MCQs in

Anatomy

An aid to revision and self
assessment
Thorax
Abdomen
Pelvis and Perineum
First Edition

MCQs in

Anatomy

An aid to revision and self assessment
Volume 2

Thorax
Abdomen
Pelvis and Perineum
First Edition
Professor Deepthi Nanayakkara
Senior Professor in Anatomy
Department of Basic Sciences
Faculty of Dental Sciences
University of Peradeniya
Sri Lanka

Professor Malkanthi Chandrasekera
Senior Professor of Anatomy
Department of Anatomy
Faculty of Medicine
University of Peradeniya
Sri Lanka

Dr Deepthika Chandrasekera
Registrar in Surgery

MCQs in Anatomy
An aid to revision and self assessment
Volume 2
Thorax
Abdomen
Pelvis and Perineum
© Deepthi Nanayakkara and Malkanthi Chandrasekera

All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior
permission in writing of the copyright owner.

First published in 2013
ISBN 978-

Medical knowledge is constantly changing. The authors have,
as far as it is possible, taken care to ensure that the
information given in this publication is accurate and up to
date.

Dedicated to our parents and teachers .

. To fulfill the demands of the readers explanatory answers have been given. Different parts of the series will be covering different regions of the body. Eventhough the commonly used MCQ type in many parts of the world is the single best response type this book contains ‘true/false type MCQs’ as they are the frequently used type in most examinations in Anatomy in Sri Lanka. that this text will provide students an opportunity to assess themselves the depth of their knowledge. This text is primarily aimed at fulfilling the requirements of medical/dental undergraduates as well as postgraduates. The MCQs contained in this text have been prepared by the authors under careful scrutiny. These explanatory answers will help the students to understand the section dealt in the MCQ. Within each part the questions have been grouped into topics. Students are always curious to know as to how and from where they are supposed to prepare for MCQs. This inspired us to write a book on MCQs with explanatory answers.Preface _____________________________________________________________________ Students preparing for examinations are burdened with many difficulties. This book. A significant difficulty encountered by all students is the non availability of practice questions especially MCQs. It is our sincere hope. ‘MCQs in Anatomy – An aid to revision and self assessment’ has been intentionally split in several parts for the convenience of handling.

Department of Basic Sciences. University of Peradeniya for his help in numerous ways. Faculty of Dental Sciences. The authors would be grateful to the readers for their suggestions for improvement of the text from all angles. Deepthi Nanayakkara Malkanthi Chandrasekera Deepthika Chandrasekera . and to avoid ambiguity in phrasing the questions. Miss Himali Disanayake for typing part of the text. to ensure accuracy and clarity.Even though every effort has been taken. it is quite possible that there are errors that have been unnoticed. and the students who prompted us to undertake the task of writing this book. We wish to thank Mr Dhammika Ihalagedera.

Ureters and Suprarenal glands Answers and Explanations . Pancreas and Spleen Posterior Abdominal Wall Kidneys.Contents _____________________________________________________________________ Preface Chapter I : Thorax Questions Thoracic Wall and Diaphragm The Thoracic Cavity Superior Mediastinum Anterior Mediastinum Middle Mediastinum Posterior Mediastinum Lungs and Pleurae Answers and Explanations Chapter 2 : Abdomen Questions Anterior Abdominal Wall Vessels and Nerves of the Gut Abdominal cavity and the peritoneum Development of the Gut Gastrointestinal Tract Liver and Biliary System.

urethra and ureters in the pelvis Male Reproductive Organs Female Reproductive Organs Pelvic vessels and nerves Perineum Answers and Explanations 1 ________________________________________________________ .Chapter 3 : Pelvis and Perineum Questions Pelvic Cavity and joints Rectum and anal canal Urinary bladder.

All posterior intercostal arteries arise from the descending aorta B. Regarding intercostal nerves A. The 4 th intercostal nerve supplies only the thoracic wall E. Posterior intercostal arteries supply the spinal cord E. is innervated by the posterior ramus of the thoracic spinal nerve . The anterior primary ramus of the twelfth thoracic nerve is the subcostal nerve B. The 2nd has a supply to the skin of the axilla 3. The 7th intercostal nerve is a typical spinal nerve C. supply the parietal pleura D. are the ventral rami of thoracic spinal nerves B. External intercostal muscle A. lie deep to the internal intercostal muscles C.Thorax Thoracic Wall and Diaphragm 1. All anterior intercostal arteries arise from the internal thoracic artery D. lie above the intercostal vessels in the costal groove E. Intercostal nerves A. The right third posterior intercostal artery gives off the right bronchial artery 4. They lie superior to the vein and nerve in the costal groove C. cross in front of the internal thoracic artery near the sternum 2. Regarding intercostal arteries A. They lie in the subcostal groove D.

is derived from the paraxial mesoderm C. The first rib A. External intercostal muscle has fibres directed downwards and forwards B. Internal thoracic artery A. Regarding intercostal spaces A. Neurovascular bundle runs between the internal and innermost intercostal muscle layers C. Has a groove for the subclavian vein on its inferior surface E. arises from the first part of the subclavian artery B. supplies the thymus D. supplies the upper six intercostal spaces C. has fibres directed downwards and backwards 5. Articulates with the manubriosternal angle . Its head articulates with the body of first thoracic vertebra B. gives off the superior epigastric artery E. All anterior intercostal veins drain into the internal thoracic vein 7. Its neck is related to the sympathetic trunk C. extends as far forwards as the costochondral junction D. The inner border gives attachment to the suprapleural membrane D. Each intercostal space is supplied by two anterior intercostal arteries D. terminates in the 5th intercostal space 6.B. has an attachment to the neck of the respective rib E. Posterior intercostal arteries supplying the first two spaces arise from the descending aorta E.

musculophrenic artery E. A. Primary cartilaginous joints are A. first sternocostal joint E. D. The articulation between two vertebral bodies is synovial E. The first thoracic vertebra has a complete facet for the 1st rib B. An inferior costal facet is absent on T9 vertebra 11. Manubrium sterni forms the anterior boundary C. Regarding the inlet of the thorax A. E. B. manubriosternal joint B. They have thick bifid spines C. superior epigastric artery D. Transverse process articulates with the neck of the corresponding rib D. posterior intercostal artery C. Vertebral artery passes through it 12. Branches of the internal thoracic artery are A.8. sternoclavicular joint C. costotransverse joint 10. The lateral boundary is formed by the inner surface of the first rib and its costal cartilage B. Posterior boundary is formed by the lower border of T4 vertebra D. C. Regarding thoracic vertebrae A. The aortic opening in the diaphragm lies anterior to the body of tenth thoracic vertebra lies between the crura of the diaphragm transmits the sympathetic trunk transmits the vagus nerve transmits the azygos vein . costochondral joint D. pericardiacophrenic artery B. Brachiocephalic artery passes through it E. superior intercostal artery 9.

sends preganglionic fibres to the greater splanchnic nerve 14. E. D. is surrounded by a sling of fibres from right crus C. B. falciform ligament E. transmits the right phrenic nerve .13. passes into the abdomen behind the lateral arcuate ligament D. Derivatives of the septum include A. transmits branches of the right gastric artery E. Kupffer cells C. is at the tenth thoracic vertebral level B. lies in the central tendon of the diaphragm D. central tendon of the diaphragm transversum 16. has ganglia most of which lie anterior to the heads of ribs C. The oesophageal opening in the diaphragm A. The diaphragm is developed from the ventral mesentery of oesophagus dorsal mesentery of oesophagus pleuroperitoneal membrane pleuropericardial membrane septum transversum 15. is present in the posterior mediastinum B. C. A. The thoracic sympathetic trunk A. lesser omentum B. sends postganglionic fibres to the cardiac plexus E. ligamentum teres D.

is formed by the right anterior cardinal and right common cardinal veins B. The superior vena cava A. is formed behind the manubrium sterni C. Crura develops from the dorsal mesentery of the oesophagus The Thoracic Cavity Superior Mediastinum 19.17. The sympathetic trunk passes behind the medial arcuate ligament 18. The medial arcuate ligament is a thickening of lumbar fascia B. The medial arcuate ligament has an attachment to the body of first lumbar vertebra C. The right dome reaches the upper border of the 5 th rib C. lies in the superior mediastinum . The level of the diaphragm is higher in the supine position than in the standing position B. The lateral arcuate ligament is the thickening of the fascia of quadratus lumborum muscle D. The hemiazygos vein passes through the right crus E. Regarding the arcuate ligaments of the diaphragm A. The central tendon lies at the level of the xiphisternal joint D. receives the hemi azygos vein E. The lateral arcuate ligament extends from transverse process of L1 vertebra to the 12th rib E. Regarding the diaphragm A. opens into the right atrium behind the 3 rd costal cartilage D.

The thoracic duct A. Regarding the superior mediastinum A. drains lymph from the right upper limb 22. The prevertebral fascial layer is present within it D. B. It contains the thymus 21. D. commences at twelfth thoracic vertebral level B. D.20. It is separated from the inferior mediastinum by a plane passing through the third costal cartilage E. Its anterior boundary is formed by the body of the sternum B. E. A. passes through the aortic opening of the diaphragm C. lies along the left margin of the oesophagus in the superior mediastinum D. crosses from right to left side at the fourth thoracic vertebral level E. C. its . The arch of the aorta lies within it C. C. The ascending aorta is an elastic artery is developed from the fourth left aortic arch lies posterior to the root of the pulmonary trunk is covered by the fibrous pericardium at commencement is stenosed in tetralogy of Fallot A. Regarding the arch of the aorta It commences at the level of the sternal angle It is developed from the third left aortic arch Left vagus nerve lies anterior to it It forms the cervical constriction of the oesophagus A cardinal sign in the coarctation of aorta is diminished femoral pulse 23. E. B.

E. contains incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage C. left vagus nerve E. C. is lined by a simple columnar epithelium D. commences at the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage B. A. superior vena cava C. The pulmonary trunk lies within the pericardial sac divides at the fourth thoracic vertebral level lies posterior to the transverse sinus is stenosed in Fallot’s tetralogy is developed from the truncus arteriosus The left principal (main) bronchus . 28. left atrium D. Structures present in a cross section of the thorax at the upper border of the fourth thoracic vertebra include A. bifurcates at the level of sternal angle E. arch of aorta B. The trachea A. lies in the posterior mediastinum 25.24. B. B. is supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerves 27. D. A. C. The trachea is about 10 cm in length lies in the midline through out its course is supplied by the inferior thyroid arteries has an epithelium derived from the endoderm of the foregut E. D. right atrium 26.

is developed from the tracheo-bronchial diverticulum D. D. has the root of the pulmonary trunk anterior to it 29. is longer than the right principal bronchus C. Common iliac vein is developed from the sacrocardinal anastomosis 31. vertebral B. Veins draining into brachiocephalic vein include A. A. The inferior vena cava has a part developed from the right subcardinal vein D. C. external jugular E.A. Azygos vein is developed from the right supracardinal vein B. At the sternal angle the first rib articulates with sternum the aortic arch ends the trachea bifurcates the azygos vein enters the superior vena cava the inferior boundary of the superior medisatinum is demarcated 30. Right renal vein is developed from the subcardinal anastomosis E. inferior thyroid C. Left brachiocephalic vein is developed from the left supracardinal vein C. divides into two lobar bronchi E. B. Regarding the development of the venous system A. is wider than the right principal bronchus B. internal thoracic the right . E. middle thyroid D.

A. right atrium D. oesophagus B.32. E. liver . vagi both superior and Anterior mediastinum 33. E. is B. left ventricle C. B. 34. trachea C. C. D. In the foetal circulation mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood occurs in the A. The thymus lies in the anterior mediastinum is developed from the 3rd branchial pouch has lymphoid follicles involutes after puberty is supplied by the inferior thyroid artery The thymus the only structure lying in the anterior mediastinum has a blood supply from the internal thoracic artery regresses soon after birth contains Hassall’s corpuscles lies in front of the left brachiocephalic vein A. phrenic nerves E. left atrium B. right ventricle E. Middle mediastinum 35. C. D. Structures found in posterior mediastina are A. thoracic aorta D.

has the sinuatrial node in its wall D. is present as the ligamentum arteriosum at birth E. has the crista terminalis separating the smooth and rough parts E. Ligaments that have foetal vessels of origin include A. The ductus arteriosus A. gastrosplenic ligament 38. has a smooth part derived from the right horn of sinus venosus C. septum spurium C. right valve of sinus venosus 37.36. medial umbilical ligaments E. ligamentum venosum D. Embryonic structures that contribute to the inter-atrial septum include A. ligamentum teres C. septum primum B. represents the distal portion of the left sixth aortic arch B. left valve of sinus venosus E. connects the pulmonary vein to the aortic arch D. septum secondum D. median umbilical ligament B. shunts blood from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta before birth . The right atrium A. is functionally closed shortly after birth C. receives the coronary sinus 39. forms the right border of the heart B.

40.
A.
B.
C.
D.

The right coronary artery
arises from the anterior aortic sinus
supplies blood to the sinu-atrial node
is accompanied by the great cardiac vein
causes an infarction at the apex of the heart if
occluded
E. gives off the circumflex branch

41.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
42.
A.
B.
C.

D.
E.

The left atrium
forms the major part of the left border of the heart
lies behind the right atrium
has the oblique sinus posterior to it
lies anterior to the oesophagus
receives the four pulmonary veins
Regarding the development of the heart
The secondary septum completely divides the
atrium
The septum spurium contributes to the formation of
the interatrial septum
The pulmonary arteries develop from the right horn
of sinus
venosus
The right valve of sinus venosus gives rise to the
valve of the inferior vena cava
The smooth part of the right atrium is developed
from the left horn of sinus venosus

Posterior Mediastinum
43.
The descending thoracic aorta
A. begins at the level of the lower border of the fourth
thoracic vertebra
B. lies in the posterior mediastinum
C. gives off the pericardiacophrenic artery
D. passes through the diaphragm at the tenth thoracic
vertebral level
E. gives off branches to supply the middle third of the
oesophagus
44.
The azygos vein
A. is formed by the union of right subcostal and right
ascending lumbar veins
B. passes through the oesophageal opening
C. arches over the root of the right lung
D. receives the superior intercostal vein
E. drains directly into the right atrium
45.
Branches arising from the
thoracic aorta are
A. third right posterior intercostal artery
B. musculophrenic artery
C. superior phrenic artery
D. superior intercostal artery
E. bronchial arteries

descending

46.
Regarding the thoracic part of the
oesophagus
A. It lies posterior to the left bronchus
B. It lies anterior to the thoracic duct
C. Its wall is composed of smooth muscle along its
entire length
D. Venous blood from the thoracic part drains into
azygos vein
E. The right pulmonary artery is anterior to it

47.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
48.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

The oesophagus
is lined by the stratified squamous non keratininsed
epithelium
is constricted by the right bronchus
lies posterior to the pericardium and the left atrium
passes through both superior and posterior
mediastina
has an arterial supply from the left gastric artery
The right phrenic nerve
lies in the superior mediastinum
has the superior vena cava on its medial side
is posterior to the thoracic duct
passes through the caval opening in the diaphragm
supplies the fibrous pericardium

Lungs and Pleurae
49.
The right lung
A. has its inferior lobe below and behind the oblique
fissure
B. has four structures in the hilum
C. has five bronchopulmonary segments in its lower
lobe
D. has the arch of the aorta related to its mediastinal
surface
E. is supplied by two bronchial arteries
50.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

The parietal pleura
extends superiorly up to the neck of the first rib
is attached to the mediastinal surface of the fibous
pericardium
is developed from the splanchnic mesoderm
forms the pulmonary ligament
forms the costo diaphragmatic recess

The visceral pleura is sensitive to pain .51. The parietal layer is separated from the thoracic wall by the endothoracic fascia C. There are eight bronchopulmonary segments in each lung B. The parietal and visceral pleurae are continuous around the root of the lung D. Regarding the bronchopulmonary segments A. Each segment is pyramidal in shape with the base towards the hilum C. The visceral pleura extends into the depths of the interlobar fissures of the lung E. It is the smallest part of the lung that could be removed surgically E. The cervical pleura extends above the clavicle B. They are supplied by end arteries 52. Each segment is supplied by a lobar bronchus D. Regarding the pleura A.

