ႔ by pass ႔ two way valve pump ၍ VSD ၍ (energy saving) ၌ energy ၍ ၄-၁၅ Valve actuators–Move Stem Up and Down ၄-၁၆ Valve actuator – Rotary ၄.၄ Three way control valve (၄-၁) three way valve (flow) (၄-၁၇) coil system flow Mixing three way valve Mixing valve ၌ ဝ diverting three way valve (two incoming steam) outgoing steam Diverting valve Diverting valve ၌ ဝ port ၌ ၍ (၄-၁၈) Mixing valve diverting valve mixing valve ၌ bottom port ဝ port Normally Open ၌ valve ၏ common port Normally open(NO) ႔ port ၌ upper port ( ႔ valve mixing valve ၏ to common port COM ႔ ႔ common port (100% flow) common port(100% flow) port ႔ ဝ ဂ OUT A Normally Closed(NC) ႔ Common out Diverting valve (၄-၁၉) ၌ Bottom Port(B) ႔ diverting valve ၏ common port 4-9 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation System valve ႔ (manufacturer) bottom port Three way valve two way valve ၍ ဝ ႔ plug ႔ Mixing valve common port (flow) diverting valve ႔ flow direction Mixing valve ႔ diverting valve diverting valve valve ၍ mixing valve diverting valve ၍ ၍ ၄-၁၇ Mixing Valve Configurations Diverting Valve Configurations ၍ three way valve ႔ Mixing mixing valve diverting valve Mixing valve ႔ two way valve Return side ၌ coil ၏ return side ၌ two way Supply side Two way valve side supply side function Two way valve two way valve return ႔ coil ၏ return side ၍ e coil return header ၄-၁၈ Three-way Mixing Valve (၄-၂၀) three way mixing valve ႔ ၍ ၄-၁၉ Three-way Diverting Valve “ ” ႔ Valve Valve ၏ port control schematic flow direction ႔ 4-10 .

႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers controller output signal (၄-၂၀) valve valve coil flow ၍ coil Normally Closed(NC) line ၌ Normally open(coil three way valve ႔ control action line ၌) common port ၍ three way mixing valve ၌ Normally Open(NO) port ႔ (၄-၂၀) (၄-၂၀) schematic coil by pass line ၌ balancing control system ဝ distribution ႔ port ႔ Balancing valve ႔ ႔ water balancing valve coil (pressure drop) ႔ Balancing valve ၏ pressure drop flow balancing valve (match) coil (pressure drop) coil ၏ Three way valve ႔ 100% flow Balancing valve ႔ supply to return diffenential pressure - coil higher differential pressure Two way valve linear valve ႔ coil ၍ equal percentage plug three way valve valve (size) Port operate port operate three way valve ႔ ႔ three way valve diverting valve Constant flow three way valve ႔ ႔ plug style constant flow Balancing valve ၍ coil ႔ 100% by pass line Valve ၍ ၌ linear plug valve flow percentage plug Equal flow ၃-၂၀ Typical three-way mixing valve arrangements 4-11 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation System Valve ႔ (selection) sizing modulating valve characteristic ၏ behavioral Modulating control valve “Rangeability factor” operating characteristic factor maximum flow characteristic constant differential pressure Valve ၏ rangeability factor 10:1 Control valve ၌ ၏ rangeability minimum controllable valve flow (minimum flow) 10% ၄.၅ Valve ( ) Control fluid control solution ႔ density fluid water solution visocity ႔ ၍ Special fluid (manufacturer) handbook Brine Steam valve ၏ catalog Maximum fluid temperature Fluid temperature packing valve body body trim standart material 250°F (ဂ) Brine control correction ႔ ( ) Glycol solution special heat transfer fluid ၏ information information ( shut-off disk 250°F HVAC heating system Maximum inlet pressure Valve body selection (high-rise building) inlet pressure body S ANSI Class 125 temperature ၌ HVAC system ( ANSI 150 valve ၍ Class ႔ nominal pressure valve body rating Valve ဝ valve ၌ pressure pressure actuator Valve style Valve System ၏ close-off pressure Valve ႔ valve Valve PSIG ၏ Actual operating condition catalog )၌ inlet pressure normial pressure ၌ ၂၀ differential pressure ၏ (ဃ) Maximum fluid flow : HVAC load calculation coil heat exchanger ႔၏ characteristic ႔ design maximum (flow rate) 4-12 .

၁ Valve (Sizing) Modulating applicating Gain valve size system behavior control system ၏ function 4-13 .႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers ( ) Valve Style : Three way diverting Three way mixing ( ) Control Mode: Modulating control mode valve ႔ two-position control mode valve plug ႔ ႔ Control mode ႔ application plug Two-way Modulating Standard globe valve ) two position duty fully open ႔ (flat Globe valve (pressure drop) Globe two position valve (pressure drop) modulating control motorized ball valve (pressure drop) option two position control ၌ butterfly valve globe valve (pressure drop) Modulating flow characteristic plug ဂ plug type ဝ ႔ plug type valve valve ၏ full flow ၍ designer Modulating application ၌ ( design Control (pressure drop) valve ၄-၂၁ Coil subsystem Modulating application turn-down ratio HVAC application valve Special application turn-down ratio valve (consult) V parameter (၁) Desired flow characteristic (၂) Desired pressure drop (၃) Close-off rating ႔ ၄.၅.

2 ft wg) ႔ (installation experience) (experiment) (pressure drop) coil 100% pipe system (pressure drop) coil ၌ ၏ 50% ႔ control valve ၏ (pressure drop) total subsystem (pressure drop)၏ 30% (pressure drop) 2psi 3psi Pump ၏ power ဂ control valve ၏ (pressure drop) 2 psi 4-14 .HVAC Control and Building Automation System ႔ valve control flow ႔ ႔ valve ႔ system (pressure drop) pump Operating cost Valve V fully open (pressure drop) (pressure drop) Control expert manufacturer (opinion) of-thumb rule- valve size (pressure drop) stable control valve ၏ system ၏ Valve design (pressure (pressure drop) Handling ႔ Unit supply (pressure drop) sub return drop) coil(subsystem) system (၄-၂၁) differential pressure available Cooling coil 3psi( elbow drop) ၍ (constant) ႔ overall (pressure drop) ၏ Air (pressure drop) Coil isolation valve supply pipe ၏ reducer return pipe ၏ (typical) ဝ ႔ ႔၏ piping loss available (pressure 3+4=7 psi(15.

0 ၏ specific gravity valve ၏ valve ၏ valve coefficient ( manufacturer .႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers ၌ subsystem Sub system ၏ ၏ (pressure drop) point point ႔ ႔ rule of thumb (pressure drop) 2psi Rule of thumb ႔ ၍ control valve ၏ 4psi typical HVAC application Globe control valve valve size Rule of thumb valve pipe size butterfly ball valve Designer ၍ pipe flow coefficient ႔ ၌ rule of thumb oversized valve PID control loop tune ၍ control oversized valve control algorithm ႔ control algorithm Oversized valve valve Valve seat Control valve ၏ design coefficient( ) (pressure drop) ၍ valve selection valve Valve flow coefficient( (wide-open) (pressure drop) ၌ 1GPM flow (Equation 4-1) fluid ၏ fluid density valve (flow rate) √ S Specific gravity ႔(pure wate) ႔၏ 60°F 200 °F 1.coil Design ) valve size (pressure drop) valve body plug ႔ ၏ catalog design (pressure drop) 2 psi ) psi Q 30GPM valve flow (flow rate) 30 Valve ၏ 2 psi (formula) ၍ flow coefficient 4-15 .

5 psi( (pressure drop) (pressure drop) valve psi( control (pressure drop) ႔ 3.5 (pressure drop) Valve ၏ Branch drop) valve circuit (pressure drop) control valve Valve pump Pump pump selection valve ၌ available pressure differential valve (under size) pump energy 4-16 .1 Small globe control valve ( ( flow coefficient( ) manufacturer ) ( ) ၍ 21.0 psi ၍ size control pump Valve size design (size) pump head control Valve (pressure drop) ႔ valve ဝ valve ၏ 1.HVAC Control and Building Automation System ႔ (Equation 4-2) √ = 21.2 Valve style size valve size (pressure drop) ( ) (Equation ၄-၃) ၍ (Equation 4-3) ) Representative Valves of Cv for Small Control Valves Normal – Pipe Size Cv ½ 4 ¾ 6 1 10 16 25 2 40 Table 4-xx Representative Values of Cv for Small Control Valves Valve (pressure Valve (pressure drop) Valve (size) Valve (size) 30% 30% control Pump (pressure drop) 2.

႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers coil 10% ၏ design load valve 50% Valve valve ၌ design drop) valve flow control variable flow system (pressure Two way valve pump ၍ differential pressure across the valve (flow rate) valve (differential pressure drop) ၍ (pressure drop) ဝ valve valve ႔ Flow control efficient Energy Oversized valve ႔ supply air reheat coil Reheat coil Valve (pressure drop) Cooling Coil coil pumping energy oversized valve coil leaving water temperature ႔ temperature chilled water differential temperature chilled water plant efficiency indicator ဝ Lower delta T Oversized control valve ၍ supply water temperature valve ႔ load reset ႔ supply water temperature rate) system load reset (flow throttling ႔ reset operation condition chilled water system coil ၏ Butterfly valve flow coefficient ႔ (dehumidification) (pressure drop) available butterfly valve (pressure drop) ႔ actual velocity E ႔ butterfly valve manufacturer recommend velocity valve butterfly valve modulating control flow range Low flow ႔ ၌ flow flow butterfly valve (procedure) ႔ .fully open Cv .valve size Valve ၏ Cv 60% open Cv pipe size (resistance ၍ valve flow ႔ (smooth) ) piping geometry factor 4-17 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation System ႔ pipe valve ၏ Cv valve Cv Cv valve ၏ ၏ flow coefficient insert Coil three way valve two way valve ႔ modulating flow ႔ဝ ႔ two three selection technique Valve differential pressure system design consideration coil three way valve three way valve valve ဝ ႔ differential pressure ႔ pipe pipe Ball valve coil 150 two way valve ၍ two way valve ၄.၂ Flow Characteristic Selection Plug selection characteristic water coil design Design flow control chilled hot water coil ႔၏ water flow coil capacity characteristic Fluid ၏ supply temperature capacity characteristic ႔ heat transfer device(coil) ၏ flow ႔ ၃-၂၂ Chilled water schematic chilled water supply temperature 6.5°C Control valve ႔ coil ၏ flow ဝ ၍ valve heating coil colling coil (capacity) ႔၌ (flow) Heating coil ၏ curve hot water ၏ ၏ Coil ၏ characteristic non-linear flow high flow coil Non linear performance ႔ 50% (low temperature drop) ၍ hot water supply temperature 4-18 .7°C capacity characteristic differential pressure (၄-၂၃) ႔ 7.၅.

႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers Hot water supply temperature air temperature ႔ coil ၏ heating capacity ၄-၂၃ Capacity versus flow rate (၄-၂၃) ႔ (linearize performance) temperature set point reset hot water supply Chilled water coil ၏ sensible capacity characteristic ၍ chilled water temperature ႔ air temperature (flow rate) tube water velocity turbulance flow L water ႔ ၏ tube laminar flow ႔ ၌ ႔ heat transfer coefficient coil ၏ capacity ႔ coil ၏ flow Heating coil ႔ control valve hot water temperature (fairly constant) control Valve flow characteristic ႔ capacity coil characteristic ႔ Valve flow characteristic (၄-၉) equal percentage plug heating coil characteristic Heating coil duty equal percentage plug Colling coil ၏ characteristic water reset hot hot water coil ၏ characteristic (၄-၉) ဝ Control Three way control valve linear plug valve Heating system ႔ ဝ two way valve system linear plug constant flow system ၌ valve ႔ differential press 4-19 .

coi) ၌ (pressure drop) ( ) Flow available system head flow compoment drop) drop) Fitting ၏ flow (pressure drop) drop) flow 25% System ၌ ႔ drop) flow valve ၌ ႔ (pressure coil ၏ (pressure (pressure drop) System head ၏ ၏ 10.5psi Fixed compoment flow ၏ (pressure 50% (pressure drop) pressure head coil ဝ pipe work (pressure differential pressure valve (pressure Flow drop) 8psi 16psi Table 3-1 ၃-၂၄ Change in head across a control valve as it closes Valve ၏ characteristic ဝ ဝ valve Head across the valve valve linear ႔ Valve characteristic 4-20 .HVAC Control and Building Automation System ႔ ႔ ( ) Flow component (pipe fitting.

႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers flow Pipe available system head two way control valve coil pump ႔ ဝ ႔ Pump curve water circuit pump ၏ maximum pressure (pressure) (flow) pump curve ႔ ၄-၂၅ Authority distortion of linear flow characteristics Flow/head curve (pump curve Design flow ၌ value ၏ coil ၏ head loss (၄-၁၄) Point A value fully open pipe coil coil ) ႔ Pump head head ႔၌ (head loss) Value (pressure drop) ၌ flow pipe value pipe pump head Pump curve Flow reference ၍ (pressure) pressure System curve reference ၍ Flow Point B flow ႔ flow pressure loss (pressure drop) Point B ၌ (pressure drop) r valve ၌ ႔ 4-21 .

႔ More flow will go ႔ ၄-၂၆ Authority distortion of equal percentage flow characteristics (၄-၂၅) linear flow(plug) (၄-၂၀) flow(plug) Variable A (authority) ၌ differential pressure across the valve valve Authority Ratio characteristic curve (၄-၉) Linear plug ႔ flat plug ၌ 1.0 Maximum pressure curve plug equal percentage ratio (distorted) ႔ Equal percentage plug linear ႔ ႔ way valve heat exchange ႔ coil equal percentage plug three way valve two Hydronic application linear plug ၄.HVAC Control and Building Automation System ႔ flow ႔ ႔ ၌ pump head pump head head pump speed flow (b ႔ Point A ၌ ) flow Pipe (pump speed coil ) valve head(valve differential pressure flow ဝ ) ႔ valve ၏ differential pressure plug characteristic curve Valve ဝ through the valve.၅.၃ (Close Off Pressure) Close off pressure valve (၄-၂) (၄-၃) ႔ valve 4-22 .

Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers

(pressure)

valve

close off rating

Valve

valve ၌

actuator

maximum pressure

၄-၂၇ Pump and system curve with valve control
Valve

two position duty

pressure rating

modulating rating duty

Modulating close off duty rating

rating”

Dynamic rating

rating

Dynamic


Valve

Valve

modulating application

rating

valve ၏ close-off pressure
system

flow

(pressure drop)

piping

curve

coil

pump head

pump

three way valve

flow system ၌ full flow (coil

Coil

“dynamic close off

two position rating

valve
position

၍ close off

constant


၌) differential pressure

by pass pipe

differential pressure
Linear

characteristic
(circuit

valve
)

mixing
coil

(pressure drop)

pump head
valve

Three way valve ၏ close off pressure

conditioning

flow


pump curve
differential

coil

valve assemble

႔၌

design differential

pressure
Two way valve system
differential pressure

valve differential pressure

assembly design
pump

႔ control
4-23

HVAC Control and Building Automation System

Pump

၏ head

control

Pump staging

choke valve (valve

control

Maximum differential pressure

differential pressure set point

differential pressure

(

differential pressure

Pump

differential pressure

distribution system

valve

design flow condition ၌
၏ differential pressure

pressure

႔ pressure sensor

VSD

maximum
A pump curve

၌ available pump head

one valve/one pump system

၏ shut-off head

(maximum differential pressure)

Pump shut off head

zero flow (flow

pump

႔ flow
Valve

)

pump

flow

pump body
system

seal

၌ maximum differential pressure

actual differential pressure

close of rating

valve

pump

(၄-၂၃)

head


(low flow)

Pump

d

variable flow system

differential pressure

head ၏

S

pump shut off
valve

pump shut off head
safety factor (

5%

25%

close-off fightly(valve

)

၌)

safety factor
close-off rating

single seated valve

double seated

valve
Diameter

double seated valve

၏ CO rating

DSV

SSV
DSV

၄.၅.၄ Valve Selection
valve
(၁)

Pressure rating

(၅)

Shutoff response to leakage

(၂)

Size and flow capacity

(၆)

Equipments and pipes connected

(၃)

Desired flow condition

(၇)

Material compatibility and durability

(၄)

Temperature limits

(၈)

Cost
4-24

Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers

Valve Sizing
Valve
controlled

system

device

(liquid)

HVAC

႔( gas)

ACMV

valve

regulate

system

controlled device

Valve

system
Valve
controllability


valve
(flow rate)

(pressure drop)

(pressure drop)

pump

Flow characteristic
characteristic

၍ valve

valve ၏ stem travel

(type)
valve

Flow
flow ၏

(
Valve

flow characteristic

Valve Authority

Where: N = Valve Authority
Rangeability

Valve

Plug

(uncontrollable flow)
seat

Plug

seat

- uncontrollable flow
(၆)

globe valve ၏ Cv

Rangeability
full flow

(pressure drop)

5 ps

valve
၌ valve ၏

uncontrollable flow
( )

(

)√

(

)√

R = Rangeability
∆P = Differential pressure drop across the valve
Valve Flow Coefficient
4-25

HVAC Control and Building Automation System

Sizing of Water Valve

Where: Q = Flow in gallons per minute (gpm)
Cv = Valve Flow Coefficient

∆P = Differential pressure drop across the valve (psi)
Valve sizing
Given
Find

- ၁ (Q

Cv

)

Flow rate(Q)

= 90 gpm

Flow coefficient (Cv)

= 51

Valve pressure drop(∆P)

= ?

(
Valve sizing
Given
Find

-၂ ∆

)

(

Cv

)

)

Valve pressure drop(∆P)

= 10 ft

Flow coefficient (Cv)

= 51

Flow rate(Q)

= ?

- 10 ft of head x 0.433 pis/ft = 4.33 psi

Valve sizing
Given
Find

- ၃ (Q

(1 ft of head = 0.433 psi)

)

Flow rate(Q)

= 90 gpm

Valve pressure drop(∆P)

= 12 ft

Flow coefficient (Cv)

= ?

- 10 ft of head x 0.433 pis/ft = 4.33 psi

(1 ft of head = 0.433 psi)

fluid

Sg = Specific gravity of the liquid
၄.၅.၅ Valve Schedule:
valve
schedule)
Cv

BAS

(valve
control valves


4-26

Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers

Valve Identification Tag.

Capacity.

Location.

Valve CV.

Valve Type.

၁၀

Design Pressure Drop.

Valve Size.

၁၁

Pipe Size.

၁၂

Fail Position.

Configuration.

၁၃

Close-off Pressure.

Flow Characteristics.

၁၄

Valve and actuator Model Number and Type.

Processes
plug valves

at Design Flow.

valve

ball valves, butterfly valves, globe valves

(application)

valve

(types)


Valve Type

Application

Other information

Ball

Flow is on or off

Easy to clean

Butterfly

Good flow control at high capacities

Economical

Globe

Good flow control

Difficult to clean

Plug

Extreme on/off situations

More rugged, costly than ball valve

၄.၆ Control Damper
(air volume)

(air flow)

Control Damper (VCD)

Volume

Volume damper

Volume

Control Damper (VCD)
damper)

(manual

balancing damper

(motor operated) damper

Damper Characteristics

Opposed blade

b

2-

position control application

Parallel blade: Two-position applications (open/closed).

(full open @

Damper

(air flow)
(control)

(round)

(rectangular)

Damper
(oval)

(round) damper

duct ၏


(oval) damper

(rectangular) damper
Blade

(၆)

(၈)

blade

4-27

HVAC Control and Building Automation System

Airfoil dampers
၄-၂၈ Triple V and Airfoil dampers
HVAC

damper

galvanized steel

extruded aluminum


damper

(outdoor air intake)၌

(aluminum)

(aluminum)
(industrial facilities)

(stainless

steel)
(frame)
Damper ဝ

blade

(shaft)

(bearing)
(friction)
(control)

(valve)

(control)

damper

damper

Valve
(selection principle)

Damper

valve

(stable)

accurate control


Damper blade
(၁) Flat, one-piece (single metal sheet) blade
(၂) Single skin blade with a triple-v-groove shape
(၃) Double- skin air foil-shaped blade
(၄-၂၈) triple V

airfoil blade
Damper

F1 (
(frame depth)

(flat) blade
(round) duct
damper blade

)

F2 (

)

Blade width

frame depth

(single blade) damper

(oval) duct
(rectangular) damper
4-28

႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers Air foil damper Air foil blade (pressure drop) Triple V groove blade (velocity) 2000 FPM 1500 FPM ႔ Blade (overlap) (tight closure) Blade ၏ (edge) ၌ compressible sealing strip (leakage) sealing strip ႔ (silicon rubber) ႔ (extruded vinyl Silicon rubber Seal damper ဝ (fully closed) (frame)၏ ၏ ဝ (fully open) ႔ (performance) blade seal Damper ၏ (standard leakage) damper Air foil blade 50 CFM low leakage damper damper HVAC system 10 CFM shut off damper (low leakage) damper damper 2 CFM Damper ၏ (minimum leakage) Standard 90.1-2004 leak damper (2 CFM per square foot at 1 inch wg) ႔ 10 CFM/ft Ultra-low leak damper 2 Cooling load ANSI/ ASHRAE/ IESNA 4 CFM/ft2 system Low ultra-low leak damper Ultra-low leak damper Low leak damper 4-29 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation System Cooling load ႔ system ultra-low leak damper Blade (linkage) (၄-၄၀) blade (linkage) (linkage) damper ႔ ( (pressure drop) ) (corrosion) ႔ damper ၌ ၍ damper (seal) Blade Damper ႔ Damper ၍ actuator (maintenance) damper ၍ Actuator ၏ damper actuator Damper damper actuator damper (linkage) damper ၄-၂၉ Typical multi-blade dampers Blade damper parallel blade ၄-၃၀ Damper linkages multi-blade damper opposed blade (၁) Parallel blade operation (၂) Opposed blade operation Multi-blade damper ၍ (၅-၄၇) blade ၌ blade (၅-၄၈) ႔(same direction) blade ႔ 4-30 .

႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers blade ႔ damper (operating characteristic) Blade (single blade) damper ၏ parallel opposed blade damper Actuator ႔ damper operator (fully open) ႔ ဝ damper actuator ၄-၃၁ Fans in Parallel damper ၄-၃၂ Centrifugal Fan with Inlet Vane damper Modulating damper small increment ) damper actuator damper damper motor ၏ (power) ( (operating characteristic) ႔ modulate seal Lower leakage (friction) (friction) damper motor (damper actuator) opposed blade damper parallel blade damper actuator Actuator damper - (torque) (friction) actuator (minimum torque) actuator ႔ Coil system damper Normally Open(NO) operation power ၌ (fail) (freezing) (set up) damper hazardous waste isolation ၍ ၍ damper ဝ Normally Open(NO) ႔ Damper damper ၍ damper (application) 4-31 .

၁ ( ) Two Position Duty Fan ၌ ဝ ႔ ႔ Outdoor air intake discharge ၌ damper damper fan intake fan (position) (wind pressure) stack effect ႔ fan intake) duct damper ၌ supply air fan ဝ (out door air interlock ႔ coil (freezing) (heating energy cost) ႔ damper motorized damper gravity damper Back Draft Damper(BDD) ႔ ႔ Barometric Damper ဝ ႔ Gravity damper Non Return Damper(NRD) (gravity) damper motorized damper ႔ actuator (motor) ႔ (tight seal) Gravity damper (supply) (return) ႔ “Non Return Damper” Exhaust fan back draft damper fan ၌ ႔ ဝ exhaust air fan discharge point ၌ (air pressure) damper ႔ exhaust system make up air ႔ ဝ (gravity) damper ႔ motorized damper 4-32 .၆.HVAC Control and Building Automation System ( ႔ ) Two position only ဝ ဝ (fully open/fully closed) position “Two Position” ဝ ( ) (out door air intake) Fan isolation (shut-off) Capacity control duty capacity damper control VAV discharge damper air balancing damper (ဂ) Mixing duty Economizer damper ၄.

႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers ၄-၃၃ Installed characteristic curves of parallel blade dampers ၄-၃၄ Installed characteristic curves of opposed blade dampers 4-33 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation System gravity damper (၅-၄၁) ႔ motorized damper fan damper ႔ (isolate) ႔ fan ၄-၃၅ Two Parallel blade Triple V dampers From Different Manufacturers ၄-၃၆ Two opposed blade triple v dampers from different manufacturers Variable Air Volume(VAV) application ၌ low load high load fan shut-off damper fan pumping system fan Fan ႔ ဝ Parallel check valve ၍ motorized damper ႔ fan damper damper fan fan ဝ fan ၏ wheel fan direction ႔ ၍ (starting torque) ဝ 4-34 .

၆.႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers Fan damper fan plenum ႔ damper ၌ application (pressure) gravity back draft ၍ (pressure) gravity damper damper fan Back draft discharge ၌ (velocity) back draft damper Two position heavy duty damper parallel blade damper opposed blade damper two position damper (fully open) ၏ ဝ ဝ (fully close position) ႔ damper (performance) Parallel blade damper ၍ damper Damper actuator ႔ parallel damper ၏ actuator blade damper ၏ actuator designer ၍ ( ) two position application opposed ႔ HVAC (vendor) (contractor) Two position damper two position damper modulate Two position damper (size) ႔ (leakage) pressure drop) (energy) Shut off damper duct ( ၄.၂ ( ) Capacity Control Duty Air system ႔ control damper flow) capacity terminal duct balancing damper ႔ ၍ branch duct Volume Control Damper(VCD) selection (design air flow) Volume control damper ဝ (air ၍ diffuser (pressure) static damper ႔ grille ၌ (adjust) Static damper actuator (air flow) Volume control damper ဝ (fully open position) Volume control damper single skin damper ႔ single blade duct 4-35 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation System ႔ damper ဝ capacity ဝ control VAV system damper discharge damper Damper (style) fan ၏ inlet guide vane ႔ ဝ gasket VAV system fan Damper ၏ (capacity) (style) Inlet Guide Vane(IGV) (၄-၃၂) Inlet Guide Vane(IGV) Fan ၏ damper blade (control) ဝ damper discharge damper fan ၏ ဝ(inlet) ႔ damper ဝ(inlet) - ႔ Damper ၏ ဝ - (entering air) Damper ႔ ၍ ဝ ဝ fan ၏ wheel ၏ direction fan ၏ wheel direction ႔ Air volume ၌ inlet guide vane ၍ unload ႔ capacity) ၃၀% fan ၏ inlet guide vane (air flow) Discharge damper (energy (maximum (pressure) ႔ paralle pump check valve Discharge damper fan (fan pressure) VAV box (air flow) ၍ control Discharge damper Discharge damper fan ၏ (performance) throttling ႔ VAV system Capacity control volume damper opposed Fully open discharge damper discharge damper blade Parallel ဝ (fully closed) flow characteristic (၄-၃၃) “ ” blade throttling (၄-၃၄) linear ႔ total system pressure drop) (pressure drop)across throttling the classic diagram damper damper Control valve authority ( ) 4-36 .

႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers figure damper authority (performance) curve ( ၄-၃၃ ႔ ၄-၃၄) Damper ၏ (performance) (၁) Manufacturer (၂) Damper relative size (၃) Damper situation (၁) ႔ Manufacturer Damper (linkage) (၂) ၏ (design) blade seal (material) damper ၏ (performance) Damper Relative Size Damper ၏ (size) opening ၏ duct ၏ damper damper ၏ damper (size) ၏ duct ၏ ႔ duct ဝ (၃) damper ဝ damper wall (performance) damper ႔ ႔ flow characteristic (performance) Damper Situation Duct ၏ damper ဝ ၏ direction damper damper ၏ (performance ) ၃-၃၇ Effect of Inlet Louver on an Opposed blade damper Characteristic (၃-၃၇) opposed blade damper ၏ Capacity control (throttling) application damper (performance) ဝ (position) pressure drop across the damper 4-37 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation System ႔ Damper throttling (air flow rate) ၏ duct system (frictional losses) (frictional losses) Fan ၏ (pressure) (air flow rate) ၏ volume flow rate Hydronic system two way valve Throttling application characteristic drop) ႔ parallel blade damper damper system fan curve ၏ linear ဝ (pressure (total pressure drop)၏ ၂၀% ၄-၃၈ Air flow through parallel ႔ ၄-၃၈ Air flow opposed dampers ၄-၃၈ Flow Pattern through dampers Opposed blade damper characteristic ၅% throttling application pressure drop across the damper ႔ ႔ ႔ opposed blade damper linear total system pressure drop ၏ down steam throttling application ( ၄-38) (air steam direction) Parallel blade damper ႔ down steam ၌ ၍ 4-38 .

႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers ၍ (down stream) elbow ႔ duct fitting (pressure drop) ၍ (down stream) diffuser (outlet throw pattern) ႔ (air outlet) diffuser ၏ neck ႔ diffuser opposed blade damper Throttling damper hydronic system control valve ၏ ၏ (pressure drop) Damper (pressure ၍ (size) drop) controllability Damper ႔ ႔ (size (pressure drop) ၄.၆.၃ (ဂ) Mixing duty (air steam) (out door air) return air damper ႔ opposed blade damper throttling (mixing) mixing application Mixing parallel blade damper throttling ႔ air stream Parallel blade damper throttling (air steam) (deflect) mixing (၅-၄၉) air stream (deflect) ႔ (air steam) ႔ (၅- ၃၉) (air steam) “ ” (air steam) ႔ Duct temperature) (outdoor air return air temperature ၏ Ventilation system effectiveness 4-39 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation System ႔ ၄-၃၉ Various Mixing Box Arrangements Damper damper schedule ၁ Damper Identification Tag ၇ Blade type ၂ Location ၈ Velocity Pressure Drop ၃ Damper Type ၉ Fail Position ၄ Damper Size & Quantity ၁၀ Actuator identification Tag ၅ Duct Size ၁၁ Actuator type & quantity ၆ Arrangement ၁၂ Mounting 4-40 .

1986) ၄-၄၁ Economizer with Supply and Return Fan 4-41 .႔ ၃-၄၀ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers (pressure drop)Across a Typical Mixing Box(Avery.

HVAC Control and Building Automation System ႔ ၄-၄၂ VAV system at 100% outdoor air and minimum outdoor air ၄-၄၃ Economizer with relief fan Table 3.11 Damper applications Control application Return air Damper type Parallel Outdoor air or exhaust air — with weather louvre or bird screen Opposed — without louvre or screen Parallel Coil face Opposed Bypass 4-42 .

(၁) Inlet and outlet conditions (၅) In-duct obstructions (၂) Location (၆) Inlet and outlet conditions (၃) Damper Authority (၇) Location (၄) Damper flow characteristic Damper Flow Characteristic The relationship between flow rate through the damper and the position of the damper blades Damper Flow Characteristic To select a damper which will meet the requirements of a particular application . These factors affect the performance of dampers.႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers — with perforated baffle Opposed — without perforated baffle Parallel Two-position (all applications) Parallel Volume Control Dampers Isolating Dampers Regulate or stop flow of air in branches of a duct system Balancing Dampers Limit air flow by holding damper blades at a specified position Fan Inlet Vane Dampers Used to control air flow rate to a fan (or Terminal Unit VAV Type Dampers) Used to control air flow Fan Outlet Dampers rate from a fan End – Factors Affecting Damper Performance Since dampers are a part of a system they are affected by their surroundings. This relationship is commonly called the damper flow characteristic Damper Flow Characteristic (Opposed) Use damper authority to determine installed damper flow characteristic % Damper Authority n Impact of the damper on total system n The ratio of wide open pressure drop through the damper to the total duct system pressure drop at the design flow 4-43 .the relationship between the flow rate through the damper and the position of the damper blades must be understood.

Damper Applications (၁) 2-Position (၄) Face and Bypass (၂) Static Pressure Control (၅) Mixed Air Control (၃) Temperature Control 2-Position Application Two Position Damper Applications In this application the damper is maintained in either its fully open or closed position depending on a binary input to the actuator. Static Pressure Control Application n Less common today with the use of Variable Air Volume systems and use of inlet vanes to control fan capacity n Damper modulated to maintain a static pressure set point at some downstream point in ductwork n Generally installed near the fan discharge n The damper pressure drop must be included in the overall system resistance Static Pressure Control Applications - 4-44 . The shape of the installed damper flow characteristic is not important since the damper is not a modulated device. Selecting the Correct Damper n Determine which installed damper flow characteristic will provide the best control n Use the value of the damper authority which best matches the system characteristics to determine the wide open pressure drop through the damper Damper Application will determine which installed damper flow characteristic will provide the best control.HVAC Control and Building Automation System ႔ By definition. The value of the damper authority which matches the desired flow characteristic is used to determine the wide open pressure drop required through the damper. dampers used are duct sized to provide the lowest possible wide open pressure drop. • Examples: 100% flow or 100% shut off. The correct damper can then be selected. authority is the ratio of the wide open pressure drop through the damper to the total duct system pressure drop at design flow. The only requirement is that it must be possible to obtain the wide open flow rate with a pressure drop which is less than or equal to the value specified. Generally.

.......................................................................................... Valve Sizing ...................................9 ....၁ Valve (Sizing) ....................................................... The damper is generally installed near the fan discharge.......................................................................................................................၆........၁ Introduction ............. ၄.......................၅..................................ppt Contents ၄................၅ Valve ........ The pressure drop across the damper must compensate for the increase in pressure developed by the fan and the reduction in the pressure drop across the ductwork as the system flow rate is decreased................ ၄................... 12 ၄..............၅.................................................... Error! Bookmark no Factors Affecting Damper Performance .............................................................................................................................. ၄...... Volume Control Dampers ...............................၂ ( ) Capacity Control Duty .................၅........၁ Style and Principles of Operation ............................................ 4-45 ............၃ (Close Off Pressure) .........႔ Chapter-4 Control Valves and Dampers In this application the damper is modulated to maintain a static pressure setpoint at some downstream point in the ductwork.......................၄ Three way control valve ၄..................................................................................2 ၄.... Damper Applications ................................................................................................................................ ၄......၆........................................................................................ ၄....................၆........................................................................၆ Control Damper ...................................................................................... ၄............................၁ ( ) Two Position Duty ...................၅............................................................ ၄...၃ (ဂ) Mixing duty ............ This application is less common today with the advent of variable speed drives and the use of inlet vanes to control fan capacity......၂ Two-Way Control Valve .................................၅........... ၄................. C:3 BAS and Control Book in Progress###BOT_TEXT###00 HVAC Control and BAS Book Publishing Format Ver 5\Damper......၁ Study Objective ................................................................၂..........................၁......................................1 ၄.............. 27 ၄...................................................................................................၅ Valve Schedule: .......................... ၄..................၄ Valve Selection....................................................................................................................................................................................................၂ Flow Characteristic Selection ......

HVAC Control and Building Automation System ႔ 4-46 .

၁ Introduction Building Automation System(BAS) ၊ equipment service computer c sub system monitor ၊ control ႔ (manage) computer - Building Management System(BMS) ၅-၁ Building automation systems (BAS) ၏ graphic control ႔ ၊ automation ၊ (energy saving) (security) BAS ၏ feature 5-1 .႔ Chapter-5 Introduction to Building Automation System (BAS) Chapter-5 Introduction to Building Automation System (BAS) ၅.

၁ What is Building Automation? Building automation systems (BAS) service monitor equipment ၊ system ၊ control ႔ (automated function) BAS ၏ (c ၊ energy (temperature reset)၊ automated function ၏ optimal temperature BAS BAS standard feature ၅-၂ Building Automation Systems (BAS) ၏ screen Office building ၊ shopping center (building) ႔ Commercial building (flexibility) intelligent security system ၊ Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) commercial ၏ Building Automation System Motion detector automatic lighting control function 5-2 ၊ process control BAS ၏ .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၅.၁.

၁.၂ Building Automation ႔ Building Control automated Automation” ႔၏ function “Building “Building Control” ႔ Association of German Engineers ႔၏ building automation service system ႔ (measurement)၊ control computer (definition) building control building a Function BAS commercial building ၅-၃ BAS system Building automation system function building ၏ (brain) (communication) ႔ ၏ control system Component BAS ၏ (communication) monitor system control 5-3 .႔ Chapter-5 Introduction to Building Automation System (BAS) BAS ၏ ( ) Cost-effectiveness/saving energy ( ) Communication via bus systems and networks (ဂ) Comfort and convenience (ဃ) Flexibility ၅.

keyboard. etc.) ( ) Software 5-4 ႔ component DDC ႔ .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems system ႔ computer (monitor Component operate Operator device ႔ information Eff ၊ ၊ ႔ (exchange) ၏ function process system BAS system system coordinate ႔ connect ႔ System communicate (၁) DDC building control component (၂) Special DDC ႔ (communicate central DDC (၃) BAS work station (communicate system ၏ computer (c ႔ Distributed BAS (၁) Primary field panel(s) (၂) Direct Digital Controller(DDC) intelligent controller Direct Digital Controller(DDC) device standalone control system (communication) Operator (instruction) (manage) node (communication) (basic task) ) Data acquisition and processing ( ) Control (ဂ) Communication and information management (ဃ) Diagnostic functions ႔ (task) ( architecture communication module BAS ၏ ( control program ႔ ၏ ႔ networking capabilities ႔ programming capabilities network panel ) Sensors and transducers ( ) Actuators and control devices (ဂ) Direct digital controllers (standalone or networked) (ဃ) Digital communication system ( ) Terminal devices (PDU.

and power conditioning equipment (၃) Standby/emergency power supply system (၄) Ventilation and air-conditioning system (၅) Primary and emergency lighting system (၆) Passenger and goods lifts/elevators (၇) Fire alarm and protection systems (၈) Noxious fume detection systems(e. intruder alarm and security systems (၁၀) Waste disposal and sewerage systems (၁၁) D h w .၃ Benefit of Building Automation System (building owner) • Higher rental value ( • Flexibility on change of building use ) ) • Service 5-5 . in chemical plants) (၉) Access control. regulated power supplies.w … ႔ ၅.g.၁.႔ Chapter-5 Introduction to Building Automation System (BAS) ၅-၄ Building automation system ႔ subsystem ႔ BAS system “Integration” service ႔ ႔ sub system (၁) Electrical power supply system (၂) UPS.

၂ Building Automation System Architecture ၅.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Facilities manager • of building operations •E •H h •R •G h •L w •R •R osts operational manpower costs •R osts & downtime •I afety •I ecurity ႔ (building tenant/occupants) •E and targeting of energy consumption.၂.၁ Configuration BAS system Architecture configure Functional hierarchy Building Automation system (BAS) hardware (microprocessor-based) controller 5-6 layer microprocessor h h . •G •P •I •I •E HVA -related complaints Summary of Infometrics Benefits (၁) Reduced energy consumption and energy cost (၂) Prioritization of equipment maintenance (၃) Reduced downtime caused by mechanical equipment failure (၄) Improved facility operations (၅) Ongoing commissioning of mechanical systems and control systems (၆) Reduced risk of indoor air quality problems (၇) Identification of profitable mechanical retrofit opportunities (၈) Improved occupant comfort (၉) Knowledge of facility energy consumption patterns and trends (၁၀) Integration with information technology systems ၅.

႔ Chapter-5 Introduction to Building Automation System (BAS) Building Automation system (BAS) architecture ( ) Management-level processors ( ) System-level processors (ဂ) Field-level processors ႔ ႔ ႔ (level) Management level controllers Automation-level controllers Zone-level controllers ႔ ၅-၅ Building Automation System (BAS) architecture ၏ (level) ၅-၆ Building Automation system (BAS) architecture ၏ (level) building automation system configuration A workstation field device ၊ controller (connect) Building Automation System ၏ configuration ႔ device workstation ၊ controller h 5-7 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems (၅-၅) (၅-၅) level ႔ ႔ Application controller ၊ building level controller layer Johnson Controls BAS Network Architecture level ႔ BAS workstation ႔ layer BAS Network architecture (၁) Management application ႔ operator workstation (၂) Supervisory controller (၃) Local controller ႔ DDC controller Field control stations၊ network control station ႔ 5-8 ႔ central management station layer ၅-၇ Johnson controls BAS architecture ၏ (level) ၅-၈ Johnson controls BAS architecture ၏ (level) level .

႔ Chapter-5 Introduction to Building Automation System (BAS) (၅-၉) BAS BAS ( ) field level l field controller level field controller level Management Level ( ) Integration Level (ဂ) Field Controller Level (ဃ) Application Level ႔ ၅-၉ L BAS architecture BAS system system Technology (IT) ႔ management level System Control function ၊ device BAS ႔ process automation automated system ႔ ႔ (organize) ၏ architecture Field device Actuator sensor flow rate (speed) computer information level component Information ၊ VSD ၊ actuator valve regulate Value VSD ၏ control ၅.၂.၂ Field-Level Controllers Field-level controller connection) program port sensor device (direct Field-level controller ၏ memory control action (execute 5-9 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ controller ႔ - (exchange information) controller management controller field-level controller system level w Field-Level controller Portable Operator's Terminal (POT) POT controller compressor ၊ generator equipment port Chillers ၊ boilers ၊ air self-contained field-level controller ၅.၂.၃ System-Level Controllers System-level controller field-level controller processing capacity ၅-၁၀ Honeywell BAS system architecture System-level controller ၏ ( ) Databases (maintenance) ( ) Operational information (ဂ) Field-level controller ၏ operation (ဂ) Field-level controller coordinate management processor (communication) ႔ System-level controller management-level processor ႔ management-level processor application program communication bus level controller BAS ၏ sub(integration) 5-10 data ႔ upload system-level controller Communication bus ႔ download system- fire ၊ security ၊ HVAC ၊ EMS system-level controller ႔ fire alarm .

႔ system Chapter-5 Introduction to Building Automation System (BAS) ႔ security system system-level controller ACMV system ၏ field-level controller ႔ ႔ ၅-၁၁ Johnson Controls Building Automation System(BAS) architecture ၅-၁၂ Johnson Controls Metasys system ၏ wireless network ၅.၄ Management Level Management ႔ Management Processor level ႔ management System ႔ (manage) processor BAS sub system Operator browser control ၏a h management Level hierarchy (control) workstation ၊ server ၊ Web information ႔ (data collection)၊ (data storage) ၊ historical data process ႔ management Level 5-11 .၂.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ report sequence System ၊ limit (maintenance management) ၊ system ၏ (security) management level ၅-၁၃ Johnson Controls wireless network ၅-၁၃ Many-to-one room temperature sensing Management level integrate Internet technology 5-12 ၊ ၊ set point management level scheduling programming subsystem One-to-one room temperature sensing (multi-vendor systems) w Integration ႔ .

႔ Chapter-5 Introduction to Building Automation System (BAS) Operator workstation management level Operator workstations ၏ function (၁) Graphics operator interface (၂) Generation of reports (၃) Storage of historical data (operator transactions ၊ alarms၊ trend၊ point history and run time totalisation) (၄) Back up storage of database ႔ ၅-၁၅ Building Automation.Three-level functional hierarchy ႔ management level (sophisticated) SCADA stand-alone PC ႔ (server- based design) Printers ၊ plotters ၊ video displays ၊ touch screens displays ၊ keyboard ၊ mouse device management level Field level commands) point ႔ (data requesting) Management-level processor (operating costs) (energy usage)၊ alarm activity generating report (processes) executing applications programs (issuing management level ႔ (collection)၊ data ႔ I/O (management) ႔ (stores) historical handling alarms handling daily activities 5-13 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems Management-level processor field-level controller sequences ၊ limits ၊ set points ၊ times ၊ system ၏ parameter ၊ Management level integrate ႔ system programming vendor Management-level system system ၏ (Maintenance management and scheduling) (security)၊ alarm notification ၅-၁၆ Building performance BAS layer protocol Building Management System energy ၊ operation ၅-၁၇ BAS overview 5-14 maintenance standard building performance control monitoring ႔ ၅-၁၈ Hierarchical structure of building control systems .

m) ၏ cooling load (8 a.m.) (၁၀) ဤ power demand (10 a.႔ Chapter-5 Introduction to Building Automation System (BAS) ၅.m.m) power demand Chiller plant w Trend parameter Analog trend ၏ record digital trend h memory - h linear analog trends (such as 4 to 20mA sensors) (enable Parameter trend ) module 5-15 .၁ BAS Trend logging Trend logging of time) parameter record demand ၏ (intervals Temperatures ၊ flow rates ၊ electrical power parameter cooling trend logging Recording (interval) Record “Trend Data” ၅-၁၉ Trend data of building power demand (trouble shooting) opportunities) (energy saving trend logging (၅-၁၉) BAS (8 a.၃ Building Automation System ၏ (Baisc Function) Building Automation System ၏ basic function ( ) Alarm detection/management ( ) Scheduling (ဂ) Trends (short-term storage) and historical data (long-term storage) (ဃ) Totalization ( ) Optimal start ( ) Custom control applications ႔ ၅.၃.) power demand (၁၀) (10 a.

၃.၂ Data Analysis and Report Generation data (function) processing 5-16 (collection) Data information information analysis BAS system ၏ ႔ report .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၅-၂၀ Trend Memory Storage (power failure) RA RAM battery Function block controller ၏ - RA Firmware module driver controller ႔ ႔ controller ၏ 1Mb Flash memory h 1Mb RAM h module driver GFBs firmware RA RAM ၏ module driver ၏ Operator Workstation GX-9100 Software Comm Port Networked DDCs RS 232 to RS 485 Convertor NCU/RPU N2 BUS XT BUS DX 9100 XT / XP 9100 ၅-၂၁ Johnson Control BAS Network Architecture ၅.

၃. including number of starts/stops) (၇) Load Profile (demand profile by day) Other standard reports may be: ( ) All point summary ( ) Alarm summary (ဂ) Disabled Points Log (ဃ) Single System Summary (single AHU or single chiller) ( ) Controller Status Summary ( ) Applications Summary summary BAS (၁) Point summary (၄) Lockout summary (၂) Alarm summary (၅) Off-line summary (၃) Limits summary (၆) Override summary Applications Summary (၁) Alarm detection/management (၅) Optimal start (၂) Scheduling (၆) Custom control applications (၃) Trend logs/Trend Summaries (၇) Demand limit / load rolling (၄) Totalization (၈) Tailored Summaries BMS software Print system report Data (value) (archive) ၅. reactive power. peak demand.၃ Totalization Fan ၊ pump ႔ building equipment (runtime) equipment (runtime) totalization totalization 5-17 .႔ Chapter-5 Introduction to Building Automation System (BAS) ႔ report failure alarm ႔ click energy consumption/equipment report BAS system ၏ Seven Essential Reports (၁) Big Picture Energy (normalized use and consumption) (၂) Consumption (details by energy type) (၃) Production (including efficiency of production) (၄) Electrical Energy (usage. power factor) (၅) Energy Cost (easy to configure overview) (၆) Equipment Runtime (hourly.

၃.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Totalization (၁) Analog – calculates consumption from flow (၂) Runtime – counts elapsed time in a specified condition (၃) Event – counts number of occurrences ၅.၄ Scheduling Equipment (starting) ႔ (stopping) scheduling feature (weekdays)၊ (Saturdays and Sundays) (holidays) calendar) equipment (one year ၊ ၊ Builiding ၏ cooling load chiller equipment ႔ ၏ performance ႔ chiller office building AHU ႔ ဂ ႔ ၅-၂၂ BAS Scheduling feature Central workstation schedule manual timer schedule ၊ equipment h (၁) Start and stop a point (၂) Change alarm limits. warning limits or set point (၃) Lock/unlock point reporting or point control (၄) Demand limit target setting (၅) Load rolling target setting (၆) Trend point enable/disable for a point (၇) Totalization enable/disable for a point (၈) Alarm summary 5-18 AHU ၊ override ႔ schedule .