True – The collateral branch arising near the angle of the rib supplies the muscles of that space. True – It is a typical intercostal nerve E. The 7 th to 11th nerves supply the abdominal wall in addition to the intercostal spaces C. False – In the costal groove the nerve lies below the intercostal vessels. A. True In the intercostal space the nerve lies in the subcostal groove between the internal intercostal muscle and innermost intercostal muscles C. The order from above downwards is vein. A. False – The 3rd to 6th intercostal nerves supply only the thoracic wall and are called typical nerves. True B. True D. artery and nerve E.Thorax : Answers and Explanations Thoracic wall and diaphragm 1. True – The lateral cutaneous branch of the 2 nd intercostal nerve . It also supplies the parietal pleura and the parietal peritoneum in the case of the lower nerves D. True – The intercostal nerves are the ventral rami of T1 – T11 spinal nerves B. True 2.

The 1st and 2 nd arise from the superior intercostal artery which is a branch of the costocervical trunk B. Not infrequently the lateral cutaneous nerve of the 3rd intercostal nerve also supplies the skin of the axilla 3. False . The relationship from above downwards being veinartery-nerve C. False – The intercostal muscles are innervated by the corresponding intercostal nerve.The upper six arise from the internal thoracic artery and the 7th to 9th arise from the musculophrenic artery D. .crosses the axilla to the medial side of the arm as the intercostobrachial nerve and supplies the skin of the axilla . A. E. False – The 3rd -11th arteries arise from the descending aorta. True – The dorsal branch which supplies the muscles and skin at the back gives off a spinal branch which supplies the spinal cord and vertebrae. A. False – In the costal groove the artery is accompanied by the vein and nerve. True 4.

D.B.It gives off two anterior intercostals to each of the upper six intercostal spaces C. True . A. True . The intercostal nerves are the anterior rami of first 11 thoracic spinal nerves. C. The anterior ramus of the twelfth thoracic nerve lies in the abdomen and runs forward in the abdominal wall as the subcostal nerve True – Although the ribs develop from sclerotome the intercostal muscles develop from the somatic mesoderm (body wall muscles) True – The muscle extends as far forwards as the costochondral junction and continues as the anterior intercostal membrane False – It is attached to the tubercle of the rib False – The fibres of the external intercostal muscle are directed downwards and forwards. The fibres of the internal intercostal muscle are directed downwards and backwards 5. True – It is the second branch that arises from the inferior aspect of the first part of the subclavian artery B.It supplies the thymus via mediastinal branches . E.

True . C. False 6. the superior intercostal artery and the first thoracic nerve C. True – The artery terminates in the 6 th intercostal space by dividing into superior epigastric and musculophrenic artery E. A. True – Anteriorly the neck is related from medial to lateral to the sympathetic chain. the first posterior intercostal vein. E.Each intercostal space contains a large single posterior intercostal artery (branches of the descending thoracic aorta) and two small anterior intercostal arteries (branches of the internal thoracic artery) False –They arise from the superior intercostal artery. True . A. The fibres of the internal intercostal muscle are directed downwards and backwards False The intercostal nerves and vessels (neurovascular bundle) run between the intermediate and innermost layers of muscles True . D. True B. Others arise from the descending aorta False .The upper six drain into the internal thoracic vein and the 7th 9th spaces drain into the musculophrenic vein 7. directed downwards and forwards.D.The fibres of the external intercostal muscle are B.

True – The first costal cartilage articulates with the sternum at a primary cartilaginous joint. False – It is a synovial joint C. A. The 2 nd rib articulates at the manubriosternal angle 8. The joint between the body of the sternum and the xiphoid process (xiphisternal joint) is another symphysis.D. False . False – It articulates with the manubrium sterni. mediastinal branches. False – The manubriosternal joint is a symphyseal joint. A. True E. The groove behind the tubercle lodges the subclavian artery E. The other six costal cartilages (2nd . False – Posterior intercostal arteries are 11 in number. True D. The first and second posterior intercostal arteries arise from it 9. superior epigastric artery.The superior intercostal artery is a branch of the costocervical trunk which comes off from the second part of the subclavian artery. perforating branches. B. C. pericardiacophrenic artery. True – Branches of the internal thoracic artery include : two anterior intercostal arteries to each space. False –The groove for the subclavian vein is on its superior surface anterior to the scalene tubercle. musculophrenic artery B. True – The anterior end of each rib makes a a primary cartilaginous joint with its costal cartilage (costochondral joint) D. 1-2 arise from the superior intercostal artery and 3-11 arise from the descending aorta.

Bifid spines are found in some of the cervical vertebrae (2nd to 6th) C. True D. tenth. A. False – The articulation between two vertebral bodies (the intervertebral disc). eleventh and twelfth vertebrae have only single facets on each side of their bodies for articulation with the numerically corresponding ribs.to 7th ) articulate with the sternum at synovial joints E. True – The tenth. False – This is not a feature of thoracic vertebrae. True – Except the first. eleventh and twelfth vertebrae all others have demi facets to articulate with the respective ribs B. is a symphyseal or secondary cartilaginous E. The tenth rib has only a single facet on the head for articulation with the body of the tenth thoracic vertebra. It has no articulation with the vertebra . False – It is a synovial joint 10.

A.above. The vertebral artery enters the foramen transversarium of the sixth cervical vertebra. True E. False – The vertebral artery (right and left) arise from the first part of the subclavian artery. A. A.It lies between the left and right crura which form the median arcuate ligamnet C. False . True 13. True C. False – The thoracic sympathetic trunk lies posterior to the costovertebral pleura. True B. False – The posterior boundary is formed by the superior surface of the body of the first thoracic vertebra D.It transmits the aorta with azygos vein to the right and the thoracic duct between them E. Hence it is not a content of the posterior mediastinum . False – The aortic opening lies anterior to the body of the twelfth thoracic vertebra B. Hence T9 vertebra has no inferior costal facet. True – The sympathetic trunk passes behind the medial arcuate ligament D. 11. True . It does not pass through the inlet of the thorax 12.

most of which lie anterior to the heads of ribs. True – It has about 12 ganglia. and to each thoracic spinal nerves E. trachea. left and right pleuroperitoneal membranes. A. True – Postganglionic sympathetic fibres pass to the cardiac and pulmonary plexuses. The subcostal nerve and vessels pass behind the lateral arcuate ligament which is the thickening of the quadratus lumborum fascia D. oesophagus.B. True – Preganglionic sympathetic fibres are present in the greater spanchnic nerve which receives branches from the fifth to ninth thoracic sympathetic ganglia 14. dorsal mesentery of the oesophagus and left and right lateral body wall muscles originating from the lower six intercostal region . The stellate ganglion (the fused first thoracic ganglion and the inferior cervical ganglion) lies anterior to the neck of the first rib while the lowest three ganglia lie lateral to the corresponding vertebral bodies C. the septum transversum. False – The diaphragm is developed from four embryonic structures namely. False – It passes into the abdomen behind the medial arcuate ligament which is the thickening of the psoas fascia. thoracic aorta and its branches.

lesser omentum. True 16.B. True – lies within a sling of muscle fibres originating from the right crus C. True – Derivatives of the septum transversum include the central tendon of the diaphragm. . False D. A. True C. E. True True False True 15. False – It lies in the muscular part of the diaphragm. oesophageal branches of left gastric artery and lymphatics from the lower part of the oesophagus 17. coronary ligaments of the liver. D. A. False – It transmits the oesophageal branches of the left gastric artery E. C. True E. right and left vagus nerves. connective tissue and Kupffer cells of the liver and connective tissue of the gall bladder B. False – It transmits the oesophagus. falciform ligament. True B. The inferior vena cava passes through the central tendon D.

A. A. False – The medial arcuate ligament is the thickened upper margin of the fascia covering the anterior surface of the psoas muscle The lateral arcuate ligament is the thickened upper margin of the fascia covering the anterior surface of the quadratus lumborum muscle B. True – The sympathetic trunk passes behind the medial arcuate ligament which is the thickening of the psoas fascia. True The Thoracic Cavity . False – The hemiazygos vein passes through the left crus E. True D. True D. True – The right dome reaches as high as the upper border of the fifth rib whereas the left reaches the lower border of the fifth rib C. True B. True E. False – The medial arcuate ligament extends from the body of the second lumbar vertebra to the transverse process of first lumbar vertebra C. The subcostal nerve and vessels pass through the lateral arcuate ligament which is the thickening of the fascia of the quadratus lumborum muscle 18.

True – The commencement and the termination of the arch of the aorta is at the T4 level (manubriosternal junction). True B. mediastinal and pericardial veins E. A. False . False – The anterior boundary is formed by the manubrium as the lower boundary of the superior mediastinum is at T4 level (manubriosternal joint) B. Therefore the arch of the aorta is above this level lying in the superior mediastinum . A.Superior Mediastinum 19.Its tributaries are azygos vein. False – It is formed behind the right first costal cartilage by the union of right and left brachiocephalic veins C. The lower part lies in the anterior mediastinum 20. True – Its upper part lies in the superior mediastinum. True D.

True – It passes through the aortic opening of the diaphragm between the right crus of diaphragm and abdominal aorta C. True – Contents of the superior mediastinum include the thymus. True . thoracic duct and sympathetic trunks 21. oesophagus. Next it passes in the superior mediastinum along the left margin of the oesophagus to the neck . True – The thoracic duct commences as a continuation of cisterna chili at the lower border of the twelfth thoracic vertebra B. False – It is separated from the inferior mediastinum by an imaginary plane passing through the sternal angle anteriorly and the lower border of the body of the fourth thoracic vertebra posteriorly E. It crosses from right to left side behind the oesophagus at T5 vertebral level. A. large veins.C.The prevertebral fascial layer passes in front of the vertebral bodies into the superior mediastinum and is attached to the body of the fourth thoracic vertebra D. trachea. large arteries. True – In the posterior mediastinum the thoracic duct passes upwards in front of T12 to T5 vertebrae and lies between the azygos vein and descending aorta.

False .There are four constrictions in the oesophagus. True – The arch of the aorta commences at the level of the sternal angle (T4 level). The arch of the aorta is developed from the fourth left aortic arch C. The second is at the crossing of the arch of the aorta (ie 9 inches . 6 inches (15cm) away from incisor teeth). left half of the thorax. A. It then passes downwards to the left of the midline to reach the level of the fourth thoracic vertebra and continues as the descending aorta B. left half of the head and neck and left upper limb. The right lymphatic duct drains the right upper limb 22.D. False – It crosses from right to left side at the fifth thoracic vertebral level E.The third left aortic arch gives rise to the left internal carotid artery. It passes upwards and backwards forming an arch in the superior mediastinum. This is called the cervical constriction. viscera and walls of the abdomen and pelvis. False – It drains right and left lower limbs. False . True – Both the left vagus and left phrenic nerves lie anterior to the arch of the aorta D. The first is at the cricopharyngeal sphincter (ie.

5 cm) from the incisor teeth). True – Arteries close to the heart are elastic arteries B. The third is at where it is crossed by the left bronchus (ie. True D.5 cm) from the incisor teeth). A spiral septum forms within the truncus arteriosus which separates the truncus into the pulmonary trunk and ascending aorta. True – The pulsation in the femoral arteries of both lower limbs can be absent or diminished in coarctation of aorta. A collateral circulation helps to compensate the diminished blood flow 23. The fourth left aortic arch gives rise to the arch of the aorta C. True – The fibrous pericardium invests the commencement of great .(22. The fourth is at where is passes through the diaphragm ( 16 inches (40 cm) from the incisor teeth) E. A. False – The ascending aorta is developed from the truncus arteriosus. 11 inches (27.

True – Structures present in a cross section of the thorax at the upper . False – It is lined by a pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells which is the respiratory epithelium D. high ventricular septal defect. pulmonary stenosis and right ventricular hypertrophy 24. False – It lies in the superior mediastinum and bifurcates at the level of the lower border of the fourth thoracic vertebra which is the lower boundary of the superior mediastinum 25. an overriding aorta. True – It bifurcates into the two main bronchi at the level of the sternal angle (T4-T5 vertebral level) E. A. True – Its wall contains 16-20 incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage C. True – The trachea is the continuation of the larynx and it commences in the neck below the cricoid cartilage at the level of the sixth cervical vertebra B. A.vessels E. False – The abnormalities present in tetralogy of Fallot are .

E.B. superior vena cava. False – It lies in the midline over most of its length but near the lower end it deviates slightly to the right C. vagi and right and left phrenic nerves True False True False 26. oesophagus. muscle etc) are derived from the splanchnic mesoderm E. border of T4 vertebral level include the arch of the aorta. trachea. and sympathetic fibres from the upper ganglia of the sympathetic trunk to smooth muscles and blood vessels . True B. A. True – Branches from the inferior thyroid and bronchial arteries form an anastomotic network in the tracheal wall D. the other structures (cartilage. D. azygos vein. C. left and right lungs and pleura. True – Apart from the epithelium. left superior intercostal vein. True – It receives a parasympathetic supply through vagi and recurrent laryngeal nerves.

tertiary bronchi. A. True – The lung develops as an outgrowth (diverticulum) from the ventral aspect of the foregut which gives rise to all parts of the bronchial tree ie. 28. pulmonary stenosis and right ventricular hypertrophy E. False – The left principal bronchus is narrower. False – The pulmonary trunk lies anterior to the transverse sinus D. longer and more horizontal than the right principal bronchus B. This diverticulum is called the tracheo-bronchial diverticulum . True – The truncus arteriosus is divided into the pulmonary artery and ascending aorta by the formation of a spiral septum within it.27. True – The fibrous pericardium blends with the wall of the pulmonary trunk up to its division and thus it lies in the pericardial sac B. True C. principal bronchi. the trachea. False – The pulmonary trunk divides at the fifth thoracic vertebral level C. an overriding aorta. A. bronchioles and alveoli. True – The abnormalities present in the tetralogy of Fallot are high ventricular septal defect.

A. 29. True – The left principal bronchus divides into two lobar bronchi E. It demarcates the inferior boundary of the superior mediastinum B. It is located at the level where the second costal cartilage articulates with the sternum. True 30. False – The sternal angle is the junction of the manubrium and the body of the sternum. At this level lies the bifurcation of the trachea. True C.D. The arch of the aorta lies superior to the left principal bronchus. True D. and the right principal bronchus into three lobar bronchi True – The immediate relation of the left principal bronchus is the pulmonary trunk. origin and termination of the aortic arch and the opening of the azygos vein into the superior vena cava. It marks the end of the arch of the aorta and the beginning of the descending aorta. True E. .

right sacrocardinal vein and sacrocardinal anastomosis False – The right renal vein has no embryonic vein of origin. True . A. From above downwards it develops from the right vitelline vein (later becomes the right hapatocardiac channel). inferior thyroid and internal thoracic veins (tributaries corresponding to the branches of the first part of the subclavian artery). and right supra cardinal veins and supra cardinal anastomosis. In addition the left brachiocephalic vein . C. D. True 31. Left supra cardinal vein and supra cardinal anastomosis give rise to the hemiazygos vein and the right supracardinal vein gives rise to the azygos vein False – The left brachiocephalic vein develops from the left anterior cardinal vein and anterior cardinal anastomosis True – The inferior vana cava develops from several embryonic veins.The azygos system of veins develop from the left B. True – Both right and left brachiocephalic veins receive vertebral. The subcardinal anastomosis gives rise to the left renal vein.A. E. right subcardinal vein.

brachiocephalic veins. A. thoracic aorta. the superficial part of the cardiac plexus and thoracic duct. upper half of the superior vena cava. True 32. internal thoracic arteries and veins. hemiazygos and accessory azygos veins. cardiac. thoracic duct and the posterior mediastinal lymph nodes. False – The trachea ends and bifurcates into left and right bronchi at the sternal angle – the lower limit of the superior . the left superior intercostal vein. the trachea. left common carotid artery. the vagus and splanchnic nerves. False – The middle thyroid vein drains into the internal jugular vein D. and left recurrent laryngeal nerves. subclavian arteries. the vagus. the aortic arch. Hence the structures contained in both mediastina are the oesophagus. The posterior mediastinum contains the oesophagus. oesophagus. True C. the braciocephalic artery. vagi and thoracic duct B. True – The superior mediastinum contains the thymic remnants. azygos. False – The external jugular vein drains into the subclavian vein E. phrenic.receives the superior intercostal vein B.

False – The thoracic aorta which is the continuation of the arch of the aorta begins at the level of the sternal angle and is located in the posterior mediastinum D. True . B. False – The thymus consists of lymphoid cells arranged in lobes and lobules D. True – It develops from the ventral wing of the third branchial pouch C. A. True Anterior mediastinum 33. . True – The thymus lies in both the superior and anterior mediastina. False – It is largest in the early part of life up to adolescence.mediastinum C. True– It is large and active during infancy and childhood and remains active up to puberty after which it involutes E.The inferior thyroid artery and branches of the internal thoracic artery supply the thymus C. False – The phrenic nerves pass through the superior mediastinum and the middle mediastinum only E. True – The inferior thyroid artery and branches of the internal thoracic artery supply the thymus 34. A. False – The anterior mediastinum contains the thymus (or its remnants). a few lymph nodes and branches of the internal thoracic vessels B.