၅ Equipment Interlocks BAS interlock feature ၊ Equipment ႔ (group) ႔ Equipment (safety) interlock Boiler ၊ air intake feedwater pump ႔ interlock Exhaust fan supply fan kitchen exhaust hood interlock Cooking gas valve interlock condenser water pump ၅-၂၃ ႔ cooling tower ႔ Chiller chilled water pump၊ interlock (meters) ၊ data acquisition device energy management software ၅.႔ Chapter-5 Introduction to Building Automation System (BAS) ၅.၃.၆ Metering DDCs consumption ၏ data acquisition capability utility management software ႔ water consumption၊ (၅-၂၃) Power energy (meters) 5-19 .၃.

၃.၈ Graphic graphic (၁) Main screen for each building (၂) Flow diagram for every air handling unit (၃) Flow diagram for chiller system (၄) Fire/security plan for every floor (၅) Plumbing system diagram (၆) Electrical system diagram (၇) Vertical transportation system diagram (၈) Point history graph for all analog points (၉) Real-time graph for all analog points ၅-၂၄ AHU 5-20 ႔ ႔ visual BAS ႔ ၏ graphic ႔ operator audible signal .၇ Monitoring equipment failure BAS system equipment ႔ BAS system (malfunction) equipment alarm alarm ၏ monitoring ႔ alarm SMS print out ႔ ၊ e-mail ႔ ႔ alarm ၊ ၅.၃.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၅.

Chapter-5 Introduction to Building Automation System (BAS) ၅-၂၅ Chilled water system graphic ႔ 5-21 .

၁၂ Software functions BAS ၏ software function (၁) Configuration (၄) Monitoring (၂) Commissioning (၅) Commanding (၃) Data archiving (၆) System diagnostics 5-22 ႔ control .၃.၉ Alarms Alarm (၁၀) ၅.၃.၁၀ Maintenance Scheduling and Inventory Control Maintenance scheduling preventive management inventory control maintenance application ႔ schedule maintenance (parts) database management applications database personnel ၊ inventory ၅.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems (၅-၂၅) plant room BAS work operator station equipment pump ႔ g cooling tower g h Chiller water h chiller ၊ ႔ System chiller ၏ operation parameter ၅-၂၆ VAV Box damper (opening percentage) ၅.၁၁ Controls BAS advanced control programs R ( summary ) energy management program BAS Point summary (ဃ) Off-line summary ( ) Alarm summary ( ) Disabled summary (ဂ) Override summary ( ) Custom summary ႔ ၅.၃.၃.

(၂) What is an operational system interface? (၃) Why are most commercial buildings nowadays equipped with building automation? (၄) I “L P D ” ? (၅) Give examples of energy management functions that can be used in hotel rooms.႔ Chapter-5 Introduction to Building Automation System (BAS) ၅. including Password Add/Modify Level 6 access user ၅.၄ Question (၁) Explain the difference between building automation and building control.၁၃ User Access level BAS access (level) Level 1 = View Data Level 1 access user data Level 2 = Command Level 2 access user equipment ၊ ႔(c Level 3 = Operator Overrides Level 3 access user setpoint equipment ၊ valve damper ၊ ၊ override ႔ Level 4 = Database Modification Level 4 access user database Modify Level 5 = Database Configuration Level 5 access user database configuration Level 6 = All privileges. (၆) What kind of comfort and convenience functions can be implemented in a private residential building? (၇) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using standardized bus systems and (၈) Networks in building automation? -End- 5-23 .၃.

......................... 6 ၅............................၁၂ Software functions ..........................................................................................၇ Monitoring ..၁ Introduction ..............၃........................................ ၅................................၁၁ Controls....၃ System-Level Controllers ....၃ Building Automation System ၏ Management Processor .......................................................................................................................................................................................... ၅..................... ၅.....................၁ BAS Trend logging ..........................၃................၂...................................................................................................................................................... ၅.................. 15 ၅...၄ Management Level ႔ ၅............................................ ၅..၈ Graphic ........၃.....၂.............HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Introduction to Building Automation System(BAS) Contents ၅.....၂ Field-Level Controllers ..................................................................... ၅.......................................................၃ Totalization .............................................................၅ Equipment Interlocks ...................................၃....................................၁....၁ Configuration .......................................................................................၃............၃............................ ၅................................ (Baisc Function) .......................၁၃ User Access level .........၉ Alarms....................................................... ၅......... ၅...................... ၅.................................၁...............၃.............................................. ၅..........၄ Scheduling ... ၅....၁ What is Building Automation? ................. ၅.......၂ Building Automation Building Control ႔၏ ....၂.........................................................................................................................................................................................၃.......................................................................၂.......................................... ၅..........................၃.......... ၅.................................၃ Benefit of Building Automation System .................................................................. ၅................................................................................... 23 5-24 ....................................၄ Question ....၃..၁.........................................................................................................၃......................................................................................၃...................၂ Building Automation System Architecture .....................................................................................................................................................၁၀ Maintenance Scheduling and Inventory Control ...................................................................... ၅...........၂ Data Analysis and Report Generation ....................................................... ၅............................................... 1 ၅.......................................၃....................... ၅.........................................................၆ Metering ................................

၃ Totalization 17 ၅.၃.၂ Building Automation Building Control 2 ႔၏ 3 ၅.၂ Building Automation System Architecture 6 _ ၅.၁ Configuration 6 _ ၅.၃ Benefit of Building Automation System 5 ၅.၂.၁.၂.၃.၄ Question 23 5-25 .၁၀ Maintenance Scheduling and Inventory Control 22 ၅.၃.၁ Introduction 1 _ ၅.၂ Field-Level Controllers 9 _ ၅.၃.၉ Alarms 22 _ ၅.၃.၃ System-Level Controllers ၅.၃.၃.၁ BAS Trend logging 15 _ ၅.၁၁ Controls 22 _ ၅.၃.၃.၃ Building Automation System ၏ (Baisc Function) 11 15 _ ၅.၃.၃.၅ Equipment Interlocks 19 _ ၅.၁.၁.၃.၃.၁၂ Software functions 22 _ ၅.၈ Graphic 20 _ ၅.၁၃ User Access level 23 ၅.၆ Metering 19 _ ၅.၇ Monitoring 20 ၅.၂ Data Analysis and Report Generation 16 _ ၅.၂.၁ What is Building Automation? _ ၅.၄ Management Level ႔ 10 Management Processor ၅.႔ Chapter-5 Introduction to Building Automation System (BAS) ၅.၄ Scheduling 18 _ ၅.၂.

႔ Chapter-6 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Chapter-6 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) ၆.၁ Basic Feature of DDC Hardware Component Direct Digital Controller (DDC) controller microprocessor program DDC hardware ၊ software standalone controller physical process firmware ႔ control DDC control task ၏ (supervision) ၆-၁ Microprocessor based Direct Digital Controller(DDC) DDC ႔ control task ၊ networking capability (၆-၁) DDC data networking sensor(input device) controlled device (output device) 6-1 .

g. ၆-၂ Direct Digital Controller (DDC) communication interface ၆-၃ Block diagram of Direct Digital Controller DDC ႔ (communicate) address 6-2 DDC network ၆-၄ Microprocessor node (unique number) .. serial communications port for connecting it to a portable PC for local programming and re-configuration.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems DDC ( ) communication ႔ interface A modem(modem port) ( ) A Local Area Network(LAN) terminals (ဂ) Other operator interface devices. e.

႔ Chapter-6 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Microprocessor Direct Digital Controller (DDC) Microprocessor ၏ micro- (silicon) - Microprocessor Direct Digital Controller (DDC) ၏ Microprocessor ( ) Micro-electronic chip ( ) A program memory (ဂ) A working memory (ဃ) Input/Output module ( ) A clock or timing devices ( ) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) ႔ Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) decision ၊ ၊ ၊ logical Control unit ( )(electronic ႔ (instructions) Temporary memory ၊ chip) memory ႔ program control function memory ၆-၅ Microprocessor controller configuration for automatic control applications.၁ DDC Power Supply DDC sensor 24V power supply drive ၊ output control circuitry DDC micro electronic circuit DDC backup battery power supply power DDC backsup battery power supply memory DDC 6-3 . ၆.၁.

၁.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems RAM control program (reliable) ႔ backup battery Power DDC keypad ႔ power re-confugration information display ၆-၆ Controller ၆.၂ Microprocessor (CPU) CPU CPU Dual-In-Line (DIL) package 16 pin ႔ control unit ၊ CPU memory Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) ၊ CPU clock unit ၊ DDC clock ၊ adddress and data bus ၊ DDC RAM ROM ႔ (၁) Control Unit Control unit operation microprocessor ALU control memory chip Micro computer ၏ function Program ႔ chip ၏ (co-ondinate) (instruction) (၂) CPU memory CPU memory memory sensor data ၊ point name ALU control unit information ႔ program instruction (၃) Arithmetic and Logic Unit(ALU) Arithmetic and Logic Unit(ALU) (addition)၊ (calculation) (selection)၊ (sorting) process (comparing) Sensor tranducer control output command 6-4 (multiplication) logical decision–marking input device data .

DDC application program computational result ၊ configuration ဏ information software ဏ application software programmer Read Only Memory(ROM) DDC standard control program Standard control program routines configuration information time schedule ၊ On/Off control PID application software Application program run information 6-5 .DDC clock automatic switching (ligh) ႔ timer ၊ holiday ႔ plant - equipment ႔ (၆) Address and Data Buses DDC microprocessor address bus chip data bus data DDC memory ၌ program instruction adddress .႔ Chapter-6 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) (၄) CPU Clock Unit (Timer Interval) Quartz crystal pulse control unit ႔ ႔ microprocess ၏ operation Clock unit speed ႔ processor cycle time cycle time Machine Program instruction (execute) basic speed (၅)DDC Clock DDC clock CPU clock unit clock DDC clock CPU CPU clock ႔ schedule DDC ႔၊ ၊ building equipment fan ၊ pump ၊ time program .sensor address (storage area) (၁) Data bus DDC chip data (၂) Address bus ႔ prpgram transfer data instruction (၇) DDC RAM and ROM DDC RAM ROM ႔ CPU memory ႔ Random Access Memory(RAM) Random Access Memory(RAM) storage) information data (temporary .

DDC Microprocessor (CPU) ၊ memory output (I/O) units ႔ Data ၊ instructions bus ၊ address bus address signal transmission operation data control bus (၆-၈) ႔ input and DDC ၏ microprocessor chip memory unit ၊ input ႔ Unit output units microelectronic chip Bus Data bus chip input unit data memory Address bus ႔ data bus data (memory or register) program instruction (memory or register) telephone number Data 6-6 ႔ IP address bus Address (A) ႔ data ႔ memory unit address (B) ႔ ႔ ၌ address .၁.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ control routines firmware ႔ program firmware programmer ၆.၃ Microcomputer Structure and Buses Microcomputer ႔ Digital Controller (DDC) ၏ essential components) (main (interconnections) (၆-၇) ၆-၇ Microcomputer principal architecture.

႔ Chapter-6 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) (၁) Microprocessor address A (၂) Control unit ႔ control bus data data bus ႔ (၃) Microprocessor address B (၄) Control unit (write) ႔ control bus data bus data address A ႔ ႔ ၆-၈ Architecture of DDC controller ၆.၁.bit and 64.bit chips ROM chip ႔ data chip Random Access Memory(RAM) 16.bit address bus address locations 216 chips ၊ 32.bit microprocessor chip ႔ data instruction ႔ I/O ports ၊ ၌ program user ၌ program data data (power failure) ၌ control standard control function ၊ schedule ၊ on/off ႔ Proportional-Integral.Derivative (PID) function Erasable and re-Programmable ROMs (EPROMs) ႔ chip 6-7 .၄ Memory Size Data program instruction memory chip Microprocessor memory Memory chip ႔ Read Only Memory (ROM) 16.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Memory bus structure bit ဏ 16 bit address bus 216 RAM ROM chip Kb(Kilobyte) kilobyte 8 ဏ 1 1024 byte DDC ၏ memory ႔ ဏ DDC data ႔ Input ၊ output programming ၆-၉ Information path: Digital Controller .၂ Input and Output Points Direct Digital Controller DDC DDC controller processor ႔ Personal computer DDC controller ၏ memory instruction action microprocessor DDC control logic instruction Control control instruction program ၆.၁ DDC Input/Output Unit Interface DDC A/D D/A converter Board(PCB 6-8 ၏ input mount output electronic chip (section) operation amplifier chip ၊ Printed Circuit .၂.DDC temperature sensor(၈) data (reading) DDC (၁) Sensor 1 byte memory 4 Kbyte RAM temperature sensor(၈) (M data (၆-၂) download (values) ၊ overwrite DDC controller ၏ input terminal ) temperature sensor DDC controller output ၌ actuator input channel sensor DDC controller ၊ output channel (input terminal) ႔ controlled device DDC controller (output terminal) ၆.

high/low temperature. alarm on/off ႔ • Switch dry contact (open/closed) • Power (on/off status) • Smoke detectors • High/low limit switch (on/off) • Airflow • Freeze alarm • Water • Differential pressure (၂) Analogue Input (AI) AI sensor ႔ transmitter Temperature ၊ pressure ၊ humidity ( physical variable ၏ ) 6-9 .၂.႔ Chapter-6 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Sensor DDC controller input channel Control device (actuator) DDC input unit ( ) function Sensor output output channel configure ၊ transducer (measured variable) ( ) DDC ၊ (meter) DDC ၏ input unit Input signal ႔ input signal amplification ၊ filtering signal conditioning (ဂ) DDC input unit input analogue signal digital signal ႔ A/D converter (ဃ) Volt free contact (static switch) On/off state signal device ၏ status ႔ alarm DDC output unit computation result logical operation function ( ) ( ) Controlled device ၏ Output digital signal device (incremental basis) pulse (ဂ) Output device(valve/damper)၏ DDC digital signal position D/A converter analogue ၊ ႔ ၆.fan on/off status.၂ DDC I/O Point Types (Data Points) DDC data point ( input point output point ) Input points Sensing device sensor transducer input point data DDC data ၊ control (၁) Digital Inputs (DI) Status monitoring two-state input signal Digital Inputs (DI) .

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems AI input active Active AI passive voltage Passive AI ႔ (type) ႔ current signal input ႔ Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD) (resistance ႔ active analogue input signal •0 10 • 0 20mA (0 to 20mA) Analogue Input (AI) point (၃) • Resistance Temperature Detectors • Flow (water. / • .) • Humidity • Air quantity (CFM) Pulsed Input (PI) Physical variable engineering unit accumulated pulse . air) • Temperature Thermistors • Voltage • Temperature Transmitters • Current • Pressure • Air quality (CO2. • Relays • Indicator lights • Two-position actuators • Two-position solenoid valves Analogue Output (AO) AO controlled device CPU software command current control signals damper 6-10 ႔ Digital Output(DO) • • energizing ႔ ႔ (၂) (commands ႔ command continuous၊ variable voltage or controlled device valve actuators ၊ variable speed drives ၊ flow rate ႔ ႔ - .10 pulses 1 kWh pulses (၁၀) 1 kWh ( ) Output points: Output point (၁) control signal ႔ Digital Output (DO): DO contact ႔ switch ၏ relay coil energizing / • / • de- on Adjusted Type (DAT) (driven from a numeric variable) • j / T T. etc. O2.

8 dc volts analog signal RH sensor ၏ working range ( ( ) ) 0 10 A/D converter ၏ resolution Sensor output .DDC ၌ 8-bit A/D converter RH sensor 7. Sample Control Points Classified Control point: Classified as: Smoke detector (dry contact switch) DI Outside air temperature AI Bypass valve AO Start/Stop relays DO Chilled water supply temperature AI Static (Duct) pressure AI Freeze alarm DI Damper actuator AO ၆-၁၀ Air Heater with Outdoor Reset .႔ Chapter-6 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) ႔ Analogue output signals •0 10 • 0 0 0 0 • Damper actuators • Inlet guide vanes • Modulating valves for Chilled water • Variable frequency drives • Modulating valves for Heating coil Table 2. A/D converter ၏ digital output data 6-11 .

fire/smoke detector ON/OFF input switch start input ) On/off input (Digital Input ၆.၂.Power meter kWh BI .၃( ၏ control diagram ႔ timer Control System ( air heater (၁၀၀) pulse count .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ DDC Input (၆-၂) input to DDC controller ႔ Output output from DDC ၆-၁၁ Air Heater Input/Output points (၆-၁၁) outdoor reset Fire signal ႔ control smoke detector ႔ ႔ ( ) On/off output (Digital Output (ဂ) Variable input (Analog Input (ဃ) Variable output (Analog Output ) On/off Input ႔ ႔ DO) – power to light ႔ AI) – temperature from sensor ႔ AO)– power to the valve Digital Input (DI) ႔ relay ႔ ႔ Binary Input (BI) ) device ” ႔ (count ) pulse Digital Input(DI) 6-12 (ON/OFF) Building Automation on/off ႔ / Binary Input(BI) Binary Input(BI) 1 ႔ ႔ (circuit “ Digital Input(DI) fan DI) – manual switch.

႔ Chapter-6 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Series of pulse digital OFF ON “Binary” On/off input ၏ (official designation) ၆-၁၂ Example of distributed DDC controller configuration ၆.၄( ) On/off Output ႔ Digital Output(DO) On/off output “ ႔ Off output power ” ႔ ႔ Binary Output(BO) close contact (power off) Digital Output(DO) ႔ ႔ On Binary Output (BO) 6-13 .၂.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ၆.၅(ဂ) Variable Input ႔ ႔ Analog Input(AI) ႔ Binary Input(BI) Variable input signal Temperature၊ humidity pressure DDC ႔ ႔ signal signal(varying signal) ႔ Analog Input(AI) ၆.၂.၆(ဃ) Variable Output ႔ Analog Output(AO) Value ၊ variable output computer ႔ ႔ Analog Output(AO) BI ၊ BO DDC controller analog damper Temperature varying signal (0.10 Volts) digital signal A/D conventor ႔ ႔ A/D processor ႔ AI device AI ၊ AO point ႔ sensor Computer analog signal digital signal ႔ DDC ႔ A/D device processor (controller) ၌ A/D analog to digital converter A/D converter Built-in ၆-၁၄ Analog functions of a digital controller DDC ( ) Power Supply component Computer board Low voltage I/O Point ႔ ( ) Computer Board power Direct Current(DC) 24 Volt AC Control software Logic process microprocessor (ဂ) I/O Board input A/D signal 6-14 output D/A conversion Digital signal ၌ hardware True analog accuracy timing ႔ .၂.

႔ Chapter-6 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) (ဃ) Communication controller data communication port Communication port access device Digital computer system transter (communicate) sequence analog operator Pneumatic Computer ၏ speed input ၆-၁၃ Simple DDC system layout (၆-၁၃) adjust plant operator ႔ Setpoint adjust Controller ၆-၁၅( operator boiler network setpoint setpoint network cable communicate PC boiler control panel data (၈) ႔ Data communication (၉) ) BI Internally and externally ၆-၁၅( ) Monitored BI point using an powered analog input ၆.၃ I/O Point Characteristics Physical input/output point I/O board (connect) supply termimal point ၆-၁၅( ) power ၆-၁၅( External power supply power ႔ ) power ႔ internal power supply 6-15 .

၏ ႔ 1 0/ ႔ 0 range ၁ -40°F 8 bit converter Economizer damper control outside air ၏ enthalpy accuracy Sensor ၏ accuracy 6-16 1 0 digital signal signal digital signal 10 0.5 volt closed ၊ 5.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Internal power supply DDC Detect circuit Analog input point ( Binary input ) ( ) monitor (terminal Switch c 0 volt ( terminal (ဂ) ) 5.6 vlot (ဃ) Open circuit(terminal ၌ 10 volt Software ) ) program 0 volt 4.5 volt multi BI monitor Current Transformer(CT) (zero current) motor monitor ႔ power supply fan motor ၏ pullery ၌ low load High current fan ႔ Analog Input(AI) point point BI point configure Analog Input(AI) alarm message Analog Input(AI) point fan (critical) fan Analog converter ႔ sensor Digital signal true analog signal 0 1 (Series of 1s and 0s) converter signal ၏ (၂၅၆) convert +120°F 0.5 volt 6.1 volt Terminal switch open A/D converter circuit monitor circuit high resistance constant speed fan Analog point ၌ current ႔ switch 7.5 volt short circuit ၊ 4.0 vlot (terminal ) 6.16°F(160/1024) .1 volt Analog Input(AI) Fan ၏ cable ၌ current ring 5.

0 (End to End ) (၁) Medium to sensor (၂) Sensor (၃) Transmitter (၄) Inter connection (၅) A/D converter ႔ Medium to sensor accuracy .႔ Chapter-6 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) 12 bit converter 0.04F(160/4096) Converter ၏ accuracy sensor ၏ accuracy 12 bit converter memory DDC System accuracy Record ၏ accuracy control signal 24 bit ၏ number accuracy (၅) 1.flow meter ၊ outside air temperature sensor temperature ၌ air solar radiation (mix) ႔ end to end accuracy sensor Transmitter 0-10 volt transmitter transmitter 38°F 45°F 100°F range ႔ ႔ accuracy accuracy ၊ accuracy 0-10 volt Required thermistor chilled water supply temperature volt drop ၏ ) (wire) 0-5 volt Sensor ၏ accuracy ၏ sensor rang ၊ mixed air wire (wire) 4-20mA current loop A/D conversion accuracy Analog input signal digital ႔ (convert signal ႔ VAV box ၌ velocity signal ႔ smooth “ reading smooth controller Input ႔ Thermistor AO ႔ (၅) ႔ Five second smoothing every cycle ” lookup table reading (၅) ႔ input lookup table ၏ curve algorithm ႔ modify Thermistor signal input modify BO Output Sensor signal ႔ output device A/D converter valve Analog actuator Digital ႔ D/A convertor analog 6-17 .

၄ DDC I/O Point Type (Data Point) DDC data point input point output point (၁) Input points ( ) Digital Input(DI) DI - Equipment ၏ status .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ႔ ႔ output device Update ႔ 10 bit resolution bit D/A 8 bit 0.Fan on/off status alarm on/off AI sensor ႔ transmitter pressure ၊ humidity temperature၊ ႔၏ physical variable AI Active AI monitor voltage input current ႔ voltage active ႔ ႔ passive Passive AI resistance ၆-၁၆ Analog Input (AI) ( ) Analogue Input(AI) Active analogue input signal ႔ • 0 to 20 mA (0 to 20mA) • 4 to 20mA (0 to 20mA) • Pulse Input (PI). PI (၂) pulse Output points Output point control signal controller command( control signal) (result) ( 6-18 ) Digital Output(DO) DDC computation Logical operation contact command ႔ (result) switch relay coil energizing .4% Incremental controller j controller DDC panel DDC panel ၌ ႔ control signal power ၌ 8 output power Actuator Transducer D/A 256 increments Controller ႔ ၌ j ၌ j Adjustment ( ) ၆.

incremental control) (၅) Start/Stop(S/S)(driven from a logic variable) (၆) Pulse(driven from a logic variable) ႔ ၆-၁၇ AO ‐ Analog Output (AO) ( ) Analogue Output (AO) AO CPU variable voltage generate software c ႔ Analogue output signal ( ) ( ) Controlled device ႔ • 0 to10V (0 to 5V) • 4 to 20mA (0 to 20mA) ၆-၁၈ Example 3 DDC 8 bit A to D converter Sensor ၏ working range ( ( ) ) RH sensor 0 volt 7.႔ Chapter-6 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) ႔ de-energizing Digital Output two state control function ႔ perform configure (၁) On/off(driven from a logic variable) (၂) On/off(driven from a numeric variable) (၃) Duration Adjusted Type(DAT)(driven from a numeric variable) (၄) Position Adjust Type(PAT .8 volt dc analog data input 10 Converter ၏ resolution Sensor output 7.8 v A/D converter Digital Output 6-19 .

Typical Data File for Analog Input.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ data -၃ (၆-၁၈) DDC based room static pressure control system diagram Room static pressure return air fan Variable Speed Drive(VSD) modulating Control Discharge air fan (fixed speed) modulating Damper Actuator(D) Air flow switch filter ၏(dirty/clean) DDC input/output point ( ၏ schematic monitor assign ) Damper actuators(D) ( ) Air flow Switch for the air filter (ဂ) Room static pressure sensor (ဃ) Variable speed drive(VSD) for return air fan ( ) Relay coil for contactor(C) of the discharge air fan Table 2.၅ DDC Operating Sequence (၁) Sensor transmitter temperature ၊ pressure (measured variable) (၂) Sensor reading ႔ DDC ၏ input unit DDC CPU input unit process input unit m (၃) Input unit buffer (၄) CPU ႔ signal ႔၏ ႔ digital electrical information “Buffer” small ဏ processing sensor data sensor data control bus ၊ input unit (address) CPU ႔ sensor reading (၅) Program counter CPU instruction 6-20 ႔ register .X High limit 70 Low limit 40 Alarm lockout point Point address Point descriptor Cold deck temperature Alarm priority Critical ၆. Point Address User Address Point type Regular or calculation Sensor Platinum(0 to 100F) Physical terminal assigned 16 Use code Cold deck dry bulb Engineering unit F Decimal places for display XXX.

Supply air temperature duct static pressure fan speed Process variable parameter control parameter chilled water value position ႔ ႔ control equipment ႔ ၌ Cooling coil control relationship supply air temperature input ) valve actuator control Air system smooth velocity pressure (input (၅) Square root (၁၀) (velocity volume (display) ႔ ႔ smooth ) ႔ volume Volume v operation control ၌ volume ႔ ) Duct ၏ controller ၏ input control method constant Input ဏ response speed ၊ control loop ၏ time Zone temperature control (s outdoor reset proportional band control (narrow proportional band) ႔ band performance ၆.AHU fan Sub system mixing damper ၊ cooling coil ၊ heating coil ၊ subsystem Subsystem ၌ process variable ႔ ၊ control Main process variable ႔ .႔ Chapter-6 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) (၆) CPU data (program step) (၇) Software program(module) control routine execute ၆.၇ DDC Software module DDC Software internal module ႔ s text based method internal module DDC ၏ software module graphical CAD control function configure 6-21 .၆ Control Sequence Control sequence ၊ logical control sequence ၊ control (performance) (step-by-step) Control system ၏ schematic .

........၃ Microcomputer Structure and Buses .............................၁........................ ၆.............................၂ DDC I/O Point Types (Data Points) ...................................................................................၄ Memory Size ..................................... 15 ၆....................................................... ၆..............၄ DDC I/O Point Type (Data Point) ....၂....................၂.....၆ Control Sequence..... ၆........................................................................................HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems DDC software module ႔ ႔ (၁) Control modules( e..........၄( ) On/off Output ၆..........................၁ Basic Feature of DDC Hardware Component .................... 21 6-22 ......................................................... 20 ၆............................ PID) (၂) Arithmetic modules(e........................................................... 18 ၆............၂.....၂.................................. 1 ၆.................... etc(e.....၁..........၁... EF with EF OUT) internal software module input output point DDC ..................... ၆................................၂.. summing.............................၃ I/O Point Characteristics ............. averaging....... 21 ၆.................................g.............၅ DDC Operating Sequence ............၂.............................. ၆.................................................................. 8 ၆..........၁.............................................................၃( ) On/off Input ၆.................................၁ DDC Power Supply ......................................... ၆...................................................၁ DDC Input/Output Unit Interface .....၆(ဃ) Variable Output ႔ Digital Input (DI) ႔ ႔ Digital Output(DO) Binary Input (BI) .....................g.................................g.........................၅(ဂ) Variable Input ၆................I/O point ) temporary point temporary point (DDC data base pseudo point -End- Contents ၆........ Analog Output(AO) ........................................................၂ Input and Output Points ...........................................................................၂ Microprocessor (CPU) ...................................... ႔ ႔ Analog Input(AI) ႔ ႔ Binary Output(BO) ................................ on/off....................... totalization) (၃) Programmable logic modules(PLC) (၄) Interlock modules ..................... Binary Input(BI) ............. ၆.................၇ DDC Software module ..............................................

၂.၃ I/O Point Characteristics 15 ၆.၁ DDC Input/Output Unit Interface ၆.၅ DDC Operating Sequence 20 ၆.၂.၂.၁.၂.၂.႔ Chapter-6 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) ၆.၁ DDC Power Supply 3 ၆.၃ Microcomputer Structure and Buses 6 ၆.၇ DDC Software module 21 6-23 .၄ Memory Size 7 _ ၆.၆ Control Sequence 21 ၆.၁ Basic Feature of DDC Hardware Component 1 _ ၆.၆(ဃ) Variable Output ႔ Digital Input (DI) ႔ 9 ႔ Binary Input (BI) Digital Output(DO) ႔ Analog Input(AI) ႔ ႔ ႔ Analog Output(AO) Binary Output(BO) Binary Input(BI) 12 13 14 14 ၆.၂ Microprocessor (CPU) 4 ၆.၅(ဂ) Variable Input ၆.၂ DDC I/O Point Types (Data Points) _ ၆.၃ ( ) On/off Input ၆.၄ DDC I/O Point Type (Data Point) 18 ၆.၁.၂ Input and Output Points 8 _ 8 ၆.၁.၂.၁.၄( ) On/off Output _ ၆.

၁.၁ Fan Coil Unit ႔ ၏ input control output terminal wing ႔ DDC Controller (Model: UFC0882L) ၇-၁ FCU Control(with valve) ၇.႔ Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring Direct Digital Controller (DDC) ၇.၁ Description DDC Controller(Model: UFC0882L) LONMARK® Functional Object type 8020 ဤ controller FCU ၏ capacity ၍ Fan Coil Unit(FCU) control ခခ Cooling Only Application configure ခ control 7-1 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems On/Off type actuator ၏ capacity ႔ ၍ valve (open)၊ ခ FCU control ၇-၂( ) Valve Open Control ၇-၂(ခ) Valve Close Control ၇.၁.၂ DDC Terminal Block Assignment UFC0882L Terminal Block (၇)ခ TB1 TB6 TB8 terminals ႔ 8 Terminal Label Description Remark Block No TB1 TB2 TB4 TB5 TB6 7-2 AC24V 24 VAC Input(L) COM 24 VAC Input(N) TO4 On/Off Valve control(DO) TO6 FCU Start/Stop control(DO) UI1 FCU On/Off status(DI) COM Com for UI1 & UI2 UI2 FCU Mode status(DI) UI3 FCU Trip status(DI) COM Com for UI3 & UI4 UI4 FCU Water leakage status(DI) UI5 FCU Valve status(DI) COM Com for UI5 & UI6 UI6 Return Air Temperature(AI) N+ Network wire from previous DDC N- Network wire from previous DDC N+ Network wire to next DDC N- Network wire to next DDC Only for Type 1 FCU Only for Type 1 FCU Only for Type 1 FCU TB3 TB .

၃ DDC Layout & Wiring Diagram NOTE: 1) # RETURN AIR SENSOR(AI) & VALVE CONTROL(DO) ONLY APPLICABLE FOR TYPE 1 FCU 2) EACH COM TERMINAL TO BE SHARED BY 2 UI TERMINALS 3) ALL DIGITAL OUTPUTS ARE 24 Vac TRIAC OUTPUTS ၇-၃ ၁.႔ Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring ၇.၁.၂ Fan Controller DDC(Model U6F2484L) DX/FCU Control S/S = Start/Stop control TA = Trip Alarm ၇-၄ ST = On/Off status A/M= Auto/Manual status 7-3 .

၂ DDC Terminal Block Assignment(UGM2484L) Terminal Label Description Remark Block No TB0 TB1 TB2 TB3 TB4 TB5 TB6 TB7 +24V 24 VAC Input(L) COM 24 VAC Input(N) AO1 Analog Output 1 COM Com terminal for AO1 & AO2 AO2 Analog Output 2 AO AO3 Analog Output 3 commanded via binding COM Com terminal for AO3 & AO4 AO4 Analog Output 4 UI1 – UI4 COM UI5 – UI8 COM UI9 – UI12 COM UI13 – UI16 COM UI17 – UI20 COM UI21 – UI24 COM P3 TB8 COM P4 TB9 TB10 7-4 TO1-TO8 channels to be Universal Inputs 1-4 2 COM Terminals for UI 1-4 Each com shared by 2 UI Universal Inputs 5-8 2 COM Terminals for UI 5-8 Each com shared by 2 UI Universal Inputs 9-12 2 COM Terminals for UI 9-12 Each com shared by 2 UI Universal Inputs 13-16 2 COM Terminals for UI 13-16 Each com shared by 2 UI Universal Inputs 17-20 2 COM Terminals for UI 17-20 Each com shared by 2 UI Universal Inputs 21-24 2 COM Terminals for UI 21-24 Each com shared by 2 UI High/Low frequency Pulse Input 1 Com terminal for P3 & P4 High/Low frequency Pulse Input 2 Digital Output 1 .၂.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၇.၂.8 N+ Network wire from previous DDC N- Network wire from previous DDC N+ Network wire to next DDC N- Network wire to next DDC DO channels to commanded via binding be .၁ Description DDC fan (၈) control ဤ control Fan ၄ LONMARK® controller DX unit Fan Controller ႔ FCU ခ control DX unit FCU monitor ႔ configure control ၁.

M/V Fan Control 7-5 .႔ Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring ၇.၂.၃ DDC Layout & Wiring Diagram ၇-၅ ၇.၃ FAN CONTROL DDC U8F2484L ၇-၆ Type 1.

၃.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၇.၃.၁ Description DDC fan ၈ control ဤ LONMARK® Mechanical Ventilation Fan ၈ control configure ၇-၇ M/V Fan Control & General Digital Input monitoring ၇.၂ DDC Terminal Block Assignment(U8F2484L) Terminal Label Description Remark Block No TB0 TB2 TB3 TB4 TB5 TB6 TB7 TB9 7-6 +24V 24 VAC Input(L) COM 24 VAC Input(N) UI1 – UI4 Digital Inputs 1-4(DI) COM 2 COM Terminals for DI 1-4 UI5 – UI8 Digital Inputs 5-8(DI) COM 2 COM Terminals for DI 5-8 UI9 – UI12 Digital Inputs 9-12(DI) COM 2 COM Terminals for DI 9-12 UI13 – UI16 Digital Inputs 13-16(DI) COM 2 COM Terminals for DI 13-16 UI17 – UI20 Digital Inputs 17-20(DI) COM 2 COM Terminals for DI 17-20 UI21 – UI24 Digital Inputs 21-24(DI) COM 2 COM Terminals for DI 21-24 TO1 Digital Output 1(Fan 1) TO2 Digital Output 2(Fan 2) TO3 Digital Output 3(Fan 3) TO4 Digital Output 4(Fan 4) TO5 Digital Output 5(Fan 5) Each com shared by 2 DI Each com shared by 2 DI Each com shared by 2 DI Each com shared by 2 DI Each com shared by 2 DI Each com shared by 2 DI .

႔ TB10 Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring TO6 Digital Output 6(Fan 6) TO7 Digital Output 7(Fan 7) TO8 Digital Output 8(Fan 8) N+ Network wire from previous DDC N- Network wire from previous DDC N+ Network wire to next DDC N- Network wire to next DDC ၇.၃.၃ DDC Layout & Wiring Diagram NOTE: ALL DIGITAL OUTPUTS ARE 24 Vac TRIAC OUTPUTS ၇-၈ 7-7 .

၄ Constant Air Volume(CAV) AHU Controller(UAH1464L) ၇-၉ ၇.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၇.၄.၁ Description Constant Air Volume(CAV) AHU DDC controller( control Inputs UAH1464L model controller Universal input (၁၁)ခ a Digital inputs (၃)ခ (connect) UAH1464L ၍ sensor (၁) Digital Inputs(Dry contacts) 7-8 • Selector mode status • Smoke detector status • On/Off status • General dry contacts ခ .

Vnew = New reading to be updated in DDC Vold = Old reading updated in DDC Vin = Sensor reading.0) ၇-၁၀ AHU CONTROLLER DDC UAH1464L Outputs UAH1464L controller 20mA) Digital Outputs(24 Vac Triac) ႔ Analog Outputs(0-10 Vdc or 4- output signal (1) Digital Output Digital output channels (၆)ခ channel 1 DO control ႔ 2 DO control configure • AHU Start/Stop (Individual schedule or manual control) • DO 1 Start/Stop(Individual schedule manual control) • DO 2 Start/Stop(Individual schedule manual control) 7-9 . C = constant (0.0~ 1.႔ Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring • Trip status (၂) Universal Inputs (0-5 Vdc/4-20mA/ NTC 10K temperature/Dry contacts) • Temperature sensors • Chilled water flow rate • Valve position • Universal inputs Analog Input monitoring abnormal sensor reading ႔ First order Low Pass Filter method Where.

.6 AO1 Analog Output 1 COM Com terminal for AO1 & AO2 AO2 Analog Output 2 AO3 Analog Output 3 COM Com terminal for AO3 & AO4 AO4 Analog Output 4 N+ Network wire from previous DDC N- Network wire from previous DDC N+ Network wire to next DDC N- Network wire to next DDC UI1 Universal Input 1 COM COM Terminal for UI 1-2 UI2 Universal Input 2 UI3 Universal Input 3 COM COM Terminal for UI 3-4 UI4 Universal Input 4 UI5 Universal Input 5 COM COM Terminal for UI 5-6 UI6 Universal Input 6 UI7 Universal Input 7 COM COM Terminal for UI 7-8 UI8 Universal Input 8 UI9 Universal Input 9 ႔ Remark Block No TB8 TB3 TB4 TB1 TB6 TB5 7-10 Only TO1 is used. of Analog output channels. Only AO2 is used.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ • Fresh air damper Open/Close control/Floating control • Re-heater On/Off control (2) Analog Output 2 nos.၄.၂ DDC Terminal Block Assignment(UAH1464L) Terminal Blocks ၇ခ Terminal TB1 TB6 TB8 terminals Label Description +24V 24 VAC Input(L) COM 24 VAC Input(N) TO1-TO6 Digital Output 1 . these are – • AHU Variable Speed drive control • AHU Chilled water valve control (cooling ) • AHU Heated water valve control (heating ) ၇.

၃ DDC Layout & Wiring Diagram CAV AHU ၇-၁၁ 7-11 .၄.႔ TB2 Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring COM COM Terminal for UI 9-10 UI10 Universal Input 10 UI11 Universal Input 11 COM COM Terminal for UI 11 DI1 Digital Input 1 COM Com terminal for DI 1& DI 2 DI2 Digital Input 2 DI3 Digital Input 3 COM Com terminal for DI 3 ၇.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems Valve Interlock with AHU status ၁.၄ CAV AHU Typical Sensor Termination TYPICAL SENSOR TERMINATION ၇-၁၃ 7-12 ႔ ၇-၁၂ .၄.

႔ ၇.၅ VAV AHU Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring ၏ Controller Control Logic ၇-၁၄ Building Automation System(BAS) Building Automation System ၌ AHU AHU graphic ၏ Direct Digital Controller(DDC) ခ ၇-၁၅ ( ႔ AHU graphic ) Air Handling Unit Control logic Building Automation System ခ field device ၊ Input Output 7-13 .

၅.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Legend SP: Static pressure ST: On/Off status RH: Relative Humidity TA: trip alarm WFR: water flow rate A/M: Auto/Manual mode KWH: kilo-watt hour SD: Smoke detector S/S: Start/Stop control DPS: Differential pressure VSD: variable speed drive switch M: motorised actuator WLD: Water leakage Detector O/C: Open/Close control T: Temperature ၇-၁၅ ခ Air Handling Unit ခ field device ၊ Input Output ၏ Legend ၇.၁ Description of DDC Inputs and Outputs Variable Air Volume (VAV) AHU control application Digital Controller (DDC) Direct model UAH2484L Direct Digital Controller (DDC)၏ Input Direct Digital Controller(DDC) UAH24842L ၍ Input (1) Digital Input(Dry contacts) Direct Digital Controller(DDC) UAH24842L ၇-၁၆ VAV AHU 7-14 ၏ controller Digital Input (၁၅)ခ Input Output ခ (connect) .

M ” Vnew = New reading to be updated in DDC Vold = Old reading updated in DDC Vin = Sensor reading.999 ၅၀ ႔ pulse Input (၁)ခ ခ (connect) Accumulated counter (display) Output Direct Digital Controller (DDC) UAH24842L Digital Output(24 Vac Triac) & Analog Output(0-10 Vdc or 4.) • General dry contacts(maximum 8 nos.) ႔ Analog Input monitoring ႔ (abnormal) sensor reading “ Where.0) (3) Pulse Input Direct Digital Controller(DDC) UAH24842L pulse width (value) 0 1.999.20mA) Variable Air Volume (VAV) AHU ၏ DDC Layout Wiring Diagram 7-15 .0~ 1.႔ VAV AHU Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring ၏ controller control logic Digital Input • Selector mode status • On/Off status • Trip status • Smoke detector status(maximum 4 nos.999.) ႔ (2) Analog Input(0-5 Vdc/4-20mA/ NTC 10K temperature) Direct Digital Controller(DDC)UAH24842L Analog Input (၁၂)ခ ခ (connect) Analog Input • Temperature sensors(maximum 4 nos.) • Static Pressure • Chilled water flow rate • CO2 • Universal Input(maximum 5 nos. C = constant(0.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၇-၁၇ Variable Air Volume (VAV) AHU ၏ DDC Layout Wiring Diagram (4) Digital Output Direct Digital Controller(DDC)UAH24842L Channel AHU ခ ခခ Digital Digital Output control (၁)ခ output channel configure / AHU Start/Stop(Individual schedule or manual control) / Fan 1 Start/Stop(Individual schedule manual control)(used as By pass damper control ) / Fan 2 Start/Stop(Individual schedule manual control) Return air damper / Return air damper Open/Close control(interlock with AHU operation) Exhaust air damper / Exhaust air damper Open/Close control(interlock with AHU operation) Variable Air Volume (VAV) AHU ၏ Typical Sensor Termination 7-16 (၅)ခ .

၅.႔ Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring ၇-၁၈ Variable Air Volume(VAV)AHU ၏ Typical Sensor Termination (5) Analog Output Direct Digital Controller(DDC) UAH24842L Analog output channel ခ • AHU Variable Speed Drive(VSD) control • AHU chilled water valve control ႔ ၇.၂ DDC Terminal Block Assignment (UAH2484L) Terminal Block (၇)ခ Terminal Block No TB0 TB1 TB2 TB1 TB6 TB8 terminal Label Description +24V 24 VAC Input(L) COM 24 VAC Input(N) AO1 Analog Output 1 COM Com terminal for AO1 & AO2 AO2 Analog Output 2 UI1 – UI4 Universal Input 1-4 ႔ Remark 7-17 .

8 N+ Network wire from previous DDC N- Network wire from previous DDC N+ Network wire to next DDC N- Network wire to next DDC Only P3 is used.၅. Only TO1.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems TB3 TB4 ႔ COM 2 COM Terminals for UI 1-4 Each com shared by 2 UI UI5 – UI8 Universal Input 5-8 COM 2 COM Terminals for UI 5-8 UI9 – UI12 Universal Input 9-12 COM 2 COM Terminals for UI 9-12 Each com shared by 2 UI Each com shared by 2 UI UI13 – UI16 Universal Input 13-16 TB5 COM 2 COM Terminals for UI 13-16 Each com shared by 2 UI UI17 – UI20 Universal Input 17-20 TB6 COM 2 COM Terminals for UI 17-20 Each com shared by 2 UI UI21 – UI24 Universal Input 21-24 TB7 TB8 TB9 TB10 COM 2 COM Terminals for UI 21-24 Each com shared by 2 UI P3 Pulse Input COM Com terminal for P3 & P4 P4 Pulse Input TO1-TO8 Digital Output 1 . TO3 not used for Tower 1 ၇.5.၃ AHU Control Logic AHU operating mode (၅) (၁) Purge mode (၂) Alarm mode (၃) Normal operation mode (၄) Manual control mode (၅) Bypass damper control ႔ (၁) Purge mode Purge mode AHU ခ ခ ခ ႔ ခ “ u M ” ခ Network controller Controller purge “ u ႔ M ” ႔ “ u output network M ” ) controlled device • On/Off (type) exhaust air damper (set to open) • On/Off (type) return air damper (set to close) 7-18 purge mode enable .3.6 are used.

႔ Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring • AHU supply air fan • Modulating (run) Fan speed “ u (type) chilled water valve M ” set point (set to 0%) (၂) Alarm mode ၍ “ ႔ ခ M ခ ” ႔ ခ ႔ AHU AHU ႔ Blower ၏ VSD speed Return air damper (set to close) ၍ AHU damper chilled water valve (open) (fully close) Exhaust air damper return air (close) (၃) Normal operation mode ခ ၊ ခ (start/stop) (manually) ႔ schedule AHU “ DDC ခ ၊ ခ ႔ Auto mode ” ႔ mode selection switch selector switch ႔ ႔ selector switch ၍ Mode selection switch local mode ႔ DDC ခ ၊ ခ (၄) Manual control Mode • On/Off (type) exhaust air damper • On/Off (type) return air damper • AHU supply air fan (set to close) (set to open) fan speed PID algorithm static pressure setpoint output contol singal • Modulating (type) chilled water valve algorithm VSD cooling set point output contol singal PID modulating actuator AHU • On/Off type Exhaust air damper (set to close) • On/Off type return air damper • VSD output • Valve output 0% (set to open) (set to 0 %) 0% (set to 0 %) (၅) Bypass damper control Bypass damper control ခ ၊ ခ (open/close) AHU interlock manually ႔ u 7-19 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Chilled water valve control modulating type chilled water valve Actuator control 0~10 Vdc control signal Temperature setpoint default PID parameter • default setpoint • Supply air temperature control PID loop u • Proportional band ၏ default value • Dead band ၏ default value ၇-၁၉Modulating valve control ၇-၂၀Temperature control Integral ၏ default value ( derivative constant default value PI control 0 ) Supply Fan Variable Speed Drive (VSD) control Variable Speed Drive(VSD) Signal control Output 0~10 Vdc Temperature setpoint default PID parameter • Default setpoint • Minimum supply air static pressure control PID loop u Sensor range • Proportional band ၏ default value • Dead band ၏ default value Integral ၏ default value ( 7-20 PI control derivative constant default value ) .

၂ Control of Pressure Independent VAV Operation ၇-၂၄ Note:(ф M u u 7-21 .၆ VAV Box DDC Controller(Model: UAV0520L) ၇.၆.၁ Description UAV0520L Variable Air Volume( u M ၍ application set-point configure ဤ controller space temperature cooling only set DDC controller Floating type damper cool air actuator space damper ႔ DDC controller control ႔ cool air airflow rate set-point temperature Cooling Maximum Flow VAV Cooling Minimum Flow Box controller program ၌ ထည့္ေပးရန္လိုသည္။ ၇-၂၃ ၇.႔ Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring ၇-၂၁ VSD control ၇-၂၂ Static Pressure Control ၇.၆.

၆.၃ DDC Terminal Block Assignment(UAV0520L) Terminal Blocks (၇)ခ Terminal TB1 TB6 Label NET terminals ႔ Description Block TB1 TB2 TB3 TB4 TB5 TB6 COM 24 VAC Input(N) 24V 24 VAC Input(L) MO Motor Open(Triac output for Damper open control) 24V 24 VAC output to damper actuator MC Motor Close(Triac output for Damper close control) RV1 Not used RV2 Not used RV3 Not used 24V Not used FAN Not used COM Common(Ground) for Thermostat +5V +5 VDC Power Supply for Thermostat TS Space Temperature Sensor input T/O Set point adjustment input from Thermostat EXT Not used +5 +5 VDC Power Supply for Occupancy Detector(If connected) OD Occupancy Detector Input from sensor COM NET 7-22 Common(Ground) N+ Network Input N- Network Output .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ၇-၂၅ Air Flow Maximum Flow ႔ Minimum Flow ခ ၇.