True – Some of the epithelial cells become thymic (Hassall’s) corpuscles and the others form an epithelial network E. True – Mixing of oxygenated blood from the inferior vena cava via the foramen ovale and deoxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins occur in the left atrium B. True – Mixing of oxygenated blood from the inferior vena cava and deoxygenated blood from the superior vena cava occurs in the right atrium D. A.The right ventricle receives deoxygenated blood from the superior vena cava (via the right atrium) and no oxygenated blood enters into it . False – The thymus lies in front of the upper pericardium and great vessels Middle mediastinum 35. False . False – Left ventricle receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium and no deoxygenated blood enters into it C.although its activity continues into old age D.

septum secundum. True – Oxygenated blood entering the liver via the left umbilical vein (from the placenta) mixes with the deoxygenated blood from the portal vein 36. septum spurium and the left valve of sinus venosus. A. True D. True – The ligamentum venosum is the obliterated ductus venosus . True C. False – The median umbilical ligament is the urachus (a derivative of distal urogenital sinus) which is not a foetal vessel B. True E. A. False 37. The right valve of sinus venosus gives rise to the crista terminalis and valves of the coronary sinus and inferior vena cava B. True – The interatrial septum is developed from the septum primum.E. True – The ligamentum teres is the obliterated left umbilical vein which carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the foetus during foetal life C.

The right border of the heart is formed by the right atrium. False – The gastrosplenic ligament is a derivative of the dorsal mesentery of the stomach and hence is not a foetal vessel 38. the . True .which shunts oxygenated blood from the left umbilical vein to the right hepatocardiac channel which will be the post hepatic part of the inferior vena cava D. True – The left and right umbilical arteries which carry deoxygenated blood from the foetus to the placenta form the medial umbilical ligaments (distal part) and the superior vescical arteries (proximal part) E. A.

however.B. C. The lower border or base is formed by the left and right ventricles. E. its . left border by the left atrium and left ventricle. pulmonary trunk and superior vena cava True . D. True – It is functionally closed shortly after birth. The smooth part is derivedfrom the absorbed right horn of the sinus venosus and sinus venosus.The right atrium has a smooth part and a rough part separated by the crista. True – It represents the distal portion of the of the left sixth aortic arch and connects the left pulmonary artery to the aortic arch closer to the commencement of the descending aorta B. inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus 39. The upper border is related to the ascending aorta. A. The rough part is the right side of the primitive common atrium from the right horn of the sinus venosus True – Both the sinuatrial and atrioventricular nodes are located in the wall of the right atrium False – The crista terminalis is developed from the upper part of the right valve of sinus venosus and separates the smooth and rough parts of the right atrium True – The right atrium receives the superior vena cava.

A. It gradually becomes a ligament E. True – It shunts blood from the pulmonary trunk to the aortic arch before birth. with the pulmonary circulation. by passing the pulmonary circulation 40. The great cardiac vein passes in the anterior interventricular groove along with the anterior interventricular artery. False – It connects the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch D. False – It accompanies the small cardiac vein in the anterior interventricular groove and accompanies the coronary sinus in the right posterior coronary sulcus. a branch of the left coronary artery .structural closure takes place after several months C. True – At birth. True – Arising from the anterior aortic sinus on the right side of the pulmonary trunk the artery passes between the right auricle and the pulmonary trunk and descends in the anterior atrioventricular groove B. the release of Bradykinin leads to the contraction of ductus arteriosus. True – The artery to the SA node supplies the SA node and right and left atrioventricular bundles C.

D. False – The apex of the heart receives blood from the
anterior
interventricular branch of the left coronary
artery and not by
a branch of the right coronary artery
E. False – The branches arising from the right coronary
artery are conus
artery, SA nodal artery, marginal artery, AV
nodal artery and
posterior interventricular branch.
The circumflex artery is a branch of the left
coronary artery

41.
A. False – The left border of the heart is formed mostly
(4/5ths) by the
left ventricle, with the auricle of the left atrium
forming the
uppermost part (1/5th ).
B. True - The left atrium forms the posterior surface (base)
of the heart
and lies behind the right atrium
C. True – The oblique sinus lies posterior to the left atrium
and the
transverse sinus lies anterior to the left atrium
D. True – Its posterior relations are the oesophagus and
descending

thoracic aorta
E. True – The four pulmonary veins, two on each side on its
posterior wall open in to the left atrium. These veins
do not have valves
42.
A. False The common atrium is separated by the
interatrial septum which in developed from four
embryonic parts. They are the septum primum,
septum secondum, septum spurium and the left
value of sinus venosus.
B. True
C. False The pulmonary arteries develop from the
proximal part of the sixth aortic arches on left
and right sides. The right horn of sinus venosus
along with the sinus venosus gets absorbed into
the right side of the common atrium giving rise
to the smooth part of the right atrium.
D. True Upper half of the right valve of sinus
venosus gives rise to the
crista terminals
and from the lower half
develops the valves
of the coronary sinus and inferior vena cava.
E. False- Smooth part of the right atrium is developed
from the sinus venosus and its right horn. The
coronary sinus develops from the left horn of
sinus venosus.

Posterior Mediastinum
43.
A. True – The descending thoracic aorta is the continuation
of the arch

B.
C.

D.
E.

of the aorta. The arch ends at the fourth thoracic
vertebral
level and the descending aorta begins at this
level
True
False –The pericardiacophrenic artery arises from the
internal
thoracic artery
False – It passes through the diaphragm at T12
vertebral level
True – The upper part of the oesophagus (the cervical
part) is
supplied by branches of the inferior thyroid
arteries. The
middle part (the thoracic part) is supplied by
oesophageal
branches of the descending thoracic aorta and
bronchial
arteries. The lower part is supplied by the
oesophageal
branches of the left gastric artery

44.
A. True
B. False – It enters the thorax by passing through the
aortic opening of
the diaphragm
C. True - It ascends upto the 4 th thoracic vertebral level
and arches
forwards over the root of the right lung and ends
by opening
into the superior vena cava
D. True – Its tributaries are superior intercostal vein
formed by 2nd, 3rd,
4th posterior intercostal veins, 5th 11th posterior
intercostal
veins, hemiazygos and accessory hemiazygos,
oesophageal,

False – The azygos vein drains into the superior vena cava. False – The superior intercostal artery is a descending branch of the costocervical trunk which comes off from the second part of the subclavian artery E.pericardial and mediastinal veins. True D. oesophageal vessels. True – The descending aorta gives off nine pairs of posterior intercostal arteries (for 3 rd -11th spaces). False – The musculophrenic artery is a terminal branch of the internal thoracic artery C. True 46. E. bronchial arteries. The right atrium receives the superior vena cava. True – The anterior relations of the thoracic part of the oesophagus from above downwards are: the trachea and the left recurrent laryngeal nerve. A. and the right bronchial vein. inferior vena cava and the coronary sinus. pericardial branches and superior phrenic arteries B. the left principal bronchus and the . a pair of subcostal arteries. 45. A.

True – The veins from the upper third drain into the inferior thyroid veins. True – Just below the bifurcation of the trachea in the posterior mediastinum the oesophagus is crossed anteriorly by the left main bronchus and the right pulmonary artery 47. True B. True – The thoracic part of the oesophagus lies anterior to the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae. the middle third is composed of both skeletal and smooth muscle. and the lower third is composed of smooth muscle D. from the middle third into the azygos veins and from the lower third into the left gastric vein. the second is where aortic arch and left bronchus cross its anterior surface. The first is pharyngo-oesophageal junction. and the pericardium which separates it from the left atrium B.right pulmonary artery. A. False – The oesophagus has three anatomic constrictions. azygos vein. thoracic duct. a tributary of the portal vein E. False – The muscularis externa of the oesophagus in the upper third is composed of skeletal muscle. right posterior intercostal arteries and at the lower end the descending thoracic aorta C. and third .

True E. the left principal bronchus and the right pulmonary artery. A. fibrous pericardium. the pericardium over the right atrium and the inferior cava lie on its medial side C. superior vena cava.occurs where the oesophagus passes through the diaphragm C. and left recurrent laryngeal nerve B. the middle third by branches from the descending thoracic aorta. True – Nerves lying in the superior mediastinum are : phrenic. True – The upper third of the oesophagus is supplied by the inferior thyroid artery. False – The right phrenic is not related to the thoracic duct D. True – The phrenic nerve supplies the mediastinal pleura. vagus and cardiac nerves. and the lower third by branches from the left gastric artery 48. True – The right brachiocephalic vein. and the pericardium which separates it from the left atrium D. True – Its terminal branches pass through the caval opening in the central tendon to supply the undersurface of the diaphragm E. parietal layer of the serous pericardium . True – It lies posterior to the trachea and the left recurrent laryngeal nerve.

False – The arch of the aorta is related to the mediastinal surface of the left lung. A. The left has four structures in the hilum. False – It is supplied by a single bronchial artery . True – It has three. The inferior lobe is below and behind the oblique fissure. upper lobar bronchus and right principal bronchus. The part of right lung in front and above the oblique fissure is subdivided in to the superior lobe and middle lobe by the horizontal fissure.Lungs and Pleurae 49. middle and lower lobes respectively D. False – The right lung has five structure in the hilum. one pulmonary artery. The left lung has two lobes. True – The right lung has three lobes. namely the two pulmonary veins. two and five bronchopulmonary segements in the upper. The azygos vein is related to the mediastinal surface of the right lung E. sparated by the oblique fissure B. namely the two pulmonary veins. superior and inferior. one pulmonary artery and the left principal bronchus C.

A. True C. The recess formed by the parietal pleura inferiorly between the ribs and the diaphragm . vertebrae and diaphragm). False – The parietal pleura is developed from the somatic mesoderm and the visceral pleura from the visceral (splanchnic) mesoderm D. True – The parietal pleura lines the inner surface of the thoracic wall (rib cage. True – From the mediastinal layer of the parietal a cuff of membrane surrounds the hilum of the lung (the root of lung) which forms the pulmonary ligament inferiorly and continues with the visceral pleura.50. True – The parietal pleura is attached to the inferior surface of the suprapeural membrane and extends up to the neck of the first rib B. E.

Lobar bronchi supply the lobes of the lung (two lobar bronchi in the left lung and three lobar bronchi in the right lung) D. 51. A. True – The cervical pleura extends up into the neck above the clavicle up to the level of the neck of the first rib.5 inches (2.is the costo diaphragmatic recess. lining the undersurface of suprapleural membrane. It reaches a level 11. A. True – It is the smallest part of the lung that could be surgically removed with minimal bleeding and damage E. False – Each segment is supplied by a segmental brochuus. False – Each bronchopulmonary segment is pyramidal in shape with the base towards the lung surface and apex towards the hilum C. False – There are ten bronchpulmonary segments in each lung and each of the ten bronchopulmonary segments have ten segmental bronchi B. True – This is important because if this artery gets blocked that part will become an infarct 52.5 – 4 cm) above the medial third of the clavicle .

True – The two layers are continuous with one another by means of a cuff of pleura that surrounds the structures entering and leaving the lung at the hilum of each lung. temperature and pressure . True – The parietal layer of pleura lines the thoracic wall. but is insensitive to common sensations such as pain and touch. This pleura extends for a distance below the hilum froming a double layered fold called the pulmonary ligament D. The parietal pleura is sensitive to pain.B. False – It is sensitive to stretch. Loose areolar tissue separates it from the endothoracic fascia which is an extrapleural sheet of fascia that lines the thoracic wall C. True E.

2 ________________________________________________________ Abdomen Anterior Abdominal Wall 53. The intertubercular plane lies at the level of the pubic tubercles D. the inferior vena cava commenses 56. The transpyloric plane A. At the transpyloric plane A. Marks the level of termination of the spinal cord E. Skin around the umbilicus is supplied by the 10 th thoracic spinal nerve B. The inguinal canal . the neck of the pancreas is located E. Crosses through the neck of the pancreas D. The transpyloric plane marks the level of the hila of the kidneys C. Regarding the anterior abdominal wall A. Cuts through the neck of the gall bladder 54. Transects the body through L1 vertebra B. the superior mesenteric artery arises from the aorta C. Is midway between the xiphisternum and the pubic symphysis C. the common iliac artery commences B. Nerves of the anterior abdominal wall lie between the internal oblique and external oblique muscles 55. The subcostal plane is at the L3 vertebral level E. the splenic vein joins the superior mesenteric vein to form the portal vein D.

has fascia transversalis along the whole length of the posterior wall E. has an anterior wall formed by the external oblique aponeurosis assisted laterally by the internal oblique muscle C. has part of its floor formed by the lacunar ligament D. The lacunar ligament forms the floor medially D. Its deep ring lies half an inch above the mid inguinal point C. has the posterior wall reinforced in its medial third by the conjoint tendon E. is oval shaped B. It transmits the genitofemoral nerve E. transmits the ilioinguinal nerve 58. lies immediately above and lateral to the pubic tubercle D. It lies above the lateral part of the inguinal ligament B. is a defect in the superficial fascia C. Regarding the inguinal canal A. has crura giving attachment to external spermatic fascia E. commences at the superficial inguinal ring B. is 1. transmits the round ligament in the female 57. has the floor formed by the inguinal ligament D.5 cm long B. The superficial inguinal ring A. has the ilioinguinal nerve entering through the deep ring C. The inguinal canal A. Its roof is formed by the fibres of internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles 59. has the inferior epigastric artery medial to its deep ring .A.

60.
The rectus abdominis muscle
A. arises from the pubic symphysis and pubic crest
B. inserts on to the 9th rib
C. is enclosed in the aponeurosis of the internal oblique
muscle between the umbilicus and costal margin
D. has a tendinous intersection at the level of the
umbilicus
E. is supplied by the iliohypogastric nerve
61.
The external oblique muscle
A. has fibres interdigitating with fibres of latissimus
dorsi
B. has an attachment to the anterior half of the iliac
crest
C. has the superficial inguinal ring in its aponeurosis
D. contributes to the formation of the conjoint tendon
E. has its lower border forming the roof of the inguinal
canal
62.
Regarding the rectus sheath
A. The anterior layer above the level of the costal
margin is formed by the external oblique
aponeurosis
B. The posterior layer above the level of the costal
margin formed by the internal oblique aponeurosis
C. The subcostal nerve supplies it
D. The anterior layer above the pubic symphysis is
formed by the fusion of aponeuroses of external and
internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles
E. The posterior layer above the pubic symphysis is
formed by the aponeurosis of the transversus
abdominis muscle
63.
The anterior abdominal wall is supplied by
the
A. eighth posterior intercostal artery
B. superior epigastric artery
C. inferior epigastric artery

D. tenth posterior intercostal artery
E. musculophrenic artery
64.
Nerves that supply the muscles of the
anterior abdominal wall include
A. sixth intercostal nerve
B. subcostal nerve
C. ilioinguinal nerve
D. iliohypogastric nerve
E. lateral femoral cutaneous nerve
65.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Components of the spermatic cord include
ilioinguinal nerve
vas deferens
genitofemoral nerve
appendix testis
testicular artery

66.
Regarding vertebral levels
A. The portal vein commences at theL1 vertebral level
B. Bifurcation of the descending aorta is at the S1 level
C. Oesophageal opening in the diaphragm is at the T12
vertebral level
D. Bifurcation of the trachea is at the T6 vertebral level
E. The lower limit of the prevertebral fascia is at the T4
vertebral level

Vessels and Nerves of the Gut
67.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

The coeliac trunk
is the artery of the foregut
arises at the 10th thoracic vertebral level
gives off the splenic artery
supplies the entire oesophagus
lies behind the peritoneum of the lesser sac

68.
The superior mesenteric artery
A. arises at the level of the transpyloric plane
B. lies behind the body of the pancreas
C. supplies the pancreas

D. lies anterior to the left renal vein
E. supplies the caecum
69.
Branches
arising
from
mesenteric artery include
A. ileocolic
B. left colic
C. right gastric
D. gastroduodenal
E. inferior pancreaticoduodenal

the

superior

70.
The inferior mesenteric artery
A. arises at the L3 vertebral level
B. crosses the pelvic brim at the bifurcation of the left
common iliac artery
C. supplies the descending colon
D. descends into the pelvis as the superior rectal artery
E. gives off the right colic artery
71.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

72.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

The portal vein
is formed behind the neck of the pancreas
lies in front of the inferior vena cava
receives right and left gastric veins
ascends in the greater omentum
lies anterior to the bile duct

Porto-systemic anastomoses occur at the
upper end of oesophagus
area around the umbilicus
anal canal
hilum of the spleen
transverse colon

73.
The splenic vein
A. lies below the splenic artery

Short gastric arteries supply the pyloric region of the stomach C. B. Right colic artery supplies the ascending colon D. Derivatives of the vitelline veins include portal vein inferior mesenteric vein splenic vein superior mesenteric vein inferior vena cava 76. Right gastric artery supplies the first part of the duodenum E. E. The greater splanchnic nerve carries postganglionic sympathetic fibres to the plexus C. C. is derived from the left umbilical vein ends behind the neck of the pancreas receives short gastric veins receives the right gastric vein 74. The coeliac plexus contributes fibres to the renal plexus E. Regarding the blood supply of the gut A. A. C. Left colic artery supplies the proximal 1/3 of the transverse colon 75.B. D. E. It lies around the origin of the coeliac trunk B. D. Regarding the coeliac plexus A. The adrenal medulla receives preganglionic sympathetic fibres from the splanchnic nerves via the plexus . Both vagi contribute fibres to the plexus D. Left gastric artery supplies the lesser curvature of the stomach B.