၇. -15°C to 100°C) ဤ ႔ Dry contact digital input ၇.၄ DDC Layout and Wiring Diagram ၇-၂၅ ၇.၁ Description ULC0882L Lighting controller Program LONMARK® standard Lighting DB ULC0882L modle DDC controller control DB ၏ On/Off status Universal inputs (၈)ခ monitor configured to monitor ULC0882L connecte sensor (၁) Digital Inputs(Dry contacts) (၃) Analog Inputs(4-20mA) (၂) Analog Inputs(0-5 Vdc) (၄) Temperature sensors(NTC 10K Thermistor.႔ Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring N+ Network Input N- Network Output ၇. 0-10 Vdc) ဤ ႔ Analog Outputs command Digital Output(DO) 7-23 .၇ Lighting Controller DDC(ULC0882L) ၇. 24 Vac Triac) (maximum 2 nos.၆.၂ Output channels Controller Digital Outputs(maximum 8 nos.၇.

၇.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၇-၂၆ DI = Digital Input and DO = Digital Output Terminal Blocks (၇) ခ TB1 TB6 TB8 terminals ႔ ၇.၃ DDC Terminal Block Assignment (ULC0882L ) Terminal Label Description AC24V 24 VAC Input(L) COM 24 VAC Input(N) TB2 TO1-TO8 DO Channels 1-8 TB3 AO1-AO2 AO Channels 1-2 TB4 UI1 Universal Input 1 COM Com for UI1 & UI2 UI2 Universal Input 2 UI3 Universal Input 3 COM Com for UI3 & UI4 UI4 Universal Input 4 UI5 Universal Input 5 COM Com for UI5 & UI6 UI6 Universal Input 6 UI7 Universal Input 7 COM Com for UI7 & UI8 UI8 Universal Input 8 N+ Network wire from previous DDC N- Network wire from previous DDC N+ Network wire to next DDC Remark Block No TB1 TB5 TB6 7-24 All UI are digital inputs .

၇.၄ DDC LAYOUT & WIRING DIAGRAM NOTE: 1) EACH COM TERMINAL TO BE SHARED BY 2 UI TERMINALS 2) ALL DIGITAL OUTPUTS ARE 24 Vac TRIAC OUTPUTS 3) ALL ANALOG OUTPUTS ARE 0-10 Vdc ၇-၂၆ 7-25 .႔ Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring N- Network wire to next DDC ၇.

၅ Typical Sensor Termination ၇-၂၇ ULC0882LT7V1 DDC internal schedule DDC ၍ Lighting Distribution Board( Lighting DB (၈)ခ ၏ status Start/Stop control ၇-၂၈ ULC0882LT7V2 Male/Female toilet lighting Toilet 7-26 control ၌ Occupancy detector CAV controller(E1/E2) ခ (connect)၍ .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၇.၇.

-15°C to 100°C) Output channels Other controllers via binding can command Digital Outputs(maximum 8 nos.၈.01~ 0. (၅) Temperature sensors(NTC 10K Thermistor. 0-10 Vdc) of UGM0882L. 7-27 . this value will be kept if DDC power is recycled.႔ Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring Toilet lighting unoccupied status (u ႔ Occupancy status changes ခ (delay) Toilet lighting ၇-၂၉ ၇. Vnew = New reading to be updated in DDC Vold = Old reading updated in DDC Vin = Sensor reading. 24 Vac Triac) & Analog Outputs(maximum 2 nos. C = constant(0.၈ GENERAL MONITORING DDC UGM0882L ၇.၁ Description M UGM0882L M ခ (connect) (၁) Digital Inputs(Dry contacts) (၂) Analog Inputs(0-5 Vdc) (၃) Analog Inputs(4-20mA) Universal inputs (၈)ခ monitor sensors Analog Input monitoring abnormal sensor reading ႔ First order Low Pass Filter method Where.99)(Refer to SCPTdebounce) (၄) Pulse Inputs(minimum pulse width 500 ms)(0-9999 counts) Note: Accumulated counter value is saved in battery backed up RAM in the DDC.

၈. ၇.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၇-၃၀ There are total 7 Terminal Blocks. TB1 to TB6 & TB8 terminals.၂ Terminal Block Assignments(UGM0882L) Terminal Label Description Remark Block No AC24V 24 VAC Input(L) COM 24 VAC Input(N) TB2 TO1-TO8 DO Channels 1-8 TB3 AO1-AO2 AO Channels 1-2 TB4 UI1 Universal Input 1 COM Com for UI1 & UI2 UI2 Universal Input 2 UI3 Universal Input 3 COM Com for UI3 & UI4 UI4 Universal Input 4 UI5 Universal Input 5 COM Com for UI5 & UI6 UI6 Universal Input 6 UI7 Universal Input 7 COM Com for UI7 & UI8 UI8 Universal Input 8 N+ Network wire from previous DDC TB1 TB5 TB6 7-28 DO channels to be commanded via binding AO channels to commanded via binding be .

႔ Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring N- Network wire from previous DDC N+ Network wire to next DDC N- Network wire to next DDC ၇.၈.၃ Typical Sensor Termination DDC LAYOUT(Controller Model UGM0882L ) NOTE: 1) EACH COM TERMINAL TO BE SHARED BY 2 UI TERMINALS 4) ALL DIGITAL OUTPUTS ARE 24 Vac TRIAC OUTPUTS 5) ALL ANALOG OUTPUTS ARE 0-10 Vdc ၇-၃၁ 7-29 .

၄ DDC LAYOUT & WIRING DIAGRAM TYPICAL SENSOR TERMINATION ၇-၃၂ ၇.၁ Description UGM2484L is General Monitoring controller Maximum 24 nos.၉. of High frequency Pulse inputs (connect) I/O point (၁) Digital Inputs (Dry contacts) (၂) Analog Inputs (0-5 Vdc) (၃) Analog Inputs(0-20mA) Analog Input monitoring Low Pass Filter method 7-30 abnormal sensor reading is used to ႔ First order .၈.၉ General Monitoring DDC UGM2484L ၇.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၇. of Universal inputs UGM24842L controller ခ monitor 2 nos.

99)(Refer to SCPTdebounce) (၄) Low Frequency Pulse Inputs(counter value 0-9999) (minimum pulse width 500ms) (၅) High Frequency Pulse Inputs(counter value 0-1.999.႔ Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring Where. 24 Vac Triac) & Analog Outputs(maximum 4 nos.၉. this value will be kept if DDC power is recycled. (၆) Temperature sensors(NTC 10K Thermistor.၂ Output channels Other controllers via binding can command Digital Outputs(maximum 8 nos. -15°C to 100°C) (၇) Temperature sensors(Platinum 1K RTD type)(Only for UI17-UI24) ၇.၃ DDC Terminal Block Assignment(UGM2484L) Terminal Label Description Remark Block No TB0 TB1 +24V 24 VAC Input(L) COM 24 VAC Input(N) AO1 Analog Output 1 COM Com terminal for AO1 & AO2 AO channels to be commanded AO2 Analog Output 2 via binding AO3 Analog Output 3 7-31 .၉. ၇-၃၃ ၁. C = constant(0. 0-10 Vdc/0-20 mA) of UGM2484L.01~ 0.999) (minimum pulse width 50ms) (Only for terminal P3&P4) Note: Accumulated counter value is saved in battery backed up RAM in the DDC. Vnew = New reading to be updated in DDC Vold = Old reading updated in DDC Vin = Sensor reading.999.

8 N+ Network wire from previous DDC N- Network wire from previous DDC N+ Network wire to next DDC N- Network wire to next DDC DO channels to be commanded via binding .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems TB2 TB3 TB4 TB5 TB6 TB7 COM Com terminal for AO3 & AO4 AO4 Analog Output 4 UI1 – UI4 COM UI5 – UI8 COM UI9 – UI12 COM UI13 – UI16 COM UI17 – UI20 COM UI21 – UI24 COM P3 TB8 COM P4 TB9 TB10 7-32 TO1-TO8 ႔ Universal Inputs 1-4 2 COM Terminals for UI 1-4 Each com shared by 2 UI Universal Inputs 5-8 2 COM Terminals for UI 5-8 Each com shared by 2 UI Universal Inputs 9-12 2 COM Terminals for UI 9-12 Each com shared by 2 UI Universal Inputs 13-16 2 COM Terminals for UI 13-16 Each com shared by 2 UI Universal Inputs 17-20 2 COM Terminals for UI 17-20 Each com shared by 2 UI Universal Inputs 21-24 2 COM Terminals for UI 21-24 Each com shared by 2 UI High/Low frequency Pulse Input 1 Com terminal for P3 & P4 High/Low frequency Pulse Input 2 Digital Output 1 .

၄ DDC Layout & Wiring Diagram ၇-၃၄ 7-33 .႔ Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring ၇.၉.

၉.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၇.၅ Typical Sensor Termination ၇-၃၅ -End- 7-34 .

...................................၄.................................. 13 ၇...............................................၆...............၃ DDC Layout & Wiring Diagram CAV AHU..........................၂ DDC Terminal Block Assignment(UGM2484L) ...................................၇.........................................................................................................၆ VAV Box DDC Controller(Model: UAV0520L) .............. ၇.... ၇.......................................................................................... 23 ၇. ၇........................................၃ DDC Terminal Block Assignment (ULC0882L ) ...............၃...........................................၄ DDC Layout and Wiring Diagram ............................. 21 ၇..........................၁..........၇.................၂........................၂........................................... ၇........................................................... ၇.............၅ VAV AHU ၏ Controller Control Logic .........................................................၅.. ၁....... ၇.........................................၂ Fan Controller DDC(Model U6F2484L) ........................၂....................................................................................................... ၇...................၃ FAN CONTROL DDC U8F2484L .၇ Lighting Controller DDC(ULC0882L) ........................................................၁ Fan Coil Unit control DDC Controller (Model: UFC0882L) ...... ၇............................................................... ၇.............................................. ၇.................................................၃ DDC Terminal Block Assignment(UAV0520L) .....................................................................၆......................၃ AHU Control Logic ................................................... 7-35 ...................................၂ DDC Terminal Block Assignment (UAH2484L) .............................................................................၁ Description ......................................................... ၇.၄............၂ DDC Terminal Block Assignment UFC0882L....၁ Description ...........................................၁............................... ၇..........................................................၂ DDC Terminal Block Assignment(U8F2484L) .............၃ DDC Layout & Wiring Diagram ..................၃.....................၅...........................................................၂ DDC Terminal Block Assignment(UAH1464L) ...............၁ Description . ၇................... ၇................................. ၇....................................1 ၇...........၄ Constant Air Volume(CAV) AHU Controller(UAH1464L) ........................၅......................................................................၂ Output channels ...........၃ DDC Layout & Wiring Diagram ................5 ၇........................................... ၇........................................၁ Description .........................၄........................................................၁ Description ..........8 ၇.... ၇................ ၇................. ၇.................၁ Description .....................................၇..........႔ Chapter-7 Direct Digital Controllers (DDC) Wiring Contents ၇....................................................................................................................................................3 ၇.................၁ Description of DDC Inputs and Outputs .................၆............................................၂ Control of Pressure Independent VAV Operation ...............၃ DDC Layout & Wiring Diagram ........၆............၁........ ၁...................................................၃.......................................

............................. ၇...........၇...............................၅ Typical Sensor Termination .............................................................၅ Typical Sensor Termination ........ ၇......................၈.......... 30 ၇...၄ DDC LAYOUT & WIRING DIAGRAM ........................................ ၇...........................................................................၉ General Monitoring DDC UGM2484L ................................................................................ ၇................................................................................................. ၁...............................................................................................................................................၉.................................................................၁ Description ...............................................................၈............. ၇.......... ၇........................... ၇...........................................၉......................................၈........................၃ DDC Terminal Block Assignment(UGM2484L) ..........၄ DDC LAYOUT & WIRING DIAGRAM ..........၉....................................၁ Description ........................................................၂ Terminal Block Assignments(UGM0882L) .၇....... ၇................................၈ GENERAL MONITORING DDC UGM0882L ..၉....................................................................................................................................၂ Output channels...........၃ Typical Sensor Termination ................................... 27 ၇..................................၉......................၈............ ၇...၄ DDC Layout & Wiring Diagram ........................................................ 7-36 ........HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၇........

၁. Data Communication Computer information system ၾ 0 data 1 binary information unit ႔ bits (information) Data communication transmission medium (wire ၊ cable device communication ႔ data radio wave device microwave ၾ ၾ ႔ ) ၾ Wireless transmissi data ၈-၁ Data communication system components Data communication system ၏ effectiveness (၁) Delivery : System data ႔ (receiver device) data (၂) Accuracy : System ၌ System data ႔ ႔ (user) data data data (၃) Timeliness : (correct destination) ႔ data ႔ 8-1 .႔ Chapter-8 Data Communication and Networking Chapter-8 Data Communication and Networking ၈.

၂ Network Network device media link “Node” (receive Data ) (node connecting link “Channel” ၏ ႔ ( 8-2 ႔ device device Network device ) (performance) ( ) (reliability) (ဂ) (security) ႔ (send ) computer ) printer ႔ ၊ .HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems ႔ Data communication system (၁) Message : (component) (၅) Message ႔ (communicate) information (text) ၊ (၂) Sender : ႔ information ႔ (data (number) ၊ (sender) ႔ Message (sound) data message ႔ ႔ (video) (send Computer ၊ workstation ၊ telephone handset ၊ video camera (၃) Receiver : (receiver) message PC ၊ handset ၊ TV (၄) Medium : Medium (receive ႔ (transmission media) (reciver) ႔ ႔ (sender) message ႔ Twisted pair wire ၊ coaxial cable ၊ fiber optic cable ၊ laser ၊ radio wave microwave (၅) Protocol : satellite ႔ Protocol data communication ၾ Communicating device device Protocol (connect) device (communication) ၈-၂ Link ၈.

sender ၊ receiver software (၂) network (response) Type of transmission – Data (ဂ) network ၾ (performance) (user) ( ) ၏ performance intermediate node ႔၌ data process ၾ (Reliability) (reliability) ( ) (frequency of failure) ( ) ၾ (ဂ) (catastrophe) Network (၃) (recovery time after a network failure) ႔ ၊ (catastrophic event) (Security) Unauthorized access ၊ virus ႔ Data network ႔ communication device ၏ (security) ႔ (relationship) (၅) ( ) Line configuration ( ) Topology (ဂ) Transmission mode (ဃ) Categories of network ( ) Internet work ႔ 8-3 .႔ Chapter-8 Data Communication and Networking ၈-၃ Network criteria (၁) (Performance ) – Network ( ) (number of user) – ၾ High traffic ႔ (users) (response time) ၌ ၌ ႔ ႔ ၾ (performance) medium per second (100 Mbps) 100 Megabits medium (10 Mbps) medium (၁၀) Hardware – Transmission ႔ 10 Megabits per second ႔ storage capacity network performance (ဃ) Software .

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems Line configuration (attach ႔ link ) communicating device Link device transfer ၾ Line configuration ( point to point ၾ data (physical path) multi point ) Point to Point configuration device Channel ( ) device ႔ ၾ ႔ ၏ capacity Multipoint line configuration device device link ၾ ၈-၄ Link ၈.၃.၃ Topology Topology physical (connect) ႔ Device ႔ Link topology (၅) logical device link ၌ topology Mesh ၊ Star ၊ Tree ၊ Bus Ring ႔ ၈-၅ Categories of topology ၈.၁ Mesh topology Mesh topology device (dedicated) point to point link ႔ physical channel 8-4 ၾ Device သည္ device Dedicated n ႔ device mesh network fully connected .

႔ Chapter-8 Data Communication and Networking ႔ (connect) device device (n-1) input/output port ၈-၆ A fully connected mesh topology(five devices) ႔(dedicated) link ၾ (own data) link link device Traffic problem (share network ) Privacy Multi device traffic problem ႔ Link (security) (fault identification) ႔ (fault i device cable ၌ input/output port ၁.၂ Star Topology ၈-၇ A star topology connecting four stations Device link ၌ hub A star topology connecting five stations central controller (connect) Device connection ႔ controller ႔ Star Hub ႔ exchange ႔ Device ႔ ႔ hub point to point device ၾ data ၌ direct ႔ hub device (destination device) Forward Device (connect ) ၌ I/O port Link ႔ ၾ reconfigure device Robust Link connection link link 8-5 .၃.

၃.HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems ႔ (fault identification) ႔ ႔ link ၾ Monitor link Bypass Star cable tree ring bus ႔ cable ၈-၈ Tree (Hierarchical) topology ၈-၉ A bus topology connecting three stations ၈.၃ Tree (Hierarchical) topology Tree topology Tree topology hub star topology hub secondary hub (connect) hub Device central hub (connect) Active hub ၌ repeater data Repeater ႔ (regenerative ) (forward ႔ ၾ secondary Central hardware device ) bit pattern signal strength ႔ data Secondary hub passive hub physical connection Data regenerative Secondary hub computer network Cable TV technology point to point configuration 8-6 isolate ၌ star topology ၾ Passive hub repeater Star ၏ device ၊ communication priorities ႔ ႔ topology ႔ .

၅ Ring topology ၈-၁၀ A ring topology connecting six stations Reconfiguration Fault isolation Device (quality) ၾ Fault ႔ ၾ signal ၾ ) signal transmission ႔ ႔ ႔ ၾ (reflection direction ၌ noise ႔ ၾ Ring topology ၌ device point to point line configuration device Signal (direction) device (destination) repeater ႔ Device device signal ႔ reconfigure Device connection ႔ ႔ Device regenerate ႔ Ring Ring dedicated cable device ႔ ႔ (fault isolation) ၾ signal ring Device signal ၾ ၾ network operator ႔ network ၌ alarm ၌ ၾ 8-7 .၃.၃.၄ Bus topology Network cable device backbone link bus ႔ Device tap Drop line signal ၏ bus cable drop line main cable (backbone) connector (heat) signal strength node device Tap ၾ ႔ ၾ Backbone ႔ ႔ ၾ ႔ ၾ tap Bus topology ႔ cable ၈.႔ Chapter-8 Data Communication and Networking ၈.

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems

၈-၁၁ Ring topology connecting

၈-၁၂ Hybrid topology: a star backbone with three bus

network

down

Ring ၌
Station

network

Dual Ring (ring
၌ switch
၈.၃.၆ Hybrid Topologies
Network

topology
(department)

ring topology

network

(subnetwork)

bus topology

star topology

(department)

network

star network

၈-၁၃ Hybrid topology
၈.၄ Transmission Mode
Link

device

႔ ၏ signal

“Transmission Mode”

8-8

direction)

Transmission mode

device

(information flow direction)

Chapter-8 Data Communication and Networking

၈-၁၄ Simplex ၊ Half-duplex

Full-duplex

Transmission mode
(၁) Simplex
(၂) Half-duplex
(၃) Full-duplex

၈.၄.၁ Simplex
Simplex mode

Link

device
Keyboard

simplex device

monitor

Keyboard
CPU

data

computer

Monitor

႔ input

display

၈.၄.၂ Half Duplex
Half Duplex transmission mode
(receive)
(sending)၌

device

(transmit)
Device

device

(receiving)

Walkies-talkies

Channel ၏ capacity
-

၈.၄.၃ Full Duplex
Full Duplex
Full duplex mode

signal

Telephone network
link
cable

cable
channel capacity


8-9

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems

၈-၁၅

၈.၅ Network

network

(Categories of Network)
(size)၊

architecture

(ownership)၊

(cover)

physical

network
(

Network

) Local Area Network (LAN)

( )

Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

(ဂ)

Wide Area Network (WAN)

၈.၅.၁ Local Area Network (LAN)
LAN
network

device



PC

device

(organization)၏
(home office)

၊ LAN

LAN

(cover)

Personal Computer(PC)
(share

4Mbps

(technology)

printer

LAN

network

work station

)

၊ printer ၊ scanner
- printer

၏ topology

16Mbps

bus ၊ ring

star

PC
LAN

၏ data rate

100 Mbps

၈.၅.၂ Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
MAN
company

device

television network ၊
LAN

Telephone network

The IEEE 802-2002 standard describes a MAN as being:
“A MAN is optimized for a larger geographical area than a LAN, ranging from several
blocks of buildings to entire cities. MANs can also depend on communications channels of
moderate-to-high data rates. A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization, but it
usually will be used by many individuals and organizations. MANs might also be owned and
operated as public utilities. They will often provide means for inter networking of local networks.”
8-10

Chapter-8 Data Communication and Networking

၈.၅.၃ Wide Area Network (WAN)

၈-၁၆ (a) Switched WAN
Wide Area Network (WAN)

(b) Point-to-point WAN

long distance

transmission

၈-၁၇ Switched WAN

Point-to-point WAN

network
8-11

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems

၈.၆ OSI Model
International

Standard

Organization

(ISO)

network

communication model

၁၉၄၇
model

Open System Interconnection (OSI)
m
OSI model

layer (၇)
Seven Ordered Layer

m

Device A

message

device
intermediate


B

mode

၈-၁၈ OSI (Open System Interconnection) model
intermediate mode

Machine

Layer 1 ၊ Layer 2
Layer 2

Layer 3

service provide

Layer 3

Layer 4

service provide

၏ Layer 3

communication

machine
(

႔ Layer

machine

၈-၂၀ Layer (၇)

8-12

Layer 3

communicate

Layer 3

communicate

)


“protocol”

process

Peer-to-Peer process

OSI (Open System Interconnection) model

Chapter-8 Data Communication and Networking

၈-၁၉

၈-၂၁
8-13

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems ၈-၂၂ OSI layers ၈-၂၃ An exchange using the OSI model 8-14 ႔ .

႔ Chapter-8 Data Communication and Networking Machine A 7 ႔(send) message Layer 6 message ႔ Layer 5 Layer 2 message ႔ ႔ Layer ႔ Layer 6 Header 5 Header Layer 6 ၊ ၾ Layer 7 Layer 7 message message Layer 2 ၌ Trailer Layer 1 transmission medium Layer Layer 7 original message Layer 6 Layer 5 ၊ Layer 4 ၊ Layer 3 Machine A original message machine B original message ႔ ႔ ႔ ႔ Machine B ၏ Layer ႔ ၏ own message ၈-၂၄ Internet connection Interface between Layer Layer ၾ ၾ (interface) ၈.၁ Organization of Layer Layer 1 (Physical Layer)၊ Layer 2 (Datalink Layer)၊ Layer 3 (Network Layer) support layer” Device data specification ၊ physical connection ၊ physical addressing device transport ႔ ႔ “network electrical timing Layer 5 (Session Layer)၊ Layer 6 (Presentation Layer)၊ Layer 7 (Application Layer) ႔ “user support layer” ၾ Layer 4 (Transport Layer) data transmission 8-15 .၆.

၂ Physical Layer (Layer 1) ၈-၂၅ Physical layer node bit node ႔ ၈-၂၆ Physical Layer ( ) Physical characteristic of interface and media ( ) ( ) Representation of bit ( ) (ဂ) Data rate ( (ဃ) Synchronization of bits 8-16 Line configuration Physical topology ) Transmission mode ႔ .၆.HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems OSI model ၏ Layer ( ) low l ႔ Layer 5 ၊ Layer 6 Layer 7 Layer 1 ၊ Layer 2 ၊ Layer 3 ႔ ႔ s h ၊ ၈.

၃ Data Link Layer (Layer 2) Data link layer node frame node ႔ ႔ Data link layer ( ) Framing ( ) Physical addressing (ဂ) Flow control (ဃ) Error control ( ) Access control ႔ ၈-၂၇ Data link layer ၈-၂၈ Network layer ၈-၂၉ Source-to-destination delivery 8-17 .၆.႔ Chapter-8 Data Communication and Networking ၈.