Head of the pancreas C. greater omentum 80. lesser omentum E. Inferior mesenteric artery arises at the third lumbar vertebral level D.77. The abdominal aorta divides into right and left common iliac arteries at the fourth lumbar vertebral level E. Which of the retroperitoneal A. Derivatives of the dorsal mesentery (dorsal mesogastrium) include A. Ascending colon D. lienorenal ligament B. spleen C. Ureter B. Its lower boundary is the second part of the duodenum . Spleen following is/are 79. Appendix E. Coeliac trunk arises at the tenth thoracic vertebral level B. Regarding the epiploic foramen A. The common iliac artery divides at the level of the second sacral vertebral level Abdominal cavity and the peritoneum 78. falciform ligament D. Regarding vertebral levels A. Superior mesenteric artery arises at the twelfth thoracic vertebral level C.

It is derived from the dorsal mesentery E. Medial umbilical ligament Development of the Gut 84. Its upper boundary is the caudate process of the liver C. Ligamentum teres B. Its medial limb reaches the midline in front of the first sacral vertebra D. The lesser omentum extends between the stomach and the liver is attached to the greater curvature of the stomach extends into the fissure for the ligamentum teres forms the anterior boundary of the epiploic foramen E. Gastrosplenic ligament C.B. D. It has two limbs diverging from each other at the common iliac bifurcation B. is developed from the ventral mesentery A. Which of the following ligaments originate from foetal vessels A. The right subhepatic space communicates with the lesser sac via the epiploic foramen 81. C. Its anterior boundary is the free margin of the lesser omentum E. Regarding the sigmoid mesocolon A. Its posterior boundary is the superior mesenteric vein D. B. Ligamentum venosum D. 82. Its lateral limb passes forwards along the pelvic brim C. It is formed by the parietal layer of the peritoneum 83. Median umbilical ligament E. Regarding the rotation of the gut .

The stomach rotates in an anticlockwise direction B. right gastroepiploic artery 88. short gastric arteries D. The duodenum rotates 90° clockwise C. Regarding the stomach A. left gastroepiploic artery E. The greater curvature of the stomach is supplied by the A. Mid gut rotation is complete at 10th week intra uterine life E. left gastric artery B.A. of A. hepatocytes 86. Mid gut loop rotates 90° anticlockwise at 6 th week intra uterine life D. Physiological umbilical herniation occurs after completion of mid gut rotation 85. C. B. cells of the zona glomerulosa E. It receives all its arterial supply from the coeliac trunk . Paneth cells D. APUD cells C. Which of the following mesodermal A. E. cells is/are Abnormalities associated with a malrotation the gut include biliary atresia Hirschprungs disease annular pancreas imperforate anus vitelline fistula Gastrointestinal Tract 87. D. right gastric artery C. Kupffer cells B.

longer vasa recta C. The jejunum differs having A. 91. It is lined by the stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium E.B. C. B. E. B. E. broader windows 92. D. 93. Structures forming the stomach bed include Left kidney Splenic artery Body of the pancreas Superior mesenteric artery Lesser sac 90. Peyer’s patches D. B. E. C. First part of the duodenum lies on the transpyloric plane is supplied by the celiac trunk is anterior to the bile duct is posterior to the gastroduodenal artery is developed from the midgut A. A. The lesser sac lies posterior to the stomach non 89. from the ileum in The caecum is completely covered by the peritoneum lies over the iliacus and psoas muscles has taeniae coli is supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery has the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh anterior to it The second part of the duodenum . It is completely invested by the peritoneum C. The lymph is drained to the celiac lymph nodes D. D. A. a thicker wall B. more arterial arcades E. C. D.

The position of its base is constant in relation to the caecum C. C. Regarding the appendix A.A. D. gall bladder C. is related to the anterior surface of the right kidney 97. E. It develops at the 4th week IUL B. lies on the iliac fascia E. It is lined by a simple cuboidal epithelium C. is retroperitoneal B. gastroduodenal artery D. extends upwards to the splenic flexure D. Posterior relations of the 1 st part of the duodenum include A. bile duct B. It is supplied by an end artery . A. D. portal vein E. is a derivative of the hindgut C. It has taenia coli 98. It is supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery E. B. B. neck of the pancreas 96. C. The ascending colon A. It has its own mesentery D. is covered in front with the peritoneum runs in front of the hilum of the right kidney is supplied by superior pancreaticoduodenal artery is developed entirely from the foregut has the bile duct opening in to its anterior wall 94. Meckel’s diverticulum is found 2 feet distal to the ileocaecal junction arises from the mesenteric surface of the ileum is a persistent remnant of the vitellointestinal duct contains renal and suprarenal tissue occurs in about 20% of the population 95. It is a derivative of the midgut B. Regarding the appendix A. E.

The pancreas A. The caudate lobe of the liver A. Pancreas and Spleen 99. Its surface projection is the tip of the right 9 th costal cartilage E. Its upper third lies in the free edge of the lesser omentum D. It is formed by the union of left and right hepatic ducts B. is connected to the right lobe by the caudate process C. has its tail lying within the gastrosplenic ligament . forms the upper boundary of the foramen of Winslow D. Regarding the bile duct A. It passes between the second part of the duodenum and head of pancreas E. has its neck in front of the commencement of the portal vein B. consists of cells derived from neuroectoderm D. Its commonest position is retrocaecal Liver and Biliary System. It lies behind the right renal vein 101. lies between the fissure for the ligamentum teres and gall bladder B. is retroperitoneal E. is enclosed by the peritoneum 100.D. has its tail related to the hilum of the kidney C. Its lining is endodermal in origin C. belongs to the left and right morphological lobes of the liver E.

D. The spleen Is developed from the dorsal mesogastrium Has a notch in its anterior border Lies beneath the 7th and 9th ribs Has a lower pole extending upto the midaxillary line Is supplied by vessels passing in the gastrosplenic ligament . Stomach B. Regarding the pancreas A. Stomach D. Its head lies anterior to the commencement of the portal vein B. The tail passes in the lienorenal ligament 105. Greater omentum 103. C. left colic flexure C. Hepatic flexure of the colon D. B. It is supplied by branches of the superior mesenteric artery E. Pancreas 104. Left kidney B. Annular pancreas causes duodenal obstruction D. Right kidney E. The uncinate process extends behind the superior mesenteric vessels C. Organs related to the visceral surface of the liver include A. Organs related to the visceral surface of the spleen include A. Tail of the pancreas E. A. E.102. Duodenum C.

gonadal arteries B. Regarding the inferior vena cava A. subcostal arteries D. Its post hepatic part is derived from the right supracardinal vein D. It receives the hepatic vein . It passes through the diaphragm at the tenth thoracic vertebral level B. E. Paired branches of the abdominal aorta include A. The inferior vena cava is formed at the fourth lumbar vertebral level grooves the bare area of the liver passes through the tendinous part of the diaphragm receives the right suprarenal vein has its post hepatic part derived from the left vitelline vein 109. lumbar ateries E. It has a valve at its termination C. passes through the diaphragm tenth thoracic vertebral level B. B. is accompanied by thoracic duct at the aortic opening 107. gives off branches supplying the gut from its anterior aspect D. A.Posterior Abdominal Wall 106. inferior phrenic arteries 108. The abdominal aorta A. has a longer course than the inferior vena cava in the abdomen E. D. terminates at the fifth lumbar vertebral level C. hepatic arteries C. C.

It gives off the pudendal nerve . The left renal vein A. It is formed by the dorsal rami of upper four lumbar nerves C. Both gonadal veins drain into it 110. A. The right renal artery A. E. lies posterior to the left renal artery B. is longer than the right renal vein C. Regarding the lumbar plexus A. receives the left gonadal vein 113. The femoral nerve emerges from the medial border of the psoas muscle E. arises from the aorta at the second lumbar vertebral level B. It lies within the psoas major muscle B. It has branches supplying the skin D. enters the inferior vena cava at second lumbar vertebral level E.E. Tributaries of the inferior vena cava include left fourth lumbar vein left gonadal vein right renal vein left suprarenal vein right inferior phrenic vein 111. gives off the right gonadal artery 112. D. passes anterior to the inferior vena cava D. is developed from the subcardinal anastomosis D. lies anterior to the right crus of the diaphragm C. B. supplies the ureter E. C.

Ureters and Suprarenal glands 117. The genitofemoral nerve A. on the right side crosses in front of the inferior vena cava E. supplies the cremaster muscle E. crosses in front of the ureter D. has its genital branch passing though the inguinal canal D. lies within the inguinal canal D. The ilioinguinal nerve A. supplies the skin of the scrotum E. supplies the ureter Kidneys. lies on the psoas major muscle C.114. The ovarian artery A. passes down on the psoas major muscle B. The ureter A. has a narrowing at the pelviureteric junction C. emerges from the lateral border of the psoas muscle C. contains fibres arising from first and second lumbar segments B. arises from the abdominal aorta just above the origin of renal artery B. has motor and sensory components 115. descends on the quadratus lumborum muscle B. is a branch of the femoral nerve C. lies anterior to the gonadal vessels . is entirely sensory 116.

D. A. A. The left gland lies on the left crus of the diaphragm C. Regarding the suprarenal glands They are symmetrical in shape They are enclosed in renal fascia Each gland is drained by three veins The inferior vena cava is an anterior relation of the right suprarenal gland E. crosses the bifurcation of the common iliac artery anteriorly E. Suprarenal arteries arise from the renal arteries D. They receive preganglionic sympathetic fibres via the splanchnic nerves 121. B. is developed from the paramesonephric duct 118. Regarding the right ureter It is retroperitoneal It is crossed by the right ileocolic vessels It receives an arterial supply from the renal arteries The projection of the ureter on a radiograph is opposite the tips of the transverse processes of upper lumbar vertebrae It lies behind the fourth part of the duodenum 119.D. The right kidney rests on the twelfth rib C. C. Regarding the suprarenal glands A. B. E. D. Cells of the zona glomerulosa develop from the neural crest cells E. The hilum of the left kidney is related to the pancreas . C. Iliohpogastric and ilioinguinal nerves are related posteriorly D. The anterior surface of the left gland is in contact with the bare area of the liver B. The medulla is developed from endoderm 120. Regarding the relations of the kidneys A. The costodiaphragmatic recess of the pleura is at risk in the lumbar approach to the kidney B.

distal convoluted tubule E. B. E. collecting ducts 124. hepatic flexure of colon E. The hila of both kidneys lie at the subcostal plane 122. Derivatives of the metanephric blastema include A.E. D. second part of the duodenum C. ureter B. A. subcostal vessels 123. C. liver B. head of pancreas D. The adrenal cortex has cells secreting androgens is developed from the intermediate mesoderm is supplied by the preganglionic sympathetic fibres has cells having an abundance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum has a rich reticulin fibre network . Bowmans capsule D. minor calyces C. The anterior relations of the right kidney include A.

True– Dermatomes over the xiphoid process is T7. neck and body of the pancreas D. A. True – It cuts each costal margin at the tip of the ninth costal cartilage. False – The plane lies midway between the jugular notch (upper border of the manubrium) and symphysis pubis C.Abdomen : Answers and Explanations 53. True – The plane passes through the lower border of the L1 vertebra B. A. deep to this point on the right side lies the fundus of the gall bladder 54. True – The spinal cord ends at L1 vertebral level E. which is at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis. over the umbilicus is T10 and over the pubis – L1 . False – The plane passes through the head.

False – Nerves of the anterior abdominal wall lie between internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscle 55.The commencement of the portal vein is just behind the neck of the pancreas D. True E.The hila of the kidneys lie at this plane. True . False – The abdominal aorta divides into the two common iliac arteries at the level of the body of L4 vertebra B. False – The inferior vena cava begins opposite the L5 vertebral level by the confluence of the two common iliac veins behind the right common iliac artery . the right just below and the left just above it C. True . True .Thesuperior mesenteric artery arises from the aorta at the level of the lower border of the body of L1 vertebra C.B. A. True – The subcostal plane passes through the lower border of the 10th costal cartilage and body of L3 vertebra E. False – Intertubercular plane passes through the tubercles of iliac crests and body of L5 vertebra D.

True– It transmits the round ligament of the uterus and the ilioinguinal nerve in the female and the spermatic cord and ilioinguinal nerve in the male 57. It is reinforced in its lateral third by the internal oblique C. True – The floor or the inferior wall is formed by the inrolled inferior edge of the inguinal ligament (the aponeurosis of the external oblique) reinforced medially by the lacunar ligament D.56. It is reinforced in its medial third by the conjoint tendon E.The inguinal canal is an oblique passage through the lower part of the anterior abdominal wall which commences at the deep inguinal ring and ends at the superficial inguinal ring B. False . . True – The posterior wall is formed along its entire length by the fascia transversalis. True – The anterior wall along its entire length of the canal is formed by the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle. A.

False – It is a triangular defect or aperture in the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle B.25 cm (1 inch) above the midpoint of the inguinal ligament which is an opening in the transversalis fascia C.A.The floor is the inrolled lower edge of the inguinal ligament reinforced medially by the lacunar ligament D.The inguinal canal is an oblique intermuscular slit about 4 cm long lying above the medial part of the inguinal ligament B. False C. . A. The genitofemoral nerve is formed in the psoas major muscle and emerges on its anterior surface and runs down along the muscle.It transmits the round ligament of the uterus and the ilioinguinal nerve in the female and the spermatic cord and ilioinguinal nerve in the male 58. False . True D.Margins of the ring are called the crura (lateral and medial) and give attachment to external spermatic fascia E. True – The deep ring lies about 1. True . True . False – The inguinal canal transmits the spermatic cord and ilioinguinal nerve in the male and the round ligament of uterus and ilioinguinal nerve in the female. True .

It is reinforced on its medial third by the conjoint tendon E. True – The floor is formed by the inrolled lower border of the inguinal ligament and reinforced medially by the lacunar ligament D. True – The roof is formed by the lower edges of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles 59. The genital branch passes through the deep ring. True – Related to it medially are the inferior epigastric vessels. enters the inguinal canal and supplies the cremaster muscle. True – The posterior wall is formed along its entire length by fascia transversalis. False – It is 1. tunica vaginalis and scrotal skin E.pierces the psoas fascia and divides into the genital and femoral branches. A. which pass upward from the external iliac vessels 60.5 inches (4 cm) long B. spermatic fascia. False – The ilioinguinal nerve enters the canal by piercing the lower border of the internal oblique muscle and emerges through the superficial inguinal ring C. .

E. The lower four slips interdigitate with the costal fibres of latissimus dorsi and the upper four with the digitations of the sarratus anterior B. The internal oblique and transversus abdominis are also supplied by the same nerves but with the addition of the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves (L1) 61. True – The muscle has a free posterior border which extends . A. True – It arises by two heads: a medial from in front of B. one at the xiphisternum.A. the aponeurosis of the internal oblique splits into anterior and posterior layers to enclose the rectus abdominis muscle True – Typically three tendinous intersections are found in the muscle. one at the umbilicus. True – The muscle arises by eight digitations. and one between these two False – The rectus muscle and external obique muscle are both supplied by the lower intercostal and subcostal nerves (T7T12). the pubic symphysis and a lateral from the pubic crest False – The muscle is inserted on to the front of the 5 th to 7th costal cartilages True – Between the umbilicus and costal margin. C. D. one from each of the lower eight ribs.

sixth and seventh costal cartilages C. True E. True B. The roof of the canal is formed by arching fibres of internal oblique and transversus abdominis 62. A.Above and lateral to the pubic tubercle is the superficial inguinal ring in the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle D. True – Seventh to eleventh intercostal nerves and subcostal nerve (12th thoracic nerve) supply it D. False – The posterior layer above the pubic symphysis is deficient and the rectus muscle rests directly on the fascia transversalis . False – The posterior layer above the level of the costal margin has no rectus sheath. The rectus muscle rests directly on the fifth. True . False – Its lower border forms the inguinal ligament.from the twelfth rib to its insertion into the anterior half of the outer lip of the iliac crest C. False – Muscles contributing to the formation of the conjoint tendon are the internal oblique and the transversus abdominis E. The inguinal ligament forms the floor of the inguinal canal.

False – The anterior abdominal wall is supplied by the superior epigastric and musculophrenic arteries (branches of internal throracic artery). C. the internal oblique and transversus abdominis by the lower intercostals. True D. iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves and the lowest fibres of the internal oblique and transversus abdominis by the first lumbar fibres. True 64. A. subcostal artery. tenth and eleventh posterior intercostal arteries (branches of thoracic aorta). by the lower intercostals (T7-T12) and subcostal (T12) nerves.63. True True True False . False – Rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles are supplied B. E. subcostal. True C. True E. inferior epigastric artery and deep circumflex iliac artery (branches of the external iliac artery) and lumbar arteries (dorsal branches of abdominal aorta) B. D. A.

True 66. A. external spermatic fascia. A. pampiniform plexus of veins. False – The spermatic cord has three coverings and six constituents. lymphatics. cremasteric fascia and muscle. genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve and processus vaginalis. They are the internal spermatic fascia. ductus deferns. testicular artery with the artery to the ducts and cremasteric artery. True D.65. False . B.The appendix testis is a small cystic part attached to the upper pole of testis which is a remnant of the paramesonephric duct E. The ilioinguinal nerve passes down deep to the external oblique muscle and emerges on the front of the spermatic cord through the superficial inguinal ring. True .The portal vein commences behind the neck of pancreas by the union of the splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein . True C.

False – The derivatives of the distal part of the foregut including the . A. at the first lumbar vertebral level False – Bifurcation of the descending aorta is at the fourth lumbar vertebral level False – Oesophageal opening in the diaphragm is at the tenth thoracic vertebral level. It supplies the liver. True – It is the artery of the distal part of the foregut and supplies the gastrointestinal tract from the lower one third of the oesophagus down to the duodenum as far as the opening of the bile duct. E. D. False – It arises at the 12th thoracic vertebral level C. spleen and pancreas which are foregut derivatives B. C. splenic and common hepatic arteries D. The inferior vena caval opening is at the eighth thoracic vertebral level and the aortic opening is at the twelfth thoracic vertebral level False – Bifurcation of the trachea is at the fourth thoracic vertebral level which is at the level of the manubriosternal joint (angle of Louis) True – The prevertebral fascia extends from the base of the skull to the fourth thoracic vertebral level Vessels and Nerves of the Gut 67.B. True – Its three branches are the left gastric.

True . pancreas and spleen are supplied by the coeliac trunk.After airsing from the aorta mesenteric artery is directed downwards behind the pancreas and splenic vein a centimeter L1 vertebral the superior body of the . The upper part of the oesophagus is supplied by the inferior thyroid arteries. middle part by the oesophageal branches of the aorta and bronchial arteries. A. True – It arises from the abdominal aorta below the origin of the celiac trunk at the level B.liver. and the lower part by the oesophageal branches of the left gastric artery E. True – The three branches from the coeliac trunk are given off at the upper border of the pancreas behind the peritoneum of the posterior wall of the upper sac 68.

False – It is the artery of the mid gut and supplies the gut from the duodenal papilla up to the junction between the proximal two-thirds and distal one-third of the transverse colon. jejunal and ileal arteries B. a branch of the coeliac trunk (neck. True – It lies anterior to the left renal vein. in that order from above downwards E. right colic. 69. The pancreas is supplied mainly by the splenic artery. False – The gastroduodenal artery is a branch of the common hepatic artery which arises from the coeliac trunk . uncinate process of the pancreas and the third part of the duodenum. False – The right gastric artery is a branch of the common hepatic artery which arises from the coeliac trunk D. body and tail). True – Branches arising from the superior mesenteric artery are inferior pancreaticoduodenal. ileocolic. True – The ileocolic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery.C. False – The left colic is a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery C. middle colic. Superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries supply the head of pancreas D. The inferior branch of the ileocolic artery gives off the anterior and posterior caecal arteries to supply the caecum. A.

True – It crosses the pelvic brim at the bifurcation of the left common iliac vessels over the sacroiliac joint and converges towards the ureter and lie at the apex of the attachment of the sigmoid mesocolon C. A. the rectum. The right colic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery 71.E. sigmoid and superior rectal arteries. and the anal canal above the pectinate line D. the descending colon. False – Its branches are the left colic. True – The terminal branch of the inferior mesenteric artery is the superior rectal artery which anastomoses with the last branch of the sigmoid arteries E. the sigmoid colon. True – It arises from the aorta behind the inferior border of the third part of the duodenum at the third lumbar vertebral level (3-4 cm above the bifurcation of the aorta) B. . left colic Flexure (splenic flexure). True 70. True – It supplies the distal third of the transverse colon.

False – The portal vein runs upwards in the free edge of the lesser omentum which forms the anterior boundary of the epiploic foramen lying behind the bile duct and the hepatic artery 72. cystic veins and paraumbilical veins D.A. superior pancreaticoduodenal veins. False – The following are the four common sites of portosystemic anastomoses: (i) At the lower end of the oesophagus (oesophageal or gastric varices) the oesophageal branches of the left gastric vein (portal tributary) anastomoses with oesophageal veins that drain into azygos and accessory azygos veins .The portal vein is formed by the union of splenic vein (which also receives the inferior mesenteric vein) with the superior mesenteric vein. True – Tributaries of the portal vein are the right and left gastric veins. A. False – it ascends in the free edge of the lesser omentum E. True – It lies in front of the inferior vena cava behind the neck of the pancreas and the first part of the duodenum. True . By entering between the two layers of the lesser omentum it loses contact with the inferior vena cava C. behind the neck of the pancreas at the 1 st lumbar vertebral level B.

E.B. The distended veins radiate from the umbilicus giving rise to caput medusae (iv) In the bare area of liver – the right branch of the portal vein in the bare area anastomoses with the retroperitoneal veins that drain into lumbar. azygos and hemiazygos veins True True False False . C. (ii) Anorectal region – superior rectal veins (portal tributary) anastomose with the middle and inferior rectal veins (systemic tributaries) that drain into internal iliac and pudendal veins (iii) Around the umbilicus – the left branch of the portal vein anastomoses with the superficial veins (superior and inferior epigastric) of the anterior abdominal wall (systemic tributaries) through paraumbilical veins that accompany the ligamentum teres In portal obstruction the veins around the umbilicus distend. D.

A. left gastroepiploic. False . right gastroepiploic artery and supraduodenal artery . False – The splenic vein has no foetal vessel of origin. inferior mesenteric and pancreatic veins E. The pyloric region of the stomach is supplied by the gastroduodenal artery.73. True – The vein leaves the hilum of the spleen and passes in the lienorenal ligament lying below the splenic artery B. True – The lesser curvature of the stomach is supplied by the left and right gastric arteries B. True – It receives short gastric.The right gastric vein passes along the lesser curvature to the pylorus of the stomach and empties into the portal vein 74. False – Short gastric arteries (about six branches) are branches from the splenic artery that supply the fundus and upper part of the greater curvature of the stomach. The left umbilical vein which is the main source of oxygenated blood to the foetus becomes the ligamentum teres after birth C. True – It unites with the superior mesenteric vein behind the neck of the pancreas (at the first lumbar vertebral level) to form the portal vein D. A.

Left and right vitelline veins and vitelline anastomosis give rise to superior mesenteric vein. C. A. False – The greater and lesser splanchnic nerves carry preganglionic . which are branches of the superior mesenteric artery D. right colic and middle colic arteries. True – B. True – The ascending colon is supplied by the ileocolic. A. a branch of the superior mesenteric artery supplies the proximal 1/3 of the transverse colon.C. E. The inferior mesenteric and splenic veins do not have a foetal vessel of origin False False True True 76. True – It lies around the origin of the coeliac trunk above the upper border of the pancreas B. supraduodenal.The middle colic artery. D. portal vein and post hepatic inferior vena cava. right gastric and right gastroepiploic arteries E. True – The first 2 cm of the duodenum receives blood from the hepatic. gastroduodenal. The left colic artery supplies the descending colon 75. False .

True D. False – The superior mesenteric artery arises from the aorta a centimeter below the coeliac trunk at the first lumbar vertebral level C. True – Fibres from the plexus supply all abdominal viscera. False – The coeliac trunk arises from the abdominal aorta between the crura of the diaphragm a little below the median arcuate ligament at the twelfth thoracic vertebral level B. A. True – Preganglionic fibres from the greater splanchnic nerve pass without relay to the cells of the suprarenal medulla 77. renal ganglion and plexus. testes and ovaries E. True – The inferior mesenteric artery arises from the aorta . They pierce the crura of the diaphragm and enter the two large coeliac ganglia C.sympathetic fibres.

At the fourth lumbar vertebral level it divides into the two common iliac arteries E. True – 78. True – The pancreas after development fuses with the posterior abdominal wall and becomes secondarily retroperitoneal C. False – The appendix has a mesentery called the mesoappendix . True – During development the descending colon has a dorsal mesentery which will fuse with the posterior abdominal wall and becomes retroperitoneal D.behind the inferior border of the third part of the duodenum at the third lumbar vertebral level The abdominal aorta passes behind the median arcuate ligament at the twelfth thoracic vertebral level and passes downwards behind the peritoneum on the bodies of lumbar vertebrae with the left sympathetic trunk at its left margin. False – Although the kidney is retroperitoneal. A. the ureter lies on the posterior abdominal wall in front of the muscles B. False – The common iliac arteries divide into internal and external iliac arteries at the fifth lumbar vertebral level (at the disc between the 5 th lumbar vertebra and the sacrum) in front of the sacroiliac joint D.

A. False E.and is not retroperitoneal E. True – Left (lesser sac) and righr subhepatic spaces communicate with each other via the epiploic foramen . False– The spleen develops in the dorsal mesentery and is attached to the posterior abdominal wall by the lienorenal ligament 79. A. False D. True – Derivatives of the dorsal mesentery include the greater omentum. False – The posterior boundary is the inferior vena cava covered by the parietal peritoneum of the posterior abdominal wall D. False – Its lower boundary is the first part of the duodenum B. The lesser omentum and falciform ligament develops from the ventral mesentery (ventral mesogastrium) B. gastrosplenic ligament. True C. True – The free margin of the lesser omentum contains between its two peritoneal layers the portal vein and anterior to it the hepatic artery and bile duct E. True C. spleen and the lienorenal ligament. True 80.

A. It is attached to the fissure for the ligamentum venosum and the porta hapatis D. E.81. falciform ligament. True . hepatic artery and bile duct. False – It is attached to the lesser curvature of the stomach. True – The two layers of peritoneum that extend between the liver and the lesser curvature of the stomach constitute the lesser omentum. central tendon of . The greater omentum is attached to the greater curvature of the stomach. C.The ventral mesentery (or septum transversum) gives rise to the lesser omentum. This is part of the ventral mesogastrium B. True – Anteriorly the foramen is bounded by the right free margin of the lesser omentum containing between its two peritoneal layers the portal vein. False – The attachment of the lesser omentum to the liver is Lshaped.

True . reaches the midline in front of the third sacral vertebra (at the commencement of the rectum) D. False – The medial limb slopes down to the hollow of the sacrum.diaphragm. 83. True – There is no ventral mesentery in relation to the sigmoid colon E. True – The sigmoid mesocolon has an inverted ‘V’ shape with two limbs diverging from each other at the bifurcation of the common iliac vessels. Kupffer cells and coronary ligaments 82. connective tissue of the liver. on the pelvic brim over the left sacroiliac joint B.The left umbilical vein that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the foetus becomes the ligamentum teres after birth B. False – The sigmoid mesocolon is a double fold of visceral layer of peritoneum suspended from the sigmoid colon. A. A. True – The lateral limb passes forward along the pelvic brim C. False – The gastrosplenic ligament is derived from the dorsal mesogastrium and extends from the stomach to the .

It becomes ligamentous after birth with the cessation of blood entering via the left umbilical vein D. True – The medial umbilical ligaments are the obliterated distal parts of the left and right umbilical arteries. False – The stomach rotates 90° in a clockwise direction B. True . It becomes ligamentous at birth. It is attached to the anterior wall of the urinary bladder E. The umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the foetus to the placenta during foetal life.spleen C. False – The duodenum does not rotate during development C. The proximal part of the umbilical arteries become the superior vesical arteries 84. False – The median umbilical ligament is the distal part of the urogenital sinus (earlier the allantoic diverticulum) which forms the urachus. A. TrueThe midgut rotates 90° anticlockwise at the 6 th week intrauterine life and completes its rotation at th the 10 week intrauterine life by rotating another 180° anticlockwise .Ligamentum venosum carries oxygenated blood coming from the left umbilical vein to the right hepatocardiac vein during foetal life.

The adrenal medullary cells are neural crest in origin E. False – The liver develops from the hepatic diverticulum from the foregut endoderm.D. True – Zona glomerulosa cells are present in the adrenal cortex. False – Physiological umbilical herniation occurs between 6th to 10 th week intrauterine life and the rotation occurs during this period 85. These cells are derived from the septum transversum which is the ventral mesogastrium. These cells are developed from the neural crest cells C. True E. False – Paneth cells are present in the intestinal mucosa and hence derived from the endoderm D.The adrenal cortex is developed from the intermediate mesoderm and therefore the cells of the zona glomerulosa are mesodermal in origin. Hence they develop from mesoderm B. A. False – APUD cells are neuroendocrine cells of the gut wall. Therefore the hepatocytes (liver parenchymal cells) are derived from the endoderm . True – Kupffer cells are the macrophage cells in the liver.

A.86. Fasle . True D. True E. False – Biliary atresia occurs due to the non canalization B. left and right gastroepiploic arteries The lesser curvature is supplied by the left and right gastric arteries B. the two pancreatic buds (dorsal and ventral) fuse together in an abnormal way giving rise to a ring of pancreatic tissue around the duodenum. True – During the rotation of the mid gut. False C. False – The greater curvature of the stomach is supplied by the short gastric. of the bile duct. called the annular pancreas False – An imperforate anus occurs due to the non rupture of the anal membrane False – A vitelline fistula occurs due to the persistence of the vitello-intestinal duct which connects the ileum with the umbilicus 87. C. D.Hirschprungs disease is due to the absence of nerve plexus (parasympathetic nerve cells) which develops from neural crests. E. True . A.

True D. B. True – Behind the stomach are a group of structures comprising . False – The epithelium lining the stomach is simple columnar epithelium.88. True – The peritoneum of the anterior wall of the lesser sac covers the posterior wall of the stomach and the stomach bed is covered by the posterior wall of the lesser sac 89. Hence it is completely covered by the peritoneum C. True– The stomach has a dorsal and a ventral mesentery (mesogastrium). This epithelium forms gastric glandsof the gut. True – The stomach is a derivative of the foregut and its artery of supply is the coeliac trunk and therefore it is supplied by branches of the coeliac trunk. A. A. oesophagus and the lower third of the anal canal E. The stratified squamous epithelium is present in the oral cavity.

the second on the right side of L2 vertebra. which is opposite the body of L2 vertebra. portal . C. True – It lies in front of the gastroduodenal artery. gastroduodenal artery. E. and the fourth is on the left of L2 vertebra B. D. The first part lies at the level of L1 vertebra (at the transpyloric plane). body of the pancreas. transverse mesocolon. upper part of left kidney.B. left suprarenal gland. the third crosses in front of L3 vertebra. True – The duodenum makes a C-shaped loop round the head of the pancreas. The first part and the second part of the duodenum upto the duodenal papilla is derived from the foregut and hence supplied by branches of the coeliac trunk C. A. left crus and the dome of the diaphragm. False – The lesser sac. bile duct. Structures forming the stomach bed include the lesser sac. spleen and left colic flexure True True False True 90. bile duct and portal vein D. True – The foregut is supplied by the coeliac trunk. the stomach bed. splenic artery.