၆.HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၈.၅ Transport Layer (Layer 4) Transport layer (deliver process message process ႔ ) ႔ Transport layer ( ) Service point addressing ( ) Segmentation and reassembly (ဃ) Flow control ( ) Error control (ဂ) Connection control ၈-၃၁ Transport layer (process-to-process delivery) 8-18 ႔ .၄ Network Layer (Layer 3) Network layer (host) ႔ (source host) data packet destination ႔ Network Layer ( ) Logical Addressing ( ) Routing ႔ Source-to-destination delivery ၈-၃၀ Source-to-destination delivery ၈.၆.

၆.႔ Chapter-8 Data Communication and Networking ၈-၃၂ Session layer ၈.၆.၆ Session Layer (Layer 5) Session layer ( ) Dialog control ( ) Synchronization ႔ ၈-၃၃ Presentation layer ၈.၇ Presentation Layer (Layer 6) Presentation layer ( ) Translation ( ) Encryption (ဂ) Compression ႔ ၈-၃၄ Application Layer 8-19 .

3) Ethernet Local Area Networks ႔ (speed) Ethernet RG-8/U coaxial cable thick Ethernet (10BASE5) thin Ethernet(10BASE2) ႔ cable ‘T ၊ U ‘ ’E ’ (၁၀၀ ႔ Segment IT ႔ IT department BAS system IT network Unknown traffic ၏ ၾ upgrade system security (uptime) ၾ repeater signal Ethernet ဂ RG-58 coaxial (၂၀၀) 10 Mbps Repeater IT system ၏ ႔ Twisted pair Network RG-58 coaxial cable (downtime) (downtime) ၊ ၊ (maintenance) ႔ ၾ network (down) ၈-၃၅ Coaxial cable is used to transmit 10BASE-2 Ethernet 8-20 10BASE2 cable with BNC T- 10BASE2 cable end Connector Terminator .၇ Network Standards HVAC control system protocol HVAC information protocol controller Network protocol ႔ packaging information unpackaging physical medium network Network capacity performance ႔ ၾ data ႔ (performance) capacity ႔ ႔ network network spare node traffic capacity BAS network standard ၈.၁ Ethernet (IEEE 802.၆.၈ Application Layer (Layer 7) Application layer service Application Layer ( ) Network virtual terminal ( ) (ဂ) Mail service File Transfer Access and Management (FTAM) (ဃ) Directory service ႔ ၈.၇.HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၈.

၂ ARCNET ARCNET Ethernet 19 kps Cable 10 Mbps Device (၂၅၅) HVAC network terminal ARCNET ၾ intermediate level Ethernet Building ET operator Controller ARCNET www.႔ Chapter-8 Data Communication and Networking ၈.and building-powered devices (၈-၃၆) (C) (battery) operator workstation (OW) ႔ thermostats (T)၊ building power controllers (communicate) 8-21 .6 kbps 76.၃ RS-485 HVAC network wire) ၏ lower level ground ၌ RS-485 ၾ BACnet MS/TP protocol Network (twoRS-485 master node (၁၂၇) ႔ (၂၅၄) (၄၀) ႔ ၾ 9.com ၈.8 kbps (communicate) node ၾ Master node slave node ၾ Building network master master node ၌ ARCNET communications port ၈.၄ Wireless Wireless Wireless signal network cable wireless signal ၾ node (power) ႔ Node node Node ၌ (battery) (battery) ၾ device (power) message (occasionally broadcast (power) message (passing on messages Message device Lithium ion battery Limited Function(LF) device device (၅) ၈-၃၆ Wireless network with self.၇.arcnet.၇.၇.

HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems Wireless ၾ (power) (wireless device ၾ Sensor ၅၀ ႔ Full Function(FF) wireless node ႔ ႔ ႔(send) battery information Full Function(FF) node Mesh topology (receive) (၈-၃၇)[a] ၾ node node node (၈-၃၇)[b] ႔ information ႔ ၈-၃၇ Linear and Mesh arrangements of Nodes Wireless signal (distance) (materials) Wireless signal signal (distance) Wireless signal (concrete) signal ႔ “signal attenuation” wireless signal (absorption signal ၾ signal (metal) ၾ ႔ ၾ wireless signal ဂ node wireless signal signal wireless (spacing) (attenuation (strength) ၊ Node repeater signal (strength (receive) ၊ node Repeater (rebroadcast) device message Repeater “signal power booster” (wireless communication) (wireless communication) ဂ၊ wireless signal ၊ lights ၊ variable speed drives ၊ elevators interference 8-22 hard-wired connection (interference ၾ radio equipment interference ႔ ၾ .

11] 2.1 Feature of wired and wireless transmission data Feature Wired Wireless Range Better Bad Installation effort and flexibility Worse Better Data volume Better Worse Bad Better Realibility Better Good Cost Good Better Availability of information in room 8-23 .4 GHz band ၾ (၃) 800 MHz (၁၅၀) non-mesh communication ၾ ႔ (range) ၾ ၾ ၾ ႔ (range) ၈-၃၈ WI-FI Range Diagram Data Transmission Feature of Wired and Wireless Network Table 8.႔ Chapter-8 Data Communication and Networking (radio frequencies) (၁) 2.4 GHz (2.4 GHz frequency EEE ဤ frequency band Commercial building institutional building (၃၀၀) (၂) 900 MHz (902 to 928 MHz) (indoor range)၌ 2.4 to 2.4835 GHz) [IEEE 802.

၃ Wide Area Network(WAN) 11 ၈.၃.၂ Network 2 ၈.၂ Star Topology 5 ၈.၁ Local Area Network (LAN) 10 ၈.၅.၃.၆.၄.၁ Mesh topology 4 ၁.၃ Topology 4 _ ၈.၃ Tree (Hierarchical) topology 6 ၈.၆ Hybrid Topologies 8 _ _ ၈.၃. Data Communication 1 ၈.၆ OSI Model 12 _ 15 8-24 ၈.၄ Transmission Mode 8 _ ၈.HVAC Controls and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၈-၃၉ Wireless Building Automation System (BAS) -End- Chapter-8 Data Communication and Networking ၈.၅ Network _ _ (Categories of Network) 10 ၈.၃ Full Duplex 9 _ ၈.၃.၂ Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) 10 ၈.၅.၁.၁ Organization of Layer .၃.၃.၄ Bus topology 7 ၈.၅.၁ Simplex 9 ၈.၄.၅ Ring topology 7 ၈.၂ Half Duplex 9 ၈.၄.

၆.၈ Application Layer 20 ၈.3) 20 ၈.၆.၂ ARCNET 21 ၈.၇.၄ Wireless 21 8-25 .၁ Ethernet (IEEE 802.၇ Presentation Layer 19 ၈.၄ Network layer 18 ၈.၇ Network Standards _ Chapter-8 Data Communication and Networking 20 ၈.၆.၆ Session Layer 19 ၈.၆.၇.၆.၆.၇.၇.႔ _ _ _ _ ၈.၆.၃ Data Link Layer 17 ၈.၅ Transport Layer 18 ၈.၂ Physical Layer 16 ၈.၃ RS-485 21 ၈.

႔ Chapter-9 BAS Network Integration Chapter-9 BAS Network Integration service system (operation computerized system ၾ integration Facilities manager BAS engineer service system Building Automation System(BAS) Equipment network ႔ ၉-၁ (၁) networking sub system device real–time control automation (၂) Data processing system control system system maintenance management system data process factory/production ႔ 9-1 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems Local Area Network(LAN) geographic area ႔ ႔ high-performance digital communication network (cover) ႔ node node Node (communicate) network address (set) Workstation Router Network Control Unit(NCU) node addressable Direct Digital Controller(DDC) ၾ Local Area Network(LAN) device ႔ equipment (information) Database upload ႔ download summary ႔ change-of-state message node Network ႔ DDC operator workstation ၾ (communicate) ႔ (communicate) Local Area Network(LAN) communication standard (၁) Ethernet V802.3 ( ) Local Area Network (LAN) ( ) unshielded twisted pairs ၾ ၍ transmission medium ၾ (၂) ARCnet (Attached Resource Computer network) (၃) BACnet (Building Automation Control Network) ႔ Benefit of Integrated System Integrated system (၁) Easier operation of multiple Systems System control (၂) Lower customer costs system control (၃) Less training time control ၾ (၄) Less database management Sub-system database (၅) Less chance of error control 9-2 ၾ field (common database) DDC .

၁ BAS Hardware Architecture Computer control system hardware architecture hardware device ႔ (connection) hardware ႔ ၾ ၍ (communicate)ၾ Distributed system architecture centralized architecture distributed system architecture ႔ ၍ ၍ BAS centralized architecture ႔ ၉.႔ Chapter-9 BAS Network Integration ၉.၁.၁ Centralized BAS Centralized building control system building control system control system Centralize BAS (capabilities) central computer database computer Central computer input/output field panel system sensor actuator Communicate schematic diagram d application program System (၉-၂) centralized information ႔ ၉-၂ Centralised controller with dumb outstations Disadvantages of Centralized BAS ( ) (၁) Central PC c system monitoring (calculation control function central PC ႔ (၂) Centralized BAS centralized BAS (၃) Central computer c response time data point ၍ (fail) ႔ ႔ ၾ central computer field panel ၾ building control system 9-3 .

Node ၾ bus(cable length) network (fault) ၍ fault (Future expansion) ( ) Star topology active series of radial connection 9-4 ႔ passive hub ၍ pre-wiring hub node . telephone links. ( ) Remote communication devices(where necessary). (typically a workstation PC).HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၉. Advantage of Distributed BAS ( (၁) ) Control system DDC (၂) ႔ Distributed control system control response DDC ႔ alarm response data processing DDC (၃) control function ၾ Distributed system Operate Network Topologies expansion cable twisted pair ႔ ႔ Local Area LAN communication optical fiber mixed network node) control operation Network c coax star bus node (participating geometric wiring layout network topology ( ) Bus topology ၾ (၁) Cable node node T-splice (၂) Bus ႔ ၍ resistor ၍ terminate Line(EOL) resistor Signal EOL resistor resistor (reflection) I C End of (shorted cable) ႔ ၍ signal reflection faulty node ၾ bus communication - (cable) .၁. etc.၂ Distributed BAS ႔ BAS distributed architecture Distributed BAS ( ၾ (main component) ) Network communication modules ( ) Digital communication network and associated communication protocol(s) (ဂ) Direct digital controllers(DDC) (ဃ) System Operator Interface.modern.

၂ Basic of Network Communication Computerised system (communicate) c (၁) System Operating System(OS) Operating System(OS) run Operating System(OS) ႔ compatible (similar) networking capabilities ( DOS Window OS/2 UNIX..႔ (၁) Chapter-9 BAS Network Integration Active hub signal amplification management command (၂) Active hub (error checking) electrically isolate (electronic node ) node Passive hub (interconnect) Impedance f ႔ faulty (ease of fault isolation) by-passing node ႔ bus topology cable (ဂ) Mixed(star and bus) topology (၁) Network component network) Star (Star network) ၍ ၉-၃ Internet BAS network Bus mixed (Bus network integration ၉. e …. ႔ 9-5 .

MOD B . S (network compatibility network interface device . (၄) System protocol TCP/IP. system information (import application software Point migration ) mapping Net DDE software ၍ import ၉.၁ BUS Bus Busbar source ) Digital communication system ႔ ႔ data ) ႔ destination (data ) cable “Bus” Control system ႔ (s source priority ႔ (destination) priority ၉. c (N BIOS.၂. ….၄ Gateway protocol hardware package Network 9-6 system ႔ computer system software package translation ၾ translator gateway (communicate) .. BAC .၂. Application Program Interface (API) ….၂ Interface Interface boundary ႔ ၾ system component shared boundary BAS interface circuit ၾ common DDC Controlled device controlled device motorized valve ႔ motor star ၉..၂.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems (၂) System network ႔ network (E ႔ ႔ . ARCNET.၃ Integrated Control System Integrated control system dedicated control system (communicate) protocol gateway proprietary system complex - ၍ network ႔ (communicate) campus plant service integrated control system ၉. network system ၍ ….၂. (၃) System compatible network compatible ) convertor gateway (၅) ႔ ႔ compatible protocol (OSI.

၅ Hubs/Repeater media Ethernet segment (connect) hubs/repeater segment system maximum length Signal (deteriorated) signal quality Hub ၾ signal a segment incoming signal port Hub ႔ repeat ႔ ၾ repeater ၉.႔ Chapter-9 BAS Network Integration ၾ protocol (interpret system Gateway ) ႔ information protocol B system system protocol protocol ႔ ႔ diagram system protocol A gateway system Gateway protocol ၉-၄ Gateway OSI layer ၉.၆ Bridge Bridge network Bridge (connect) network network Ethernet Fast Ethernet ႔ network ၾ ၾ bridge network building network bridge Network node traffic set bridge Data packet (destination) ၾ ႔ Ethernet address ႔ (source) bridge ႔ ႔ network ၾ (Source) (drop mapping ) (destination) filter ႔ Source segment destination ႔ 9-7 .၂.၂.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems segment ( packet segment segment data packet ႔ ) ႔ forward ႔ ‘ bridge forward Filtering (decision) Data ႔ data packet ‘store and forward’ ၾ forward ႔ Bridge forward Ethernet network ၾ ’ device ၉.၈ Router Router data packet ၍(filte network network (traffic) ၍) ႔ protocol Data packet address filter data packet logical protocol Router Physical IP router network subnet ႔ ႔ ၾ IP address segment ႔ intelligent forwarding filtering filter ႔ overall efficiency 9-8 ႔ ၾ ၾ ၾ ၾ network speed Switch Ethernet address network router ႔ bridge ၾ ႔ network .၂.၂.၇ Ethernet Switch Ethernet switch Ethernet bridge LAN switch switch (၁၀) cut-through network store and forward cut-through switch ၍ architecture “ Cut-through switch forward ” switch destination segment destination address “S ” switch ) ႔ forward ၾ error ၾ data packet ) ႔ (user) switch ၍ Fast Ethernet ၍ ႔ (performance) ATM High traffic server bandwidth collision domain 10Mbps bandwidth ၾ EDDI ႔ network segment share data packet network switch Ethernet switch ‘C data packet ႔(forward) Data packet ႔ ႔ data packet Data packet designation segment (analyze ( LAN high-speed link switch Switch link ႔ network ’ ၉.

၉ Communications Networks Polling Network Polling network network DDC DDC central DDC Polling DDC central DDC Central DDC DDC controller DDC DDC Central DDC communicate communicate DDC ႔ ၾ Central network speed information polling DDC alarm Central DDC Peer-to-Peer Network Peer-to-Peer network DDC communicate DDC communicate exchange information immediately) communicate DDC controller equal authority Device ၍ communicate ႔ (waiting time) processor ၾ ၾ information Input signal DDC BAS (Controllers DDC output ၾ communicate network speed data processing poll response protocol ႔ central BAS 9-9 .႔ Chapter-9 BAS Network Integration ၉-၅ HVAC network lighting controller VAV AHU controller ႔ integrated ၉.၂.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems DDC processor ၾ ႔ peer protocol Poll-response communications protocol Master device ၍ Peer-communications protocol (advantages) (၁) Communication master device (၂) Bus devices ၾ central processor (၃) (Global messages) devices bus ႔ Peer communication ၾ device device bus data transfer time slot bus time slot ၉-၆ ( ) Polling network ၉-၆ ( ) Peer-to-Peer network ၉-၇ Integrating information from multiple system into a facility portal 9-10 .

hypertext transfer protocol [HTTP].႔ Chapter-9 BAS Network Integration ၉. (၄) Emerging BAS Internet Protocol (transmission control protocol/Internet protocol [TCP/IP]. (၂) European installation bus (EIB). extensible markup language [XML]). 9-11 . (၃) Local Operating Network Talk (LonTalk®) Echelon Corporation. Modicon®. MODBUS®).၃ Communication Protocol Communication protocol computer system (communicate) Protocol protocol Communicate Talk (translator) ႔ protocol gateway system Gateway system communicate (translator) ၉-၈ Information Technology and Building Services Communications protocol BAS device data ( ႔ ) controller ႔ ႔ Open Protocol ( ) Standard Protocol (ဂ) Proprietary Protocol ႔ BAS ၍ protocol communications protocol (၁) Building automation and control network (BACnet®.

EIA/RS 232 Communication.၃.၃.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Protocol BACnet LonWorks Property Protocols Alerton Invensys Siemens Automated Logic control Echelon Trane Delta TAC/CSI Johnson Controls Honeywell Carrier ၉.၁ Standard Protocol Industry ႔ ႔ Industry ႔ develop Standard protocol International Standard Organization (ISO) Open System Interconnection (OSI) model OSI model computer industry network publish ၾ adopte network computer ႔ data computer transfer activity .၂ BACnet (Building Automation Control Networking) Protocol BACnet BACnet B A C N P BACnet American Society of Heating Refrigeration & Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) AS RAE manufacturers ၾ BACnet Protocol ( (Strengths) ) Global standard ( ) (ဂ) Architecture (ဃ) Device ( ) ႔ BACnet protocol ၾ ( ) ( ) Vendor protocol Benefits of BACnet ( ) BACnet protocol BACnet protocol ( ) Engineer (ဂ) HVAC object device end user (ဃ) EIA/ANSI standard 9-12 ၾ Support ၾ major users ႔ ၁၉၈၇ consultants . Ethernet Communication ႔ ၉.

BACnet2---A Data Communication Protocol for Building Automation and Control Networks ၍ BACnet networking ၂၀၀၃ BACnet® ISO 16484-5 option (၁) Ethernet ARCNET (၄) Echelon's LonTalk (၂) Master-Slave/Token-Passing (MS/TP) (၅) BACnet/IP (၃) Point-to-Point (PTP) 9-13 .႔ ( ) Chapter-9 BAS Network Integration Robust ၉-၉ System integration BACnet Protocol ( (Obstacles) ) ၤField level ( ) Interoperability (Lack of interoperability) (ဂ) Guidelines (ဃ) Testing ( ) certification specify (Hard to specify) ( ) ( (Speed of development) ) HVAC support ( ) Device (Limited device offerings) ( ) Gate way BACnet® (Gateways still required) ANSI ANSI/ASHRAE 135-2004.

Notification Class 9-14 Contains a list of devices to be informed if an Event Enrollment object determines . Event Enrollment Describes an event that might be an error condition (e. for scheduling. Command Writes multiple values to multiple objects in multiple devices to accomplish a specific purpose. OBJECT EXAMPLE OF USE Analog Input Sensor input Analog Output Control output Analog Value Setpoint or other analog control system parameter Binary Input Switch input Binary Output Relay output Binary Value Binary (digital) control system parameter Calendar Defines a list of dates. such as a refrigerator's On.org (၂) www. Standard BACnet Objects. such as holidays or special events. etc..bacnet. It's Cold Enough and it's Time to Defrost)." Multi-state Input Represents the status of a multiple-state process. File Allows read and write access to data files supported by the device.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ၉-၁၀ BACnet layer ႔ Open System Interconnection (OSI) layer BACnet Websites (၁) www. or emergency mode. It can directly tell one device or use a Notification Class object to tell multiple devices.g. and other devicespecific information such as vendor. Multi-state Output Represents the desired state of a multiple-state process (such as It's Time to Cool.org BACnet standard object (၂၃) Table 1. Group Provides access to multiple properties of multiple objects in a read single operation.big-eu. Loop Provides standardized access to a "control loop. Device Properties tell what objects and services the device supports. "Input out of range") or an alarm that other devices to know about.bacnetassociation. firmware revision. such as day-mode to night-mode. and Defrost cycles.org (၃) www. Off.

To_Fault. Out_Of_Service flags Event_State Required Normal (plus various problem-reporting states) Reliability Optional No_Fault_Detected (plus various fault conditions) Out_Of_Service Required FALSE Update_Interval Optional 1. PROPERTY BACnet EXAMPLE Object_Identifier Required Analog Input #1 Object_Name Required "AI 01" Object_Type Required Analog Input Present_Value Required 68 Description Optional "Outside Air Temperature" Device_Type Optional "10k Thermistor" Status_Flags Required In_Alarm.႔ Chapter-9 BAS Network Integration that a warning or alarm message needs to be sent.0. To_Normal change reporting. loaded and unloaded. Can use a Calendar object for the exceptions. Schedule Defines a weekly schedule of operations (performed by writing to specified list of objects with exceptions such as holidays.1 Limit_Enable Optional Enable High-limit-reporting.5 Time_Delay Optional Seconds to wait before detecting out-of-range: 5 Notification_Class Optional Send COV notification to Notification Class Object: 2 High_Limit Optional +215. Properties of the Analog Input Object.00 (seconds) Units Required Degrees-Fahrenheit Min_Pres_Value Optional -100. Program Allows a program running in the device to be started. maximum reliably read value Resolution Optional 0. stopped. Upper normal range Low_Limit Optional -45. Overridden. Notify_Type Optional Events or Alarms 9-15 . minimum reliably read value Max_Pres_Value Optional +300. Lower normal range Deadband Optional 0. and reports the present status of the program.0. Event_Enable Optional Enable To_Offnormal. Fault.0. Low-limit-reporting. Acked_Transitions Optional Flags indicating received acknowledgments for above changes. ၉-၁၁ Example of BACnet Analog Input Object Table 2.1 COV_Increment Optional Notify if Present_Value changes by increment: 0.0.

.. March 12.... 1996 UTC_Offset Optional +480 (minutes from GMT/UTM) Daylight_Savings_Status Optional False (not in effect) APDU_Segment_Timeout Optional n/a APDU_Timeout Required 3000 milliseconds Number_Of_APDU_Retries Required 0 List_Of_Session_Keys Optional n/a Time_Synchronization_Recipients Optional n/a Max_Master Optional n/a Max_Info_Frames Optional n/a Device_Address_Binding Required None Table 4. Analog Input #2. Inc. . Object_List Required Analog Input #1.. atomicWriteFile. Analog Output. writeProperty.. ConfirmedCOVNotification C Tells subscribing devices of the COV that occurred in a property. ConfirmedEventNotification 9-16 C Used to tell sender of a possible error condition. PROPERTY BACnet EXAMPLE Object_Identifier Required Device #1076 Object_Name Required "Office 36 DD Control" Object_Type Required Device System_Status Required Operational (plus others) Vendor_Name Required "Alerton Technologies..2 Local_Date Optional Tuesday.. Alarm and Event Services SERVICE BACnet DESCRIPTION AcknowledgeAlarm C Used to tell sender of alarm that a human has seen the alarm.0" Application_Software_Version Required "Dual-Duct DDC" Location Optional "Office 36. Floor 3" Description Optional "(on network 5)" Protocol_Version Required 1 (BACnet protocol version) Protocol_Conformance_Class Required 2 Protocol_Services_Supported Required readProperty.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Table 3. Max_APDU_Length_Supported Required 50 (bytes or characters) Segmentation_Supported Required No VT_Classes_Supported Optional n/a Active_VT_Sessions Optional n/a Local_Time Optional 30:15. Protocol_Object_Types_Supported Required Analog Input." Vendor_Identifier Required Alerton Model_Name Required "VAV-DD Controller" Firmware_Revision Required "1. Properties of the Device Object.