A. True – It is situated in the right iliac fossa and is completely covered by the peritoneum B. False – It is a derivative of the foregut 91. A.vein and inferior vena cava are posterior relations of the first part of the duodenum E. False – The jejunum has less prominent arterial arcades or anastomotic loops in its mesentery compared to the ileum E. True – The jejunum has a larger diameter and a thicker wall than the ileum. True – It lies on the right iliac fosaa on the fascia over the iliacus and psoas muscle and femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves C. False –Peyer’s patches or aggregations of lymphoid follicles are present in the ileum D. B. True – It has longer vasa recta or straight arteries C. False – The jejunum has high narrow windows between the straight arteries running to its wall whereas the ileum has low broad windows 92. True – As in the rest of the colon the longitudinal muscle layer is .

The femoral and lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh lie posterior to the caecum 93. True – Also it is crossed by the attachment of the transverse mesocolon B.concentrated into three flat bands called taeniae coli which converge on to the base of the appendix D. False – The foregut gives rise to the duodenum proximal to the entrance of bile duct (duodenal papilla) and the midgut gives . True C. True – It is supplied by the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery which is a branch of the gastroduodenal artery. Also it receives branches from the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery. A. False . The inferior mesenteric artery supplies the derivatives of the hindgut (from distal 1/3 of the colon to upper part of anal canal) E. a branch of the superior mesenteric artery D. False – It is supplied by branches of the ileocolic artery (anterior and posterior caecal arteries) which is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery.

False – Meckel’s diverticulum. A. False – It arises from the antimesenteric border of the ileum C. liver or pancreatic mucosal tissue E. Fasle – Its posteromedial wall receives the common opening of the bile duct and the pancreatic duct at the hepatopancreatic ampulla that opens on the summit of the major duodenal papilla 94. False – It may contain gastric. the gastroduodenal artery. False – It occurs in about 2% of the population 95. Hence the second part of the duodenum is developed from both the foregut and the midgut E. A. bile duct and portal vein are found . True . True – Posterior to the 1st part of the duodenum. a finger-like pouch of the ileum is located 2 feet proximal to the ileoceacal junction B.It is a persistent remnant of the yolk sac (vitelline duct) and may be connected to the umbilicus via a fibrous cord or fistula D.rise to the duodenum distal to the entrance of the bile duct.

C. False – The ascending colon and the proximal two-thirds of the transverse colon are derivatives of the midgut. descending colon. The distal onethird of the transverse colon. C. True – Of the four parts of the colon.B. and behind these structures lies the inferior vena cava False . transverse and sigmoid parts are suspended by mesenteries but the ascending and descending colon are plastered on to the posterior abdominal wall and covered by the peritoneum only on the anterior surface thus making it retroperitoneal B. D. A. False – The ascending colon extends upwards from the ileocaecal junction to the right colic flexure (hepatic flexure) . E. sigmoid colon and proximal part of the rectum are derivatives of the hindgut. The head of the pancreas is moulded into the ‘C’ shaped concavity of the duodenum and completely fills it 96.The gall bladder lies anterior to the first part of the duodenum (duodenal cap) True True False – The pancreas is not a posterior relation of any of the parts of the duodenum.

appendix . jejunum. caecum. True – It lies on both the iliac fascia and the anterior layer of lumbar fascia E. False – It is supplied by the appendicular artery which is a branch of the inferior division of the ileocaecal artery. This is an end artery E.D. A. Therfore taenia coli are not present in the appendix . True – The derivatives of the midgut include the duodenum (distal duodenal papilla). False – The three taenia coli of the caecum merge to a point at the base of the appendix. ileum. True – In relation to the abdominal wall its base is situated onethird of the way up the line joining the right anterior ileac spine to the umbilicus (McBurney’s point) and the position of the base is constant in relation to the caecum although it may lie in a variety of positions C. True – It has its own short mesentery named the mesoappendix D. ascending colon and the proximal 2/3 of the transverse colon B. True – The right colic (hepatic) flexure is related to the inferolateral part of the anterior surface of the right kidney 97.

The appendicular artery may be thrombosed in appendicitis which may lead to ischaemic necrosis of the appendix as there is no collateral circulation . False – Although organogenesis of most of the organs commences at the 4 th week intrauterine life. It develops at the 10 th week intrauterine life B. Therefore the epithelium that lines it is the simple columnar epithelium C. True – The appendix is supplied by the appendicular artery which is a branch of the inferior division of the ileocaecal artery. False – The appendix is a part of the large intestine. the appendix is an exception.98. A.

it can be in other positions such as pelvic. retroileal and retrocolic Liver and Biliary System. True C. False – The caudate lobe lies between the fissure for the ligamentum venosum and the inferior vena cava. The quadrate lobe lies between the fissure for the ligamentum teres and gall bladder B. False – As the position of the appendix is variable there is no definitive surface projection.D. The surface projection of the fundus of the gall bladder is the tip of the right ninth costal cartilage E. True – Althought the commonest position of the appendix is retrocaecal. False – It is the caudate lobe that forms the upper boundary of the foramen of Winslow . Pancreas and Spleen 99. A.

The morphological division lies to the right of the gross anatomical plane and therefore the quadrate lobe is part of the left morphological lobe of the liver while the caudate lobe belongs partly to the left and partly to the right morphological lobes of the liver E. True – The liver is enclosed by the peritoneum except the bare area which is demarcated by the peritoneal reflections as the coronary ligaments 100.D. True – The anatomical division of lobes is different from the morphological division of lobes. A. False – The bile duct is formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and cystic duct. Left and right hepatic ducts unite to form the common hepatic duct .

True – The islets of Langerhans (the endocrine part) are developed from the neural crest cells (neuroectoderm) D. True – The lower third of the bile duct passes between the second part of the duodenum and head of the pancreas E.B. True E. behind the neck of the pancreas) by the union of the splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein B. The middle third is behind the first part of the duodenum and the lower third lies in a groove between the back of the head of the pancreas and the second part of the duodenum D. True – The proximal part of the hepatic diverticulum that grows from the ventral aspect of the foregut gives rise to the bile duct and gallbladder. Hence its lining is similar to the gut lining which is developing from endoderm C. The body of the pancreas is related to the hilum of the left kidney C. True – The bile duct has three parts. The upper third lies in the free edge of the lesser omentum. True – The portal vein commences at the first lumbar vertebral level (ie. False – The tail of the pancreas lies within the lienorenal ligament . A. False – The tail of the pancreas is related to the hilum of the spleen. False – The bile duct lies in front of the right renal vein 101.

A. to the stomach. False – The greater omentum is attached to the greater curvature of the stomach and is connected to the gastrosplenic ligament which extends from the stomach to the spleen 103. with peritoneum intervening. True D. stomach. A. and these organs may leave impressions on the liver surface B. True E. True – Organs related to the visceral surface include the left kidney. True E. True . hepatic flexure of the colon and the right kidney. True C. duodenum. True D.The visceral surface is related. tail of the pancreas and left colic flexure B. True C. False .which is the part of the dorsal mesentery extending between the greater curvature of the stomach and spleen 102.

True – It is supplied by branches of the superior mesenteric and coeliac arteries .104. A. True – An annular pancreas forms due to a defective fusion of the dorsal and ventral pancreatic buds. False – The head of pancreas is moulded to the Cshaped concavity of the duodenum. Pancreatic tissue is formed around the duodenum giving rise to an annular pancreas leading to obstruction of the duodenum D. The neck of the pancreas lies in front of the commencement of the portal vein B. True – The uncinate process arises from the lower part of the posterior surface of the pancreas as a hook shaped extension which passes upwards and to the left behind the superior mesenteric vessels C. It lies over the inferior vena cava and the right and left renal veins at the second lumbar vertebral level.

Other structures derived from the dorsal mesogastrium include the greater omentum. A. True – When enlarged the spleen may extend beyond the left costal margin and the palpable spleen is identified by the notch on its anterior border C. True – It develops at the 6 th week intra uterine life as a condensation in the dorsal mesogastrium. D. The oesophagus passes through the diaphragm at the tenth thoracic vertebral level . lienorenal ligament and gastrosplenic ligament B. False – It lies just beneath the left half of the diaphragm between the 9th and 11th ribs. A. True – The tail of the pancreas extends forwards and to the left from the anterior surface of the left kidney along with the splenic vessels and lymphatics and lie within the lienorenal ligament to reach the hilum of the spleen 105. False – It is supplied by the splenic artery which passes in the lienorenal ligament extending from the spleen to the kidney 106. True . False – It passes through the diaphragm at the twelfth thoracic vertebral level.E.Its long axis lies along the shaft of the tenth rib and its lower pole extends forwards as far as the mid axillary line E.

a small posterior branch. In addition.B. the median sacral artery leaves the aorta a little above its bifurcation. The abdominal aorta extends from the twelfth thoracic vertebral level to the fifth lumbar vertebral level while the inferior vena cava extends from the fifth lumbar vertebral level to the eighth thoracic vertebral level E. True – The main branches of the abdominal aorta fall into three types: single ventral arteries to the gut and its derivatives (coeliac. D. superior and inferior mesenteric). renal and gonadal arteries) and paired branches to the abdominal wall (inferior phrenic and lumbar arteries). False – It ends by dividing into the two common iliac arteries at the fourth lumbar vertebral level C. True – The thoracic duct passes through the aortic opening of the diaphragm at the twelfth thoracic vertebral level while lying between the aorta and the azygos vein . paired branches to other viscera (suprarenal. False – The inferior vena cava has a longer course in the abdomen than the abdominal aorta.

inferior phrenic and lumbar arteries to the abdominal wall. There are four paired lumbar arteries arising from the abdominal aorta opposite the bodies of upper four lumbar vertebrae. B. renal and gonadal arteries to visceral structures. True 108.107. A. Hepatic arteries arise from the coeliac trunk.Paired branch of the abdominal aorta include suprarenal. False C. arise from the lowest part of the thoracic aorta and enter the abdomen behind the lateral arcuate ligaments. Subcostal arteries although paired. False D. True E. True . False – It is formed at the fifth lumbar vertebral level by the confluence of the two common iliac veins behind the right common iliac artery B. A. True . Inferior phrenic arteries are the first branches of the abdominal aorta.

C. the proximal part of the right vitelline vein). It is developed from the right valve of the sinus venosus C. False – Its post hepatic part is derived from the proximal part of the right vitelline vein. True – It passes upwards on to the right of the aorta. The renal part of the . grooves the bare area of the liver and pierces the tendinous part of the diaphragm at the eighth thoracic vertebral level D. False – The post hepatic part of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is developed from the right hepatocardiac channel (ie. False . A. At the 10 th and 12th thoracic vertebral levels the oesophagus and aorta pass through the diaphragm B. The left vitelline vein disappears after contributing to a small part of the portal vein 109. True – The left suprarenal vein enters the left renal vein while the right suprarenal vein enters the posterior aspect of the inferior vena cava behind the bare area of the liver E.The inferior vena cava passes through the diaphragm at the eighth thoracic vertebral level. True – There is a valve at the termination of the inferior vena cava which is nonfunctional.

The left gonadal vein and the left suprarenal vein drain into the left renal vein B. A. True D. right gonadal vein. True 111. True . True – The tributaries of the inferior vena cava include left and right third and fourth lumbar veins. left and right renal veins. True – The right and left renal arteries arise from the aorta at the second lumbar vertebral level just below the origin of the superior mesenteric artery B. False 110. left and right inferior phrenic veins and hepatic veins. right suprarenal vein. A. False E. False C. right and left renal veins. right and left 3 rd and 4th lumbar veins and right testicular or ovarian vein (gonadal vein).IVC is developed from the right subcardinal vein and the pelvic part from the right sacrocardinal vein D. inferior phrenic veins. E. True – From above downwards the IVC receives hepatic veins. right suprarenal vein.The right renal artery crosses the right crus of diaphragm .

The right renal vein has no foetal vessel of origin D. The right renal vein usually drains only the right kidney .and psoas muscle behind the inferior vena cava and the right renal vein C. True – It receives the left suprarenal vein and left gonadal vein and sometimes the left inferior phrenic vein. False. True – It gives off the ureteric and suprarenal branches E. True – The left renal vein has a foetal veinl of origin which is the subcardinal anastomosis.Both gonadal arteries (testicular and ovarian) arise from the front of the aorta below the renal arteries but well above origin of the inferior mesenteric artery 112. False D. False – The left renal vein lies in front of the left renal artery B. True . A. True – The left renal vein joins the inferior vena cava at a right angle at the second lumbar vertebral level E.The left renal vein is about 3 times as long as the right renal vein C.

The genital branch passes through the deep ring and enters the . A. False – The pudendal nerve is branch given off from the sacral plexus and contains fibres of first.113. True – The plexus supplies the lower abdominal wall and mainly supply the skin and muscles of the lower limb D. False C. True – Just above the inguinal ligament it perforates the psoas fascia and divides into genital (L2) and femoral (L1) branches. False – The femoral nerve emerges from the lateral border of the psoas muscle and crosses the iliac fossa between the psoas and iliacus muscle E. second and third sacral segments 114. A. False – It is formed by the anterior rami of the upper four lumbar nerves C. False – The genitofemoral nerve is formed in the substance of psoas major muscle by the union of branches from L1 and L2. True – The anterior primary rami of the upper four lumbar nerves contribute to form the lumbar plexus in the substance of psoas major muscle B. and emerges from the anterior surface of the psoas major and runs down on the muscle deep to psoas fascia B.

True . D. True – The structures supplied by the ilioinguinal nerve include external oblique.inguinal canal. True – The nerve pierces the lower border of internal oblique and enters the inguinal canal and emerges through the superficial inguinal ring D. False – It is both sensory and motor . A. tunica vaginalis of the testis and scrotal skin E. internal oblique. ilioinguinal nerve.The iliohypogastric nerve. root of the penis. True 115. skin of the upper medial aspect of the thigh. True – The genital branch supplies motor fibres to the cremaster muscle and sensory fibres to the spermatic fascia. mons pubis and labium majora E. False – It contains only the first lumbar segment B. transversus abdominis muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. anterior onethird of the scrotal skin. lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh and the femoral nerve emerge from the lateral border of the psoas muscle. in that order from above downwards C.

True – It supplies the middle portion of the ureter 117. True – They pass steeply downwards over psoas and genitofemoral nerve C. False – It lies posterior to the gonadal vessels D. A. They are located at the pelviureteric junction.116. True – Both ureters have three anatomic sites that show narrowings. A. ureter and genitofemoral nerve E. False – It is given off just below the origin of the renal artery and well above the inferior mesenteric artery B. False – The ureter is developed from the proximal part of the ureteric . True – The ureter enters the pelvis by crossing the bifurcation of the common iliac artery anteriorly over the sacroiliac joint E. True – The artery on the left side crosses in front of the ureter and genitofemoral nerve D. B. True – It passes down on the psoas major muscle under cover of the peritoneum. True – The artery on the right side crosses in front of the inferior vena cava. where it crosses the pelvic brim and as it enters the bladder wall C.

The middle region of the ureter is supplied by the abdominal aorta.Both ureters lie on the posterior abdominal wall covered by the peritoneum B. The lower end is supplied by branches from inferior and superior vesical and uterine arteries. D. C. True .bud which arises as an outgrowth of the mesonephric duct. The paramesonephric duct gives rise to the duct system in the female genital tract (Fallopian tube. A. True – The upper part of the right ureter lies behind the third part of the duodenum 119. common iliac and internal iliac arteries. gonadal. cervix and upper vagina) 118. uterus. True – Lower down it is crossed anteriorly by the right colic and ileocolic vessels and by the root of the mesentery. . True – The upper end is supplied by the ureteric branch of the renal artery. True – On a radiograph the ureter lies medial to the tips of the transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae E.

True – The inferior vena cava overlaps the anteromedial surface of the right suprarenal gland E. True – They lie within their own compartment of renal fascia C. The cortex is developed from the intermediate mesoderm . and a branch directly from the aorta.A. D.The suprarenal glands lie at the upper pole of each kidney and are asymmetrical. False . inferior phrenic artery. B. False . False – The medulla develops from neural crest cells. The right gland is pyramidal and the left is crescentic in shape.The glands have a rich arterial supply and each receives blood from three sources which are the renal artery. In contrast there is usually a single vein draining it.

120. The anterior surface of the upper part of the left suprarenal gland is covered by the peritoneum of the lesser sac and the lower part is in contact with the body of the pancreas and splenic vessels B. True – The suprarenal gland receives arterial supply from three sources. The adrenal cortex is developed from the intermediate mesoderm and the adrenal medulla is developed from the neural crest cells E. True – Preganglionic sympathetic fibres arising from the spinal cord pass via the sympathetic chain without relay as the greater. Inferior suprarenal artery from the renal artery. A. True – The left gland lies on the left crus of the diaphragm and overlaps the front of the kidney C. False – The zona glomerulosa is in the adrenal cortex. middle suprarenal artery from the abdominal aorta and the superior suprarenal artery from the inferior phrenic artery D. . False – The anterior surface of the right suprarenal gland is overlapped medially by the inferior vena cava and the rest of the anterior surface is in contact with the bare area of the liver.

The hilum of the left kidney is related to the pancreas and on the right to the second part of the duodenum. True . lie behind the kidney. that of the left kidney the eleventh rib C.The upper pole of the right kidney overlies the twelfth rib. artery and nerve. D. A.lesser and least splanchnic nerves. on emerging beneath The lateral arcuate ligament. as do the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves as they emerge from the lateral border of psoas. B. . True .A small triangular part of the costodiaphragmatic recess of the pleura lies behind the diaphragm and is an important posterior relation of the kidney. The greater splanchnic nerve ends in the cells of the adrenal medulla 121. True . which is at risk in the lumbar approach to the kidney. True – The subcostal vein.

False . False D. The ureteric bud gives rise to the collecting ducts.The kidney develops from two embryonic parts namely the ureteric bud and metanephric blastema. A. The anterior relations of the left kidney are left suprarenal gland.liver. True – The anterior relations of the right kidney are right suprarenal gland. False . spleen. stomach. True C. The metanephric blastema gives rise to the Bowmans capsule. True E. proximal convoluted tubule.The hilum of the left kidney lies just above and that of the right just below the transpyloric plane 122. pancreas.E. small intestine and second part of the duodenum. hepatic flexure of colon. minor . 123. A. loop of Henle and distal convoluted tubule. False – Subcostal vessels are a posterior relation of both kidneys. colon and small intestine B.

C. A. True – The adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is found in abundance in protein secreting cells E. True – Androgens are secreted by the zona reticulosa cells of the adrenal cortex B. The adrenal medulla develops from the neural crest cells. pelvis of the kidney and ureter False True True True 124. D. It is the adrenal medulla that is supplied by the myelinated preganglionic sympathetic fibers which synapse with the medullary cells. calyces. E.All endocrine glands have a rich reticulin fibre network. True – The adrenal cortex develops from the intermediate mesoderm close to the area of the kidney. False – The adrenal cortex in supplied from the …………. major calyces. D. True . . The cells that secrete steroids have an abundance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum..B. C.

D. A. B. The sub public angle is wider in male than in female D. The piriformis muscle leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen E. The sacro-iliac joint is a synovial joint B. has fibres forming a sling around the anorectal junction E. Pelvic peritoneum in the female covers the Superior surface of the bladder Anterior surface of the lower third of the rectum Lateral surface of the urinary bladder Fundus of the uterus Anterior surface of the vagina . B. The levator ani muscle A. The sacrotuberous ligament lies anterior to the sacrospinous ligament C. D. is supplied by a branch from the 1st sacral nerve C. is inserted into the perineal body D.3 ________________________________________________________ Pelvis and Perineum Pelvic Cavity and joints 125. The inferior pubic rami are everted in males 126. Regarding the pelvis A. forms the medial boundary of the ischioanal fossa 128. The pelvic outlet is formed by the ischial tuberosities sacrotuberous ligaments alar of the sacrum ischiopubic rami sacroiliac ligaments 127. E. C. C. A. has superior and inferior surfaces covered with fascia B. E.

is derived from the lower part of the urogenital sinus D. drains its upper part to the pre aortic lymph nodes 130. In the male the prostate can be palpated on its anterior wall by per rectal examination .Rectum and anal canal 129. Its lower part is derived from the urogenital sinus D. It is lined by a simple columnar epithelium D. rests in front of the 3rd. It is supplied by the inferior rectal artery E. Regarding the rectum A. Regarding the anal canal A.4th and 5th sacral vertebrae B. is lined by the stratified squamous non keratinizing epithelium E. The rectum in the male A. It is developed from the lower part of the urogenital sinus C. is covered by the peritoneum in its upper 1/3 in front and sides C. Pecten is lined by a simple columnar epithelium 131. Pectinate line is a site of portosystemic anastomosis 132. Regarding the anal canal A. The middle rectal artery supplies it C. It is covered by the peritoneum throughout B. The pecten is lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium D. Superficial inguinal nodes drain lymph from its upper third E. It drains into the superior rectal veins E. It has internal sphincter composed of striated muscle B. Its upper part is developed from the hindgut C. The pectinate line separates the ectodermal and endodermal parts B.

The testis A. Is supplied by sympathetic nerves arising from T10 spinal segment D. The testis A. urethra and ureters in the pelvis 133. contains diploid cells in the wall of seminiferous tubule 136. The extrophy of the bladder is due to persistence of the urachus C. lined by the stratified squamous keratinizing epithelium B. The female urethra is A. is supplied by sympathetic nerve firbres originating from the T10 segment E. supplied by the internal pudendal artery D.Urinary bladder. ten centimeters long C. Its apex is connected to the umbilicus by the median umbilical ligament Male Reproductive Organs 135. develops in the paraxial mesoderm B. drains its lymph to the para aortic nodes C. The tunica vaginalis completely encloses the testis B. Its epithelium is derived from endoderm B. Has cells of Leydig that secrete testosterone . drained into the internal iliac nodes 134. derived from the mesonephric duct E. has the appendix testis which is a derivative of the mesonephric duct D. Has no peritoneal covering D. Regarding the urinary bladder A. Has the epididymis located along its anterior border C. Is lined by a stratified squamous non keratinizing peithelium E.

It is supplied by a branch of the testicular artery D. seminal vesicle D. penile urethra B. Carcinoma of the prostate can directly spread to the pelvic bones 141. It has a skeletal muscle covering C. joins with that of the opposite side to form the ejaculatory duct 138. membranous urethra 140.E. Its posterior lobe is devoid of glandular tissue D. prostatic urethra E. It begins as a continuation from the upper pole of epididymis B. Its base lies against the neck of the bladder B. It leaves the spermatic cord at the deep inguinal ring E. The ampulla of the vas lies behind the base of the bladder 139. Pelvic part of the urogenital sinus in the male gives rise to the A. crosses the ureter in the region of the ischial spine E. Regarding ductus deferens A. The veins drain into the inferior vena cava on both sides 137. passes through the inguinal canal D. The ductus deferens A. The normal gland can be palpated by per rectal examination E. is lined by a cuboidal epithelium B. develops from the mesonephric duct C. ejaculatory duct C. Regarding the prostate gland A. It is palpable in spermatic cord C. Regarding the seminal vesicles .

The medial surface is related to the vas deferens C. when diseased will cause pain on the inner side of the thigh on the same side C. The ovary A. Store spermstozoa E. Its posterior wall is longer than the anterior wall 144. C. A. Regarding the vagina The upper part develops from the urogenital sinus The lower half lies within the perineum It receives an arterial supply from the uterine artery Its posterior wall is completely covered by the peritoneum E. has its own mesentery E. Are palpable by per rectal examination 142. E. B. B. C. They lie on the posterior surface of the bladder B. is attached to the uterus by the ligament of the ovary 145. The penis consists of two masses of erectile tissue is developed from the genital swellings drains into superficial inguinal lymph nodes is supplied by a branch of the pudendal artery has the bulbospongiosis muscle attached to the side of the pubic arch Female reproductive organs 143. Lymph from the upper part of the body drains in to the para aortic nodes B. D. Regarding the uterus A. Is developed from the paraxial mesoderm B. Develop from the paramesonephric ducts D. Its body is enclosed by the peritoneum . A. is supplied by the uterine artery D. It is normally anterverted and retroflexed C.A. D.

C. D. The anterior surface of the cervix is attached to the bladder above the trigone E. D. Which of the following are homologous Penis and clitoris Scrotum and labia minora Testis and ovary Vas deferens and fallopian tube A. The broad ligament has the ovary on its anterior margin has the fallopian tube at its upper border has an attachment to the labium majus contains remnants of the mesonephric tubules extend from the uterus to the lateral wall of the pelvis 147. E. E. A. B. . B. C. E. Major supports of the uterus include levator ani muscle round ligament pubo-cervical ligament utero-sacral ligament perineal body 148. D. B. D. B. Dizygotic twins always have a common chorionic cavity are always of the oppsosite sex have separate amniotic cavities have two placentae aAre commoner than monozygotic twins 149. It is developed from the paramesonephric ducts 146. A. C. C. A. E. C. B. A. D. The uterine tube is the site of fertilization of the ovum is narrowest at the ampulla develops from the paramesonephric ducts is lined by a simplecolumnar ciliated epithelium has an arterial supply from the ovarian artery 150.D.

A. third and fourth sacral spinal segments B. Lies in the medial wall of the ischiorectal fossa D. is a branch of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery B. The sacral plexus Lies on the obturator internus muscle Receives a contribution from the lumbosacral trunk Supplies the quadratus femoris muscle Gives branches to supply the perianal skin and skin of buttock E.E. Inferior epigastric artery E. Median sacral artery D. C. Supplies the gluteal muscles 155. anastomoses with obturator artery E. The uterine artery A. Uterine artery C. Gives off the dorsal nerve of the penis E. Penile urethra and vaginal fornices Pelvic vessels and nerves 151. passes above the ureter D. The internal iliac artery . Superior gluteal artery 152. Supplies the deep transverse perinei muscle 153. D. lies within the broad ligament C. supplies the ovaries 154. Leaves the pelvis through the obturator foramen C. Consists of second. Following are branches of internal iliac artery A. The pudendal nerve A. Iliolumbar artery B. B.

bulbospongiosus muscle B. Structures that drain superficial inguinal lymph nodes include A. dorsal nerve of the penis E. superficial transverse perinei C. testis C. begins in front of the sacroiliac joint B. membranous urethra B. gives off the the median sacral artery from its posterior division E. scrotum B. bulb of the penis 157. external anal sphincter D. supplies the vas deferens Perineum 156. is crossed anteriorly by the ureter at the pelvic brim D. Muscles found within perineal pouch include A. levator ani B. internal pudendal vessels D. ischiocavernosus mucle C. ends near the upper margin of the lesser sciatic foramen C. Muscles attached body include A. sphincter urethrae the the to the perineal superficial . labia minora E. deep transverse perinei E. Contents of the deep perineal pouch in the male include A. clitoris directly 158. perineal membrane C.A. glans penis D. ischiocavernosus to 159.

False – The subpubic angle is larger in females forming an obtuse angle wich is considered as a sex difference D. With ageing fibrous adhesions occur and gradual obliteration of the joint cavity takes place. The sacrotuberous ligament is a flat fibrous band of great strength having a wide attachment. A. superficial transverse perineal muscle Pelvis and Perineum : Answers and Explanations Pelvic Cavity and joints 125. deep transverse perineal muscle E. False – The sacrotuberous ligament is found posterior to the sacrospinous ligament. to the transverse tubercles of the sacrum and to the upper part of the coccyx and is inserted to the medial surface of the ischial tuberosity C. True – The articular surfaces of this joint are jagged and very little movement is present at this joint. earlier in males and after the menopause in females B.D.The piriformis muscle arises from the front of the middle . It is attached to the posterior border of the ilium and posterior superior and posterior inferior iliac spines. True .

False – It is mainly supplied from the sacral plexus by branches of S3 and S4 spinal segments. A. True C. False – The alar of the sacrum forms a part of the pelvic inlet. arcuate or inferior pubic ligament. True E. D. True – The pelvic outlet is bounded anteriorly by the pubic symphysis.three pieces of the sacrum within the pelvis and leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen to be attached to the greater trochanter of the femur E. Puborectalis may be supplied from . False – Sacroiliac ligaments are ligamentous bands that surround the capsule of the sacroiliac joint. ischial tuberosities and sacrotuberous ligaments. B. posteriorly by the coccyx and on each side by the ischiopubic rami. The inferior surface is covered by the inferior fascia of the pelvic diaphragm which blends with the obturator fascia laterally B. 127. True – The pelvic surface of the levator ani and coccygeus is covered by the superior fascia of the pelvic diaphragm. True – The crus of the penis is attached to this everted inferior pubic ramus 126. A.

True – Fibres arising more anteriorly from the inner aspect of the body of the pubis form a sling around the anorectal junction and this part of the muscle is called the puborectalis.below by the perineal branch of S4 and inferior rectal branch of the pudendal nerve. True – The ischioanal fossa is wedge shaped. True The muscles attached to the perineal body include the external anal sphincter. The external sphincter of the anal canal and the leavator ani muscles form the medial wall of each fossa and the lateral wall is formed by the ischial tuberosity with the obturator internus muscle . pubovaginalis (levator prostate). a part of levator ani. Contraction of this muscle sling helps in defaecation E. bulbospongiosus and the superficial and deep transverse perinei muscles D. in common with the external anal sphincter C.

False – The only part of the vagina to have a peritoneal covering is the posterior fornix. This peritoneal covering is the part that forms the front of the rectouterine pouch (of Douglas) Rectum and anal canal 129.The fundus. True . A. the anterior or vesical surface and the posterior or the intestinal surface of the uterus are covered by the peritoneum E. A. False – The upper one-third of the rectum is covered by the peritoneum in front and on the sides.128. the middle one-third is covered only in front and the lower one-third which is dilated to form the ampulla is devoid of peritoneum. True – The rectum lies in front of the sacrum from the mid of 3rd . True – The pelvic peritoneum covers the superior surface of the bladder and is reflected from a little in front of the posterior margin of this surface on to the undersurface of the uterus B. It is reflected forwards on to the upper part of the vagina to form the rectouterine pouch (of Douglas) C. False D.

The external anal sphincter consists of three parts. The internal anal sphincter is continuous with the inner circular and outer longitudinal muscle layers of the anal canal. superficial and . False – The rectum is lined by the simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells. deep. The lymphatics from the lower rectum reach the internal iliac nodes along the middle and inferior rectal vessels 130. Only the lower 1/3 of the anal canal is lined by the stratified squamous non keratinizing epitelium E. False – The anal canal consists of internal and external sphincters. False – The rectum is developed from the distal part of the hindgut.sacral segment and descends up to the tip of the coccyx B. The urogenital sinus gives rise to the urinary bladder and urethra D. Hence it is developed from the splanchnic mesoderm and consists of smooth muscle. True – Lymphatics of the upper rectum drains along the inferior mesenteric artery to pre aortic nodes. A. True – The rectum in the male is covered by the peritoneum in its upper 1/3 in front and on the sides and in its middle 1/3 only in front C. namely.

E.B. C. D. . The area above the pectinate line (anal column area) is lined by a simple columnar epithelium 131. The lower part of the anal canal below the pectinate line drains into the superficial inguinal nodes True – The pecten is the area below the pectinate line and is lined by a stratified squamous non keratinized epithelium. subcutaneous parts derived from the somatic mesoderm (striated muscle) True – The upper part of the anal canal above the pectinate line is developed from the hindgut and the lower part below the pectinate line is developed from the proctodeum (ectodermal origin) False – refer B above False – The upper part of the anal canal above the pectinate line drains into the internal iliac nodes.

E. C. The middle rectal artery supplies the rectum False– The pecten area is lined by the stratified squamous non keratinized epithelium (ectodermal) True – The area above the pectinate line drains into the superior rectal vein (a tributary of portal vein) and the area below the pecten drains into the inferior rectal vein (systemic veins) True – In portal hypertension this anastomosis dilates to form the internal haemorrhoids (internal piles) as it is a portosystemic anastomosis .A. True – The anal canal above the pectinate line is lined B. D. by a simple columnar epithelium and below the pectinate line is lined by a stratified squamous non keratinized epithelium False – The superior rectal branches and the inferior rectal artery supply the mucosa above and below the pectinate line respectively.

False – The rectum is developed from the distal part of the hindgut and the mucosa is endodermal in origin. True – By per rectal examination in the male. In the female all internal reproductive organs . True – It is lined by the gut epithelium which is the simple columnar epithelium D. A.132. False – It is supplied by the superior rectal artery (a branch of the Inferior mesenteric artery). The urogenital sinus gives rise to the urinary bladder and urethra C. the prostate. seminal vesicle.Only the front and sides of the upper third and the front of the middle third of the rectum are covered by the peritoneum. base of the urinary bladder and the rectovesical pouch (if fluid is filled) could be palpated on the anterior rectal wall. The inferior rectal artery supplies the anal canal E. The lower third is devoid of a peritoneal covering B. middle rectal artery (a branch of the internal iliac artery) and median sacral artery (a branch of the abdominal aorta). False .

True . A.could be felt.Upper part of the female urethra is supplied by the inferior vescical and vaginal arteries with the lower end being supplied by internal pudendal artery .The urethra in the female is 4 cm long. During later stages of pregnancy it can get stretched and could increase its length up to 10 cm.The uppermost part of the female urethra is lined by the transitional epithelium followed by the stratified squamous non keratinizing epithelium at the external urethral meatus. urethra and ureters in the pelvis 133. C. B. False . the ischial spine and the ischial tuberosity could be palpated on the posterior rectal wall Urinary bladder. In both sexes some bony parts namely the lower sacrum and coccyx. False .