၃.g. GenEnrollmentSummary C Requests a list of "event" (possible error) generating objects.g.႔ Chapter-9 BAS Network Integration GetAlarmSummary C Requests from a device a list of "active alarms.၃ LonTalk® LON Local Operating Network(LON) p LonTalk protocol LonTalk electronic component (data exchange) LonTalk® ( Echelon Corporation network LonWorks® protocol platform Echelon Association ၁၉၉၄ device Peer to Peer LonMark interoperable control ၁၉၈၈ LonMark user Echelon LonWorks LonMark® Interoperability ႔ LonMark Association (logo) LonMark device certified LonWorks network LonWorks intelligent device distributed control network Local Operating Network(LON) media (type) (၁) Electrical power lines (e. ring. bus. power line carrier) (၂) Balanced twisted-pair cabling may be supported by any recognized topology (e. SubscribeCOV C Sent by a device to request that it be told of COVs in an object." if any.. ၉-၁၂ Protocol network layar ၉. UnconfirmedCOVNotification U Tells subscribing devices that a change has occurred to one or more properties of a particular object.. star) (၃) Optical fiber cabling (၄) Coaxial cabling (၅) Wireless LonWorks network microprocessor LonMark device Neuron® chip processing Neuron® chip intelligent communicating 9-17 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems Toshiba ႔ Cypress Semi-conductor Corporation ႔ Neuron® chip LonWorks Echelon ၾ OSI model protocol (၇) (seven layers) LonWorks Strengths LonMark Obstacles • Gaining momentum • Number of available devices • Good field bus solution • High level implementation • HVAC.၄ Modbus Protocol Modbus protocol Communicate device ၾ ၁၉၇၉ Schneider Electric ( serial communication Modicon) Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) (industrial) electronic device Network ၍ communicate control Supervisory computer (၂၄၀) remote terminal unit (RTU) data acquisition ၂၀၀၄ Modbus Schneider Electric protocol Modbus organization Modbus organization MODBUS message ႔ (structure) ၾ MODBUS message structure (၁) Device address—Address of the receiver. sun blinds. lifts • Lack of support from engineers • Widely adopted (worldwide) • Echelon ownership of technology and marks • Interoperability • Not native IP ၉-၁၃ EIB centralized system ၉-၁၄ EIB decentralized system ၉. (၄) Error check—Numeric check value to test for communication errors. (၃) Data—Data block with additional information. lighting. (၂) Function code—Code defining message type. fire.၃. 9-18 . security.

9-19 . ႔ 2-wire .႔ Chapter-9 BAS Network Integration Serial MODBUS network device slave device ႔ slave ၍ master device Data ၍ initiate ႔ communication master MODBUS message serial code American Standard Code for Information Interchange(ASCII) Remote Terminal Unit(RTU) ၍ MODBUS transmission mode ၉-၁၅ Modbus connection ၉-၁၆ Modbus RTU Modbus TCP ၉-၁၇ Modbus message ASCII transmission mode ႔(transfer) message ASCII code Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) transmission mode transmission mode RTU message message transmit TCP/IP MODBUS/TCP ႔ Ethernet connection ၍ TCP frame Modbus serial ႔ - MODBUS protocol RS232 P ႔ MODBUS frame RS422/485 connection A .

၃.. 868 MHz band]). 1200 b/s).HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Twisted pairs MODBUS/TCP ၉-၁၈ Structure of an EIB compliant telegram ၉-၁၉ Address structure for source and destination of telegram (system accessing mode) ၉.g. power line carrier. Advanced Network for unified building integration services (ANubis) Internet intranet EIB ANubis protocols extranet ႔ integration IP network ၉.၅ European Installation Bus (EIB) European Installation Bus (EIB) standard ၁၉၉၀ Siemens ၂၀၀၂ ၁၁၀ ႔ EIB Association (ELBA) EIB vendor environment industry modular Multi- ၍ EIB topology Carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) protocol Network device common bus ၍ communicate ၾ bridging transmission media ၍ home office building automation EIB ( ) Balanced twisted-pair cabling (9600 b/s). (ဂ) Radio frequency (RF [19 200 b/s.၆ Proprietary Protocol Proprietary protocol ႔ 9-20 Johnson Controls Honeywell Siemen Proprietary protocol ၾ ဤ . ( ) Electrical power lines (e.၃.

၄ Low Level Interfacing and High Level Interfacing ၉-၂၀ surface integration ၉-၂၁ High level interfacing ႔ hard wired integration ႔ high level integration ၉.၄.၁ Hard Wired Integration or Low Level Interfacing Hard wired integration sub-system input/output point Surface integration ႔ ၍ h input/output point integration ၾ Software integration software low level interfacing hard wired integration ၾ controller router program 9-21 .႔ Chapter-9 BAS Network Integration ၉.

Pressure Oil Inlet Temperature Refrigerant Monitor Level Logs Date and Time Data Signature of Reviewer Ambient Dry Bulb Ambient Amps Per Phase Temperatures Wet Bulb Temperatures Volts Per Phase .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ACMV system fire alarm system AHU activation point fire alarm system FCU (shutdown) integrate Lift homing activation point ၉. PPM Vibration Levels Purge Refrigerant Pressure Refrigerant Temp. Compressor Suction Temp. Level Level Compressor Temperature Refrigerant 9-22 Exhaust Time Discharge Count Discharge Temp.၄.၂ High Level Interfacing control system equipment ၾ chiller generator Computer Room Air Conditioning unit(CRAC unit) integrate air compressor input/output point S equipment “High level Interfacing” York level interface water cooled chiller air cooled chiller ၍ Building Automation System (BAS) High level interface device information high integration Johnson Controls E- Table 1. Recommended chiller-monitoring points per ASHRAE Standard 147 Chilled Water (or other secondary coolant) Flow Flow Flow Flow Inlet Pressure Inlet Pressure Inlet Temperature Condenser Water Outlet Pressure Outlet Pressure Outlet Outlet Temperature Temperature Refrigerant Evaporator Pressure Condenser Refrigerant Temp.

႔ Chapter-9 BAS Network Integration ၉-၂၂ E-link protocol Carrier CCN DataPort Device and Metasys Companion System Integration Port-to-Port Connection and Cable Pinouts 9-23 .

Chiller Network Network Point Point Type Address 9-24 (read) Unit ႔ Point Description DataLINK Module Reference Point Name AI 1 % Active Demand Limit DEM_LIM AI 2 DegF Water/Brine Setpoint SP AI 3 DegF Control Point CTRL_PNT AI 4 DegF Entering Fluid Temperature EWT AI 5 DegF Leaving Fluid Temperature LWT AI 6 min Minutes Left For Start min_left AI 7 psi A: Discharge Pressure DP_A AI 8 psi A: Suction Pressure SP_A AI 9 psi A: A1 Oil Pressure Diff. DOP_A2 AI 11 psi A: A1 Oil Pressure OP_A1 AI 12 psi A: A2 Oil Pressure OP_A2 AI 13 DegF A: Discharge Gas Temperature DISTMP_A AI 14 DegF A: A1 Motor Temperature TMTR_A1 AI 15 DegF A: A2 Motor Temperature TMTR_A2 AI 16 DegF A: SAT Condensing Temperature TMP_SCTA AI 17 DegF A: Saturated Suction Temperature TMP_SSTA AI 18 A: Cooler Level Indicator LEVEL_A AI 19 psi A: Circuit A Econ Pressure ECNP_A AI 20 psi B: Discharge Pressure DP_B AI 21 psi B: Suction Pressure SP_B AI 22 psi B: B1 Oil Pressure Diff. DOP_B1 AI 23 psi B: B2 Oil Pressure Diff.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems Table 1. DOP_A1 AI 10 psi A: A2 Oil Pressure Diff. DOP_B2 AI 24 psi B: B1 Oil Pressure OP_B1 AI 25 psi B: B2 Oil Pressure OP_B2 AI 26 DegF B: Discharge Gas Temperature DISTMP_B AI 27 DegF B: B1 Motor Temperature TMTR_B1 AI 28 DegF B: B2 Motor Temperature TMTR_B2 AI 29 DegF B: SAT Condensing Temperature TMP_SCTB AI 30 DegF B: Saturated Suction Temperature TMP_SSTB AI 31 psi B: Cooler Level Indicator LEVEL_B AI 32 DegF B: Circuit B Econ Pressure ECNP_B AI 33 DegF Cooler Entering Fluid COOL_EWT AI 34 DegF Cooler Leaving Fluid COOL_LWT AI 35 DegF Condenser Entering Fluid COND_EWT AI 36 DegF Condenser Leaving Fluid COND_LWT AI 37 DegF Reclaim Entering Fluid HR_EWT AI 38 DegF Reclaim Leaving Fluid HR_LWT AI 39 mA 4-20 mA Reset Signal RST_MA .

႔ Chapter-9 BAS Network Integration Trane chiller level interface Automated Logic (http://www.automatedlogic.com) ႔ high Graphic Function Block (GFB) program BACnet Sample GFB-Trane Chiller using BACnet PTP ၉.၅ Wireless Sensing Systems Wireless sensing systems ( sensor controller ၾ (wireless ) Many-to-one room temperature sensing ( ) One-to-one room temperature sensing 9-25 .

၆ Integration ၉.၁ BAS Security System ႔ Integrate Security alarm BAS workstation workstation operator ၾ ႔ alarm ႔ BAS workstation operator (door-open command) security output point trigger Building ႔ network ၾ (installation costs) HVAC system system ႔ security graphics Security system Alarm BAS trigger ၉-၂၅ - ႔ (badge) ႔ ၾ card reader security system security system BAS ႔ BAS occupied area (enable (badge) (unoccupied area) 9-26 air con ႔ card reader .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၉-၂၃ Many-to-one room temperature sensing One-to-one room temperature sensing ၉.၆.

.........................................၂...................၁ BAS Hardware Architecture ................................. ၉............၆ Bridge ..................၅ Hubs/Repeater .............................၃ LonTalk® ....၂ BAS BAS Chapter-9 BAS Network Integration Fire Alarm System ႔ Integrate Fire Alarm System chillers boilers ႔ integrate AHU fan ၾ equipment ႔(shut down) (၅) BAS fire alarm signal display BAS action HVAC fan pressure fan Security Management System (SMS) unlock ႔ -End- Contents ၉.......................................................................................၂............................................................................၂.. ၉........၁ BUS ................... ၉...........၁ Centralized BAS........................................................၃ Communication Protocol ...................5 ၉............................................................................. 9-27 ...............3 ၉.....................................................................................................................၂ Interface .....၈ Router .၆...............၂......................၃................၂............... ၉.၂.................................... ၉................. 11 ၉.............႔ ၉.၂ Basic of Network Communication .. ၉...................၁ Standard Protocol ................. ၉.......၇ Ethernet Switch.......................................................၁.............................. ၉...............................................................................၉ Communications Networks ...................၃ Integrated Control System ................ ၉........................................၄ Gateway ................................................................၂ BACnet (Building Automation Control Networking) Protocol ..............................၂......................................................... ၉..................................................................................၂............................................................................................................................ ၉............................................................................................... ၉..................၁....................................................................၂ Distributed BAS .......................................................................................၂............................................၃..................................................................၃................................................................................................................. ၉.....................................

........ ၉..........................၁ Centralized BAS 3 ၉....၆ Proprietary Protocol 20 _ _ ၉.........၄....၁ BUS 6 ၉.................၇ Ethernet Switch 8 ၉......... ၉.........၂ Interface 6 ၉.................HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၉..........၈ Router 8 ၉...၆ Integration ...၆ Proprietary Protocol ...................၂.၂ High Level Interfacing ................၆.၁ BAS Security System ၉..၂..........၂ Distributed BAS 4 ၉....၁.......၂ Basic of Network Communication 5 _ ၉.........................၆............၄ Low Level Interfacing and High Level Interfacing ......................၄ Low Level Interfacing and High Level Interfacing 21 _ ၉........၃ Communication Protocol 11 _ ၉............. .....................၂.....၉ Communications Networks 9 _ _ _ ၉...၅ European Installation Bus (EIB) 20 ၉...၁ Hard Wired Integration or Low Level Interfacing ........................................................ 26 ၉........ ၉.................................၂.........၆ Integration 26 _ ၉..၁ Hard Wired Integration or Low Level Interfacing 21 ၉.၃........... 25 ၉..............၁ Standard Protocol 12 ၉.၂ BACnet (Building Automation Control Networking) Protocol 12 ၉........... ၉...............................၆..................၃ LonTalk® 17 ၉............ ၉.......၃.၄..........၃...၃ Integrated Control System 6 ၉.....၅ Wireless sensing systems 25 ၉..............................၃...................................၄....................................................... ၉....................၅ European Installation Bus (EIB) ...................၂ High Level Interfacing 22 ၉...၄ Modbus protocol 18 ၉.....၂........၄....... 21 ၉..........၃..............၄ Modbus Protocol ..၁ BAS Security System ႔ Integrate ၉.......၂.၂.....................၅ Hubs/Repeater 7 ၉.............................................၂ BAS Fire Alarm System ႔ Integrate ..........၃............၄ Gateway 6 ၉..၂.........၃......................၆.............................................................................၃.......................၁.....၃.၅ Wireless Sensing Systems ......................................၁ BAS Hardware Architecture 3 _ ၉....၂ BAS Fire Alarm System 9-28 ႔ Integrate ႔ Integrate 26 27 ..၆ Bridge 7 ၉.....................၂......

႔ Chapter-9 BAS Network Integration 9-29 .

႔ Chapter-10 Alarms and Alarm Processing Chapter-10 Alarms and Alarm Processing Alarm alarm (manage) Building Automation System (BAS)၏ alarm feature Alarm (priority) Alarm ႔ (level) (consistent) ၁၀-၁ (priority) ၁၀-၂ ႔ alarm page ၏ control room 10-1 .

Contact ၏ status (expected value) initiate .User ႔ operator ႔ operator acknowledge acknowledge Acknowledge operator (၃) Extended Alarm .Contact point open ႔ .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၁၀.Air Handling Unit ၏ (၂) Analogue Alarm – close assign trip point (current value) high ႔ low alarm limit ၏ ႔ - (temperature) 25°C (၅) (၃) Status Alarm .User (၂) Basic Alarm .device 10-2 control signal ႔ (response) ႔ .၂ Alarm Alarm BACnet standard (၁) Simple Alarm .User ႔ operator acknowledge reset process process (shutdown) reset Alarm (၁) Digital Alarm .၁ Alarm Alarm DDC controller control logic control logic Sensor ႔ - alarm (temperature) alarm (value) program 25°C 25°C phone control program 25°C sensor point Alarm (value) alarm output device ႔ ႔ printer hand print ႔ (register ) operator unit (information) ႔ ႔ alarm alarm database alarm mobile phone Alarm (information) fax machine printer PC web browser ႔ remote device email ႔ SMS ႔ Alarm list ၌ alarm signal alert clear alarm acknowledge ႔ alarm Pop-up window operator audible visual ႔ ႔ ၁၀.

5°C alarm ၌ alarm ၌ system ႔ equipment Fire alarm Security alarm alarm alarm security alarm mechanical alarm (priority) alarm alarm BAS system 10-3 .Variable ၏ (accumulated value) high limit initiate - 1500 kWh (၅) Hours Run Alarm - ၏ limit (total hours run) initiate .႔ Chapter-10 Alarms and Alarm Processing (၄) Totalizer Alarm .chiller t set ႔ ၏ (total hours run) (၁၅၀၀၀ h Alarm controller control logic level processor operation Operation level processor controller alarm alarm processing (၁) Alarm point processor (၂) Server LAN processor (၃) Alarm processor (၄) Alarm printer ႔ print ႔ ႔ re-broadcast alarm (display) output alarm message (၅) (၆) ႔ (date)/ (time) (၇) Action alarm (၈) - point Acknowledged alarm Acknowledge operator Alarm historical file BAS (record) ႔ Historical alarm BMS system ႔ (value) warning ႔ ၌ I/O point ၌ (reading) alarm program alarm operator (occupied hours) 25.

၃.၁ Analog Alarm Point Analog point (state) (၅) (၁) High Alarm (၂) High Warning (၃) Normal (၄) Low Warning (၅) Low Alarm (state) [ (state) [ (state) [ ] ] (state) [ ] (state) [ Analog point ၏ event ] ] (state) Alarm ႔ state warning ႔ (state) (transition) ၌ differential amount Differential amount 10-4 .၃ Alarm Management ၁၀.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems Analog point ႔ ၌ alarm limit alarm ႔ Message ၌ ႔ (date) warning limit alarm printer ၌ print (time) acknowledge ႔ (date) (time) operator workstation point name ႔ operator alarm point name operator alarm point ႔ (date) operator (time) point name hard disk ၌ file alarm operator event ႔ (normal status) override operator warning message operator workstation ႔ ၌ event ႔ Output ႔ (date) (time) point name override ႔ High Alarm Limit High Warning Limit  Normal to High Warning Differential   Differential   High Warning to High Alarm   High Alarm to High Warning Normalband Setpoint Low Warning Limit Low Alarm Limit Differential  High Warning to Normal    Normal to Low Warning Differential  Low Warning to Normal time ၁၀-၃ Analogue alarm ၁၀.

run hour point (၁၀၀၀ ) demand limiting/load rolling ႔ ႔ Alarm limit analysis software process (user defined value) Status (၁) Normal (current value) ႔ alarm limit analysis alarm limit analysis (state) – (current value) Normal operating range 10-5 .႔ Chapter-10 Alarms and Alarm Processing Alarm limit (safety) criteria Facility manager Warning limit ႔ comfort analog input point ၏ alarm ) .) Warning Delay Active Report Type Normal Report Type Warning Change of State Reporting Report Type Alarm Report Type Override Warning Message # Alarm Message # Reports Locked Auto Dial-Out ၁၀-၄ Analog alarm management (၁၀-၄) analogue data object analogue input object ႔၏ alarm management function event ( ) Operator ( ) Controller ( ) Operator override PC point hardware ႔ Log on/Log off (ဃ) ႔ ( ( ) Energy management feature .BAS System ၌ normal band (temperature) 4ºC (+2ºC warning limit setpoint ၏ ±2ºC -2ºC) control normal band 4ºC Warning limit point ၌ DDC controller Control loop ၌ operator Facility manager ႔ warning limit Current Value High Alarm Limit Alarm Limit Analysis Status Warning Delay Status Low Alarm Limit Setpoint Normalband Differential Warning Delay (Min.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems (၂) High or low warning ႔ (state) – range ၏ alarm limit (၃) High or low alarm (current value) Normal Operating ၌ (state) – (current value) alarm limit ၌ ၁၀-၅ Alarm page High Alarm Limit Analogue point ၏ (current value) high alarm limit ႔ high alarm limit ႔ high alarm state report Low Alarm Limit Analogue point ၏ (current value) low alarm limit low alarm limit ႔ low alarm state ႔ report Setpoint Setpoint normal operating range ၏ Normal band Normal band width( high 10-6 (current value) ၏ normal band operating range Normal band ၏ low warning limit ၏ Normal band .

႔ Chapter-10 Alarms and Alarm Processing Differential Differential “Buffer Zone limit ၏ ၌ (current value) (oscillati alarm warning differential Differential high alarm low alarm high warning (current value) differential zone (fluctuation) (change of state) (current value) limit report report limit Warning delay function alarm ၌ differential warning (delay) ႔ Warning delay warning Warning delay(min) warning ( Warning delay active Object ၏ 0 225 warning delay function alarm warning normal ႔ override ႔ (change of state) report device report (routing) ႔ (change of state) reporting (၁) Report type normal - (attribute) (state) ႔ (normal state) (change of state) report (၂) Report type warning - state high warning ႔ low warning ႔ (change of state) report (၃) Report type alarm .Alarm (၄) Report type override - report object override command ၌ (current value) operator override ႔ override cancel (change of state) report (၅) Warning message (define) high warning number (၆) Alarm message ႔ text unlock user critical warning report ၏ display dialog box object (၇) Report locked ႔ ႔ ႔ point alarm ႔ (change of state) report Report lock ႔ operator device lock report ႔ ႔ Report unlocked report command 10-7 .

) Alarm Delay Status Latch Function Status Alarm Delay Active Latching Point Report Type Normal Change of State Reporting Report Type Alarm Report Type Override Alarm Message # Reports Locked Auto Dial-Out ၁၀-၆ Binary alarm management (၁၀-၆) binary data object binary input object ႔၏ alarm management function Alarm analysis Analog Input(AI) object (current value) user (define) Alarm state Normal state (current value) None On ႔၏ normal state (current status) normal state Attribute Binary Input(BI) object user (defined) (current status) user Off (defined) ႔ ၌ normal state Current contact value operator device ႔ report Alarm delay function binary data object ၏ alarm report (delay) ႔ nuisance report ႔ 255 (delay) Object unlatch alarm operator Operator ႔ acknowledge 10-8 alarm Delay ႔ Latching operator ၏ Software (change of state) report 0 user state alarm state ၌ ႔ Latching (action) operator unlatch alarm state ၌ Unlatch .၂ Binary Data Object and Binary Input Object (BI) Alarm Current Value Normal State Alarm Analysis Status Alarm Delay (sec.Critical report (critical 1 remote operator workstation ႔ Auto Dail-out ၁၀.၃.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ (၈) Auto dial out .

႔ Chapter-10 Alarms and Alarm Processing Alarm system variable (predetermined limit) operator alarm .3 inch ႔ differential 0.air filter ႔ ၏ run time (maintenance) Alarm ႔ ႔ (audible) (visual) alarm enunciator Alarm ႔ grade) alarm (priority Alarm alarm cancel acknowledge ၁၀.3 inch (၅) 0.2 inch (၅) priority 3 alarm ( ) Setpoint(inch wg) ( ) Fan 0.2 inch (ON) (ဃ) Fan alarm duct static pressure alarm (၂) Duct air temperature ( ႔ ႔ alarm limit ) Setpoint (ºF) 2ºF ( ) Setpoint (ºF) 1ºF ႔ 2ºF ႔ ( ) differential 1ºF (၅) (၅) normal State alarm parameter alarm sensor Fan (၃) Space temperature ( priority 3 alarm ႔ room temperature ) (၄) Duct alarm ႔ (space temperature) space humidity ႔ room temperature alarm ႔ alarm limit differential 10-9 ႔ .၄ Analog Input Alarm (၁) Duct static pressure point ( ) Setpoint(inch wg) ႔ alarm limit 0.

၅ Digital Input Alarm Digital Input (DI) alarm air flow switch Digital Input (DI) point water differential switch Alarm ႔ nuisance alarm (false alarm) Digital Input(DI)၏ value Digital Output(DO) ၏ value controller point motor “ DO output ႔ DDC on state “ Digital input ၏ value Digital output ၏ value ႔ Digital Input (DI) Input (DI) Digital Output(DO) (၁) Safety alarm out ( Digital Output (DO) ) ႔ ႔ ( ) excessive vibration high humidity cut ) digital input ႔ ) Digital monitoring (high static cut out freeze condition VSD fault (pair delay digital input alarm priority 3 alarm screen ၌ “ (display) ( ) safety alarm ႔ Alarm ( ) screen ၌ “Normal ၏ normal (display) (priority) Priority 2 chiller trip alarm. ႔ Priority 3 mechanical equipment alarm (mechanical critical alarm) Priority 4 (mechanical alarm) ၁၀.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ( ႔ ) Setpoint Setpoint (၅) ( ) 15 % ႔ 20% priority 3 alarm Setpoint 60% RH +10% (normal state) -15% (၅) ႔ ၁၀. chilled water pump trip alarm (critical alarm) ….၆ Nuisance Alarm Owner ႔ ႔ dirty filter alarm False Alarm operator ႔ nuisance alarm Alarm (၂) Printer output ႔ control system (၁) Screen display of message 10-10 non critical alarm false alarm ႔ .

status unmatched) (၄) Analog high/low limit alarm (၅) Sensor error (၆) Trouble (၇) Totalized value increase error (၈) Control alarm (Power demand target value exceeded.) Control system alarm event (၁) Component alarm (bus trouble. etc. remote unit no response) (၂) Power demand alarm. power failure alarm. line status. ( Hand phone ၁၀-၆ Building Automation System Point ႔ SMS ႔ alarm ) (devices) alarm event (၁) Alarm input (၂) Unmatched command (Failure of start/stop of start/stop points. error. fire alarm -End- 10-11 .႔ Chapter-10 Alarms and Alarm Processing (၃) Log to hard disk (၄) Callout to fax machine terminal (၅) Callout to a digital pager (၆) Take a specific action.

.......၁ Analog Alarm Point 4 ၁၀..............၃...............၂ Binary Data Object and Binary Input Object(BI) Alarm 8 ၁၀........................................... 2 ၁၀......၃..၃.. 10 ၁၀..................................၅ Digital Input Alarm 10 ၁၀........................၂ Alarm 2 ၁၀..............၆ Nuisance Alarm ႔ False Alarm........................................ 10 ၁၀.၄ Analog Input Alarm .........................၃ Alarm Management 4 _ ၁၀....................................................................၅ Digital Input Alarm ......HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Alarm Processing ၁၀........................၁ Alarm 2 ၁၀..................................၂ Binary Data Object and Binary Input Object (BI) Alarm ................................... 9 ၁၀................................ 4 ၁၀.....................၁ Analog Alarm Point ........... ၁၀....................၆ Nuisance Alarm 10-12 ႔ False Alarm 10 ............ ၁၀........၁ Alarm ..................၄ Analog Input Alarm 9 ၁၀........၃.............................................................................................................................................................၃ Alarm Management .................................................. 2 ၁၀....................................၂ Alarm ...........