The incorporation of the lower ends of mesonephric the ducts into the posterior part of the bladder forms the . The remnants of the mesonephric duct in the female is seen as epoophoron and paroophoron.Lymph from the female urethra mainly drains into internal iliac nodes but some may reach the external iliac nodes. True . True – The urogenital sinus becomes the bladder and therefore the epithelium of the bladder is endodermal and the surrounding mesoderm which is developed from the splanchnic mesoderm forms the muscle and connective tissue. 134. A.D. False .It is developed from the lower part of the urogenital sinus. E.

trigone which is intermediate mesoderm in origin False – The fusion of the anterior abdominal wall below the umbilicus is facilitated by the migrating primitive streak mesoderm. Persistence of the urachus leads to urine discharge from the umbilical region False – The superior surface and the upper part of the posterior surface are covered by the peritoneum in both sexes False – It is lined by the transitional epithelium True – The apex of the bladder points anteriorly and lies behind symphysis pubis. C. the anterior abdominal wall will not fuse leading to exposure of the bladder wall. D. E. If this migration fails.B. It is connected to the umbilicus by the median umbilical ligament – which is the fibrosed (obliterated) urachus . This is called the extrophy of the bladder.

Appendix testis and utriculus prostaticus are the remnants of the paramesonephric duct attached to the testis in the male D. epidydimis and vas deferens in the male and epoophoron and paroophoron in the ffemale.Male Reproductive Organs 135. True – The testis drains into para aortic nodes lying alongside the aorta at second lumbar vertebral level and do not drain into inguinal nodes although the overlying scrotal skin does C. The postganglionic sympathetic fibres reach the testis via the testicular artery E. A. False – Both gonads (testis and ovary) develop in the gonadal ridge in the pelvic region of the intermediate mesoderm. True – The sympathetic preganglionic fibres originate from the tenth thoracic segment of the spinal cord and pass in the greater or lesser splanchnic nerves to the celiac ganglia and synapse there. True – The primary spermatogonia in the walls of the seminiferous tubules are diploid cells. . myotomes and sclerotomes of each spinal segment B. The paraxial mesoderm forms the dermatomes. False – The derivatives of the mesonephric duct include efferent ducts.

True . A. False – It covers the whole testis except the posterior border B. A. True – It passes downward and backwards on the lateral wall of the . In the inguinal canal the plexus separates out into about four veins which join to form two that leave the deep inguinal ring. spermatids and sperms are haploid cells.The mesonephric duct gives rise to the efferent ducts. False – The epididymis is attached to its posterolateral surface C. The left vein drains into the left renal vein where the right drains directly into the inferior vena cava. 136.Secondary spermatogonia. True – Cells of Leydig or interstitial cells are found as clusters scattered among the cells of connective tissue in between the seminiferous tubules. False – The veins emerging from the testis form the pampiniform plexus. epididymis and vas deferens in the male C. True D. 137. False – It is lined by a pseudostratified columnar epithelium with stereocilia B.It passes through the inguinal canal and enters the abdomen by emerging through the deep inguinal ring D. True . They constitute the endocrine portion of the testis and secrete testosterone E.

The urogenital sinus has a definitive part.It joins with the duct of the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct. The ejaculatory ducts pierce the posterior wall of the prostate and open into the prostatic urethra 138. False – It begins as a continuation from the tail of the epididymis B. The definitive part gives rise to the urinary bladder. The epididymis is supplied by a branch of the testicular artery D. False – The artery to the ductus deferens arises from the superior vesical (or sometimes from the inferior vesical) artery. True C. True . and is known as the ampulla 139. pelvic part and a phallic part. False . A. B. A. True D. False . The phallic part gives rise to the penile urethra. True E. seminal vesicle. True C. True E.pelvis and crosses the ureter in the region of the ischial spine E. prostate. True – The part of the ductus lying behind the base of the bladder is dilated and tortuous. the pelvic part gives rise to the ejaculatory duct. prostatic urethra and membranous urethra in the male.

True .Prostate gland is conical in shape with its base lying against the neck of the bladder and the apex lying inferiorly against the urogenital diaphragm B. False – The smooth muscle of the bladder wall pass without interruption to the prostate as the prostate is continuous with the neck of the bladder C. A. True – The prostatic venous plexus is directly connected to the vertebral veins. median or middle lobe. The anterior lobe lies in front of the urethra and is devoid of glandular tissue. urogenital diaphragm and bulb of the penis E. True – The following can be felt by the index finger inserted into the anal canal and rectum in the male Opposite the terminal phalanx. posterior surface of the bladder. All other lobed consist of glandular tissue D. During abdominal straining or coughing the prostatic venous blood could flow in a reverse direction and . posterior lobe and left and right lateral lobes. seminal vesicles and vas deferens Opposite the middle phalanx – the prostate Opposite the proximal phalanx – perineal body. False – The prostate has five lobes namely the anterior lobe.contents of rectovesical pouch.140.

They lie on the base of the bladder above the prostate on the posterior aspect. False – They do not store spermatozoa but produce about 60% of the seminal fluid which contains substances which are essential for the nourishment of spermatozoa . 141. False – It develops from the mesonephric duct. True – The terminal part of the vas deferens lies on the medial surface of each seminal vesicle C. The frequent occurrence of metstases of carcinoma of prostate in the lower part of the vertebral column and pelvic bones could be explained due to the above.enter vertebral veins. True . The left and right vas deferens lie side by side on the posterior surface and separates the seminal vesicles from each other B. A. The paramesonephic ducts in the male regress and its remnants are the utriculus prostaticus and appendix testis D.

By per rectal examination in the male. base of the urinary bladder and the rectovesical pouch (if fluid is filled) could be palpated on the anterior rectal wall. The bulb continues forward in to the body of the penis as the corpus spongiosum. In the female all internal reproductive organs could be felt.E. and right and left crura of the penis. seminal vesicle. True . A. the ischial spine and the ischial tuberosity could be palpated on the posterior rectal wall 142. In both sexes some bony parts namely the lower sacrum and coccyx. The two crura converge . the prostate. False – The root of the penis consists of three masses of erectile tissue namely the bulb of the penis.

C. The genital swellings give rise to the scrotum in the male and the labia majora in the female True . D. forwards and lie side by side in the dorsal part of the body of the penis forming corpora cavernosa False – The penis is developed from the genital tubercle present in the indifferent stage of external genitalia. the artery of the bulb supplies the corpus spongiosum and the dorsal artery of the penis also supplies it.The skin of the penis drains into the superficisl inguinal nodes and the deep structures of the penis drains into internal iliac nodes True – The deep arteries of the penis supply the corpora cavernosa. the artery of the bulb supplies the corpora cavernosa. All three arteries are branches of the internal pudendal artery False .B. E. A. In the female it gives rise to the clitoris.The bulbospongiosus muscle covers the bulb of the penis. False –The upper part develops from the paramesonephric ducts and the lower part is developed from the urogenital sinus B. The ischiocavernosus muscle covers the crus of the penis which is attached to the side of the pubic arch Female Reproductive Organs 143. True – The upper half of the vagina lies above the pelvic floor and .

The ovary is supplied by the ovarian artery. inferior vesical and middle rectal vessels. True – Also the posterior fornix is deeper than the other fornices 144. False . A. It is the only part of the vagina to have a peritoneal covering E.The ovary develops from the gonadal ridge formed by the intermediate mesoderm. False – The posterior fornix is covered by the peritoneum of the front of the rectouterine pouch (of Douglas).The ovary is closely related to the obturator nerve from which it is separated from the parietal peritoneum. True – The vaginal branch of the internal iliac artery is supplemented by the uterine. B. Paraxial mesoderm gives rise to segmental muscles of the vertebral column. C.lower half lies within the perineum C. False . a branch of the . True . Therefore a diseased ovary can cause referred pain along the cutaneous distribution of the obturator nerve which is the inner side of the thigh. vertebrae and annulus fibrosus of intervertebral discs. The branches of these vessels make good anastomotic connections on the vaginal wall D. The germ cells develop in the wall of the yolk sac and migrate to the developing gonads at sixth week intrauterine life. ribs.

The lower pole of the ovary is attached to the uterus by the ligament of ovary. True . fundUs and fallopian tube drains into para aortic nodes. Other abnormal positions are . E. True . (some may drain into external iliac nodes). True .The normal position of the uterus is anteverted and anteflexed.The anterior border of the ovary is attached to the broad ligament (posterior leaf) by a fold of peritoneum called mesovarium. Lower part of the uterine body drains into external iliac nodes. The uterine artery supplies the uterus and the fallopian tubes. A. 145.abdominal aorta. and the cervix drains into both external and internal iliac nodes and to sacral nodes. B. D. False .Lymph from the upper part of body.

.The anterior layer of the round ligament is bulged forwards by the round ligament of the uterus just below the uterine tube. False . A. the anterior surface of the cervix has no peritoneal covering. True . 146. True - The body of the uterus is enclosed by the peritoneum which becomes the broad ligament laterally. D.C.The uterus develops from the lower third of the fused paranesonephric ducts while the fallopian tube develops from the upper 2/3 of the paramesonephric ducts. E. True .Due to this relationship and being deep to the vescicouterine pouch. The posterior surface of the cervix is also covered by the peritoneum but the anterior surface of the cervix has no peritoneal covering.

A. True E. pubocervical ligaments and uterosacral ligaments. True . D. ligament of the ovary and remnants of the mesonephric tubules namely paroophoron and epoophoron. lymphatics.B. It is the round ligament of the uterus that extends from the junction of the uterus and the fallopian tube and passing through the inguinal canal gets attached distally to the fibro fatty tissue of the labium majus. which form three important ligaments. C. True . B. False . transverse cervical (cardinal) ligaments.The round ligament of the uterus is the counterpart of the gubernaculums testis in the male C.The broad ligament extends from the side wall of uterus to the pelvic wall. True 147. namely. True . True – The uterus is supported by the tone of the levator ani muscles and condensations of pelvic fascia.The upper border of the broad ligament is free forming the mesosalpinx containing the fallopian tube False . True D.Between the two layers of the broad ligament lie the fallopian tubes. The ovary is related to the posterior layer of the ligament from which it is suspended (mesovarium). round ligament. E.

True D. False . True – It is lined by the simple columnar ciliated epithelium E. True E. True 149. A.Dizygotic twins are produced by the fertilization of two ova by two separate sperms giving rise to two separate zygotes. True – the uterine tube receives the ovum from the ovary and provides a site where the fertilization of the ovum can takes place B. always have two placentae. True . True D. True – It is supplied by the uterine artery of the internal iliac artery and the ovarian artery of the abdominal aorta 150.The narrowest part of the tube is the region called the isthmus. A. False C. Of all twins 70% are dizygotic and 30% are monozygotic B. have a different genetic constitution. A. They will not resemble each other can have the same or opposite sex. The ampulla is widest part of the tube C. False .148. two amniotic cavities and two chorionic cavities.

B. False - The homologous structure of the scrotum is the
labia majora.
The homologous structure of the labia minora is
the penile
urethra.
C. True
D. False - Vas deferens develops from the mesonephric
duct. The
remnants of the vas deferens in the female is the
paroophoron
and epoophoron which are its homologous
structures. The
Fallopian tube develops from the upper 2/3 of
paramesonephric ducts is the utriculus prostaticus
and
appendix testis which is its homologous structure.
E. False - Homologous structure of the penile urethra is the
labia minora
and the vestibule.
Pelvic vessels and nerves
151.
A.

B.

C.

True – The internal iliac artery divides into anterior
and posterior
divisions. Branches arising from the posterior
division are
iliolumbar, lateral sacral and superior gluteal. The
anterior
division gives off nine branches, three associated
with the
bladder (superior vesical, obliterated umbilical
and inferior
vesical), three other visceral branches (middle
rectal, uterine
and vaginal), and three parietal branches
(obturator, internal
pudendal and inferior gluteal)
True
False – The median sacral artery arises from the
back of the

D.

E.

abdominal aorta above its bifurcation and ends
in front of the
coccyx.
False – The inferior epigastric artery arises from the
external iliac
artery near its lower end just above the inguinal
ligament
True

152.
A. True – The pudendal nerve is a branch of the sacral
plexus consisting
of second, third and fourth sacral segments.
B. False – The pudendal nerve enters the pudendal canal
on the lateral
wall of the ischiorectal fossa
C. False
D. True – The dorsal nerve of the penis (clitoris) is one of
the terminal
branches (the other terminal branch is the
perineal nerve)
which runs forward deep to perineal membrane
and piercing
it supplies the skin of the penis (clitoris).
E. True – The motor part of the perineal nerve (branch of
pudendal
nerve) supplies the ischiocavernosus,
bulbospongiosus,
superficial and deep transversus perinei and
sphincter
urethrae muscles

153.
A. False – It arises from the anterior division of the internal
iliac artery
B. True It runs medially in the base of the broad
ligament passing

above the ureter to reach the junction of the
cervix and the
body of the uterus
C. True
D. False – Near the entrance of the uterine tube it turns
laterally to
supply the tube and anastomoses with the tubal
branches of
the ovarian artery
E. False – The ovary is supplied by the ovarian artery, a
branch of the
abdominal aorta given off just below the renal
artery
The uterine artery supplies the body, fundus and
cervix of the
uterus, and gives off branches to supply the
uterine tubes and
the vagina
154.
A. False – It rests upon piriformis muscle and is covered
anteriorly by
the parietal pelvic fasicia
B. True – It is formed by the lumbosacral trunk and the
anterior rami of
the upper four sacral nerves
C. True – It is supplied by the nerve to quadratus femoris
(anterior
divisions of L4,L5,S1). This nerve also supplies
the inferior
gamellus and the hip joint
D. True – The perineal branch of S4 which passes between
the
coccygeus and levator ani enters the ischioanal
fossa and
supplies the perianal skin. The perforating
cutaneous nerve
arising from S2 and S3 supplies the skin of the
buttock

True D. False – It passes downwards from its origin and divides into an anterior and a posterior division at the upper margin of the greater sciatic foramen C. the ureter. lateral sacral and superior gluteal arteries. Perineum 156. The median sacral artery arises from the posterior aspect of the aorta a little above the point where it bifurcates into the two common iliac arteries E.E. True – The superior gluteal (L4. False – The branches of the posterior division of the internal iliac artery iliolumbar. True – The common iliac artery bifurcates at the pelvic brim oppostite the sacroiliac joint to form the external and internal iliac arteries B. True – The inferior vesical artery given off from its anterior division supplies the trigone and lower part of the bladder. . L5. A. S2) nerves supply the gluteal muscles 155. S1) and inferior gluteal (L5. S1. vas deferens. seminal vesicle and prostate.

internal pudendal artery. umbilicus and anterior abdominal wall below umbilicus. The proximal group receives lymph from the buttock. lower part of anal canal and perineum and from uterus via lymphatics accompanying the round ligament. A.The contents of the deep perineal pouch are the membranous urethra.A. True . True E. lower vagina. artery to the bulb and dorsal artery of penis. sphincter urethrae and deep transverse perinei muscle. dorsal nerve of penis. Bulb of the penis is present in the superficial perineal pouch. True –There are two groups of superficial inguinal lymph nodes namely the proximal and distal groups. back of the body below the waist. bulbo urethral glands. True D. external genitalia in both sexes excluding the testis. B. False 157. The perineal membrane forms the inferior boundary of the deep perineal pouch and therefore not a content. False C. The distal .

A. False – Ischiocavernosus arises from the posterior part of the perineal membrane and ischiopubic rami and inserts into the corpus cavernosum 159. True – The perineal body (central tendon of the perineum) is fibomuscular mass located between the anal canal and the vagina (or the bulb of the penis). C. Testis drains into para aortic nodes. Muscles attaching to it are the superficial and deep transverse perinei. The superficial inguinal lymph nodes drain mainly into the external iliac nodes.B. True E. True C. True D. E. B. bulbospongiosis. . D. group receives all superficial lymphatics from the lower limb except the posterolateral part of the calf. False False True True 158. The glans penis drains into deep inguinal nodes. levator ani and external sphincter.

True – The muscles found within the superficial perineal pouch are the superficial transverse perineal. False E. True . It also contains branches of the internal pudendal vessels. True C. branches of the perineal nerve and greater vestibular glands in the female (Bartholin glands) B. ischiocavernosus and bulbospongiosus muscles. False –Sphincter urethrae and deep transverse perineal muscles are in the depth perineal space D.A.