႔ Chapter-11 BAS Software Chapter-11 BAS Software ဤအခန္းကိုေလ့လာျပီးေနာက္ ( ) BAS software structure BAS software hierarchy (ခ) Database (development) (ဂ) DDC text based ၊ graphical programming DDE သေဘာတရား(concept) ၁၁.၁ BAS Software Structure BAS software architecture ခခ communication unit ၊ DDC BAS network ႔ Workstation PC ၊ BAS software architecture ခ software (၁) Operating System(OS) software (၂) Utility software (၃) Application software Software (three classes) ႔ (၁၁-၁) ၁၁-၁ Hierarchy of BAS software structure 11-1 .

၁.၂ Utility Software DDC ခ software operation ႔ ခ ႔ ခ operator ၏ ခ run software (run) “Utilities Software” ခ Communications functions ၊ database management functions ၊ operator-machine interface functions ႔ specific control algorithms Application program utility software utility software modules ခ ("called") ခခ ခ ၁၁.၁.၁ Operating System (Lowest Level) Operating system software ခ ခ memory location ခ ႔ခ ခ ၊ (text) hardware-specific function Operating System(OS) software Windows 95၊ Windows NT၊ Windows XP ၊ Windows 7 ႔ Operating System(OS) software ၁၁.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၁.၃ Application Program Software (Highest Level) Application software BAS ၏ (main function) program (main functions) ခ (၁) Data acquisition (၄) Control (၂) Metering (၅) Energy management (၃) Monitoring (၆) Operator-machine interface applications ႔ database BAS system Application program ခ database specific function ႔၏ Database ခ Communication network ႔ controller ခ Application program control task DDC network ၏ architecture Typical BAS Application Software Start/Stop Control ) Energy Management applications (၁) Start/Stop Control (၂) Duty Cycling (၃) Load shedding (၄) Temperature setback (၅) Enthalpy control 11-2 ၊ communication node protocol programme ( controlled plant ၊ BAS application ၏ capability effectiveness .၁.

၂.၂ DDC Firmware Firmware (factory-embedded) instruction software DDC Read-Only Memory (ROM) System user module DDC ခ ခ Firmware programme on/off control ၊ PID control ၊ scheduling DDC program ႔ ၁၁. alarm and prevention (၂) Access control and security (၃) Intelligent Building applications (၄) Operation and maintenance management (e. maintenance procedures. work order generation.၂ BAS Software Design Concept ၁၁.႔ Chapter-11 BAS Software (၆) VAV control (၇) Optimal start/stop (၈) Chiller and condenser optimization (ခ) Energy Management applications (၁) chilled water(cooling) (၂) electricity (၃) Gas (၄) Water (၅) fuel consumption(e.၃ DDC Database DDC database DDC configuration ခ physical data point database ၏ ခ DDC memory (RAM) 11-3 . for standby generators) (၆) advance warning and action required for maintenance service (ဂ) Facilities Management (၁) Fire detection.၂. management information) (၅) Maintenance Scheduling.၁ DDC Software DDC software DDC ခ software ႔ ခ (set of instructions) ၊ ႔ (procedures) DDC DDC ၏ Random Access Memory ခ operator ခ ၊ ခ ႔ ၁၁. Inventory Control.g.၂.g. Logistics (၆) Office automation (၇) Facility booking s application program ခ run ၁၁.

PID) (၂) Arithmetic modules (e. averaging. etc (e. summing.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ DDC database ၏ property (၁) RAM ခ (၂) DDC database memory device ႔ (delete) (move) DDC database object input/output of data) ၊ control programs ၊ variable (type constant ႔ ၁၁.. totalization) (၃) Programmable logic modules (PLC) (၄) Interlock modules . EF with EF OUT) ၁၁.၂.၃..g. on/off.g.၁ Text-based programming Translator Text based programming language compressed binary file DDC memory DDC operating system 11-4 ႔ input text file Compression Control program pseudo code ၏ pseudo code execute ခ .g.၃ DDC Software Programming control DDC ၏ memory ႔ (၁) Text-based programming language ( ) Program DDC ႔ (ခ) (၂) Graphical programming language(similar to that used for data base configuration) ( ) Program DDC ႔ (ခ) (ဂ) (user-friendly) ၁၁.၄ DDC Database Configuration ခ operational data DDC memory programs ခ executie ခ data point database ခ BAS application Database central network communication unit ၏ workstation PC ၌ ၌ DDC Software Modules DDC software DDC ၏ memory (ROM) Software module graphical ႔ internal module text based configure DDC software modules (၁) Control modules ( e.

IC)+(PID.PE)=A A=(PIC.P1) C=(PID.PE)/2*(PID.PI)=A+(PID.P1)/100 (PIC.SP) IF A<5 THEN 30 ELSE 80 IF A<-5 THEN 40 ELSE 80 (PID.DP)<=0 THEN 120 ELSE 100 (PID.DP)>=100 THEN 120 ELSE 100 IF(PID.RP)=(PID.RP)+B+C IF A>=0 THEN 170 ELSE 160 A=0 IF A<=100 THEN 190 ELSE 180 A=100 IF(SAFETY.PE)=0 (PID.PI)=0 (PID.AI)-(PID.DP)/100 IF(PID.DP)=A SWAIT 1 GOTO 10 ၁၁-၃ Text-based programming Text-based programming ခ၏ DDC program translate DDC Text-based method ၏ ခ ၊ compile ခ ႔ ႔ download ခ (၁) Parameter (၂) (text Entry 11-5 .DP) GOTO 20 B=A*(PID.BV)==1 THEN 200 ELSE 210 A=O (PID.႔ Chapter-11 BAS Software ၁၁-၂ Text based programming language ခ၏ Compiler Compiler input text file Compile machine instruction machine instruction ႔ DDC(microprocessor) control 010 020 030 040 050 060 070 080 090 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 A=(TEMP.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems format ႔ ၊ syntax (၃) Program ၌ (၄) ခ ၊ comment (reviewing) Text-based method ၏ ခ print ခ (၁) Syntax database entry statement (၂) DDC ၏ memory ႔ download (၃) Compile ခ compile ႔ ႔ ၁၁.၄ Logic Concept DDC logic concept ခခ logic function (၃) electric circuit function (၃) decision 11-6 AND ၊ OR NOT ladder diagram ခခ ႔ logic control decision ခ ခ control .၂ Programming Language (GPL) ၁၁-၄ Example of Graphic Programming Language(GPL) (၁၁-၄) Programming (minimum value)၊ (၅)ခ Temperauter (maximum value) “ j 1-5 (average value) Graphics diagram ႔ 1-1 MIN block ၊ MAX block ၊ AVG block ” MIN block (Zone)(၅)ခ temperauter ခ ခ MAX block (Zone)(၅)ခ temperauter ခ ခ AVG block (Zone)(၅)ခ temperauter ခ ၁၁.၃.

၄.၂ Logic Function Table 11-1 positive voltage more positive voltage logic 1 Less Logic 0 ခ ခ Binary concept state) physical quantities (Binary variables) 0 (၂)ခ ခ (၂) binary variable DDC ခ ခ AND ၊ OR operation ခ (make decision) NOT function (၂) (two ခ True (1) ခ ခခ ခ ၌ ၏ ႔ False (0) logical statement DDC digital equipment ခခ(fundamental) logic function (၃) binary variable ခခ statement 11-7 .႔ Chapter-11 BAS Software ၁၁.၁ Binary Concept Binary concept ခ ခ - (switch) ခ Binary concept (on o (off ႔ ႔ Signal Low ၊ on ႔ ခ (signal activated) off ၊ open ခ ခ close Digital System condition) ခ ႔ ခ ႔ (၂) ခ (not activated)၊ high close ႔ ႔ ခ (၂) two state concept (binary concept) ခခ computer Binary concept ၏ DDC (two state decision ၏ function block ခ digital ခခ(fundamental) PLC Binary 1 signal (absence of signal) Binary 0 Digital system voltage level (၂)ခ Volt ခ ခ +V volt ခ positive) ခ ခ Volt ခ Binary 1 ႔ binary 0 ႔ 0V volt signal (၂) ႔ (two state) Table 11-1 ႔ logic 1 logic 0 ခ (more true ၊ on ၊ high false ၊ off ၊ low Table 11-1. Example Logic 1 (+V) Logic 0 (0V) Limit switch Operating Not operating Bell Ringing Not ringing Light bulb On Off Horn Blowing Silent Motor Running Stopped Clutch Engaged Disengaged Valve Closed Open ၁၁. Binary concept using positive logic.၄.

၁၁. (၁၁-၅) ခ AND gate ခ၏ (s AND function Input AND output ၁၁-၆ Two-input AND gate and its truth table.၄ “O ” F (၁၁-၇) OR gate ခ OR function ခ ၁၁-၇ Symbol for the OR function.၄.၃ “ N ” F ၁၁-၅ Symbol for the AND function. .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems Function ခ ႔ (rule) ခ (result) (rule) (symbol) (result of statement) ဂ output Statement B) Input ခ ၏ output (၂)ခ ခ ခ Output (condition) input (A (၂) ၁၁. OR gate ၏ input input AND function (AND Gate) output ၏ 11-8 ခ ခ OR function (OR Gate) (၁၁-၈) combination output ႔ OR function ၏ true table ခခ output Y True (1 input .၄.

၄.O ( ) FALSE ၊ LOW ၊ OFF deactivate 11-9 . ခ TRUE (Visualize (visualize ) ) ခ ၊ AND ႔ OR ႔၏ NOT function ၊ ခ (၁) 1 ႔0 (၃)ခ ခ (၂) Logic 1 ( Activate (၃) Logic 0 ) TRUE ၊ HIGH ၊ ON Logic 1 Device Logic 0 device . ခ AND gate input ၏ state inverter ၁၁-၉ Symbol for the NOT function. ၁၁.၅ “NO ” function (၁၁-၉) NOT function F (s NOT function ၏ input output output input F NOT Gate ၏ operation ႔ NOT Gate input AND function ခ ခ ခ (၁၁-၁၀) Bar) OR function ႔ OR gate NOT Operation Ᾱ ခ ခ NOT function NOT function ခ ခ ႔ ၏ true table A ( NOT A NOT function function (inverse) ၁၁-၁၀ NOT gate and its truth table.႔ Chapter-11 BAS Software ၁၁-၈ Two-input OR gate and its truth table.

၁၁. Give examples on their real-life applications.၆ NAND Gate ၁၁-၁၁ Two-input NAND gate and its truth table. 3-7 NAND gate ၏ logic symbol output ၌ NOT output function symbol truth table ၁၁-၁၂ truth table (symbol) OR gate ၏ OR gate ၏ normal NO (၁၁-၁၂) NOR gate ၏ logic 3-8.Output Y ခ NOT function .၅ Review Questions (၁) Explain briefly about the software architecture applied to BAS. (၂) List three classes of software used in building automation systems. Two-input NOR gate and its truth table.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ . (၄) 11-10 ( ) W OO ? x “ j ” .logic 0 Device Active ( ) NOT function NOT L Device (ခ) Device NOT function Active deactivate NOT (၂)ခ NOT function NOT function NOT function AND OR function ခ ၁၁.၄. and outline the functions of each type. (၃) Describe three typical application software made available to BAS.

(ခ) Give one example of a DDC database entry that conforms with OOP. with the aid of diagrams. Give two advantages and disadvantages for each method. (၈) ( ) (ခ) (၉) Describe two methods used to develop BAS application programs. (၇) ( ) (ခ) Explain the purpose of a DDC database. ignoring the actual syntax used. (၁၀) Give two advantages of graphical programming method over test-based method in the development of BAS / DDC application programming. stating clearly. (၆) x “ ” “ ”. Explain clearly how to implement this proposal with your programming knowledge. where each one resides in a computer system. (၅) Describe the information contained in a DDC database. Explain the terms compiler and translator as used in computer programming. the following real-time energy management routines generally used in BAS:( ) Time and temperature profiling (ခ) Optimal start-stop (ဂ) Duty cycling (ဃ) Time and calendar scheduling (၁၄) The facility management has to deploy the efficient energy management routines to their car parks in three . (၁၂) List three BAS application programs typically available/used for:( ) energy management (ခ) metering and monitoring of building services (ဂ) facilities management (၁၃) Describe. -End- 11-11 .႔ Chapter-11 BAS Software building automation systems. (၁၁) List and describe five types of DDC program modules used for building control applications. ” “ k ventilation systems. Describe two methods commonly used for DDC database configuration in BAS industry. (ဂ) Explain the difference between DDC database configuration and DDC programming.

..၃ Application Program Software (Highest Level) 2 ၁၁......................................၂ DDC Firmware .........၃ “ N ” F 8 ၁၁............၂............၄ DDC Database Configuration 4 _ ၁၁...........၄..........၄ “O ” F 8 ၁၁........၁......................... 4 11-12 ..၁.................၂.၂ BAS Software Design Concept .၃ DDC Database 3 ၁၁.............၄ DDC Database Configuration ..........၂ BAS Software Design Concept 3 _ ၁၁..............................၂......၁ Binary Concept 7 ၁၁........................................၄.........၄......၄..............၁.၁ Text-based programming 4 ၁၁....................................................၂.............................................၂ Programming Language (GPL) 6 ၁၁.......၄.၁ Operating System (Lowest Level) 2 ၁၁...... ၁၁..........၁........ ၁၁......................၁ BAS Software Structure 1 _ ၁...................... ၁၁.........................................၁ DDC Software .....................................................၃.........၂ Utility Software 2 ၁၁..................၃ DDC Software Programming 4 _ ၁၁..........၃ DDC Software Programming .......................................၁.........................၂......၁ DDC Software 3 ၁၁..........၆ NAND Gate 10 ၁၁...... 1 ၁...................................... ၁၁...............၂....................... ၁၁............၂ Logic Function 7 ၁၁..........၁ BAS Software Structure ..........................................၅ Review Questions:- 10 _ _ Contents ၁၁..................................... ၁၁..၃ Application Program Software (Highest Level) ..............................၃...............................၂ DDC Firmware 3 ၁၁....၄...................................................၂ Utility Software ............၁...၄ Logic Concept 6 _ ၁၁............................................၁ Operating System (Lowest Level) .၅ “NO ” 9 ၁၁....... ၁၁.....................၂....................... 3 ၁၁......၂..............HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ Chapter-11 BAS Software ၁၁........၃ DDC Database .......................

............၃ “ N ” F ........................................................၁ Binary Concept............................................၄........................................................................ ၁၁............၃..၃......................... ၁၁..........................၁ Text-based programming. ၁၁......... ၁၁...............................................၂ Programming Language (GPL) ................................................................... ၁၁.........................................................................................၅ “NO ” ....................၄ Logic Concept .၄............................႔ Chapter-11 BAS Software ၁၁....၄ “O ” F ..............................၆ NAND Gate ......................................................................................................................... 10 11-13 .......................................................................................................................................၄.................................................................... ၁၁.............၄.............၂ Logic Function ...................... ၁၁................................................................. ၁၁..6 ၁၁.....................................................................................................၄.......၄.............................၅ Review Questions ...........................

၁ Introduction IBMS Integrated Building Management System ၏ system (integrated IT Computer IBMS Building Management System(BMS) System ႔ Building Automation System(BAS) Building Service System ႔ (Integrated Integrated Building Management System (IBMS) Facility Booking System ၊ Integrated Facility Management System ၊ Visitor Management ၊ Visitor service System integrated IBMS sub System Sub System System integrated 1-1 .႔ Chapter-12 Integrated Building Management System (IBMS) Chapter-12 Integrated Building Management System (IBMS) ၁၂.

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၁၂-၁ Integrated Building Management System subsystem service ၁၂-၁ BAS ႔ BMS computer Building Control System Network Intelligent Building System ႔ operation ၊ (Manage) BAS ႔ monitor BMS ၏ operation ၊ ၊ 1-2 (occupants) ၊ ၊ ၊ .

Chapter-12 Integrated Building Management System (IBMS) ၁၂-၁ Integrated Building Management System(IBMS) ႔ 1-3 .

System configuration BAS System ( ) ၏ Architecture Layer ႔ Management Level ( ) Operations Level ႔ (ဂ) System Level Supervisory Layer (ဃ) Zone Level DDC Controller Layer Building Automation System architecture 1-4 ၊ BAS workstation(PC) setting ၊ ႔ ၏ Operator Layer ႔ Level ႔ ႔ warning printer ႔ ႔ email .HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ( ႔ ) (Air Con ၊ ၊ ) ( ) plant room ႔ monitor ၊ ( (ဂ) (occupant) ) (ဃ) ႔ ႔ control BAS Work station ၏ ၊ (trouble shooting ႔ (response ) ႔ ( ) ႔ Maintenance Management (response Historical record Program ( ) ) ၊ ၊ alarm ႔ ႔ (Manage ( Graphic ၊ ႔ ) Energy Management Program ) special event (ဇ) Subsystem ၊ (ACMV. Security. Lighting Control ၊ Data ႔ ႔ ) ၊ exchange ႔ ( ) System ၏ reliability ( chiller stangby chiller ) ( ) Equipment (၃၆၅) ၊ (start/stop timing) report ႔ ၊ ၊ Energy Management Function [ Pg 172 Honeywell ] Sub system BAS System - operating parameter ၏ Building Technician ၊ equipment ႔ Operator information ၏ Alarm ႔( Alert ) Handphone ႔ SMS ႔ ၂. access control. Fire Alarm.

႔ Chapter-12 Integrated Building Management System (IBMS) Operating Level Processor Operating Level Processor Processer Personal Computer (PC) application Software (၁) System Security (၂) System Penetration – authorized personal (၃) Data Formatting (၄) Data segregation- - (user) ၏ (AP) data (၅) Operating Level authorization level Data ၊ ႔ (retrieve) Data transfer ၊ Equipment equipment Custom programming (၆) ၊ equipment (၇) Stand report (၈) Custom report (၉) Maintenance Management graphic (၁၀) Site specific customization (၁၁) System integration IBMS monitor ႔ (manage) IBMS (monitored and managed) (၁) Elevators (၂) Waste Water Treatment System (၃) Mechanical Direct Digital Controls (၄) Digital Network Lighting Controls (၅) Power Monitoring and Control System (၆) Fire Alarm and Detection System (၇) Solar Energy Collector Metering (၈) Wind Energy Power Generator Metering (၉) Weather Station Monitoring System (၁၀) Window Washing System (၁၁) Water Reclamation system ႔ ၃. Energy Management and Operation 1-5 .

BACnet.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ ၁၂-၁ Integration Applications Energy ၄. System Integration Implementing Integration The Right Technology.System Integration Common user interface for all building systems • Common graphics • Common alarm management • Common management reports ၁၂-၁ IBMS supports LonWorks. Integrators and Others 1-6 .

Integrated Facilities Management 1-7 .႔ Chapter-12 Integrated Building Management System (IBMS) ၁၂-၁ IBMS Control Center ၅.

Facility Booking Support air-con extension Extending the operating hr of air-con for facility Booking features Support public and internal booking Configurable calendar views Block booking(recurrence) On-behalf bookings Booking approval Email notification Bookings Mgmt View booking status View booking history Cancellation Amendment Booking template 1-8 ႔ . Visitor Service ၁၂-၁ Multi-Media Screen ၇.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ၁၂-၁ Integrated Facilities Management ၆.

႔ Chapter-12 Integrated Building Management System (IBMS) Additional features: Priority bookings Booking Horizon Locking facilities for priority bookings Minimizing booking abuse / maximizing facility utilization Internal chargeback Booking approval Additional users confirmation Auto cancellation -End- 1-9 .

secret keys).. it must be detectable by the involved communication participants.HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ A Hierarchical Building Control System Structure Security in Networked Building Automation Systems The main objectives of such a secure transmission channel are: Data Confidentiality: The disclosure of confidential information must be avoided. If such a modification cannot be avoided.g. Security mechanisms in BAS LonWorks BACnet KNX/EIB Authentication 64 bit MAC (48 bit key) DES 32 bit password Integrity 64 bit MAC (48 bit key) DES - Confidentiality - DES - Freshness Random number (64 bit) Random number (64 bit) 1-10 . It must be guaranteed that only entities with the required privileges have access to confidential data (e. confidential process data. Thus. Data Integrity: The modification of data by unauthorized entities must be prohibited. Data Freshness: It must be guaranteed that the data processed by an entity is valid at the current point in time. at least the use of these corrupted data can be prevented. Message injection or replaying by an unauthorized entity must be prevented.

႔ Chapter-12 Integrated Building Management System (IBMS) Two level model and security threats in BAS Two level model and security threats in BAS 1-11 .

HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems Chiller Plant Monitoring System Chiller Plant Monitoring System 1-12 ႔ .

Enhance AHU/FCU Performance 3. Aircooled) Remove inefficient chiller 17 (Automatic) Tube Cleaning System Maintain tube cleanliness 18 Water Treatment System Maintain water quality Air Side (incl. AHU/FCU) Energy Saving Measures 1. Fan Efficiency 6.႔ Chapter-12 Integrated Building Management System (IBMS) Chiller Plant Room Energy Saving Measures Item Chiller Plant Room Energy Saving Measures Remarks 1 Demand Control of Chiller Plant Equipment Optimal Start/Stop 2 Enhance Chiller Performance (Re-commission) Optimize chiller health 3 Enhance Cooling Tower Performance Optimize CT health 4 Chilled Water Pump Efficiency (Secondary Pump?) Enhance inefficient Pump 5 Condenser Water Pump Efficiency Enhance nefficient Pump 6 Remove Pressure Drop across Pumping Circuit Minimize flow resistance 7 VSD for Cooling Tower Fans Utilize standby CT 8 VSD for Chilled Water Pumps Variable Flow 9 VSD for Condenser Water Pumps Variable Flow 10 Water Flow Balancing across Chillers Even out chiller water flow 11 Chilled Water Reset Increase CHWLT 12 Condenser Water Reset Optimal CWLT 13 Chiller Plant Monitoring & Optimization System Proactive/optimal Ops 14 Chiller Gear Change Adapt to actual capacity 15 Chiller VSD Retrofit Optimize partial load 16 Chillers Consolidation or Replacement (incl. Room Temperature Reset 8. Reduce Excess Airflow 7. Air Filter Losses 4. Cooling Coil Losses 5. Air Ducting System Design 1-13 . Demand Control of AHU/FCU 2.

.................. Car Park Ventilation (25 ppm).............. Facility Booking........................... Energy Management and Operation .....................................................................................၁ Introduction ................ Recycle Water from AHU for Cooling Tower 18.................................. Fresh Air Treatment (Pre Air Cooling) 13.......................................... System Integration ........................................... Air-to-Air Heat Recovery 16....................... 6 ၅.................................................... Heat Pipe or Runaround Coils 15.............................. Visitor Service ................................................. Air Distribution (CAV vs VAV) & Balancing 10........................... Contents Chapter-12 Integrated Building Management System (IBMS) ........ 1 ၁၂............................................................... 8 Security in Networked Building Automation Systems .......................................................... Integrated Facilities Management ........................................... 10 1-14 ............................................. System configuration ... Fresh Air Controls (CO2 at 1..... 4 ၂. 4 ၃...............000 ppm) 14............................................HVAC Control and Building Automation Systems ႔ 9. Exhaust Air Discharge (15 Air Change/Hr) 17...................... 7 ၆..... 1 Energy Management Function [ Pg 172 Honeywell ] ............... Static Pressure Set Point 11............. 8 ၇.............................................................................. 5 ၄....................................... VAV Optimization Algorithm 12...................

႔ Chapter-12 Integrated Building Management System (IBMS) 1-15 .